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hile reflecting on some of the events that have transpired over the last decade, it may be no wonder why people have fueled the debate and salience of concepts related to sustainable development. Countless corporate scandals such as Enron and many others pointed out some of the questionable business practices in the modern economy. Also the sub-prime mortgage markets have gained large amounts of negative publicity for their systemic lack of integrity. Not only has this increased contempt with the status quo of the business world, but it has also translates into real implications that affect everyone's lives in one way or another. Many people have had their retirement fund devalued in the stock market or by austerity cuts. Others are can be affected by simply paying higher prices at the gas pump but the interconnectedness of the global economy leaves no life untouched.
This paper questions the…
Jahdi, K. & Acikdilli, G., 2009. Marketing Communications and Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr): Marriage of Convenience or Shotgun Wedding?. Journal of Busines Ethics, 88(1), pp. 103-113.
Mak, T., 2011. Occupy Wall Street uses Arab Spring model. [Online]
Available at: http://www.politico.com/news/stories/1011/64993.html
[Accessed 19 November 2011].
Sustainable Development: An Analysis
Development refers to the progressive transformation of society, and the economy[footnoteRef:1]. Sustainable development is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"[footnoteRef:2]. Some consider sustainable development an oxymoron, arguing that it is impossible to achieve development without causing harm to the environment through pollution[footnoteRef:3]. Fortunately, there is proof that a country could actually achieve development in a sustainable manner. This is only possible if social and environmental factors are integrated into the economic component of development[footnoteRef:4]. [1: The World ank, "What is Sustainable Development?" The World ank, http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/sd.html (accessed February 21, 2014).] [2: Ibid.] [3: Ibid.] [4: Ibid.]
Certification in the Developing World
Certification is one way through which sustainable development could be achieved[footnoteRef:5]. It seeks to ensure that companies all over the world comply with the international standards governing sustainable development[footnoteRef:6]. The developing…
Gamesby, Rob, "Environmental, Political, Social and Economic Factors Affecting Development. Cool Geography. http://coolgeography.co.uk/GCSE/AQA/Development_Gap/Factors_affecting_inequalities/Factors_affecting_development.htm (accessed February 20, 2014).
HREA, "Sustainable Development." Human Rights Education Associates. http://www.hrea.org/index.php?base_id=166 (accessed February 20, 2014).
The World Bank, "What is Sustainable Development?" The World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/sd.html (accessed February 20, 2014).
Costa Rica has financed its plans largely by restructuring its external debt. The nation was able in doing this to set aside the funds required to pursue its sustainability development. This has been augmented by assistance from organizations such as the IMF and grants from the orld Bank.
Part of Costa Rica's employment strategy is to build the ecotourism business, which provides higher level employment. Costa Rica also seeks to develop its agriculture in a sustainable fashion, with small farms wherein the owner keeps the profits. Land resources are also used to boost the pharmaceutical industry, with sustainable harvesting of key plant species. Costa Rica has battled carbon pollution by instituting taxes on vehicles and purchased carbon from Norway.
One area of commonality between the Costa Rica and Abu Dhabi plans is that they both leverage the relative strengths of their countries. The Costa Rica plan leverages that nation's ecological…
Masdar.ae website. (2009). Retrieved November 22, 2009 from http://www.masdar.ae/en/home/index.aspx
No author. (2004). Costa Rica case study: Analysis of national strategies for sustainable development. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Retrieved November 22, 2009 from http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2004/measure_sdsip_costa_rica.pdf
Interior and Commerce Department agencies are to determine which species should be listed; individuals may petition the agencies to have species designated. The Fish and Wildlife Service, in the Interior Department, deals with land species; the National Marine Fisheries Service, located in the Commerce department, has jurisdiction over marine species. Any 'interested person' may petition the Interior Secretary to list a species as either endangered or threatened. The 1978 amendments to the ESA created a Cabinet-level committee to resolve conflicts between species protection and federal projects -- labeled the 'God Squad' or the 'Extinction Committee'.
The committee can authorize projects to proceed even if they jeopardize the continued existence of a species if five of seven members decide that protection interferes with 'human' needs. The specific criteria to be used in exempting actions from the act include: (1) there are no reasonable or prudent alternatives to the agency action; (2)…
Ahmad, Q.K. And A.U. Ahmed, 2006: Social sustainability, indicators and climate change. In: Climate Change and Its Linkages with Development, Equity and Sustainability: Proceedings of the IPCC Expert Meeting held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 27 -- 29 April, 1999 [Munasinghe, M. And R. Swart (eds.)]. LIFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka; RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; and World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 95 -- 108
Blaikie, P., T. Cannon, I. Davies, and B. Wisner, 1994: At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability, and Disasters. Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 284 pp.
Bolin, R. And L. Stanford, 1991: Shelter, housing and recovery: a comparison of U.S. disasters. Disasters, 15(1), 24 -- 34.
Downing, T.E. (ed.), 2008: Climate Change and World Food Security. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 662.
Sustainable Development in the South Asian Context
The objective of this study is to explore the meaning of 'sustainable development' in the Southeast Asian context.
(1) Can there be a common definition of sustainable development?
(2) Does it define a starting point, a process, or an end goal?
(3) Can if provide a coherent theory?
(4) Is it a workable concept in practice?
(5) How do different political parties enforce the implementation of sustainable development?
(6) What contradictions exist between economic growth and environmental protection in Southeast Asia?
(7) Is there a common definition of sustainable development, which applies to all cases?
Sustainable development means different things to different individuals and groups and there is yet to be a commonly acknowledged and accepted definition for sustainable development. Sustainable development falls under the influence of various political mindsets and the implementation of sustainable development can be differentiated on the bases of…
Alagh, YK (1999) Agricultural Trade and Sustainable Development. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics Jan Mar 1999. ProQuest Central.
Conca, K., Prince, T., and Maniates, M.F. (2001) Confronting Consumption. Global Environmental Politics 1:3 August 2001. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Kates, RW, Parris, TM and Leiserowitz, AA (2005) What is Sustainable Development? Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development Vol. 47.
Lange, W.J., Wise, R.M. And Nahman, A. (2010) Securing A Sustainable Future Through a New Global Contract Between Rich and Poor. Sustainable Development 18. Wiley Online Library.
Sustainable Development - a Global Challenge
Need for Change
Challenges for usinesses
The Role of MNCs in Sustainable Development
The Global Compact
Initiatives outside the Global Compact
What is International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL)?
International Environmental Law and its Impact on Australia
Sustainable Development: A Global Challenge
For many years, sustainable development has been one of the controversial issues faced by world leaders and citizens (Parmetier, 2002). The issue pervades both private and public sectors, and is the major focus of many International Organizations (IOs), mainly the United Nations (UN) and many Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs). However, there is little agreement across the globe about a solid definition of the concept of sustainable development. In addition, to further complicate the issue, another concept has recently s emerged on the international scene: globalization.
Globalization can best be defined as an increasing economic interconnection throughout the world, which influences…
Parmetier, Antione. (2002). The Participation of Multinational Corporations to Sustainable Development: The Example of the Global Compact. Seton Hall Universit.
Environmental Defender's Office (EDO). (2003). Fact sheet: International Environmental Law. Environmental Defender's Office. New South Wales (Ltd.) Fact Sheets.
Australian Government. (1994). Australia's National Report to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories.
Lyon, A. (2002). Globalization and Sustainable Development: Is Ethics the Missing Link? Earth Dialogues Forum, Green Cross International.
They feel that they can do this with better overall agricultural output through better water management, for example a reduction in the size of irrigation projects to reduce waste.
The plan is also focused on shifting Ethiopia's economy from one in which 85% of the populace is engaged in agriculture to one in which people earn their money through trades and industry. The plan holds this will lift people out of poverty and build the economy from the lowest levels up.
The timeframe for the first stages of this development plan has come, so the second stages are underway. Sustainable development in Ethiopia is a long-term objective. ith respect to women, the plan includes provisions on improving women's access to health care. The omen's Development Initiatives project (DIP) represents a commitment to women's equality by improving female education and providing rural women with more economic opportunities.
The Ethiopian plan is…
Government of Canada Sustainable Development website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved November 25, 2009 from http://www.sdinfo.gc.ca/s16_e.cfm
No author. (2002). Ethiopia: Sustainable development and poverty reduction program. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Retrieved November 25, 2009 from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTETHIOPIA/Overview/20207639/2002_07_prsp.pdf
No author. (2007). Canada-Kyoto timeline. CBC. Retrieved November 25, 2009 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/kyoto/timeline.html
Also contributing to the challenges faced by sustainable development are proprietary interests. Every legal entity, including individuals, governments and corporations, will protect its own interests. Changes to the status quo that do not give an entity benefit will be fought in the legal system, with political influence, in the court of public opinion and sometimes even through military means (China invading Tibet to gain access to mineral resources and control of Asia's major river systems, for example). Each entity pushing its own agenda will compromise efforts to implement the type of systemic changes to make development sustainable on a global basis.
