hile reflecting on some of the events that have transpired over the last decade, it may be no wonder why people have fueled the debate and salience of concepts related to sustainable development. Countless corporate scandals such as Enron and many others pointed out some of the questionable business practices in the modern economy. Also the sub-prime mortgage markets have gained large amounts of negative publicity for their systemic lack of integrity. Not only has this increased contempt with the status quo of the business world, but it has also translates into real implications that affect everyone's lives in one way or another. Many people have had their retirement fund devalued in the stock market or by austerity cuts. Others are can be affected by simply paying higher prices at the gas pump but the interconnectedness of the global economy leaves no life untouched.
This paper questions the…… [Read More]
Sustainable Development: An Analysis
Development refers to the progressive transformation of society, and the economy[footnoteRef:1]. Sustainable development is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"[footnoteRef:2]. Some consider sustainable development an oxymoron, arguing that it is impossible to achieve development without causing harm to the environment through pollution[footnoteRef:3]. Fortunately, there is proof that a country could actually achieve development in a sustainable manner. This is only possible if social and environmental factors are integrated into the economic component of development[footnoteRef:4]. [1: The World ank, "What is Sustainable Development?" The World ank, http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/sd.html (accessed February 21, 2014).] [2: Ibid.] [3: Ibid.] [4: Ibid.]
Certification in the Developing World
Certification is one way through which sustainable development could be achieved[footnoteRef:5]. It seeks to ensure that companies all over the world comply with the international standards governing sustainable development[footnoteRef:6]. The developing…… [Read More]
Costa Rica has financed its plans largely by restructuring its external debt. The nation was able in doing this to set aside the funds required to pursue its sustainability development. This has been augmented by assistance from organizations such as the IMF and grants from the orld Bank.
Part of Costa Rica's employment strategy is to build the ecotourism business, which provides higher level employment. Costa Rica also seeks to develop its agriculture in a sustainable fashion, with small farms wherein the owner keeps the profits. Land resources are also used to boost the pharmaceutical industry, with sustainable harvesting of key plant species. Costa Rica has battled carbon pollution by instituting taxes on vehicles and purchased carbon from Norway.
One area of commonality between the Costa Rica and Abu Dhabi plans is that they both leverage the relative strengths of their countries. The Costa Rica plan leverages that nation's ecological…… [Read More]
Interior and Commerce Department agencies are to determine which species should be listed; individuals may petition the agencies to have species designated. The Fish and Wildlife Service, in the Interior Department, deals with land species; the National Marine Fisheries Service, located in the Commerce department, has jurisdiction over marine species. Any 'interested person' may petition the Interior Secretary to list a species as either endangered or threatened. The 1978 amendments to the ESA created a Cabinet-level committee to resolve conflicts between species protection and federal projects -- labeled the 'God Squad' or the 'Extinction Committee'.
The committee can authorize projects to proceed even if they jeopardize the continued existence of a species if five of seven members decide that protection interferes with 'human' needs. The specific criteria to be used in exempting actions from the act include: (1) there are no reasonable or prudent alternatives to the agency action; (2)…… [Read More]
Sustainable Development in the South Asian Context
The objective of this study is to explore the meaning of 'sustainable development' in the Southeast Asian context.
(1) Can there be a common definition of sustainable development?
(2) Does it define a starting point, a process, or an end goal?
(3) Can if provide a coherent theory?
(4) Is it a workable concept in practice?
(5) How do different political parties enforce the implementation of sustainable development?
(6) What contradictions exist between economic growth and environmental protection in Southeast Asia?
(7) Is there a common definition of sustainable development, which applies to all cases?
Sustainable development means different things to different individuals and groups and there is yet to be a commonly acknowledged and accepted definition for sustainable development. Sustainable development falls under the influence of various political mindsets and the implementation of sustainable development can be differentiated on the bases of…… [Read More]
Sustainable Development - a Global Challenge
Need for Change
Challenges for usinesses
The Role of MNCs in Sustainable Development
The Global Compact
Initiatives outside the Global Compact
What is International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL)?
International Environmental Law and its Impact on Australia
Sustainable Development: A Global Challenge
For many years, sustainable development has been one of the controversial issues faced by world leaders and citizens (Parmetier, 2002). The issue pervades both private and public sectors, and is the major focus of many International Organizations (IOs), mainly the United Nations (UN) and many Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs). However, there is little agreement across the globe about a solid definition of the concept of sustainable development. In addition, to further complicate the issue, another concept has recently s emerged on the international scene: globalization.
Globalization can best be defined as an increasing economic interconnection throughout the world, which influences…… [Read More]
They feel that they can do this with better overall agricultural output through better water management, for example a reduction in the size of irrigation projects to reduce waste.
The plan is also focused on shifting Ethiopia's economy from one in which 85% of the populace is engaged in agriculture to one in which people earn their money through trades and industry. The plan holds this will lift people out of poverty and build the economy from the lowest levels up.
The timeframe for the first stages of this development plan has come, so the second stages are underway. Sustainable development in Ethiopia is a long-term objective. ith respect to women, the plan includes provisions on improving women's access to health care. The omen's Development Initiatives project (DIP) represents a commitment to women's equality by improving female education and providing rural women with more economic opportunities.
