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The objective of this study is to contrast and compare the work of Simmel and Mead on Symbolic Interactionism. Toward this end, a review of literature in this area of inquiry will be conducted.
Symbolic interactionism is a primary sociological perspective that George Herbert Mead advanced through bringing "rigorous substance to this emergent micro-level analysis." (loch, nd) From the view of symbolic interactionism, "society is the sum total of the countless daily interactions that people engage in." (loch, nd) Symbols are reported to be differentiated from signs "in that a sign is something that stands for itself." (loch, nd)
The Approach of Mead
The approach of Mead to symbolic interactionism is such that was developed through "synthesis of other schools of thought" including pragmatism which view the social world as a growing and developing creation that in order to be understood must be observed both systematically and scientifically.…
Allan (2004) The Individual in Modern Society. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/13635_Chapter4.pdf
Bloch, JP (2013) Mead and Symbolic Interactionism. Retrieved from: http://home.southernct.edu/~blochj1/mead1.html
Farganis J (2000) Readings in Social Theory: The Classic Tradition to Post-Modernism, 3d ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Retrieved from: http://www.bolenderinitiatives.com/sociology/georg-simmel-1858-1918/georg-simmel-dialectic-individual-and-society
Ritzer, G. (2013) Classical Theories of Everyday Life. Contemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots: The Basics. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/007234962x/student_view0/chapter3/chapter_overview.html
Herbert Blumer, having coined the term Symbolic Interactionism, is the person who was instrumental in the development of the Symbolic Interactionism perspective. Blumer was a student of George Herbert Mead. More than writing, publishing, and popularizing Mead's ideas, Blumer built on Mead's ideas and further developed. He believed and theorized that "there was more to human behavior than influences on it by outside forces or uncontrollable psychological factors" (Bandy, Foley, Hatch, Sirle and Snook). Blumer recognized the three basic principles of Symbolic Interactionism which are meaning, language, and thought.
According to Bandy, Foley, Hatch, Sirle and Snook, it was Erving Goffman who expanded the sphere of Symbolic Interactionism. Through his work on the dramaturgical perspective helped expand the realm of Symbolic Interactionism. Erving Goffman's work on the dramaturgical perspective started with the belief that "people seem to follow scripts and play games in interaction" (Canfield). Goffman also stretched Mead's concept…
Bandy, Rachel, Foley, Allison, Hatch, Ali, Sirles, Katy, and Snook, Jennifer. Symbolic Interactionism. April 2003. University of Colorado, Boulder. 3 April 2009. .
Bartle, Phil. Max Weber. 8 February 2007. Seattle Community Network. 3 April 2009.
Canfield, Allan. Symbolic Interaction and Nonverbal Communication Making Sense of Symbolic Interaction. 3 April 2009. .
Healthcare sociological theory
Symbolic interaction theory: Healthcare (Obesity prevention)
Symbolic interaction theory "focuses attention on the way that people interact through symbols: words, gestures, rules, and roles" (Plunkett n.d.). The definition of health is an important component of the cultural language in which we operate. Although our definition of health sometimes seems self-evident, like something unchanging and unwavering across the eras, it is a culturally-constructed notion. This can be seen in how the definition of acceptable body weight that has shifted and changed and the symbolic importance given to weight. Today, being overweight is not simply considered a problem of aesthetics but also a health problem with social consequences. Being overweight is seen as 'costing' the health system -- and thus taxpayer's money -- as well as taxing one's heart.
"Extrapolating from self-reported and measured data collected over time, it is estimated that the rate of obesity among…
Branswell, Helen. (2012). Canadian doctors launch anti-obesity campaign. City TV. Retrieved:
Marci, M.G., John, H.H., & Lisa, A.H. (2006). The portrayal of overweight in adolescent fiction. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(2), 116-123.
Obesity in Canada -- snapshot. (2012). Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved:
Within this sidewalk culture, patterns of interaction emerge. An example would be Hasan's role not only as a vendor, but also as a conversationalist for his customers, discussing topics that pertain to or about the merchandise that he sells, which are second-hand books.
A second feature that reflects symbolic interactionism in sidewalk culture as determined by the author is the assignment of specific roles by its members, and this is illustrated in the story of Alice, the tradebooks and popular pocketbooks vendor, and Hasan, the "black books" seller. oth are book vendors, yet, in the sidewalk culture, Hasan maintains a more personal relationship with his customers, letting their business transaction go beyond the purchase of books to discussing issues that his customers may deem important for them to discuss with him (Hasan).
Sidewalk" assumes a symbolic interactionist perspective through its third feature, which is the temporariness of the sidewalk culture…
Duneier, M. (2000). Sidewalk. NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
When meanings are shared, they are concordant. However since people may assign different meanings to the same entity, a disconnect can occur that can result in deviant behaviors.
Principle 2: Language
Language is, of course, at the core of communication, as well as miscommunication. In symbolic interactionism, language acts as a navigation tool that guides individuals through the often meandering conduit of meaning, using language to identify symbolic representation.
Principle 3: Thought
Thought is what allows individuals to go beyond the assignment and identification of symbols, and delve into the process of analysis. It is via thought that the meaning of symbols is modified in accordance with the reconstruction of self that tends to result from personal reflection.
Ultimately, symbolic interactionism uses each of these principles to explain human behavior, self-constructs and socialization in such a way that social problems become products of actions based on self-perceptions. Thus this theory…
Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
The Society for More Creative Speech (1996) Symbolic Interactionism as defined by Herbert Blumer, Retrieved from http://www.cdharris.net/text/blumer.html
Theoretical Treatments of Symbolic Interactionism
In order to develop a deeper understanding of sociological theories designed to describe the complexities of the cognitive process, it is essential to identify tangible examples of these as they are manifested in the real world. The concept of symbolic interactionism, while carrying varying connotations depending on the distinct school of sociological thought one embraces, is generally agreed to describe the empirical analysis of three simple premises, "that human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them & #8230; that the meaning of such things is derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with his environment & #8230; (and) that these meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretive process used by the person in dealing with the things he encounters" (Blumer, 1986). hile this technical definition is sufficient in relating…
Blumer, H. (1986). Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. University of California
Dixon, T.L., & Linz, D. (2000). Overrepresentation and underrepresentation of African
Americans and Latinos as lawbreakers on television news. Journal of communication, 50(2), 131-154.