Perhaps nowhere are these challenges more in evidence than in the issue of greenhouse gas emissions. The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement between 184 countries to a global plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Proprietary interests have resulted in the world's biggest polluter, the United States, refusing to ratify…
IISD. (2009). What is sustainable development? International Institute for Sustainable Development Retrieved November 7, 2009 from http://www.iisd.org/sd/ #one' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Sustainable development, as defined by the rundtland Commission (1987) is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." [footnoteRef:1] y definition, then, sustainable development is development that takes the impact on the environment into account and tries to minimize environmental damage. This contributed to the understanding that sustainable development encompasses a number of areas and highlights sustainability as the idea of environmental, economic and social progress and equity, all within the limits of the world's natural resources. Sustainable Development is about balanced and equitable economic development. high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusiveness, a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources, coherent policy making in an open, transparent and accountable political system and effective international co-operation to promote sustainable development globally.[footnoteRef:2] [1: rundtland Commission, "Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development,"…
Blagojevic, Kate, "What the world Development Movement wants from the G20." World Development Movement (April 1, 2009). Accessed August 19, 2011. http://www.wdm.org.uk/what-world-development-movement-wants-g20
Brundtland Commission, "Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development," United Nations General Assembly (December 11, 1987). Accessed August 19, 2011. http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/42/ares42-187.htm
Reid, Walter V., Harold A. Mooney, Angela Cropper, Doris Capistrano, Stephen R. Carpenter, Kanchan Chopra, Partha Dasgupta, Thomas Dietz, Anantha Kumar Duraiappah, Rashid Hassan, Roger Kasperson, Rik Leemans, Robert M. May, Tony McMichael, Prahhu Pingali, Cristian Samper, Robert Scholes, Robert T. Watson, A.H. Zakri, Zhao Shidong, Neville.J. Ash, Elena Bennett, Pushpam Kumar. Marcus J. Lee, Ciara Raudsepp=Hearne, Henk Simons, Jillian Thonell, & Monika B. Zurek, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, (March 23, 2005). Accessed August 19, 2011. http://matagalatlante.org/nobre/down/MAgeneralSynthesisFinalDraft.pdf
Shah, Anup, "Sustainable Development Introduction," Global Issues (November 18, 2009). Accessed August 19, 2011. http://www.globalissues.org/article/408/sustainable-development-introduction
It can be especially bad if it appears that the company was trying to cover up the problem. That is why self-auditing is such an important benefit to companies.
Unfortunately, many companies choose not to self audit. They do not want to look for problems because they expect to find some. Finding problems means reporting problems, which means paying fines. A lot of companies do not want to pay them, even if they are less when they are found through self-auditing. These companies just leave their pollution problems uncorrected and hope that the EPA won't pay them a surprise visit where they will have to try to hide their problems.
Clearly, the economic benefits and the social benefits of pollution control and the Clean Water Act are quite high, although not everyone realizes how important it is to make sure that the water stays clean; not only for the people…
Economic Incentives. 2002. United States Government. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer782/aer782d.pdf .
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 (Clean Water Act). 2002. United States Government. http://www.usbr.gov/laws/cleanwat.html.
Gibbs, D. 1998a. "Regional development agencies and sustainable development." Regional Studies, 32(4): 365-368.
Gibbs, D.C., et al. 1998b. "Struggling with sustainability': weak and strong interpretations of sustainable development within local authority policy." Environment and Planning, 30(8): 1351-1365.
Efficient fuel consumption, for example, is an effort that is considered sustainable because fuel consumption is a present need of end-users, but efficient use of this source of energy -- that is, fuel is consumed optimally and with the least harmful effect on the users' environment -- ensures that this act of consumption would have the least detrimental effect on the natural environment (specifically, the acceleration of air pollution and eventual depletion of ozone layer). Efficient fuel consumption is an effort requiring the involvement of every individual and sector in the society: governments can monitor companies' greenhouse gas emissions through legislation, businesses can develop corporate social responsibility (CS) programs that aim to implement laws and rules on efficient fuel consumption, and even individuals can do their part by making sure that their appliances are energy efficient, for example.
On a larger or inter-country scale, numerous multilateral agreements are developed and…
"Guidance in preparing a national sustainable development strategy: Managing sustainable development in the new millenium." (2002). Background Paper No. 13, Outcome of the International Forum on National Sustainable Development Strategies. Submitted by the Division for Sustainable Development, United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA).
"The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer." (2000). The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer & The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Submitted by the Ozone Secretariat, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Since 1972, population has indeed carried on rapid growth, but per-capita incomes have risen even faster. From 1972, when China and India could not feed their populations, both have become food exporters. The Club of Rome made the same mistake as their "limited world" predecessors, Malthus and Marx. They thought of people as reactive automatons, unable to change their behavior or their consumption. The Club of Rome should have known better. The "Green Revolution," which increased the world's production per acre of grains by a factor of five, had started in the 1960's. The Chinese peasant, allowed to farm 1/2 acre and sell his produce since 1965, had increased overall Chinese food production by 30% by 1972.
The Reality: Resources are Expanding
It seems illogical, or nearly paradoxical, that as we use more resources, our resource pool keeps growing, but that is in fact the case. This is true for…
Duchesne, R. "On the Rise of the West: Researching Kenneth Pomeranz's Great Divergence." Review of Radical Political Economics, 2004: 52-81.
Economist. "This week in comparative advantage." Economist, 2007: n.p.
Hollander, S. "Two Hundred Years of Say's Law: Essays on Economic Theory's Most Controversial Principle." History of Political Economy, 2005: 382-385.
Malthus, TR. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: J. Johnson, 1798.
One of the key challenges and needs identified by the ISC team is financing. The other challenges include, collaboration, making the case for prosperity through sustainability, taking a comprehensive approach to green empowerment, and data (Institute for Sustainable Communities – ISC, 2011, p. 7). As the authors point out, “transitioning to a sustainable economy will require significant investments from both public and private entities…” (ISC, 2011, p. 6). It should, however, be noted that funding is a finite resource. Further, the very nature of the said transition makes actual costs uncertain – effectively meaning that there could be a mismatch between the actual costs and the funds allocated. This brings about what is referred to as a cost overrun or cost underrun risk, which in essence is a situation whereby an undertaking’s costs either go above or below the initial cost estimate (Boyd, 2012, p. 314). The achievement…
Altman, M. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of Contemporary Behavioral Economics. New York: M.E. Sharpe
Barbier E.B. & Markandya, A. (2013). A New Blueprint for a Green Economy. New York, NY: Routledge
Brulin, G. & Svensson, L. (2016). Managing Sustainable Development Programs: A Learning Approach to Change. New York, Routledge
Boyd, B. (2012). The COR/COTR Answer Book (3rd ed.). Tysons Corner, VA: Barrett-Koehler Publishers.
Hanley, N., Shogren, J. & White B. (2007). Environmental Economics: In Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Palgrave Macmillan.
Institute for Sustainable Communities – ISC. (2011). Sustainable Economic Development: A Resource Guide for Local Leaders. New York, NY: Climate Leadership Academy
Larson, B.A. (Ed.). (2007). Sustainable Development Research Advances. New York: Nova Publishers.
Pearce, D., Barbier, E. & Markandya, A. (2013). Sustainable Development: Economics and Environment in the Third World. New York, NT: Routledge
This is because resources available within the environment will provide all what is required for the state (Department of Environment, Food & ural affairs, 2013).
Many countries are same when it comes to the endowments of natural, human and physical capital. However, there is a difference when it comes to the economic development level that can be achieved in a particular country. There are three types of capital that can determine the economic growth process but in a partial manner however, there is a missing link between the three types of capital which is the social capital. Social capital is based on social norms and bonds which have an important role to play when it comes to sustainable development. Social capital emphasizes on the participation on a civic level as well as a horizontal association among people such as social networks. This is also through associated norms that…
Accenture.(2011). Government's role in Sustainable Development. Retrieved April 26,2013
Bayelsa state portal.(2013). Bayelsa State Sustainable Development Strategy. Retrieved April 26,2013 from http://bayelsa.gov.ng/portal/ministries-departments-agencies/agencies/bayelsa-state-sustainable-development-strategy
Department of Environment, Food & Rural affairs.(2013). Making sustainable development a part of all government policy and operations. Retrieved April 26,2013 from https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/making-sustainable-development-a-part-of-all-government-policy-and-operations
Searching for Sustainability
When researchers analyzed the global resource flow trends that emerged between 1980 and 2002 they found a 25% worldwide increase in material extraction and natural resource use (Behren, Giljum, Kovanda, and Niza, 2005). The increased material extraction rates were attributed to growing economies in developing nations like China and the growing size of the consumer class in these countries. When compared to trends in economic activity in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), the percent generated by material extraction shrank by 25% during the same study period. The rapid growth in the size of the less resource-intensive service sector was blamed for this finding.