The Ethiopian plan is…… [Read More]
Also contributing to the challenges faced by sustainable development are proprietary interests. Every legal entity, including individuals, governments and corporations, will protect its own interests. Changes to the status quo that do not give an entity benefit will be fought in the legal system, with political influence, in the court of public opinion and sometimes even through military means (China invading Tibet to gain access to mineral resources and control of Asia's major river systems, for example). Each entity pushing its own agenda will compromise efforts to implement the type of systemic changes to make development sustainable on a global basis.
Perhaps nowhere are these challenges more in evidence than in the issue of greenhouse gas emissions. The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement between 184 countries to a global plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Proprietary interests have resulted in the world's biggest polluter, the United States, refusing to ratify…… [Read More]
Sustainable development, as defined by the rundtland Commission (1987) is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." [footnoteRef:1] y definition, then, sustainable development is development that takes the impact on the environment into account and tries to minimize environmental damage. This contributed to the understanding that sustainable development encompasses a number of areas and highlights sustainability as the idea of environmental, economic and social progress and equity, all within the limits of the world's natural resources. Sustainable Development is about balanced and equitable economic development. high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusiveness, a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources, coherent policy making in an open, transparent and accountable political system and effective international co-operation to promote sustainable development globally.[footnoteRef:2] [1: rundtland Commission, "Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development,"…… [Read More]
It can be especially bad if it appears that the company was trying to cover up the problem. That is why self-auditing is such an important benefit to companies.
Unfortunately, many companies choose not to self audit. They do not want to look for problems because they expect to find some. Finding problems means reporting problems, which means paying fines. A lot of companies do not want to pay them, even if they are less when they are found through self-auditing. These companies just leave their pollution problems uncorrected and hope that the EPA won't pay them a surprise visit where they will have to try to hide their problems.
Clearly, the economic benefits and the social benefits of pollution control and the Clean Water Act are quite high, although not everyone realizes how important it is to make sure that the water stays clean; not only for the people…… [Read More]
Efficient fuel consumption, for example, is an effort that is considered sustainable because fuel consumption is a present need of end-users, but efficient use of this source of energy -- that is, fuel is consumed optimally and with the least harmful effect on the users' environment -- ensures that this act of consumption would have the least detrimental effect on the natural environment (specifically, the acceleration of air pollution and eventual depletion of ozone layer). Efficient fuel consumption is an effort requiring the involvement of every individual and sector in the society: governments can monitor companies' greenhouse gas emissions through legislation, businesses can develop corporate social responsibility (CS) programs that aim to implement laws and rules on efficient fuel consumption, and even individuals can do their part by making sure that their appliances are energy efficient, for example.
On a larger or inter-country scale, numerous multilateral agreements are developed and…… [Read More]
Since 1972, population has indeed carried on rapid growth, but per-capita incomes have risen even faster. From 1972, when China and India could not feed their populations, both have become food exporters. The Club of Rome made the same mistake as their "limited world" predecessors, Malthus and Marx. They thought of people as reactive automatons, unable to change their behavior or their consumption. The Club of Rome should have known better. The "Green Revolution," which increased the world's production per acre of grains by a factor of five, had started in the 1960's. The Chinese peasant, allowed to farm 1/2 acre and sell his produce since 1965, had increased overall Chinese food production by 30% by 1972.
The Reality: Resources are Expanding
It seems illogical, or nearly paradoxical, that as we use more resources, our resource pool keeps growing, but that is in fact the case. This is true for…… [Read More]
One of the key challenges and needs identified by the ISC team is financing. The other challenges include, collaboration, making the case for prosperity through sustainability, taking a comprehensive approach to green empowerment, and data (Institute for Sustainable Communities – ISC, 2011, p. 7). As the authors point out, “transitioning to a sustainable economy will require significant investments from both public and private entities…” (ISC, 2011, p. 6). It should, however, be noted that funding is a finite resource. Further, the very nature of the said transition makes actual costs uncertain – effectively meaning that there could be a mismatch between the actual costs and the funds allocated. This brings about what is referred to as a cost overrun or cost underrun risk, which in essence is a situation whereby an undertaking’s costs either go above or below the initial cost estimate (Boyd, 2012, p. 314). The achievement…… [Read More]
This is because resources available within the environment will provide all what is required for the state (Department of Environment, Food & ural affairs, 2013).
Many countries are same when it comes to the endowments of natural, human and physical capital. However, there is a difference when it comes to the economic development level that can be achieved in a particular country. There are three types of capital that can determine the economic growth process but in a partial manner however, there is a missing link between the three types of capital which is the social capital. Social capital is based on social norms and bonds which have an important role to play when it comes to sustainable development. Social capital emphasizes on the participation on a civic level as well as a horizontal association among people such as social networks. This is also through associated norms that…… [Read More]
Searching for Sustainability
When researchers analyzed the global resource flow trends that emerged between 1980 and 2002 they found a 25% worldwide increase in material extraction and natural resource use (Behren, Giljum, Kovanda, and Niza, 2005). The increased material extraction rates were attributed to growing economies in developing nations like China and the growing size of the consumer class in these countries. When compared to trends in economic activity in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), the percent generated by material extraction shrank by 25% during the same study period. The rapid growth in the size of the less resource-intensive service sector was blamed for this finding.