Serving customers food and drinks is a fundamental function in restaurant operations. However, serving customers food and drinks constitutes the manifest function of a waitress. The manifest functions of the restaurant itself include feeding people and making a profit for its owner. The restaurant's latent functions include promoting the brand identity of its celebrity chef, and contributing to the quality of life in the community. Latent functions of a waitress depend on the restaurant and its organizational culture and mission. In this case, the latent function of the waitress is to preserve the restaurant's brand identity by maintaining a professional appearance and demeanor at all times. The waitress is like an advertisement for the restaurant, ensuring that the customers will return and spread the word to friends.
The functionalist views the job of server in a high quality restaurant as being integral to the working of the…
By developing conceptual poetics, he was able to channel his need to make sense of all the information he encounters in his life, even going so far as to include his own body and generate information about it by taking note of his body movements every hour (resulting to the literary work Fidget).
Interestingly, Goldsmith and his conceptual poetics has successfully drawn the readers' attention from the cultural material to the act of using the cultural material itself -- that is, moving the focus from the cultural material to the user. By manipulating existing written works and recreating these works in his own way, e.g., retyping printed texts, Goldsmith makes his readers realize that magazine-reading is a routine task or activity that can be creatively reinvented, simply by using the magazine in a different way. In his case, he retyped the text, possibly exploring changes in the meaning of the…
Goldsmith, K. Being Boring. Available at http://wings.buffalo.edu/epc/authors/goldsmith.
____. Fidget. Available at http://www.stadiumweb.com/fidget.
____. Uncreativity as Creative Practice. Available at http://wings.buffalo.edu/epc/authors/goldsmith.
Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. 2000. Living Sociology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Symbolic interactionism is the theory suggesting human beings are best understood in "interactive relation to their environment," (University of Twente, 2014). The three core principles of symbolic interactionism including meaning, language, and thought. Meaning refers to the fact that people ascribe meaning to their relationships, institutions, and other social structures. This meaning is what guides human emotion and cognition. Language is the symbolic type of human communication. Like meaning, language also impacts human emotional and cognitive states. Thus, the third component of symbolic interactionism is thought. How a person perceives, judges, and interacts with the world is covered by symbolic interactionism. Symbolic interactionism also suggests that the self is a mirror for others, and vice-versa in what is known as the "looking glass self," ("The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," n.d.). Symbolic interactionism is an ideal sociological lens through which to understand how social media has transformed the nature of human…
Fernback, J. (2007). Beyond the diluted community concept. New Media and Society 9(1), 49-69.
Satell, G. (2014). If you doubt that social media has changed the world, take a look at Ukraine. Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregsatell/2014/01/18/if-you-doubt-that-social-media-has-changed-the-world-take-a-look-at-ukraine/
"The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/sociology-1/the-theoretical-perspectives-in-sociology-24/the-symbolic-interactionist-perspective-157-3185/
University of Twente (2014). Symbolic interactionism.
Town in Turmoil
A Town in Conflict
Every story can be told a number of different ways. Each person in a given narrative understands what went on from a particular perspective. Sometimes, if that person is especially perspicacious and especially curious, then she or he can see a particular event from the perspective or one or two other people. But the individual's perspective is always limited, and this is a good thing. If we cannot see the world from our own point-of-view then we have no hope of understanding our own virtues and vices, our own sense of cause and effect.
But it is also true that there is an important place in the world for understanding an event from a larger perspective. This is the role (or, at least, one of the roles) that scholarship plays in our lives. Scholarship provides that larger lens, that broader focus on the…
A town in turmoil. (2007). http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=389x1811248 .
Holmwood, J. (2005) Functionalism and its Critics in A. Harrington, A., (Ed.) Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Macionis, J.J. (2011). Society. (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
There were several theories that I found interesting as a part of the course, yet the theory that I connected with most personally was Symbolic Interaction. This theory was established first by George Herbert Mead, who coined the phrase "symbolic interactionism" first. The theory has been present in the field of sociology for several decades, and after the death of Mead, other sociologists took on the theory in their own works, studies, and theories. This theory is one of my favorites for a few reasons, one of which is because I believe I have seen it at work in my own life and in the interactions of others in their lives.
I also agree with the validity of this theory because I feel that it coincides with other theories in other fields, such as psychology. There are psychologists, such as Freudian psychologists and Lacanian psychologists that have…
Sage Publishing. (nd). Chapter 16: Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Identity. Web, Available from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/50436_ch_16.pdf . 2013 July 08.
Shott, S. (1979). Emotion and Social Life: A Symbolic Interactionist Analysis. The American Journal of Sociology, 84(6), 1317 -- 1334. 2013 July 08.
Smith, Ronald W. And Bugni, Valerie, "Symbolic interaction theory and architecture" (2006). Faculty Publications (S). Paper 5. Available from: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/sociology_pubs/5 . 2013 July 08.
A Game of Twister Played at Macy's Department Store
Brief Description of the Breaching Experiment
My daughter, Kayley, who is fourteen and one of her friends, Dani, with her mother's permission, participated in a brief experiment. The experiment was to play the popular game "Twister" in a social setting that would be extremely uncommon for something like that to occur. The three of us took the game to the mall and looked for a spot in which we could play. We asked a few people to participate in the game as the game's "spinner" however each person that was asked refused to participate. Eventually we chose the department store Macy's to play the game.