The growing size of the service sector has some advantages in terms of sustainability, including lower resource utilization and cleaner technologies, but based on the findings of Behren and colleagues (2007) the growth in material extraction and utilization outstrips…
Behren, Arno, Giljum, Stefan, Kovanda, Jan, and Niza, Samuel. (2007). The material basis of the global economy worldwide patterns of natural resource extraction and their implications for sustainable resource use policies. Ecological Economics, 64, 444-453.
In the past few years, there have been a number of key meetings of about environmental issues. The ongoing discussions with regards to the fate of the soon-to-be extinct bluefin tuna illustrate the frustrations of trying to reach environmental agreements. Nations responsible for the management of the resource ignore scientific advice and pursue their own interests to the detriment of the common good, and resist any effort to change the practice (Gronewald, 2009). Other conferences trend along the same line -- small groups of nations meeting to hammer out specific policy details. The Environmental Law Roundtable of Australia and New Zealand is one such example. The UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) chemicals roundtable was a conference that discussed specific areas of concern with respect to chemical pollution.
There are many international agreements that govern the environment. The best-known is the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change,…
Roland, J. (1998). The meaning of "offenses against the law of nations." Constitution Society. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.constitution.org/cmt/law_of_nations.htm
Gronewold, N. (2009). Is the bluefin tuna an endangered species? Scientific American. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=bluefin-tuna-stocks-threatened-cites-japan-monaco
No author. (1979). Convention on Migratory Species. CMS. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.cms.int/documents/convtxt/cms_convtxt.htm
Urbanization in Latin America was the result of the industrialization that took place in the 18th century and attracted rural population to migrate in order to get better employment and life facilities. However, Neoliberalism caused privatization and resulted in the economic opportunities and growth prospects but the long-term effects tend to be declining in terms of growth due to the imbalance of job availability and job requirements and autonomy of corporate companies.
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Neoliberalism and Sustainability
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Import-Substitution-Industrialization or (ISI) refers to the policy which facilitates trade and country's economy by means of replacing imports with the products that are produced domestically which ultimately focuses on a country's dependency and protects it from the foreign economic shocks. The policy was adapted by many countries…
Butler, Richard W. "Tourism, environment, and sustainable development." Environmental conservation 18.03 (1991): 201-209.
Elliott, Jennifer. An introduction to sustainable development. Routledge, 2012.
Howell, D., and Mamadou Diallo. "Charting U.S. economic performance with alternative labor market indicators: The importance of accounting for job quality." online]. SCEPA Working Paper 6 (2007): 202007-6.
Jackiewicz, E.L., Bosco, E.J. (2012). Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Geography. Roman and Littlefield Publishers.
Because of its position at sea, Jeddah has become the largest sea port on the Red Sea. it's history goes back centuries ago and has transformed the city into a large touristic attraction. It is because people have known how to use these resources that Jeddah is fastly becoming one of the most proficient evidence that sustainable development is proactive. Because people's involvement is what sustains this form of development in the first place, the Jeddah community has set agendas to inform citizens on how to reduce consumption and use green materials in construction, having also informed entrepreneurs and people generally that construction is the field where most of the energy and resources go to. What I think requires more attention is the issue of infrastructure; because of the increase in its population, Jeddah also faces problems of water resources. One of the issues that were addressed during trainings in…
( Manion, 2002). The ethics of sustainable development in the sciences also includes the "precautionary principle." This refers to the view that, "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health and the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically" (Manion, 2002).
In the light of the above brief overview of way that ethics and social responsibility have become part of the ethos of the contemporary scientific world, it becomes clear that a focus on technologies such as solar still production is one way in which engineers can enact their ethical and social responsibilities in this age. This project also takes into account the social and cultural needs and context of the people of the region, especially in areas where there is a lack of resources.
From an ethical perspective, professional engineering organizations have made an important contribution…
'AMREF Canada. Water and Sanitation Lesson Plan -- Science Experiment and Activity', viewed 9 September, 2010, http://canada.amref.org/silo/files/water-science-experiment-grade-11-12.doc.
'ASCE Code of Ethics', viewed 7 September, 2010,
'DEFINING SUSTAINABILITY', viewed 6 September, 2010,
According to The orld Commission on Environment and Development (CED), "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." There are many issues related to this important concept that have global implications. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the issue of consumption and how it affects the ability of the environment to continue sustainable living. This essay will first describe the issue and illustrate key points that relate consumption with sustainability. The next part of this argument will discuss the role of businesses and corporations and their relationship with this issue. The essay will conclude with commentary and conclusions about the current trends and future responses to consumption and the potential implications for businesses.
The Issue of Consumption
Consumption is a unique term that relates to the sustainability of any system. It…
Baumgartner, R.J., & Ebner, D. 2010. Corporate sustainability strategies: sustainability profiles and maturity levels. Sustainable Development, 18(2), 76-89.
Doppelt, B. & Mcdonough, W. 2010. Leading change toward sustainability: a change- management guide for business, government and civil society, (Updated 2nd ed.), Sheffield: Greenleaf, pp57-74.
Friedman, M. 1970/2009. The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Profits. In W. Cragg, M.S. Schwartz and D. Weitzner (Eds.), Corporate social responsibility 31-36. Farnham, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Ihlen, O. & Roper, J. 2011. Corporate Reports on Sustainability and Sustainable Development: We Have Arrived. Sustainable Development, 2 Mar 2011. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1775004/Corporate_reports_on_sustainability_and_sustainable _development_We_have_arrived
As the organization attempts to sell cheap and expensive brands an exact identity may not be apparent and disillusion many customers that don't know what to expect. As mentioned before, the retail industry is squarely opposed to sustainable practices and this in itself is a blaring weakness that needs to be addressed if the company expects to be successful in the long-term.
Another step in a retail SWOT analysis is identifying key opportunities in the market.
In this case, the demand for sustainable practices are at an all time high. If Woolworths can somehow master this transition, the opportunity for domination within this industry is possible. Introducing new technologies that promote sustainable practices will surely help in exploiting many of these opportunities.
The internet and wireless shopping has provided many new threats to the retail industry. This threat is more serious because online shopping appears to be more…
Dowse, J. (2012) a view on Woolworths' corporate responsibility report, the Sustainability Report: Integrating ESG for Risk and Return at http://www.thesustainabilityreport.com.au/a-view-on-woolworths-corporate - responsibility-report/3137/: Accessed 10 May, 2013
Dwivedi, a., Merrilees, B., Miller, D. And Hemington, C. (2012) Brand Value and relationship equities and loyalty intentions in the Australian Supermarket Industry, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.19, Iss.5, pp.526-536
Hampl, N. And Loock, M. (2013) Sustainable Development in Retailing: What is the Impact on Store Choice?, Business Strategy and Environment, Vol.22, pp.202-216
Iles, a. (2007) Seeing Sustainability in Business Operations: U.S. And British Food Retailer Experiments with Accountability, Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol.16, pp.290-301
Sustainable tourism does not destroy the environment, economy, or cultural aspects of the tourist destination (David Vaughan, 2000). Sustainable tourism is aimed at ensuring that those concerned are not affected in any way and that a positive development is realized through it. Back in the 1980s, ecotourism which consisted of activities such as wildlife exotic cultures and nature, became more common with remarkably few people understanding what the impacts of such tourism are, this led to its pitfall (Erlet, 1993). Therefore, sustainable tourism helps to improve all associated impact of tourism as a whole, and this can steadily be achieved through seeking partnership between various governments, local community and any stakeholder in the tourism industry.
How sustainable tourism can be achieved
esearches done in this field indicate that for sustainable tourism to be achieved all efforts should be channeled towards fostering co-ordination and cooperation between managers of the tourism destination…
CEVAT, T. 2001. Challenges of sustainable tourism development in the developing world: the case of Turkey. Tourism Management, 22, 289-303.
COLIN, H. 1997. Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research, 24, 850-867.
DAVID A. LERTZMAN & HARRIE VREDENBURG 2005. Indigenous Peoples, Resource Extraction and Sustainable Development: An Ethical Approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 56, 239-254
DAVID VAUGHAN 2000. Tourism and Biodiversity: A Convergence of Interests? International Affairs, 76, 283-297.
In an increasingly globalized world concerned with environmental destruction, there has been a recent rise in the practice of sustainable tourism, especially within the context of developing nations. Yet, because the context of sustainable tourism is such a new development within the larger industry, there are many controversies and questions revolving the practice of sustainable tourism. Still, sustainable tourism development can promote sustainable development through regional community involvement, as long as the people living in these areas continue to see benefits from their devotion to sustaining eco-friendly practices within their tourism models.
Sustainable tourism is a relatively new element within the larger tourism industry. Ecotourism is often defined as "travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people," (Kiss 2004 p 232). Sustainable tourism occurs in a situation where organizations make eco-friendly choices in order to maintain a higher degree of sustainability…
Berns, Maurice; Townend, Andrew; Khayat, Zayna; Balagopal, Balu; Reeves, Martin; Hopkins, Michael; & Kruschwitz, Nina. (2009). The Business of Sustainability. MIT Sloan Management Review. Web. http://www.mitsmr-ezine.com/busofsustainability/2009#pg1
Carrier, James G. & McLeod, Donald V.L. (2005). Bursting the bubble: The socio-cultural context of ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(2005), 315-344.