The growing size of the service sector has some advantages in terms of sustainability, including lower resource utilization and cleaner technologies, but based on the findings of Behren and colleagues (2007) the growth in material extraction and utilization outstrips…… [Read More]
In the past few years, there have been a number of key meetings of about environmental issues. The ongoing discussions with regards to the fate of the soon-to-be extinct bluefin tuna illustrate the frustrations of trying to reach environmental agreements. Nations responsible for the management of the resource ignore scientific advice and pursue their own interests to the detriment of the common good, and resist any effort to change the practice (Gronewald, 2009). Other conferences trend along the same line -- small groups of nations meeting to hammer out specific policy details. The Environmental Law Roundtable of Australia and New Zealand is one such example. The UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) chemicals roundtable was a conference that discussed specific areas of concern with respect to chemical pollution.
There are many international agreements that govern the environment. The best-known is the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change,…… [Read More]
Urbanization in Latin America was the result of the industrialization that took place in the 18th century and attracted rural population to migrate in order to get better employment and life facilities. However, Neoliberalism caused privatization and resulted in the economic opportunities and growth prospects but the long-term effects tend to be declining in terms of growth due to the imbalance of job availability and job requirements and autonomy of corporate companies.
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Neoliberalism and Sustainability
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Import-Substitution-Industrialization or (ISI) refers to the policy which facilitates trade and country's economy by means of replacing imports with the products that are produced domestically which ultimately focuses on a country's dependency and protects it from the foreign economic shocks. The policy was adapted by many countries…… [Read More]
Because of its position at sea, Jeddah has become the largest sea port on the Red Sea. it's history goes back centuries ago and has transformed the city into a large touristic attraction. It is because people have known how to use these resources that Jeddah is fastly becoming one of the most proficient evidence that sustainable development is proactive. Because people's involvement is what sustains this form of development in the first place, the Jeddah community has set agendas to inform citizens on how to reduce consumption and use green materials in construction, having also informed entrepreneurs and people generally that construction is the field where most of the energy and resources go to. What I think requires more attention is the issue of infrastructure; because of the increase in its population, Jeddah also faces problems of water resources. One of the issues that were addressed during trainings in…… [Read More]
( Manion, 2002). The ethics of sustainable development in the sciences also includes the "precautionary principle." This refers to the view that, "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health and the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically" (Manion, 2002).
In the light of the above brief overview of way that ethics and social responsibility have become part of the ethos of the contemporary scientific world, it becomes clear that a focus on technologies such as solar still production is one way in which engineers can enact their ethical and social responsibilities in this age. This project also takes into account the social and cultural needs and context of the people of the region, especially in areas where there is a lack of resources.
From an ethical perspective, professional engineering organizations have made an important contribution…… [Read More]
According to The orld Commission on Environment and Development (CED), "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." There are many issues related to this important concept that have global implications. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the issue of consumption and how it affects the ability of the environment to continue sustainable living. This essay will first describe the issue and illustrate key points that relate consumption with sustainability. The next part of this argument will discuss the role of businesses and corporations and their relationship with this issue. The essay will conclude with commentary and conclusions about the current trends and future responses to consumption and the potential implications for businesses.
The Issue of Consumption
Consumption is a unique term that relates to the sustainability of any system. It…… [Read More]
As the organization attempts to sell cheap and expensive brands an exact identity may not be apparent and disillusion many customers that don't know what to expect. As mentioned before, the retail industry is squarely opposed to sustainable practices and this in itself is a blaring weakness that needs to be addressed if the company expects to be successful in the long-term.
Another step in a retail SWOT analysis is identifying key opportunities in the market.
In this case, the demand for sustainable practices are at an all time high. If Woolworths can somehow master this transition, the opportunity for domination within this industry is possible. Introducing new technologies that promote sustainable practices will surely help in exploiting many of these opportunities.
The internet and wireless shopping has provided many new threats to the retail industry. This threat is more serious because online shopping appears to be more…… [Read More]
Sustainable tourism does not destroy the environment, economy, or cultural aspects of the tourist destination (David Vaughan, 2000). Sustainable tourism is aimed at ensuring that those concerned are not affected in any way and that a positive development is realized through it. Back in the 1980s, ecotourism which consisted of activities such as wildlife exotic cultures and nature, became more common with remarkably few people understanding what the impacts of such tourism are, this led to its pitfall (Erlet, 1993). Therefore, sustainable tourism helps to improve all associated impact of tourism as a whole, and this can steadily be achieved through seeking partnership between various governments, local community and any stakeholder in the tourism industry.