When playing the game there were several odd looks that were cast in our direction; one lady shook her head in what appeared to be disgust. Shortly after the game began, a store employee…
Sociology Debate: A central debate in sociology revolves around whether the power elite or pluralist view is correct. Which do you believe and why? Explain your answer.
The Power Elite view seeks to look at the way the elites rule and influence the running of the American society as a whole in the day-to-day basis. One scholar in sociology, Smith Mark (2009) in his analysis of C. Wrights work, tries to explain the rule of the elite in terms of institution that are formed to ensure the elite has a firm hand on the power controls. He identifies three main institutions that occupy the key positions in the society; major business corporations, the federal government and the military. He says that those in command of the three institutions do and will always have the same values and interest. They coalesce and interconnect to form a single ruling minority.
Don Albrecht et.al (2005). Minority Concentration, Disadvantage, and Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States. Midwest Sociological Quarterly, 46:503
Impact Lab (2009). The 10 people most responsible for the Recession. Retrieved April 7, 2011
Justin Lahart, (2010). Job Losses Continue, ADP Surveys Suggest. Retrieved April 7, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126278421347117805.html
Gallant, J. (2016). Alleged sex abuse victim's fight for justice turns into bureaucratic nightmare. Toronto Star. 2 Dec, 2016. Retrieved online: https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2016/12/02/alleged-sex-abuse-victims-fight-for-justice-turns-into-bureaucratic-nightmare.html
In this article, Gallant (2016) describes the ongoing legal battle between Sveta Kholi and her former neurologist, Paul O'Connor. Kholi has accused O'Connor of sexual abuse. After the complaint was lodged formally, a complex bureaucratic process ensued whereby the entire case appears to have been stalemated. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario has a committee that formally handles complaints, and the Health Professions Appeal and Review Board (HPARB) is a civilian body that hears appeals specifically from that very same College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario.
However, the bureaucratic complications become even trickier. According to the journalist, the College of Physicians and Surgeons also has an Inquiries, Complaints and Reports Committee. The HPARB has ordered on two separate occasions for the Inquiries, Complaints, and Reports…
subordination of labor" a necessary condition for establishing an employment relationship? Are there other necessary conditions?
The capitalist take-over of production was at first merely formal. Capitalists took control of production methods via ownership and employed workers in their privately owned factories. Workers agreed to labor for the owners, because they believed that this was a more financially and socially beneficial relationship than working for their own farms, on their own privately owned land. The formal subordination of labor to capital thus is necessary in a situation of private enterprise, where labor can be rented cheaply to work on preexisting property owned by capitalists.
Why is the "real subordination of labor" described as a fundamental aspect of management? How does the unique nature of the human factor make this form of subordination problematic?
It is only later, in part under the pressure of workers' struggles, when capitalists begin to invest…
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Manning (1993) undertook one of the early researches on the question of whether cohabitating and non-cohabitating single women have equal tendencies towards marriage prior to childbirth. In addition, Manning also looks for differences between black and white women, as well as socioeconomic status. Her research finds that for Caucasian women in their twenties, those who cohabitate with their mates are more likely to get married prior to childbirth. This statistical relationship was not observed among African-American women in the same age group.
This research therefore suggests that cohabitation carries different meanings for the two groups, an issue which may be of interest to symbolic interactionists. For African-Americans, cohabitation and childrearing were deemed more acceptable. In contrast, Caucasian women were more likely to consider cohabitation a stage in the marriage process.
esearch is still being conducted regarding the effects of cohabitation unions on children, especially since statistics show that at least…
Amato, P., D. Johnson, a. Booth, S. Rogers. 2003. "Continuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000." Journal of Marriage and Family. Vol.65, Iss. 1
Bumpass, LL and H. Lu. 1999. Trends in cohabitation and implications for children's family contexts in the U.S. CDE Work Paper No. 98-15. Center for Demography Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Caspar, LM and PN Cohen. 2000. "How does POSSLQ measure up? Historical estimates of cohabitation." Demography. 2000.
Eggebeen, D. 2005. "Cohabitation and Exchanges of Support." Social Forces. Vol.83, Iss. 3
Sociology -- Theoretical Paradigms
The Structural-Functionality of the Poor and Poverty
In the study of sociology, three classical paradigms dominate the process of sociological analysis: structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist theories. The structural-functionalist paradigm posits that individuals and groups in the society play specific roles in society that creates equilibrium to society's dysfunctions. The conflict theory, meanwhile, states that there exists, inevitably, oppression in the society, which results to a struggle by the oppressed group and social revolution that shall create reforms or changes in the society. Lastly, symbolic interactionism theorizes that symbols are the basis of life, and it is through interaction of these symbols that people reach an understanding of what s/he is and how society perceives him/her.
Given this set of paradigms in the study of sociology, this paper utilizes the structural-functionalist paradigm to discuss and analyze the role that the poor and poverty play in societies…
Gans, H. (1971). "The uses of poverty: the poor pay all." Available at: http://www.soc.duke.edu/~jcook/gans.html.
Lambert, B. "Free care for the poor varies widely in Nassau." The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/26/nyregion/26charity.html .
Maharaj, D. "When the push for survival is a full-time job." Los Angeles Times. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/news/specials/world/la-fg-work11jul11,0,7153984.story .
Zoroya, G. "Rise of drug trade threat to Afghanistan's security." USA Today. Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2004-10-26-opium-afghanistan_x.htm .
Town in Turmoil
The actions of people in a group are among the major theoretical underpinnings of sociology. The study talks about how those actions happened, why they happened, and what the ramifications are for society at large. Sociological theories try to explain the complexities of how people relate to one another and the major theoretical stances include: structural functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interaction. With these three theories the article labeled "A town in Turmoil" will be analyzed.