Clarke, Arthur C. (2000). Models. Profiles of the Future. Indigo Publishing. 109-130.
Kiss, Agnes. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds? TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5), 232-238.
Sustainable Tourism Development
The aim of the essay is to gain an understanding of the rational and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.
The aim is to increase awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism destinations within an international, national, regional, and local framework. Investigate current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are discussed and apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.
Understand the differing approaches to tourism planning and development and understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry (1000+ words)
Using the EBSCO article: The effectiveness of public policies and structural funds in enhancing tourism development.The case of Romania.
a) Discuss, using appropriate references, why a long-term approach is beneficial to destinations like Romania, and state the advantages to stakeholders…
Hence, the conflict for the London Olympics 2012 surface when the choice between the two developments had to be made. There was no denying that the city needed development but the choice was made to prepare and finish the Canary Wharf development first so as to have a good, sustainable and efficient mode of transportation that would lead the Olympic grounds to the main city. Once, the Canary Wharf was completed, the focus then turned towards the docklands. It was far more important to have the Canary Wharf structure up and ready for clear and trouble-free transportation structure during the London Olympics 2012.
Task 3B - Explain the implications of balancing supply and demand which will need to be considered in the Olympics development. You need to state why there is a need to balance the supply and suggest possible consequences if this is not considered by the planners:
Evaluation of the Canary Wharf advancement has actually been extremely polarized. A brand-new monetary center has actually been built and analyses recommend that 'every a-g 1 million of public sector expense produced net extra advantages in the Urban Advancement Location of 23 tasks, 8300 sq m of workplace flooring area, 7.8 real estate devices plus numerous various other varied perks' (Rhodes and Tyler, 1998:32 estimated in Hamnett 2003:242). However, criticism has actually concentrated upon the elimination of neighborhood democratic controls and the replacement of the existing populace by a brand-new, more thriving team of young experts. In between 1981 and 1991 Tower
The article is an exciting approach to capitalist development in that it finds conditions under which sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation emerge spontaneously and can practically work. As the study points out, one of the classical things that capitalism does is to "creatively destroy." It is this ability to destroy what is old and does not work and build and impose what is new and does is the primary benefit of capitalism. What sustainable entrepreneurship has done is to apply this as a positive force in realizing the field's lofty goals where public government initiatives have failed to achieve them. The article conducts an extensive literature review to accomplish just this task (ibid. pp. 223-225).
However, until now, there has not been one universally recognized definition of what sustainable development is. Such research and definitions have implications for theory and practitioners in that it clarifies which firms are most likely…
Schaltegger, S. And Wagner, M.. (2011). Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Innovation:
Categories and Interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment. 5 (1), 222 -- 237.
Sustainability in Australian Food Exporting
Sustainability is an increasingly important consideration in both built and natural environments, as human endeavors are revealed to be increasingly fragile and enormously dependent on natural resources that could potentially be eradicated through overuse and unsustainable practices. This affects almost all areas of human activity, including many that might seem not directly related to sustainability issues such as import and export levels. When considered from a regional perspective, however, the exportation of resources -- whether purely natural resources or a combination of natural and built procedures -- becomes directly related to certain concepts in sustainability. This paper will examine current features of Australia's food exportation activities and determine their degree of sustainability.
The amount of arable -- i.e. food-producing -- land in the world is diminishing, in some regions at alarming rates, meaning that agricultural products are already becoming increasingly rare (Midmore…
Fresco, L. & Kroonenberg, S. (1992). Time and spatial scales in ecological sustainability. Land use policy July: 155-68.
Midmore, D. (1993). Agronomic modification of resource use and intercrop productivity. Field crops research 34: 357-80.
Midmore, D. (1998). Agriculture and the modern society. Acres 6(2): 33-6.
Shaw, R., Gallopin, G., Weaver, P. & Oberg, S. (1992). Sustainable development: a systems approach. International institute for applied systems analysis status report.
Sustainable design is the smart and subtle way of utilizing modern building methods and materials to achieve a more intelligent building, while using fewer resources and recycling more waste. It is not simply a trend, nor is it only a marketing tool for 21st century developments, but rather sustainable design is a conscientious decision by an architect to take measures to protect the environment, lessen utility costs, and ensure a longer lasting product in the end. The future of arth can only be looked after by those who inhabit it, and therefore sustainability has become the most important idea today in the field of science and design. Like with many building standards, each country has its own method of measurement and evaluation to the level of sustainability achieved, and because of globalization, there have been several different international standards competing for international recognition and control over the green design process.…
ESTIDAMA, the word meaning 'sustainability' in Arabic, is the green design standard for the city of Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, ESTIDAMA, and particularly the Pearl Rating System used to rate sustainability in ESTIDAMA, was created in advance of Abu Dhabi's 2030 vision for the creation of a modern global capitol city. Although a similar system to the other two, there are a few major differences. ESTIDAMA places far more emphasis of its credit distribution on water usage, and less on energy usage, as this is a critical part of Abu Dhabi's development and need for clean water to be recycled as efficiently as possible. Energy is plentiful in the Middle East, and much of the development built in this region is a result of its fortunate energy supply.[footnoteRef:2] This problem of water usage, however, is not applicable to the rest of the world, and therefore shows why ESTIDAMA was created in the first place, because LEED and BREEAM simply could not readily adapt themselves to the particular conditions of Abu Dhabi. [2: "Comparing Estidama's Pearls Rating Method to LEED and BREEAM." Carboun. Web. 19 May 2011. .]
As far as accreditation is concerned, ESTIDAMA takes a hybrid approach between BREEAM and LEED, urging the use of a dedicated professional onsite to evaluate as progress moves, as BREEAM does, but also requiring the oversight of a "Pearl Qualified Professional" to complete the final inspection. This process is extremely thorough in its approach, and to have two checks is a valuable tool against cheating and corruption, which may seep into the competitive world of construction in the other two standards. This method of double checks however could be prohibitively bureaucratic in a democracy setting, which ESTIDAMA does not operate in currently. ESTIDAMA is certainly just as important to the field of sustainable design as the larger rating systems are, as it brings much of the same professionalism to the task, ESTIDAMA is however tinkered to appeal to its local market in the Middle East, and this is apparent in the breakdown of the evaluation process.
In conclusion, it is foreseeable that buildings will reach a near-zero release of carbon during their complete phase, and a lot less energy will be used during the buildings construction. In this way, all three sustainable standards will play their part, and will have brought good policy to a controllable environment of office space and residential construction. I, however, believe that the LEED standard is the best standard to follow, as it is best understand around the world and by architects, does not require specialization within countries, which would only dilute the strength of LEED's simplicity, and does not allow any individual to make evaluations, only the Green Building Council itself. This disallows cheating and presents a balanced and expert opinion of what LEED's standards ought to be. ESTIDAMA uses both practices in its methods, but is not as appealing as LEED because of how it looks at water resources far more than innovative design or efficient energy use. Energy is not a big problem in the Middle East, ESTIDAMA's market, however water is. This is antithesis to the majority of the rest of the world, which has been able to secure its own water supply but still requires energy to be brought in from abroad. ESTIDAMA is simply too much of a niche to be able to compete with the global design of the LEED design.
My future career will definitely depend on what are of the world I would like to dedicate my services towards. Traveling appears to be a worthwhile approach to figuring this out. Exploring the local places and other areas around the world will most likely inspire me to a sustainability problem that my skills would best apply to.
The next step in achieving the goals of my plan requires me to network and learn from others who have already successfully achieved this objective. It is very simple to connect with people due to the technological advances in recent years giving me no excuse not to be able to find others who can give me practical advice in the matter. Learning from others is very important in this entire process and understanding that I can learn something from everyone I meet, every day, will help me realize opportunities that I currently am…
Baumgartner, R. & Ebner, D 2009, 'Corporate Sustainability Strategies: Sustainability Profiles and Maturity Levels,' Sustainable Developments, 18,76-89.
Etsy, D. & Simmons, P, 2011, the Green to Gold Business Playbook, John Wiley & Sons, London.
Pataki, G, 2009, 'Ecological Modernization as a paradigm of Corporate Sustainability,' Sustainable Development, 2009,17, 82-91.
Shirvastava, P. & Berger, S, 2010, ' Sustainability principles: a review and directions,' Organizational Management Journal, 2010, 7, 246-261.
Purchasing sustainable garments is a challenge for everyone when fast fashion is so common. The labors in fast fashion can hardly afford the clothes they make while many consume fast fashion in a problematic way. Fashion industries need more transparency to educate the purchasing decision of individuals. Fast fashion not only is polluting and creating so much waste to our world; it is also taking away the basic human right of low income workers. To design something is not just about choosing a fabric and a print that is appealing but also needs to map out the production and economic strategy. What appear to be beautiful to us may have hidden an ugly story behind it. According to the United Nations, clothing is the fundamental principal of a person's dignity, beside shelter, food, and other essential needs. When the consumption of clothing is placed on the balance against…
The local community will know that the library and the campus in general support local businesses and local efforts. They have an excellent opportunity to build community support and rapport through purchasing locally as a part of the sustainability plan.