How sustainable tourism can be achieved
esearches done in this field indicate that for sustainable tourism to be achieved all efforts should be channeled towards fostering co-ordination and cooperation between managers of the tourism destination…… [Read More]
In an increasingly globalized world concerned with environmental destruction, there has been a recent rise in the practice of sustainable tourism, especially within the context of developing nations. Yet, because the context of sustainable tourism is such a new development within the larger industry, there are many controversies and questions revolving the practice of sustainable tourism. Still, sustainable tourism development can promote sustainable development through regional community involvement, as long as the people living in these areas continue to see benefits from their devotion to sustaining eco-friendly practices within their tourism models.
Sustainable tourism is a relatively new element within the larger tourism industry. Ecotourism is often defined as "travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people," (Kiss 2004 p 232). Sustainable tourism occurs in a situation where organizations make eco-friendly choices in order to maintain a higher degree of sustainability…… [Read More]
Sustainable Tourism Development
The aim of the essay is to gain an understanding of the rational and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.
The aim is to increase awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism destinations within an international, national, regional, and local framework. Investigate current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are discussed and apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.
Understand the differing approaches to tourism planning and development and understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry (1000+ words)
Using the EBSCO article: The effectiveness of public policies and structural funds in enhancing tourism development.The case of Romania.
a) Discuss, using appropriate references, why a long-term approach is beneficial to destinations like Romania, and state the advantages to stakeholders…… [Read More]
The article is an exciting approach to capitalist development in that it finds conditions under which sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation emerge spontaneously and can practically work. As the study points out, one of the classical things that capitalism does is to "creatively destroy." It is this ability to destroy what is old and does not work and build and impose what is new and does is the primary benefit of capitalism. What sustainable entrepreneurship has done is to apply this as a positive force in realizing the field's lofty goals where public government initiatives have failed to achieve them. The article conducts an extensive literature review to accomplish just this task (ibid. pp. 223-225).
However, until now, there has not been one universally recognized definition of what sustainable development is. Such research and definitions have implications for theory and practitioners in that it clarifies which firms are most likely…… [Read More]
Sustainability in Australian Food Exporting
Sustainability is an increasingly important consideration in both built and natural environments, as human endeavors are revealed to be increasingly fragile and enormously dependent on natural resources that could potentially be eradicated through overuse and unsustainable practices. This affects almost all areas of human activity, including many that might seem not directly related to sustainability issues such as import and export levels. When considered from a regional perspective, however, the exportation of resources -- whether purely natural resources or a combination of natural and built procedures -- becomes directly related to certain concepts in sustainability. This paper will examine current features of Australia's food exportation activities and determine their degree of sustainability.
The amount of arable -- i.e. food-producing -- land in the world is diminishing, in some regions at alarming rates, meaning that agricultural products are already becoming increasingly rare (Midmore…… [Read More]
Sustainable design is the smart and subtle way of utilizing modern building methods and materials to achieve a more intelligent building, while using fewer resources and recycling more waste. It is not simply a trend, nor is it only a marketing tool for 21st century developments, but rather sustainable design is a conscientious decision by an architect to take measures to protect the environment, lessen utility costs, and ensure a longer lasting product in the end. The future of arth can only be looked after by those who inhabit it, and therefore sustainability has become the most important idea today in the field of science and design. Like with many building standards, each country has its own method of measurement and evaluation to the level of sustainability achieved, and because of globalization, there have been several different international standards competing for international recognition and control over the green design process.…… [Read More]
My future career will definitely depend on what are of the world I would like to dedicate my services towards. Traveling appears to be a worthwhile approach to figuring this out. Exploring the local places and other areas around the world will most likely inspire me to a sustainability problem that my skills would best apply to.
The next step in achieving the goals of my plan requires me to network and learn from others who have already successfully achieved this objective. It is very simple to connect with people due to the technological advances in recent years giving me no excuse not to be able to find others who can give me practical advice in the matter. Learning from others is very important in this entire process and understanding that I can learn something from everyone I meet, every day, will help me realize opportunities that I currently am…… [Read More]
Purchasing sustainable garments is a challenge for everyone when fast fashion is so common. The labors in fast fashion can hardly afford the clothes they make while many consume fast fashion in a problematic way. Fashion industries need more transparency to educate the purchasing decision of individuals. Fast fashion not only is polluting and creating so much waste to our world; it is also taking away the basic human right of low income workers. To design something is not just about choosing a fabric and a print that is appealing but also needs to map out the production and economic strategy. What appear to be beautiful to us may have hidden an ugly story behind it. According to the United Nations, clothing is the fundamental principal of a person's dignity, beside shelter, food, and other essential needs. When the consumption of clothing is placed on the balance against…… [Read More]
The local community will know that the library and the campus in general support local businesses and local efforts. They have an excellent opportunity to build community support and rapport through purchasing locally as a part of the sustainability plan.
The campus library has many reasons to commit to sustainable building design. Aside from the apparent environmental reasons, the long-term benefits to their financial well-being and contribution to the community also make this an excellent project for the library. Sustainable building design demonstrates excellent community leadership for the library. People come to the library in search of knowledge and enlightenment. esponsible building design promotes the overall goals of the library as an example of what can be achieved and as a community resource.