Structural Functionalist Perspective
Basically, this theory states that there are certain structures within society that each have distinct functions. If a certain structure ceases to perform its function, then the entire system breaks down (Deiner, 1999). Many times the human body is used as an example of this theory. Within the body are structures called organs and they all serve distinct functions that are needed for the body to survive. If…
Briggs, J. (2010). Social-conflict theory. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/facts_5476453_socialconflict-theory.html
Deiner, J. (1999). The structural-functional approach. Retrieved from http://udel.edu/~jdeiner/strufunc.html
Mcclelland, K. (2000). Symbolic interactionism. Retrieved from http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Symbolic.html
unemployment and tax reform on our social structure including theoretical framework on functionalism, social conflict and symbolic framework and so on and so forth. The orks Cited eight sources in MLA format.
Unemployment has long been the cause of ruin of the American society as well as the global social structure. Persistence in unemployment and the related tax reforms have done much harm than have benefited the mankind on this face of earth. There have been several effects of unemployment and tax reforms on our social structure. The passages below of our research paper will look into not only these effects but will also include theoretical framework on functionalism and social conflict. Before we begin our discussion on the effects of unemployment on the social structure as well as on the effects of tax reforms, it is essential that the readers have a look at the precise yet comprehensive…
Social Structure." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2003. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=117544 .
Functionalism, Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.*****/free_essays/4/sociology/functionalism-confict-theory-and-symbolic-interaction.shtml
Social and psychological effects of unemployment. Retrieved July 10, 2003 at http://www.e-resaneh.com/English/Social/Social%20and%20Psychological%20Effects%20of%20Unemployment.html
Saunders P. Direct and indirect effects of unemployment. Paper presented at the Australian National University in the F.H. Gruen Lecture Series on Welfare and the Labor Market: The New Frontier for Reform.
Conflict between the contestants and the management emerges as they are forced to compete and antagonize each other in order to win the prize. Thus, being a contest, conflict in "Survivor" is inevitable, and it is only through a successful power struggle that one will be able to win over the management, thereby winning $1 million. Among the Survivors, meanwhile, the initial conflict that happens is between groups or "tribes." As each contestant is eliminated, one tribe emerges as more dominant in terms of number, thereby necessitating a fusion of the two tribes. This fusion leads to a tension among each contestant, wherein everyone tries his/her best to remain in the contest; conflict now happens as contestants try to establish allegiances and affiliations with others, which, in the process, results to conflicts with other contestants.
However, the inherent presence of conflict in "Survivor" is mainly based on the daily interactions…
Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
In his concluding questions, Chambliss notes these reactions, questioning how the meanings that were assigned to both groups by the townspeople, school officials, and police affected their futures. For this reason, Symbolic Interaction theory can be applied to the case of the Saints and the Roughnecks. In assigning values to both groups, members outside of these groups most likely impacted the groups' futures, according to Chambliss.
The decisions of the Saints and the Roughnecks to engage in delinquent behavior can also be explained in part by Symbolic Interaction Theory. In her book Violent Criminal Acts and Actors Revisited, author Lonnie Athens describes a situation in which a troubled, young man is riding in a taxi, listening to the taxi driver describe how much trouble has come his way. The young man begins to consider his own troubles, which he believes are worse than the driver's, and threatens the driver with…
Athens, Lonnie. Violent Criminal Acts and Actors Revisited. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Chambliss, William J. "The Roughnecks and the Saints." Society. (1973): 24-31.
Zafirovski, Milan. "Some Amendments to Social Exchange Theory: A Sociological
Perspective." Theory and Science, 4.2 (2003): (n.p.).
John ommel Case Study
Why would John be considered a deviant? What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study?
Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking. The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: conflict, structural functionalism, and symbolic interactionism.
2.Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance (structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict). Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. Give specific examples.
British sociologist A.. adcliffe-Brown developed the structural-functionalism…
Kessel, DH (n.d.). Sociological theoretical perspectives. Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/or/sociologyshop/soctheopers.html
To wit, power is a huge influence in any social interaction, and in a study reported by the University of California Press (est, 2008, p. 87), men often interrupt women during conversations because men are generally viewed as the power in any male-female interaction. "Physicians interrupt patients disproportionately" in doctor-patient interactions, est writes, "except when the doctor is a 'lady'; then, "patients interrupt as much or more than physicians, and their interruptions seem to subvert physicians' authority" (est, p. 87). In other words, the stratification of male doctors having the power to interrupt is reversed when a woman is the doctor.
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
Donovan, Jenny L., and Blake,…
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
Perhaps the best example of a structural-functionalist theory in action is at Google, where specific types of organizational institutions, such as free lunches and yoga classes, create a common organizational culture and generate a community of freedom, openness, tolerance, and constant mutual exchanges of thoughts and ideas. A negative example of organizational structures, such as the cutthroat competition that encouraged irresponsible lending practices at many investment banking firms, also demonstrates how organizational structures create certain commonly-accepted standards that people tend to obey to promote social harmony.
Conflict theory, however, would emphasize how within organizations there is often intense factionalism between different groups of people. Particularly in modern organizations where historically discriminated-against groups are gaining traction within managerial positions, but still often experience discrimination, the struggle between opposing forces of change and stasis is manifest (Smith & ogers 2000). Conflict may also be seen after two large organizations merge, meshing two…
Conflict theory. (2011). About sociology. Retrieved January 9, 2011 at http://www.aboutsociology.com/sociology/Conflict_theory
Smith, Aileen & Rogers, Violet (2000, Nov). Ethics-related responses to specific situation vignettes: Evidence of gender-based differences and occupational socialization.
Journal of Business Ethics. 28(1). 73-87
Symbolic interactionism. (2011). Intro Theories. Grinnell College.
Which is more important in shaping individual identity: social structure or social interaction?