The campus library has many reasons to commit to sustainable building design. Aside from the apparent environmental reasons, the long-term benefits to their financial well-being and contribution to the community also make this an excellent project for the library. Sustainable building design demonstrates excellent community leadership for the library. People come to the library in search of knowledge and enlightenment. esponsible building design promotes the overall goals of the library as an example of what can be achieved and as a community resource.
Sustainable building creates sustainable communities. It only takes a single act to create the need for future buildings to follow sustainable principles. This will spread…
Perryman, J. (2010). The Cost of LEED certification: What budget advice can estimators provide to their Clients for going green. Design Cost Data. Retrieved April 13, 2010 From
Sierra Club (2005). Institutional Sustainability Audit. Sierra Club. January 1, 2005. Retrieved
April 13, 2010 from http://www.sierraclub.org/sustainable_consumption/downloads/institutional-audit.pdf
Another case study, this one by Cole (2011) examines the cultural and community impacts of tourism, both sustainable and unsustainable, on specific cultures in Indonesia. Cole concludes as well that in order to help keep the cultural and community influences and positive attitudes intact, it is important to consider the local community as a major stakeholder in the sustainability of a tourist destination. Cole states in her article, "ourism has the potential to empower communities and the sustainable tourism agenda needs to focus on how to bring this about. As the case study illustrates, understanding tourists and tourism processes is the first stage to empowering the local community to make informed and appropriate decisions about their tourism development. Considerable investments are required in communication and trust building between the actors in tourism. his paper examines how action research, focus groups and the creation of a tourism forum can be concrete,…
These are the questions which are very difficult to answer, but in order to have a maintained tourism system they plays an important role.
Moreover, the use of term "itself" is confusing for a sustainable tourism. Alternative tourism, 'soft' tourism, ecotourism, and 'green' tourism are the types of tourism which can be used with sustainable tourism which is a high class branch of tourism. The story behind tourism in 1919, about 664 million tourists were present, and those who were known as mass tourism were approximately 80%. Development of sustainable tourism is affected by the differences in between mass tourism and sustainable tourism (Berno and Bricker, 2001).
If one can make a difference between 'good' tourism (best known as the alternative forms of tourism) and 'bad' tourism (particularly mass tourism) then sustainable tourism can appear as disruptive force in the society (Swarbrooke, 1999). To confuse ecotourism with sustainable tourism can give a bad result because all sustainable tourism does not take place at natural area and not all types of ecotourism are sustainable. According to Wall (1997), as the mass tourists might not prefer to visit threatened remote areas, their demand may be lesser than that of
Schaltegger, S. & Wagner, M. (2010). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment 20: 222-237.
Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) create a usable framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, sustainable innovation, and sustainable business development in "Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions." he article first addresses the purpose for the research. Companies have been traditionally culprits in creating both environmental and social justice problems, necessitating regulations imposed externally. Driven solely by profit, a company will not be likely to pursue innovation or sustainability entrepreneurship unless it was profitable to do so. he authors point out that while this may be true with some organizations in some sectors, that otherwise the business environment is changing. A new framework based on current business trends is proposed by Schaltegger & Wagner (2010). his new framework is based on the fact that many companies -- and their managers --…
The Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research is helpful in providing the promised framework for relating sustainable entrepreneurship with sustainability innovation. However, the strength of the research is in the matrix revealing the different types of sustainable entrepreneurship models. Start-ups and veteran enterprises alike can study such a matrix for cues and clues as to how to effectively launch a sustainability enterprise based on innovation. The research can be applied to progressive regulatory environments, seeking to balance the needs for greater corporate accountability with the need for economic progress. Although the Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research seems convoluted and overly complicated at times, it does have some practical value in highlighting the points of convergence between business, social justice, and ecological ethics
It is possible that sustainable innovation refers more to the method by which stalwart companies like Deutsche Bahn embark on sustainable entrepreneurship: applying traditional business models to meeting new goals. The Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research also shows that fresh entrepreneurs may not contend with as many obstacles as was once believed. The seemingly mutually exclusive goals of profitability and sustainability can go hand in hand. Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) might be better off injecting more than cold fact into their research, which seems oddly devoid of any ethical framework. The authors treat issues like social benefit as if it were as quantifiable as sales figures. Moreover, the current research is exploratory and theoretical in nature. An experimental research design might be helpful in future research in this specific area if it is to be of any use to policy makers.
Ultimately, the goals of the research were fulfilled and the authors make a good point about the changing marketplace. The authors present a helpful framework outlining the types of sustainable entrepreneurship. Businesses can draw from this research a mission statement for a proposed sustainability innovation program. Entrepreneurs can use this research to present business models that are grounded in both fiscal and environmental responsibility. Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) also show which conditions tend to give rise to sustainable entrepreneurship, and posit relationships with measurable market impacts. It helps to know that innovation can be presented as a definite solution to environmental and social problems. Finally, there is no one model for sustainable entrepreneurship; the diversity of the economy and of the environment requires a multifaceted and heterogeneous business enterprise.
Accounting Sustainable Management
The organization's emphasis towards the sustainability is increasing as a response to the scarcity of natural resources and the negative effects on environment by means of ecological hazards. Therefore, the organizations are adapting their business procedure to utilize such resources that are cost effective and environment friendly so that they can earn profits and can remain environment friendly by having a positive image in the society by addressing their social accountability.
Sustainability and its elevance to Business and Accounting
Sustainability and its elevance to WML
Implication of Sustainability in WML
The current study has been conducted in order to analyze the strategic practices of Wave Master Ltd. (WML) with respect to sustainability. The sustainability of a company indicates the extent to which the company is playing its part in the safeguard of biological systems and the extent to which the company is considered as environment friendly.…
Alcorn, Z. & Kenny, Z. (2007). HCNG: An alternative to coil and oil. Green Left Weekly. Available from: https://www.greenleft.org.au/node/37079 .
Bebbington, J., Unerman, J., & O'Dwyer, B. (Eds.).(2014). Sustainability accounting and accountability.Routledge.
Burton, T., Sharpe, D., Jenkins, N., & Bossanyi, E. (2001).Wind energy handbook. John Wiley & Sons.
Carroll, A., & Buchholtz, A. (2014).Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Cengage Learning.
preferences by countries can led to different forms of the challenges that they face and the strategies they choose to address these challenges. However, in an increasingly globalized world, many modern challenges are increasingly affecting the world's population as a whole; like climate change for example. Thus the next generations of challenges will require solutions that involve an unprecedented level of global collaboration. Furthermore, these challenges can be thought of in terms of social, economic, and environmental challenges. This paper will briefly outline three development challenges that are facing development in the 21st century.
Climate change, also known as global warming, is an environmental phenomenon that has attracted significant global attention in recent decades. This is arguably an issue that can be thought of as an existential issue. Climate change stands the potential not only to threaten many animal species around the world in a new global masses…
AFP. (2013, March 14). Chavez 'devil' speech recalled at UN tribute. Retrieved from Nation: http://www.nation.co.ke/News/world/Chavez-devil-speech-recalled-at-UN-tribute/-/1068/1719726/-/2omnx2z/-/index.html
Hanna, S., & Osborne-Lee, I. (2011). Sustainable economy of the ecological footprint: economic analysis and impacts. In V. Esteve, Ecosystems and Sustainable Development VIII (pp. 313-342). Southampton: WIT Press.
Harris, G. (2014, March 25). Borrowed Time on Disappearing Land. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/29/world/asia/facing-rising-seas-bangladesh-confronts-the-consequences-of-climate-change.html
Kabir, A. (2015, May 14). Democracy Departs From Bangladesh. Retrieved from The Diplomat: http://thediplomat.com/2015/05/democracy-departs-from-bangladesh/
I am applying to the University of Winnipeg's Masters in Development Practice -- Indigenous Development with the desire to improve not only my life but the lives of others who may be less fortunate than myself. I believe there are very few alternatives to this Masters program by which I can accomplish those improvements during my sojourn through the classrooms of the world. Participating in the global network offered by the University, as an integral part of the 22 prominent academic transnational institutions (Masters in Development, 2011), would allow me the opportunities and challenges of a reputable and well-known university as well as the resources of a network of additional highly regarded institutions.
In addition to those resources and opportunities one intriguing aspect that I am eagerly anticipating is the Global Classroom. Many other educational entities require, and charge, for courses that are not nearly as comprehensive, intellectually…
The Masters in Development (MDP) -- Indigenous Development accessed at http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/index/mdp-network , on January 19, 2011
Environmental egulations and Industry Best Practice for Efficient Use of esources
The inappropriate disposal of electronic or so-called "e-waste," including office consumables such as laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges, represents a major environmental threat. In fact, according to Taylor, "E-waste' is growing in landfills at three times the rate of general refuse."