Sustainable building creates sustainable communities. It only takes a single act to create the need for future buildings to follow sustainable principles. This will spread…… [Read More]
Another case study, this one by Cole (2011) examines the cultural and community impacts of tourism, both sustainable and unsustainable, on specific cultures in Indonesia. Cole concludes as well that in order to help keep the cultural and community influences and positive attitudes intact, it is important to consider the local community as a major stakeholder in the sustainability of a tourist destination. Cole states in her article, "ourism has the potential to empower communities and the sustainable tourism agenda needs to focus on how to bring this about. As the case study illustrates, understanding tourists and tourism processes is the first stage to empowering the local community to make informed and appropriate decisions about their tourism development. Considerable investments are required in communication and trust building between the actors in tourism. his paper examines how action research, focus groups and the creation of a tourism forum can be concrete,…… [Read More]
Schaltegger, S. & Wagner, M. (2010). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment 20: 222-237.
Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) create a usable framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, sustainable innovation, and sustainable business development in "Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions." he article first addresses the purpose for the research. Companies have been traditionally culprits in creating both environmental and social justice problems, necessitating regulations imposed externally. Driven solely by profit, a company will not be likely to pursue innovation or sustainability entrepreneurship unless it was profitable to do so. he authors point out that while this may be true with some organizations in some sectors, that otherwise the business environment is changing. A new framework based on current business trends is proposed by Schaltegger & Wagner (2010). his new framework is based on the fact that many companies -- and their managers --…… [Read More]
Accounting Sustainable Management
The organization's emphasis towards the sustainability is increasing as a response to the scarcity of natural resources and the negative effects on environment by means of ecological hazards. Therefore, the organizations are adapting their business procedure to utilize such resources that are cost effective and environment friendly so that they can earn profits and can remain environment friendly by having a positive image in the society by addressing their social accountability.
Sustainability and its elevance to Business and Accounting
Sustainability and its elevance to WML
Implication of Sustainability in WML
The current study has been conducted in order to analyze the strategic practices of Wave Master Ltd. (WML) with respect to sustainability. The sustainability of a company indicates the extent to which the company is playing its part in the safeguard of biological systems and the extent to which the company is considered as environment friendly.…… [Read More]
preferences by countries can led to different forms of the challenges that they face and the strategies they choose to address these challenges. However, in an increasingly globalized world, many modern challenges are increasingly affecting the world's population as a whole; like climate change for example. Thus the next generations of challenges will require solutions that involve an unprecedented level of global collaboration. Furthermore, these challenges can be thought of in terms of social, economic, and environmental challenges. This paper will briefly outline three development challenges that are facing development in the 21st century.
Climate change, also known as global warming, is an environmental phenomenon that has attracted significant global attention in recent decades. This is arguably an issue that can be thought of as an existential issue. Climate change stands the potential not only to threaten many animal species around the world in a new global masses…… [Read More]
I am applying to the University of Winnipeg's Masters in Development Practice -- Indigenous Development with the desire to improve not only my life but the lives of others who may be less fortunate than myself. I believe there are very few alternatives to this Masters program by which I can accomplish those improvements during my sojourn through the classrooms of the world. Participating in the global network offered by the University, as an integral part of the 22 prominent academic transnational institutions (Masters in Development, 2011), would allow me the opportunities and challenges of a reputable and well-known university as well as the resources of a network of additional highly regarded institutions.
In addition to those resources and opportunities one intriguing aspect that I am eagerly anticipating is the Global Classroom. Many other educational entities require, and charge, for courses that are not nearly as comprehensive, intellectually…… [Read More]
Environmental egulations and Industry Best Practice for Efficient Use of esources
The inappropriate disposal of electronic or so-called "e-waste," including office consumables such as laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges, represents a major environmental threat. In fact, according to Taylor, "E-waste' is growing in landfills at three times the rate of general refuse."
In the past, identifying ways to recycle laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges was complicated by the fact that these cartridges contain a "complex mix of plastics, metals, foams and toner."
Identifying ways to recycle laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges, though, is worthwhile. For instance, "Printer cartridges contain valuable metals such as steel, aluminium and copper, as well as ink, toner powder, plastics, rubber, silica and foam, much of which can be recycled."
Nevertheless, Weissman emphasizes that the fact that, "Disposal of electronics waste is complicated, because many of the more than 1,000 different substances in…… [Read More]
A) According to Kates, .W., Parris, T.M., and Leiserowitz, A.A. (2005). What is sustainable development?
Sustainable development is taking into account the needs of different stakeholders in order to create practices and policies which are realistic and effective.
Brundtland eport argues that environment and development are inseparable. Explain why?
The environment and development work in conjunction with each other. This is because natural resources are finite and must be sustained in a particular area (i.e. development). When there is damage to the environment, this makes it harder to manage natural resources and destroys the ecosystem. Once this takes place, is the point irreversible damage is inevitable and it devastates any kind of development that is occurring. (Kates, Parris, & Leiserowitz, 2005)
What is the standard definition of sustainable development defined by the Brundtland's report? This is the first full definition, but the definition is ambiguous. Why?