George Herbert Mead's fundamental work had been classified as symbolic interactionism. This was done by Herbert Blumer, who took control of Mead's well-known social psychology program following Mead's demise and also who had been a prolonged supporter of symbolic interactionism for over five decades. I don't know if Mead might have accepted this tag, however more to the point, symbolic interactionism, since it has changed during the last 60 years, has seemed to pay attention to the characteristics of self a lot more than possibly symbols or even interaction-as Blumer had recommended. Individual's behaviors in conversation with other people within social settings tend to be controlled by their perception involved with themselves. Self works as a type of gyroscope to keep behaviors steady as well as in line; moreover, as has progressively been stressed in symbolic…
Back, L., Woodward, I., Jacobs, R., Inglis, D., Gibson, M., Edles, L.D. & Bennett, A. (2012). Cultural sociology: an introduction, Hoboken, Wiley.
Macionis, J.J. And Plummer, K. (2012) Sociology: A Global Introduction, 5th Edition, Pearson Education Limited England;
Mead, G.H. (1934). Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago Press as cited in Burke, P.J. And Stets, J.E. (2009). Identity Theory, New York: Oxford University Press.
Nagel, J. (1995). American Indian ethnic renewal: Politics and the resurgence of identity. American Sociological Review, 60, 947-965.
South Park and Communication Theory: Symbolic Interactionism
In the first episode (“Stunning and Brave”) of the 19th season of South Park, a new principal has come to the town of South Park named PC Principal. PC Principal’s primary objective is to clean up the town of its bigotry, sexism and hateful speech. Halfway through the episode, other PC characters show up in a bar where the tired residents of South Park are attempting to relax away from all the stress of having to be PC all the time. PC Principal realizes there are others like him and they decide to “hang out” and start a PC frat house. The scene in the bar in which the PC characters come to meet one another is full of gestures and words that can be analyzed using the theory of Symbolic Interactionism.
The scene contains relevance as PC culture and social justice…
family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.
Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.
The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…
American Psychological Association (2015). Managing stress for a healthy family. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/managing-stress.aspx
Brimhall, A.S. & Gardner, B.C. (n.d.). Altering the abyss.
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Gergen, K.J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist 40(3): 266-275.
To him, his approach was perfectly acceptable, while my place in the social group was such that I did not associate with strange people like him.
Some examples of applied symbolic interaction are creating reality, naming, and self-fulfilling prophecy. According to Erving Goffman, social interaction is like a dramaturgical performance where we are all actors, and all constantly negotiating with everyone else to publicly define our identity and the nature of the situation. "the impression of reality fostered by a performance is a delicate, fragile thing that can be shattered by minor mishaps." (62)
Baal has actually identified himself as that mishap which shatters the impression of reality. He rather specifically chooses to ignore the definitions that other people are trying to achieve, which is part of why he dresses so strangely and takes on an odd demeanor. Because he did cooperate with me or my associates to sustain the…
Parental Rights and Children's Welfare
Sociological Analysis on Parental Rights vs. Children's Welfare: Structural-Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
Studying the structure and dynamics of society entails not only analyzing the elements that comprise it, but also the general or 'bigger picture' of what society is -- that is, analysis of social structure and dynamics must be at the macro and micro levels. Indeed, sociological phenomena are analyzed and studied by social scientists using various theoretical perspectives formulated in order to provide researchers, as well as their audience, a look into the various interpretations that people give to explain specific events or realities experienced by the society and the individual. In the field of sociology, among these theoretical perspectives are the structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist traditions.
A particular example illustrating the discussion above is the analysis of parental rights and children's welfare, considered as an essential sociological phenomenon affecting…
From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society. However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Symbolic interactionism, meanwhile, looks at colleges as an important tradition and process in the American society, wherein people are expected to be educated and go through the process of entering and having a college education, towards the goal of becoming a productive and/or learned member of the society. Primarily, symbolic interactionism focuses on the tradition of continuing education, and education as a critical part of every person's being and identity in his/her society.
enzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and…
Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Thee ae those that believe that qualitative eseach is the best fom of eseach, wheeas othes insist that only quantitative methods ae appopiate in a eseach envionment (CSU, 2004). Still othes ague that both appoaches ae useful and appopiate though one is often moe indicated than the othe depending on the exact phenomena being examined and the natue o intent of the eseach being conducted (Potte, 1996; Lee & Poynton, 2000).
Fed Kelinge once exclaimed that "thee is no such thing as qualitative data, eveything is eithe one o zeo," howeve his claim is counteed by anothe eseache, Campbell, who asseted that "all eseach ultimately has a qualitative gounding" (CSU, 2004).
Given the geat debate that exists, eseaches often find it difficult to detemine which stategy is best and which is most likely to be accepted by pees when pesenting a eseach pogam. Most eseaches would aggess howeve that qualitative…
Douglas, J. (1976). Investigative social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.
Firestone, W. (1987). "Meaning in method: The rhetoric of quantitative and qualitative research." Educational Researcher, 16: 16-21
Gall, Meredith, Gall, Joyce P., & Borg, Walter R. (2003). Educational
Research, 7th edition. New York, New York: A and B. Publishing.
Technology and Social Change
There is an intrinsic relationship between technology and social change. The exact nature of that relationship is interesting, especially when one considers the myriad facets of it. On the one hand, technology impacts social change in a way that is arguably causal. On the other hand, social changes can help to engender technological advances, which in turn continue to affect additional social changes. In this way, the relationship between these two phenomena are somewhat cyclical, much like the proverbial chicken and the egg conundrum. Suffice to say that both technology and social change affect one another, and are interwoven in the sort of advancements they foster in today's world.