In the past, identifying ways to recycle laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges was complicated by the fact that these cartridges contain a "complex mix of plastics, metals, foams and toner."
Identifying ways to recycle laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges, though, is worthwhile. For instance, "Printer cartridges contain valuable metals such as steel, aluminium and copper, as well as ink, toner powder, plastics, rubber, silica and foam, much of which can be recycled."
Nevertheless, Weissman emphasizes that the fact that, "Disposal of electronics waste is complicated, because many of the more than 1,000 different substances in…
Gray, Gerry. (1999, Spring). "Corporations Go Green," American Forests, 104(1): 3-5.
"Recycle Your E-Waste Today." (2013, June 6). The Old Gympie Times, 37.
Taylor, Rachel. (2006, April-May). "He's Closed the Loop: A Single Environmental
Commitment Turned Steve Morris into an Entrepreneur with a Company That's about to Go Global," Ecos, 130: 8-10.
A) According to Kates, .W., Parris, T.M., and Leiserowitz, A.A. (2005). What is sustainable development?
Sustainable development is taking into account the needs of different stakeholders in order to create practices and policies which are realistic and effective.
Brundtland eport argues that environment and development are inseparable. Explain why?
The environment and development work in conjunction with each other. This is because natural resources are finite and must be sustained in a particular area (i.e. development). When there is damage to the environment, this makes it harder to manage natural resources and destroys the ecosystem. Once this takes place, is the point irreversible damage is inevitable and it devastates any kind of development that is occurring. (Kates, Parris, & Leiserowitz, 2005)
What is the standard definition of sustainable development defined by the Brundtland's report? This is the first full definition, but the definition is ambiguous. Why?
Background. (2015). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml
Doppelt, B. (2010). Leading change toward sustainability. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Limited.
Kates, R.W., Parris, T.M., and Leiserowitz, A.A. (2005). What is sustainable development?. Environment, 47 (3), 8-21
As a consequence, social unrest can then be avoided only by subsidies. The town is socially and entinancially heavily burdened. Another problem is that the spontaneous rainwater flow, mixed with wastewater in a heavy downpour, pollutes the river or lake once again and provides more problems for gaining potable water.
Scenario 3: As a result of climatic and geological conditions there is little potable water available; the resources are quickly exhausted. The possibilities for development by the town are therefore restricted. The cost of a long-distance water supply is prohibitive.
This paper examines possible applications of rainwater utilization and application in an urban context. In doing so, it examines some of the more available technologies for this purpose, and draws on Germany's experience in dealing with the related issues. As part of this discussion, variants of practice and boundary conditions of decentralization issues are raised.
Questions and demands
Many businesses in this day and age seek to demonstrate stewardship and resolve to do business within a guideline of corporate social responsibility. In this quest many have chosen to focus on greening their business often including both procurement and manufacture, seeking to reduce the effect of their business on the environment. The different systems approaches that an organization can utilize to demonstrate more effective environmental sustainability are almost as varied as the companies themselves. The utilization of pollution prevention programs depends almost entirely on what it is a company does and what wastes they challenge to control. Additionally companies seek to demonstrate their compliance utilizing various accounting tools that are often made public and become incorporated in their systems designs. These designs will incorporate procurement, logistics, on demand manufacture, i.e. lean manufacture and many other possible systems designs to both demonstrate cost savings and produce a more…
Barrow, C.J. (2005). Environmental Management and Development. London: Routledge.
Eyeontransport, Green Logistics Forum "Download the Green Transportation & Logistics Global Report Now," at http://www.greenlogisticsforum.com/2008/free_report.shtml
Motavalli, J., & Harkinson, J. (2002, September/October). Buying Green: Harnessing the Incredible Procurement Power of Governments, Hospitals, Colleges and America's Biggest Corporations to Protect the Environment. E, 13, 26.
New, S., Green, K., & Morton, B. (2000). 3 Buying the Environment. In The Business of Greening, Fineman, S. (Ed.) (pp. 35-53). London: Routledge.
This latter approach, showing the financial benefits of attaining both sustainability initiatives, is far more valuable to the organization in the long run and also protects the company's most important asset, its people and the knowledge they have.
Further study of the litany of pains and costs driven by a lack of human sustainability does little to bring valuable solutions to bear on this critical problem. Instead there needs to be more of a focus on how apply transformational leadership skill sets to the parallel progress of environmental sustainability and human sustainability at the same time. The need to quantify this dual compliance strategy has been attempted and shown promising results, with the combined effects of each generating cost savings from more effective product development and recycling strategies (Hahn, Figge, Pinkse, Preuss, 2010). The payback in terms of reducing turn-over, medical costs, and increasing morale and trust that leads to…
Richard E. Boyatzis. 2008. Competencies in the 21st century. The Journal of Management Development, 27(1), 5-12.
Catalano, Ralph. 1991. The Health Effects of Economic Insecurity. American Journal of Public Health 81, no. 9, (September 1): 1148-52.
Cascio, W.F. 1993. Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned? Academy of Management Executive, 7, 95-104.
Greenberg, E.R. 1991. Downsizing: AMA survey results. Compensation and Benefits Review, 23, 33-38.
Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon House in Grand Parade righton
The focus of this study is the energy profile of a house identical to the house constructed in Grand Parade righton which is an energy efficient house constructed from waste materials. The climate will be considered as well as the standards and best practices in the construction industry.
righton is reported to have an Oceanic climate much as does the majority of southern ritain with the summer months affected by sea breezes lowering the temperature by five degrees as compared to inland. Snow is common in the winter in righton. The following table shows the monthly average high temperature in righton throughout the year.
Monthly Average High Temperature in righton
]Climate data for righton
Average high "C ("F)
An Introductory Guide to Best Practice in Construction (2012) Construction Excellence in the Southeast. Retrieved from: http://www.secbe.org.uk/documents/introductory_best_practice_guide.pdf
What is BREEAM? (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.breeam.org/about.jsp?id=66
Code for a Sustainable Environment (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.breeam.org/page.jsp?id=347
Sustainability and BREEAM (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.bre.co.uk/page.jsp?id=1766
There is, however, a more practical side to this paradigm shift:
These four were not surprising, given the economic and regulatory conditions of 2007 to 2009 and their impacts on building owners. Faced with energy spikes in 2007 and 2008 and the recession beginning in 2008, owners found it difficult to set reliable utility budgets and obtain financing for capital projects. (Rozgus)
Furthermore, as regards to the write-in answers on the surveys, the top four were all ralted energy efficiency or sustainability, they were: LED lighting and lighting controls, Alternative energy, LEED and green technology or regulations, and Energy efficiency.
The authors conclude that if sustainability and lifecycle issues such as environmental performance, reliability, maintainability, and lifecycle cost, are important to the owner, then these issues will have to be more clearly defined in the engineering contracts. Consequently the associated extra costs and fees that would be required to support…
Fair Trade allowed producers to receive a significant price premium, dependent upon world coffee prices and the mainstream markets. Price premiums for farmers promoted social development and strengthened institutional capacities in the area. However, the ability to improve working conditions for workers was limited (Valkila and Nygren 2009). Price premiums were found to be the main benefit for fruit producers involved in a Swiss partnership (Bezencon 2009).
Fair Trade products and certified end products represent the next logical step in the natural and organic products movement. The impact of fair trade has already been examined in other industries and it is believed that the same principles apply to the cosmetics industry as well. Trends in the cosmetic industry are driven traditionally by the fashion industry. However, social responsibility must now be considered a part of the equation as well. The movement towards socially responsible products is being driven by…
Bezencon, V. n.d. Producers and the fair trade distribution systems: what are the benefits and problems? [Online]. Sustainably Development. Abstract. Available at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122542424/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Global Cosmetics Industry (GCI). 2009. European Natural Cosmetics Sales Approaching €2 Billion. [Online]. 1 Oct 2009. Available at: http://www.gcimagazine.com/marketstrends/segments/natural/63108302.html?page=2 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Global Cosmetics Industry (GCI). 2009. Global Natural Products Market: The Battle of the Standards Gains Pace. Available at: http://www.gcimagazine.com/marketstrends/segments/natural/48079987.html?page=1 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Moore, G., Slack, R. & Gibbon, 2009. PR Firm Names top Ten Ingredients for 2009. [Online]. Journal of Business Ethics. Available at: http://www.fairtrade-institute.org/db/publications/view/581 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Sustainable Distibution fo Essential Medicines in Emeging Makets
Business Case Backgound
The Sustainable challenge
Cuent distibution climate of Cue Phamaceutical
The gowing impotance of the emeging makets
Baies to gowth
Pocuement and Distibution
Challenge to oveall sustainability in phamaceutical companies
Patneships utilized in emeging makets and essential medicine distibution
Suggestions of patneships effective in essential medicine distibution
Data gatheing in essential medicine distibution
Sustainable distibution fo essential medicines in emeging makets
Business Case Backgound
This epot addesses the ole phamaceuticals play in emeging makets. Many people have associated these makets as havens fo explosive futue gowth, but thee ae also seious challenges to be faced. The epot will discuss what views investos, stakeholdes, and company executives hold on emeging makets. Thee ae thee pobable significant factos that may sway thei stance. Fist, the efoms ecently made by the govenment egading phamaceuticals and the obligations of multinationals esulting fom the efoms.…
(Multi-Stakeholder Toolkit, n.d), A Toolkit for Improved Understanding and Transparency of Drug Shortage Response in Canada 2013
Banks, M.A., & Persily, G.L. (2010). Campus perspective on the National Institutes of Health public access policy: University of California, San Francisco, library experience. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 98(3), 256 -- 259. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.3.015
Bors, C., Christie, A., Gervais, D., & Wright Clayton, E. (2015). Improving Access to Medicines in Low-Income Countries: A Review of Mechanisms. The Journal of World Intellectual Property. 18, 1-28.