Sustainable development…… [Read More]
As a consequence, social unrest can then be avoided only by subsidies. The town is socially and entinancially heavily burdened. Another problem is that the spontaneous rainwater flow, mixed with wastewater in a heavy downpour, pollutes the river or lake once again and provides more problems for gaining potable water.
Scenario 3: As a result of climatic and geological conditions there is little potable water available; the resources are quickly exhausted. The possibilities for development by the town are therefore restricted. The cost of a long-distance water supply is prohibitive.
This paper examines possible applications of rainwater utilization and application in an urban context. In doing so, it examines some of the more available technologies for this purpose, and draws on Germany's experience in dealing with the related issues. As part of this discussion, variants of practice and boundary conditions of decentralization issues are raised.
Questions and demands
Centralized water…… [Read More]
Some companies, perhaps sensing a business opportunity, have tried to use the green textile movement to their advantage. DuPont and other chemical companies have targeted a potentially hopeful resource for the future in the form of enzymes, which can be very effective in fiber preparation, pre-treatment and value-added finishing as catalysts. Because enzymes work "even under mild conditions and do not require the high energy input often associated with chemical processes," they offer a more ecologically friendly way to treat fabrics than harsh formaldehyde or chlorine ("Textiles and leather," Industrial Sustainability, 2007).
It may sound paradoxical that enzymatic chemicals can make the industry more sustainable. Another paradox of the industry is that natural fibers such as cotton and hemp may not be as eco-friendly as one might expect. For example, in the United States, about a third of a pound of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are required for the process…… [Read More]
Many businesses in this day and age seek to demonstrate stewardship and resolve to do business within a guideline of corporate social responsibility. In this quest many have chosen to focus on greening their business often including both procurement and manufacture, seeking to reduce the effect of their business on the environment. The different systems approaches that an organization can utilize to demonstrate more effective environmental sustainability are almost as varied as the companies themselves. The utilization of pollution prevention programs depends almost entirely on what it is a company does and what wastes they challenge to control. Additionally companies seek to demonstrate their compliance utilizing various accounting tools that are often made public and become incorporated in their systems designs. These designs will incorporate procurement, logistics, on demand manufacture, i.e. lean manufacture and many other possible systems designs to both demonstrate cost savings and produce a more…… [Read More]
This latter approach, showing the financial benefits of attaining both sustainability initiatives, is far more valuable to the organization in the long run and also protects the company's most important asset, its people and the knowledge they have.
Further study of the litany of pains and costs driven by a lack of human sustainability does little to bring valuable solutions to bear on this critical problem. Instead there needs to be more of a focus on how apply transformational leadership skill sets to the parallel progress of environmental sustainability and human sustainability at the same time. The need to quantify this dual compliance strategy has been attempted and shown promising results, with the combined effects of each generating cost savings from more effective product development and recycling strategies (Hahn, Figge, Pinkse, Preuss, 2010). The payback in terms of reducing turn-over, medical costs, and increasing morale and trust that leads to…… [Read More]
Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon House in Grand Parade righton
The focus of this study is the energy profile of a house identical to the house constructed in Grand Parade righton which is an energy efficient house constructed from waste materials. The climate will be considered as well as the standards and best practices in the construction industry.
righton is reported to have an Oceanic climate much as does the majority of southern ritain with the summer months affected by sea breezes lowering the temperature by five degrees as compared to inland. Snow is common in the winter in righton. The following table shows the monthly average high temperature in righton throughout the year.
Monthly Average High Temperature in righton
]Climate data for righton
Average high "C ("F)
12…… [Read More]
There is, however, a more practical side to this paradigm shift:
These four were not surprising, given the economic and regulatory conditions of 2007 to 2009 and their impacts on building owners. Faced with energy spikes in 2007 and 2008 and the recession beginning in 2008, owners found it difficult to set reliable utility budgets and obtain financing for capital projects. (Rozgus)
Furthermore, as regards to the write-in answers on the surveys, the top four were all ralted energy efficiency or sustainability, they were: LED lighting and lighting controls, Alternative energy, LEED and green technology or regulations, and Energy efficiency.
The authors conclude that if sustainability and lifecycle issues such as environmental performance, reliability, maintainability, and lifecycle cost, are important to the owner, then these issues will have to be more clearly defined in the engineering contracts. Consequently the associated extra costs and fees that would be required to support…… [Read More]
Fair Trade allowed producers to receive a significant price premium, dependent upon world coffee prices and the mainstream markets. Price premiums for farmers promoted social development and strengthened institutional capacities in the area. However, the ability to improve working conditions for workers was limited (Valkila and Nygren 2009). Price premiums were found to be the main benefit for fruit producers involved in a Swiss partnership (Bezencon 2009).