It is difficult to discuss today's society without considering the impact that the personal computer, cellular phones, and the internet have had upon it. Quite simply, the ramifications of these technological developments are that considerable. The commercialization…
Abboud, L. (2014). Telecom firms mine for gold in big data despite concerns. www.reuters.com Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mobile-world-bigdata-idUSBREA1M09F20140223
Harper, J. (2014). How to do operational intelligence. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/operational-intelligence/
McClelland, K. (2000). Functionalism. http://web.grinnell.edu Retrieved from http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
McClelland, K. (2000). Conflict theory. http://web.grinnell.edu Retrieved from http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Conflict.html
Anti-intellectualism is a social problem, not just a social issue, because it has a direct and immediate bearing on the lives of individuals and because it has a long-term deleterious effect on social, economic, and political progress. Without information, the people have no power. If the tools of critical thought are not taught to children, an entire generation lacks access to power. In fact, critical inquiry, science, and intellectual debate are necessary to prevent tyranny and oppression. Especially in the current social and political climate in America, anti-intellectualism can become disastrous. Without fail, Trump's cabinet appointments and executive orders have reflected the trend towards anti-intellectualism: appointments of people who deny science and who disavow the power of public education. The anti-immigrant sentiment is not at all based on fact, for fact would show how integral immigrants are to American social, political, and economic life. ather, the anti-immigrant sentiment is based…
"Consensus Perspective." (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://sociologyindex.com/consensus_perspective.htm
Hofstadter, R. (1963). Anti-Intellectualism in American Life. Random House.
Raphael, T.J. (2016). A policy expert explains how anti-intellectualism gave rise to Donald Trump. Retrieved online: https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-08-02/policy-expert-explains-how-anti-intellectualism-gave-rise-donald-trump
Williams, R. (2014). Anti-Intellectualism and the "Dumbing Down" of America. Psychology Today. 7 July, 2014. Retrieved online: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/wired-success/201407/anti-intellectualism-and-the-dumbing-down-america
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The identification, development, and retention of high-potential employees is one of the most important areas of research in industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology. Whereas the vast majority of the workforce will perform in ways that do promote organizational goals, the top performers in any organization are those that provide the firm with its competitive advantage. On the contrary, organizations that do not actively seek to identify, develop, and retain high-potential employees stand to lose a lot as top talent may seek opportunities to maximize potential elsewhere—often a competitor. Moreover, the high potential employees are those with the greatest potential to lead the firm in the future, paving the way for effective succession training and management.
Research on the identification, development, and retention of high-potential employees is burgeoning, but there are significant gaps in the literature. Filling those gaps would help organizations create and implement evidence-based practices to ensure the success of…
The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).
Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…
Ahn, J. (2011). Digital Divides and Social Network Sites: Which Students Participate in Social
Media. Jounral of Educational Computing Research, 45(2), 147-63.
Anderson-Butcher, D., et.al. (2010). Adolescent Weblog Use: Risky or Protective. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work, 27(2), 63-77.
Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Publications.
Automobile manufacturers and companies that produce so-called "luxury" goods present images of wealth, privilege, and (especially) the admiration of others to promote the value of their products to the consumer. The notion of "exclusivity" is another aspect of this approach because it creates the perception that consumers who can afford certain products are more accomplished or privileged than others. Likewise, clothing, beer, and cosmetic companies (among many others) use specific imagery to create the perception that use of their products is associated with an image of physical attractiveness and sexual desirability. In general, the most predominant theme in modern advertising is that commercial products can help the individual establish and maintain a desirable personal identity. In reality, there is little truth to that inference and it is purely a function of the exploitation of human social psychology and symbolic interactionism.
These meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretative process that is used by individuals in dealing with the things they encounter (Blumer,
A proposed timetable of work is provided at Appendix a.
Policy implications. There are a number of important policy implications involved with the proposed study, including the following:
1. An improved understanding of what compels consumers in the UK to pay a premium price for food products they perceive as being environmentally friendly.
2. An improved understanding concerning what green consumerism marketing methods are regarded as being effective when they are applied to food products, and why.
3. An improved understanding concerning what green consumerism marketing methods are regarded as being unethical when they are applied to food products, and why.
Taken together, consumers, government regulating agencies as well as companies which are competing in the food industry in the United Kingdom today and…
Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism. Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall in Muchmore at p. 4.
Bromley, R.D.F. & Thomas, C.J. (1999). Retail change: Contemporary issues. London: UCL
Explain how sociological and lay ideas about illness differ from those of biomedicine
Individuals and societies have over the years engaged in identifying the causal factors which can be attributed with an ailment. Illness and its related explanation has been a focal point of health professionals. It is also important to note that the attribution of illness with a specific cause may not be the same in terms of biomedicine and sociological or lay ideas. Sociological ideas tend to lay emphasis on the norms, values and subjective experiences of the individuals as the core elements which formulate their perception about an illness (Blaxter 2010). The layman is more likely to base the explanation of an ailment on social causes rather than exploring the dimensions of the illness through medical explanation. On the other hand, medical professionals (biomedicine) seek causal factors which are linked with the physiological and anatomical aspects…
Barker, KK 2010, 'The social construction of illness: medicalization and contested illness' in Bird, CE, Conrad, P, Fremon, AM & Timmermans, M (ed.) Handbook of medical sociology. Vanderbilt University Press, USA.
Blaxter, M 2010, Health, 2nd edn, Polity Press, USA.
Bury, M 2005, Health and Illness, Polity Press, USA.Nettleton, S 2006, The Sociology of Health & Illness, 2nd edn, Polity Press, USA.
Naidoo J & Wills, J 2008, Health Studies: An Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, USA.
ape in Conflict
There are various situations in life that results in rape in conflict;
The feminist perspective on the various forms of violence perpetrated against women does suggest strongly that such acts are a reinforcement of patriarchy. This is portrayed in the unequal bargaining power that exists in the various sexual encounters in the societies that are increasingly patriarchal. The fact that the traditional male privilege has continuously faded away through time has resulted in the increasing use of violence in order to ensure that women are put women "in their place" as indicated by Sheffield (1987).The resulting fear of violence has therefore made women to modify their way of living since they are depraved of certain fundamental freedoms.