Cure Pharmaceutical http://www.curepharmaceutical.com/about.html
Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only (Butler, 1998).
Taken together, the foregoing indicates that irrespective of the precise definition that is used, sustainable tourism development is based on three main principles, economic, environment and social which are described below:
1. Economic: This principle refers to something that affects to the majority number of people and enhance the economic situation which is related to sustainable management of economic in tourism sector. This can regarded as opportunities to educate and train employees, support local suppliers, trade, producers and so on (Chapman, 2007). This principle is consistent with the observation by King (2008) that, "tourism in Thailand, as with tourism in the Asian region more generally, is a highly diversified, complex, and changing phenomenon, the impact and consequences of which…
'Bung Kan Is Thailand's 77th Province.' 2011, March 23. Pattaya Daily News. [online]
available: http://www.pattayadailynews.com/en/2011/03/23/bung-kan-is-thailand%E2%80%99s-77th-province/ .
Burton, S., & Steane, P. 2004. Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
Cater, E. 1993. 'Ecotourism in the Third World: Problems for Sustainable Tourism
" (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
The main objectives of the sustainable development are to: revive growth, change the quality of growth, satisfy the basic needs for jobs and subsidiary services, ensure a sustainable level of population, preserve the resources, reorient technology and control risk, consider both economy and environment in the decision making process, and reorient international economic relationships. (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
Connections between the two
Harriss promotes the idea of disciplined economics and governance based on rules. Lele promotes the sustainable development, again a form of governance based on a strict set of rules. The idea at the basis of these two theories is practically the same: governance, economy and the entire human behavior should be based on a set of rules previously elaborated to protect the interests of the participants as well as the environment's.…
Jamie Joseph, Development in Practice, Volume 11, Numbers 2 & 3, May 2001; Sustainable Development and Democracy in the Megacities
Joseph T. Siegle, Michael M. Weinstein, and Morton H. Halperin, Why Democracies Excel, Foreign Affairs September/October 2004
Mick Moore, Political Underdevelopment, What causes 'bad governance', Volume 3, Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2001
Lionel Cliff and Robin Luckham, Complex political emergencies and the state: failure and the fate of the state, Third World Quarterly, Vol 20, No 1, pp 27A± 50, 1999
d.). Even SWOT analysis can help urban planners determine situational variables, approximate risk, and therefore maximize the efficiency of an economic development plan. Issues such as community competitiveness have a strong impact on outside investors, which is another reason why urban planners must take advantage of a wide range of techniques. Urban planners can encourage economic development via a multi-stage process: analysis of need, analysis of risk, and analysis of potential investors.
As it relates to urban planning, sustainable development combines socially and environmentally responsible initiatives. Those initiatives must also be proven to stimulate economic growth and development in the community. Some government incentives may be offered directly for the purposes of creating and implementing sustainable development programs for communities. Land-use planning is one key facet of sustainable urban development. Controlling sprawl, implementing local and regional public transportation systems, and ensuring investments in clean water are other sustainable development issues…
HUD (2009). Economic development programs. Retrieved online: http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/economicdevelopment/programs/
"Urban Planning and Sustainable Development," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.h-net.org/announce/show.cgi?ID=157060
World Bank Group (2007). Urban Development. Retrieved online: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/166856/UCMP/UCMP/step_two_urban_competitiveness.html
U.S. Agency International Development (USAID) http://www.usaid.gov / Write response questions . Write response/background report outline point form. Use headings subheadings organize response. Apply APA style guidelines grammar, spelling, punctuation, citing referencing.
Nature of the organization's mandate
Philosophical perspective, with respect to promoting global health
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the result of the Cold War doctrine related to international assistance. During the Kennedy Administration in the 1960s, the interest for assistance to low income countries and those affected by increased degrees of poverty has determined a need for a concerted action that would alleviate, to a certain extent, the pressures of impoverished national budgets and destroyed economies. In this sense, it was considered that developed countries, and especially the United States as the largest economic power of the Cold War, had the "moral duty" to assist countries in need (Committee on International elations, 2003). Despite this…
Committee On International Relations. (2003) "Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002" Committee On Foreign Relations. Available at http://transition.usaid.gov/policy/ads/faa.pdf
Kissinger, H. (2011). Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster
USAID (2013) Key Accomplishments. Available at http://www.usaid.gov/results-and-data/highlights
USAID (2013) Budget and Spending. Available at http://www.usaid.gov/results-and-data/budget-spending
Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.
African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.
1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.
Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.
A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…
1. Andrew Apter. The Pan-African Nation: Oil and the Spectacle of Culture in Nigeria.
University of Chicago Press (2005)
Only the Introduction and Chapter 1)
2. Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard, eds. International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge. UC Press (1997)
The problem is that poverty is far too widespread to respond significantly to the isolated work of a few organizations or individuals. Instead, Ahmed suggests that the concepts of zakah and awqaf should be included in development schemes and poverty reduction strategies. The advantage of such inclusion will be the perpetuation of concepts that are significantly important to all Muslims. It is also likely to trigger a sense of solidarity among citizens, along with providing a structure for targeted charitable work. It will also provide a valuable structure by which to ensure that the goods received by means of zakah and awqaf reach their correct destinies. In this regard, the concepts of zakah and awqaf can be implemented to fund the work of organizations such as Islamic elief. The concepts can also be integrated with organizations such as the tariqa in order to increase the impact upon poverty relief throughout…
Ahmed, Habib. 2004. Role of Zakah and Awqaf in Poverty Alleviation. Occasional Paper No. 8. Islamic Development Bank Group.
Akkas, S.M. Ali. Poverty Alleviation from Islamic Perspective: Lessons from Grassroots Experiments. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/12878903/Poverty-Alleviation-From-Islamic-Perspective
Alhabshi, Syed Othman. Poverty Eradication from Islamic Perspectives.
Hasan, Zubair. 2006. Sustainable Development form an Islamic Perspective: Meaning, Implications, and Policy Concerns. J.KAU: Islamic Econ., Vol. 19, No. 1, pp 3-18.
4, pp. 262-262-266.
Carter, C.. & ogers, D.S. 2008, "A framework of sustainable supply chain management: moving toward new theory," International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 360-360-387.
Keating, B., Quazi, A., Kriz, A. & Coltman, T. 2008, "In pursuit of a sustainable supply chain: insights from Westpac Banking Corporation," Supply Chain Management, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 175-175-179.
Krause, D.., Vachon, S. & Klassen, .D. 2009, "Special Topic Forum on Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Introduction and eflections on the ole of Purchasing Management*," Journal of Supply Chain Management, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 18-18-25.
Mann, H., Kumar, U., Kumar, V. & Mann, I.J.S. 2010, "Drivers of Sustainable Supply Chain Management," IUP Journal of Operations Management, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 52-52-63.
Pagell, M. & Wu, Z. 2009, "Building a More Complete Theory of Sustainable Supply Chain Management using Case Studies of 10 Exemplars,"…
"Aspects of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM): conceptual framework and empirical example," 2007, Supply Chain Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 262-262-266.
Carter, C.R. & Rogers, D.S. 2008, "A framework of sustainable supply chain management: moving toward new theory," International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 360-360-387.
Keating, B., Quazi, A., Kriz, A. & Coltman, T. 2008, "In pursuit of a sustainable supply chain: insights from Westpac Banking Corporation," Supply Chain Management, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 175-175-179.
Krause, D.R., Vachon, S. & Klassen, R.D. 2009, "Special Topic Forum on Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Introduction and Reflections on the Role of Purchasing Management*," Journal of Supply Chain Management, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 18-18-25.
Agger, A. (2010). Involving Citizens in Sustainale Development: Evidence of New Forms of Participation in the Danish Agenda 21 Schemes. Local Environment, 15(6), 541-552.