Fair Trade products and certified end products represent the next logical step in the natural and organic products movement. The impact of fair trade has already been examined in other industries and it is believed that the same principles apply to the cosmetics industry as well. Trends in the cosmetic industry are driven traditionally by the fashion industry. However, social responsibility must now be considered a part of the equation as well. The movement towards socially responsible products is being driven by…… [Read More]
Sustainable Distibution fo Essential Medicines in Emeging Makets
Business Case Backgound
The Sustainable challenge
Cuent distibution climate of Cue Phamaceutical
The gowing impotance of the emeging makets
Baies to gowth
Pocuement and Distibution
Challenge to oveall sustainability in phamaceutical companies
Patneships utilized in emeging makets and essential medicine distibution
Suggestions of patneships effective in essential medicine distibution
Data gatheing in essential medicine distibution
Sustainable distibution fo essential medicines in emeging makets
Business Case Backgound
This epot addesses the ole phamaceuticals play in emeging makets. Many people have associated these makets as havens fo explosive futue gowth, but thee ae also seious challenges to be faced. The epot will discuss what views investos, stakeholdes, and company executives hold on emeging makets. Thee ae thee pobable significant factos that may sway thei stance. Fist, the efoms ecently made by the govenment egading phamaceuticals and the obligations of multinationals esulting fom the efoms.…… [Read More]
Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only (Butler, 1998).
Taken together, the foregoing indicates that irrespective of the precise definition that is used, sustainable tourism development is based on three main principles, economic, environment and social which are described below:
1. Economic: This principle refers to something that affects to the majority number of people and enhance the economic situation which is related to sustainable management of economic in tourism sector. This can regarded as opportunities to educate and train employees, support local suppliers, trade, producers and so on (Chapman, 2007). This principle is consistent with the observation by King (2008) that, "tourism in Thailand, as with tourism in the Asian region more generally, is a highly diversified, complex, and changing phenomenon, the impact and consequences of which…… [Read More]
" (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
The main objectives of the sustainable development are to: revive growth, change the quality of growth, satisfy the basic needs for jobs and subsidiary services, ensure a sustainable level of population, preserve the resources, reorient technology and control risk, consider both economy and environment in the decision making process, and reorient international economic relationships. (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
Connections between the two
Harriss promotes the idea of disciplined economics and governance based on rules. Lele promotes the sustainable development, again a form of governance based on a strict set of rules. The idea at the basis of these two theories is practically the same: governance, economy and the entire human behavior should be based on a set of rules previously elaborated to protect the interests of the participants as well as the environment's.…… [Read More]
d.). Even SWOT analysis can help urban planners determine situational variables, approximate risk, and therefore maximize the efficiency of an economic development plan. Issues such as community competitiveness have a strong impact on outside investors, which is another reason why urban planners must take advantage of a wide range of techniques. Urban planners can encourage economic development via a multi-stage process: analysis of need, analysis of risk, and analysis of potential investors.
As it relates to urban planning, sustainable development combines socially and environmentally responsible initiatives. Those initiatives must also be proven to stimulate economic growth and development in the community. Some government incentives may be offered directly for the purposes of creating and implementing sustainable development programs for communities. Land-use planning is one key facet of sustainable urban development. Controlling sprawl, implementing local and regional public transportation systems, and ensuring investments in clean water are other sustainable development issues…… [Read More]
U.S. Agency International Development (USAID) http://www.usaid.gov / Write response questions . Write response/background report outline point form. Use headings subheadings organize response. Apply APA style guidelines grammar, spelling, punctuation, citing referencing.
Nature of the organization's mandate
Philosophical perspective, with respect to promoting global health
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the result of the Cold War doctrine related to international assistance. During the Kennedy Administration in the 1960s, the interest for assistance to low income countries and those affected by increased degrees of poverty has determined a need for a concerted action that would alleviate, to a certain extent, the pressures of impoverished national budgets and destroyed economies. In this sense, it was considered that developed countries, and especially the United States as the largest economic power of the Cold War, had the "moral duty" to assist countries in need (Committee on International elations, 2003). Despite this…… [Read More]
The problem is that poverty is far too widespread to respond significantly to the isolated work of a few organizations or individuals. Instead, Ahmed suggests that the concepts of zakah and awqaf should be included in development schemes and poverty reduction strategies. The advantage of such inclusion will be the perpetuation of concepts that are significantly important to all Muslims. It is also likely to trigger a sense of solidarity among citizens, along with providing a structure for targeted charitable work. It will also provide a valuable structure by which to ensure that the goods received by means of zakah and awqaf reach their correct destinies. In this regard, the concepts of zakah and awqaf can be implemented to fund the work of organizations such as Islamic elief. The concepts can also be integrated with organizations such as the tariqa in order to increase the impact upon poverty relief throughout…… [Read More]
Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.
African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.
1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.
Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.
A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…… [Read More]
4, pp. 262-262-266.
Carter, C.. & ogers, D.S. 2008, "A framework of sustainable supply chain management: moving toward new theory," International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 360-360-387.
Keating, B., Quazi, A., Kriz, A. & Coltman, T. 2008, "In pursuit of a sustainable supply chain: insights from Westpac Banking Corporation," Supply Chain Management, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 175-175-179.
Krause, D.., Vachon, S. & Klassen, .D. 2009, "Special Topic Forum on Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Introduction and eflections on the ole of Purchasing Management*," Journal of Supply Chain Management, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 18-18-25.
Mann, H., Kumar, U., Kumar, V. & Mann, I.J.S. 2010, "Drivers of Sustainable Supply Chain Management," IUP Journal of Operations Management, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 52-52-63.