Slavery has been note to be a key factor in the occurrence of rape cases. The African-American women were exposed to institutionalized rape while the African-American men…
Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women and rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Davis, a., (1981), "Rape, Racism, and the Myth of the Black Rapist," in Women, Race, and Class, New York: Vintage Books
Fattah, E.A. (1994). Some problematic concepts, unjustified criticism and popular misconceptions. In G.F. Kirchhoff, E. Kosovski, & H.J. Schneider (Eds.), International debates of victimology (pp. 82-103). Moenchengladbach, Germany: World Society of Victimology.
Funk, RE (1993)Stopping Rape: A Challenge for Men (Philadelphia: New Society, 1993), p19.
Education Inequality: A Sociological Perspective
One of the most important aspects of life today is probably education. Without a high quality of education, especially on the tertiary level, it is very difficult to find gainful employment or to advance in one's chosen career. For this reason, one of the great tragedies in the world today is social inequality and the educational inequality that goes along with it. Even if "jobs" were provided for every single homeless or unemployed individual in the country, this would be little more than a band aid; it would be hopeless inadequate to address the larger and longer-term problem, which is a basic inequality in education. Starting at the primary level, children whose parents can afford to place them in private schools receive a far better education than those in the public school system. When they have completed primary and secondary education, there is again income-related…
Sociological Perspectives on Education. (2015). Retrieved from: https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_sociology-understanding-and-changing-the-social-world-comprehensive-edition/s19-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
Today, there is increasing pressure, not only on businesses and adults in the workplace, but also upon young people and children, to perform better. Indeed, schools have responded to the increasing pressures of the job market by focusing on specific subject fields in terms of raising their standards. According to Huffman (2014), for example, high school curricula place emphasis on the STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and math). The purpose of this emphasis is to create a population of graduates who are better equipped for job markets in need of labor force input.
On the reverse side, however, the emphasis on these subjects and increasingly high standards creates a situation in which students simply cannot keep up. This inability to handle the workload and complicated nature of the subject fields includes the danger of higher dropout rates. Hence, the good intentions of raising academic standards become thwarted with the…
Ballard, K. (2012, Feb. 14). America is being left behind in education by India, China. Retrieved from: http://patch.com/california/imperialbeach/america-is-being-left-behind-in-education-by-india-china
Goodyear, M. (2008). The effect on population structure of fertility, mortality and migration. Health Knowledge. Retrieved from: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/health-information/3a-populations/fertility-mortality-migration
Huffman, M. (2014, Aug. 19). Study: Tougher academic standards raising school drop-out rate. Consumer Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news/study-tougher-academic-standards-raising-school-drop-out-rate-081914.html
Shah, A. (2011, Sep. 22). Health Care Around the World. Global Issues. Retrieved from: http://www.globalissues.org/article/774/health-care-around-the-world
g. A Police Office in a large metropolitan area like New York will have different duties and dangers than a County Sheriff in a rural Oklahoma area) (Barlow, 2000).
ightly so, modern society has a certain level of expectations for its military and law enforcement branches. While it is known that both must, at times, deal with the underside of society, it is also assumed that the group will rise above base and animalistic reactions and upload both the law and a sense of compassion -- coupled with self-preservation and safety. Officers are often in danger of infectious disease, motor vehicle fatalities, apprehension of persons under substance abuse, and line of duty deaths are not uncommon. For instance, approximately 200 police officers die per year in the United States, with over half of those deaths from direct assaults from suspects or criminals (obert, 2008). Still, individuals are sociologically drawn to…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amnesty International, (2007), Amnesty International Report 2007. Cited in:
Baker, T. (2005), Effective Police Leadership, Looseleaf Law Books.
Barlow, D. (2000). Police in a Multicultural Society. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
Analysis of group collectivism and interaction in "Culture in Interaction" by Nina Eliasoph and Paul Lichterman
The journal article entitled, "Culture in Interaction," authored by Nina Eliasoph and Paul Lichterman, brought into fore the use of empirical studies in identifying, analyzing, and interpreting the group culture of organizations and civil groups in terms of their use of speech acts and group interaction. The study's general objective was to describe the culture of civil organizations through a qualitative analysis of their speech acts and styles. Using the method of ethnographic analysis, Eliasoph and Lichterman was able to analyze and interpret how these civil groups' cultures, i.e., through collective representations, are characterized by their use of specific kinds of speech acts and styles.
Through the literature gathered by the researchers/authors, the choice of the sample was to select a civil group that center on activities related to activism and volunteerism,…
Eliasoph, N. And P. Lichterman. (January 2002). "Culture in Interaction." American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 108, Number 4.
Beyond Creswell's Five Approaches
According to Creswell, there are five basic approaches to qualitative research: case studies, phenomenology, narrative research, ethnographies, and grounded theory approaches. However, not all theorists classify qualitative research according to these categories. Some have a separate category for pure qualitative 'history' approaches whereby the focus of the study is upon a specific past event or phenomenon. This approach uses primary sources like letters, newspapers of the period, journals, interviews, recordings, and other types of information accumulated by past researchers. It is used to "describe and examine events of the past to understand the present and anticipate potential future effects" (Qualitative research designs, 2014, UMSL).
Another approach to qualitative research is symbolic interactionism or participant observation, in which the researcher becomes 'part' of the research process and data-gathering. "Participant observation is a period of intensive social interaction between the researcher and the subjects….Participant observers are trained in…
Qualitative research designs. (2014). University of Missouri at St. Louis. Retrieved from: http://www.umsl.edu/~lindquists/qualdsgn.html
PPA 696: Research methods. Data collection strategies II: Qualitative research. (n.d.). Retrieved
Specifically, the researchers wanted to determine which explanations of academic performance actually gave Penn most additional predictive value, the most bang for the buck. The factors included class rank in high school, SAT II achievement scores on various academic subjects, and SAT I scores on general verbal and quantitative reasoning; the SAT most high school seniors take.