Agger (2010) reiterated that Scandinavian countries hold in high regard the dictates of Agenda 21 and that's why they have een so fast to implement it. This is ecause these countries have institutional capacity that makes it easy for them to apply the principles of LA21. Agger attriuted Sweden's investments in environmental and technical infrastructure to LA21 initiatives. Other Scandinavian countries nevertheless used LA21 initiatives to decentralize state environmental policy initiatives whereas others used it to moilize citizens and associations in local environmental policies (Agger, 2010). Agger identified the network approach, the integrated approach, and the canvassing approach as the overall strategies for reaching many stakeholders.
He reckoned that governments all over the world still faced myriad challenges when it came to diversifying citizens' participation in…
bibliography I came to realize how it is important to engage in environmental conservation. I came to realize that the municipal authorities and local governments have a very critical role to play in urban planning especially when they undertake to apply principles of smart growth concept to ensure there is sustainable urban development.
This research has no doubt changed my point-of-view on sustainable development. I have come to appreciate that plan-led environmentally friendly and sustainable pattern of settlement should integrate elements of distinctive urban culture, spatially compact form, strong landscape framework in a countryside setting, balance of land use, economic and social structures, energy conscious public transportation network, and high level of infrastructure.
Agger, A. (2010). Involving Citizens in Sustainable Development: Evidence of New Forms Of
Participation in the Danish Agenda 21 Schemes. Local Environment, 15(6), 541-552.
The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis.
In terms of the relations between Ghana and its major donors, China and the EU, Giles Mohan writes a comprehensive overview of the relations Ghana has with China and the potential political and economic interests that may drive China to indeed become a crucial donor for Ghana. More precisely, the author connects the new found Chinese desire to invest in the African country to the new found oil reserves in Ghana. Furthermore, he contents that given the past nature of the relations between China and the rest of the world (such as the EU for instance), the presence of China in Ghana is also geopolitically related and not necessarily humanitarian and development related. The perspective is valuable because the author points out potential political linkages between the resources found in…
Boafo-Arthur, K & Essuman-Johnson, a 1993, Ghana, Some Foreign Aid issues, Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 2010. Ghana. CIDA. viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/Eng/JUD-124141510-QL7
Chachage, C.S.L., 1987, Towards a critique of development theories in Africa. Vol. l9 No J / 987.
Crawford, G 2004. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in Africa: The Case of Ghana" POLIS Working Paper Number 10 viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/research/working-papers/wp10crawford.pdf
Private Sector Investment and Economic Development
Investment and economic development
The ole of Private Sector investment in Economic Development
In the past few decades there has been overwhelming support for growth and development rooted in private investments and market-oriented strategies. A move from public sector driven growth has come as result of the need to reduce the widening gap in the balance of payment account, increasing public debt, rising inflation rate, growing foreign debt fundamentally falling living standards. There has been a shift from the need for large public corporations undertaking productive activities in an economy owing to the realized inefficiency in resource allocation. Corruption and misappropriation of public funds is observable owing to the lacking need to optimally reap benefit from the investment. Unlike in the public sector, private sector investment guarantees optimal productive activities, efficient allocation of productive resource, technological advancements to reduce cost and increase productivity (Dao,…
DAO, M.Q. 2008. The Impact of Investment Climate Indicators on Gross Capital Formation in Developing Countries. The Journal of Developing Areas, 42, 155-163.
GROSSMAN, G.M. & HELPMAN, E. 1994. Endogenous innovation in the theory of growth. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8, 23-44.
HARRISON JR., W., HORNGREN, C.T. & WILLIAM, C.T. 2012. Financial accounting 9th edition., U.S.A., Prentice Hall
JORGENSON, D. 1971. Econometric Studies of Investment Behavior: A Survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 9, 1111.
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…
Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.
Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.
Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.
Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
Over the last several decades, China has been going through tremendous amounts of economic growth. Since the 1990's, various Chinese cities have seen an increase of 380 million people. hile the economy, has expanded by five times as measured in GDP growth. However, the nation has also been experiencing challenges associated with the need for housing and sustainable development. One possible strategy for dealing with these issues is brownfield development. In the United States, this has been shown to be an effective tool for dealing with urban blight and managing growth inside a particular region. ("Urban Sustainability Index")
To determine if this kind of strategy can be effective in China requires measuring possible benefits. This means looking at specific cities in comparison with each other. Once this takes place, is when specific insights will be provided as to how China can deal with future economic development. Over the…
"Analysis, Tables and Figures." China Profile, 2011. Web. 16 Apr. 2012
"Asia Cities." China Post, 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2012.
"Brownfield and Redevelopment in China." China Environmental Governance, 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2012
"China's Fastest Growing Cities." Nova Southeastern, 2007. Web. 17 Apr. 2012
The results of the index composition reflect that by analyzing only the elements mentioned above, both India and China rank higher than in the general HDI. In this sense, India is ranked 17 and China 18, as opposed to 119 and 89 respectively.
There are several aspects for this change. On the one hand, positive indexes were taken into account for both countries. For instance, the income in China is constantly improving, as China has a 76 ranking as opposed to 89 the general index. By comparison, this is also applicable to India, with a positive index of 87 as opposed to its general 119.
In terms of inequality China is relatively low as its ranking is 72 compared with the general one of 89. Therefore there is little difference largely because despite the constant developments in the economy the results of this development are not evenly spread and therefore…
Human Development Index. The Human development concept. Human Development Reports. 2010. Available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/
Financing for Development in El Salvador
Confronting Debt Challenges
El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America. It has a limited natural resource base. About 60% of the population live in rural areas and over 80% of agricultural producers work farms of less than 3 ha. With social indicators among the worst in Latin America and a per capita income of U.S.$1,580 in 1995, it also ranks as one of the poorer countries in the region.
Since 1992, the World ank has supported the government of El Salvador's strategic effort to consolidate peace and place the country on a path towards sustainable development. Currently, eight loans are under implementation worth a total of U.S.$298 million.
In December 2001, the World ank announced the new assistance strategy up to $270 million to El Salvador over the next three years. This includes a $142.6 million Earthquake Emergency Reconstruction and…
Jonathan Heller and Sarah McFarlane, Self-Development:Creating Hope in El Salvador, El Platenar, El Salvador & Seattle, Washington
Gasper F. Lo Biondo, S.J. And Rafael A. Pleitez, Woodstock Theological Center, 1997
Karen Hansen-Kuhn, The Development GAP in Tom Barry and Martha Honey (ed.) Free Trade Area of the Americas Volume 6, Number 12, April 2001
Development Cooperation and Conflict, http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/external/lac/lac.
Sustainable Growth in China
Environmental Protection is Key to Sustainable Growth in China
The phenomenal economic growth in China for the last several decades has paved the way for the uplifting of the social and financial conditions of the citizens of the country. The lion's share of this financial windfall was due to the rise of various manufacturing and production facilities across the country. These development sites have provided products and even services to various clients across the globe and ensured continued economic growth of China. ut with the rapid pace of economic development and building of more industrial infrastructures and zones to keep up with the world demands, the environment is suffering a major setback. Air and water pollution is rampant, the natural resources needed to provide raw materials are being depleted, and the rapid urbanization in various economic zones are taking its toll on the environment due to…
KPMG Advisory China. (2011, March). China's 12th five-year plan: Overview. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.kpmg.com/cn/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/China-12th-Five-Year-Plan-Overview-201104.pdf
Lommen, Y.F. (2011, May). "Toward sustainable growth in the People's Republic of China: The 12th five-year plan." ADB Briefs No. 7. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.adb.org/documents/briefs/ADB-Briefs-2011-7-PRC-5Year-Plan.pdf
Wong, C. (2010, November 17). "Is China's growth sustainable?" China Hush: Stories of China. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.chinahush.com/2010/11/17/is-chinas-growth-sustainable/
In summary, we recommend that the IESBA reconsiders the proposals in the Exposure Draft and provides more guidance on safeguards applicable to sole practitioners and small accounting firms to ensure that the benefits of the changes outweigh the costs to SMEs. Under a principle-based approach, there should be safeguards and practical relief for all practitioners rather than rules-based outright prohibitions. The rewrite of this Independence component of the Code is substantially rules-based rather than principles-based. In this regard, we also encourage the IESBA to prioritize the redrafting of the entire Code using a similar drafting convention to that used by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board in its Clarity project" (IESBA Exposure Draft of Sections 290 and 291 of the Code of Ethics on Independence - Proposed Additional equirements in relation to Internal Audit Services, elative Size of Fees and Contingent Fees 2007).
There will also be an all-time…
Kreitner, R., and Kinicki, a. (2004). "Organizational behavior," 6e; [Chap. 17]; [Chap. 18]. Accessed December 19, 2007, from MBA520, eResource, week 5, eBook Collection database.
McShane, and Von Glinow. (2005). "Organizational behavior" (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
); Muret, Don. (1999). "Former Disney VP stresses teamwork at cafe." Amusement Business, 111(49), 22. Accessed August 17, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.
Frazee, Bonnie. (2004). "Organizational Behavior and the Learning Process" Accessed December 19, 2007, at http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_feature.asp?articleid=698&zoneid=29