Pagell, M. & Wu, Z. 2009, "Building a More Complete Theory of Sustainable Supply Chain Management using Case Studies of 10 Exemplars,"…… [Read More]
Agger, A. (2010). Involving Citizens in Sustainale Development: Evidence of New Forms of Participation in the Danish Agenda 21 Schemes. Local Environment, 15(6), 541-552.
Agger (2010) reiterated that Scandinavian countries hold in high regard the dictates of Agenda 21 and that's why they have een so fast to implement it. This is ecause these countries have institutional capacity that makes it easy for them to apply the principles of LA21. Agger attriuted Sweden's investments in environmental and technical infrastructure to LA21 initiatives. Other Scandinavian countries nevertheless used LA21 initiatives to decentralize state environmental policy initiatives whereas others used it to moilize citizens and associations in local environmental policies (Agger, 2010). Agger identified the network approach, the integrated approach, and the canvassing approach as the overall strategies for reaching many stakeholders.
He reckoned that governments all over the world still faced myriad challenges when it came to diversifying citizens' participation in…… [Read More]
The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis.
In terms of the relations between Ghana and its major donors, China and the EU, Giles Mohan writes a comprehensive overview of the relations Ghana has with China and the potential political and economic interests that may drive China to indeed become a crucial donor for Ghana. More precisely, the author connects the new found Chinese desire to invest in the African country to the new found oil reserves in Ghana. Furthermore, he contents that given the past nature of the relations between China and the rest of the world (such as the EU for instance), the presence of China in Ghana is also geopolitically related and not necessarily humanitarian and development related. The perspective is valuable because the author points out potential political linkages between the resources found in…… [Read More]
Private Sector Investment and Economic Development
Investment and economic development
The ole of Private Sector investment in Economic Development
In the past few decades there has been overwhelming support for growth and development rooted in private investments and market-oriented strategies. A move from public sector driven growth has come as result of the need to reduce the widening gap in the balance of payment account, increasing public debt, rising inflation rate, growing foreign debt fundamentally falling living standards. There has been a shift from the need for large public corporations undertaking productive activities in an economy owing to the realized inefficiency in resource allocation. Corruption and misappropriation of public funds is observable owing to the lacking need to optimally reap benefit from the investment. Unlike in the public sector, private sector investment guarantees optimal productive activities, efficient allocation of productive resource, technological advancements to reduce cost and increase productivity (Dao,…… [Read More]
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…… [Read More]
Over the last several decades, China has been going through tremendous amounts of economic growth. Since the 1990's, various Chinese cities have seen an increase of 380 million people. hile the economy, has expanded by five times as measured in GDP growth. However, the nation has also been experiencing challenges associated with the need for housing and sustainable development. One possible strategy for dealing with these issues is brownfield development. In the United States, this has been shown to be an effective tool for dealing with urban blight and managing growth inside a particular region. ("Urban Sustainability Index")
To determine if this kind of strategy can be effective in China requires measuring possible benefits. This means looking at specific cities in comparison with each other. Once this takes place, is when specific insights will be provided as to how China can deal with future economic development. Over the…… [Read More]
The results of the index composition reflect that by analyzing only the elements mentioned above, both India and China rank higher than in the general HDI. In this sense, India is ranked 17 and China 18, as opposed to 119 and 89 respectively.
There are several aspects for this change. On the one hand, positive indexes were taken into account for both countries. For instance, the income in China is constantly improving, as China has a 76 ranking as opposed to 89 the general index. By comparison, this is also applicable to India, with a positive index of 87 as opposed to its general 119.
In terms of inequality China is relatively low as its ranking is 72 compared with the general one of 89. Therefore there is little difference largely because despite the constant developments in the economy the results of this development are not evenly spread and therefore…… [Read More]
Financing for Development in El Salvador
Confronting Debt Challenges
El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America. It has a limited natural resource base. About 60% of the population live in rural areas and over 80% of agricultural producers work farms of less than 3 ha. With social indicators among the worst in Latin America and a per capita income of U.S.$1,580 in 1995, it also ranks as one of the poorer countries in the region.
Since 1992, the World ank has supported the government of El Salvador's strategic effort to consolidate peace and place the country on a path towards sustainable development. Currently, eight loans are under implementation worth a total of U.S.$298 million.
In December 2001, the World ank announced the new assistance strategy up to $270 million to El Salvador over the next three years. This includes a $142.6 million Earthquake Emergency Reconstruction and…… [Read More]
Sustainable Growth in China
Environmental Protection is Key to Sustainable Growth in China
The phenomenal economic growth in China for the last several decades has paved the way for the uplifting of the social and financial conditions of the citizens of the country. The lion's share of this financial windfall was due to the rise of various manufacturing and production facilities across the country. These development sites have provided products and even services to various clients across the globe and ensured continued economic growth of China. ut with the rapid pace of economic development and building of more industrial infrastructures and zones to keep up with the world demands, the environment is suffering a major setback. Air and water pollution is rampant, the natural resources needed to provide raw materials are being depleted, and the rapid urbanization in various economic zones are taking its toll on the environment due to…… [Read More]