Among the predictors, the SAT I reasoning test was by far the weakest, able to explain just 4% of the changes in academic performance of students at Penn (Goetz & LeCompte, 2001). The SAT II subject tests were somewhat better, accounting for 6.8% in the variation in grade point averages. ank in high school was the clear winner, however, able to explain 9.3% of changes in cumulative GPAs, a predictive punch more than twice that of the SAT (Clementson & Wenger, 2008). Now, the usual drill at many institutions, particularly highly selective ones,…
Appalachia Educational Lab. (1994). Perceptions of school change: Interviews with Kentucky students. A report submitted to the Kentucky caucus of the AEL board of directors. Charleston, WV: Author.
Blumer, H. (2004). Symbolic interactionism. In J. Spradley (Ed.), Culture and cognition (pp. 65-83). Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.
Brown, D.F. (2002). Altering curricula through state testing: Perceptions of teachers and principals. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. (ERIC Reproduction Service No ED 344-925)
Callahan, C.M., Tomlinson, C.A., Hunsaker, S.L., Bland, L.C., & Moon, T.R. (2005). Instruments and evaluation designs used in gifted programs (Report No. 95132). Storrs, CT: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.
Students can collaborate with students in other schools and other countries as they develop ideas, skills, and products. Students in a class can collaborate outside class without having to meet in person. The theory behind collaborative learning is that the social construction of knowledge leads to deeper processing and understanding than does learning alone (Appalachian Education Laboratory, 2005).
The bulletin board and the chat room have become the backbone of many Web-based learning environments. Sophisticated Web-based collaborative learning environments incorporate not only real-time, text-based conversation, but also audio- and videoconferencing, and shared work spaces, where multiple users can collaboratively work on the same document or application. These multimedia shared work spaces are facilitated by software such as Microsoft's Netmeeting ( http://www. microsoft.com/netmeeting/), Intel's Proshare ( http://www.intel.com/proshare / conferencing/index.htm), and CU-SeeMe ( http://cu-seeme.cornell.edu / ). Multiuser object-oriented (MOO) text-based virtual reality environments now have a Web-based equivalent, WOOs (Web object oriented),…
Appalachian Education Laboratory. (2005). School improvement specialist training materials: Performance standards, improving schools, and literature review. Module 4 -- Effective Teaching. Charleston, WV: Edvantia.
Blumer, H. (2005). Symbolic interactionism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33, 3-15.
Bransford, J., Brown, a., & Cocking, R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
This is another weaker area I aim to work harder on - always trying to picture myself out carrying his or her burden or sharing his or her joy. This will make me more appreciative of people I hold dear and less judgmental or condemnatory to those I do not have much liking for.
But how do we really get to know a person? I believe it is only through open lines of communication that relationships grow and nourish.
So from now on, I aim to breed the habit of telling people how I feel, as our actions are bound to be misinterpreted and what we are trying to portray could be very contradictory to their observations. Likewise, opening yourself up to people around you makes them comfortable to show their inner selves to you, too. This could also be achieved through listening, another skill I would like to master.…
Gray, John. (2000). Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. Harper Collins.
Wood, Julia T. Communication in our lives.
Wood, Julia. (1997). Communication Theories in Action. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
He wanted to show how conversation analysis and ethnomethodology may elucidate two interrelated matters of continuing concern to the ethnographer: the role of culture in shaping an informants' behavior and the apparent capacity of an investigated culture to compel the fieldworker to follow local habits of thought.
For this research, Watson defined ethnomethodology as "the study of how people, in their everyday lives, constitute the world as a recognizable state of affairs." Similar to conversation analysis, it is concerned with explication of order in social interaction and attempts to replace the existing Parsonian motivational approach to the analysis of social action to one with procedure. It asks not why but how. stipulates four basic moves in conversation analysis of ethnomethodology: 1) Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology look at utterances as tools for the performance of activities, not just things that stand in for other things. Further, activities performed by utterances are…
Button, G. & Dourish, P. (1996) Technomethodology Paradoxes and Possibilities. In Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI
Durkheim Emile. 1933 the Division of Labor in Society. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press
Frances, D. & Hester, S. (2004) an Invitation to Ethnomethodology: Language, Society and Interaction. New York: Sage
French, B. (2005) Issues and Innovations in Nursing Practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing 49(2), 125-134
That premise states a core value that the framers intended to protect. The intentionalist judge must then supply the minor premise in order to protect the constitutional freedom in circumstances the framers could not foresee. (Bork 15)
Bork's approach was recently critiqued by Daniel Ortiz and some others, one of whom noted, with reference to the Griswold decision on privacy, that Bork saw the decision as "unprincipled" "because [e]very clash between a minority claiming freedom and a majority claiming power to regulate involves a choice between the gratifications of the two groups.
hen the Constitution has not spoken [under an originalist theory of interpretation], the Court will be able to find no scale, other than its own value preferences, upon which to weigh the respective claims to pleasure. (Bork Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems).
Bork thus supports community rights over individual rights to a greater extent than has…
Bork, Robert H. "Original Intent." The Judges' Journal (Summer 1987), 13-17.
Bork, Robert H.
Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems, 47 IND. L.J. 1 (1971).
Giddens, Anthony. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1987.
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…
Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.
Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).
The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…
Empathy and rapport with subject has to be profound, particularly where the researcher may have a priori thoughts or personal stakes with the matter at hand. If the latter exists, it may be better that she not do the research.
Analysis of the research can be somewhat daunting given the vast amount of material (interview notes, tape-recording, jottings etc.) generated by the interviews. The way one goes about this is via a brief cursory reading of the material, roughly identifying key themes and points. One then aggregates these key themes in a set of notes and organizes them with the aid of (for instance) a mind-map or post-it notes so that they become points that one then uses to review the original material again and add to or modify in order to assess whether what one has noted is correct and complete (Hycner, 1985).
Nonetheless, analysis can still be tricky…
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenolgoical research methods. Sage Pub. CA
Shea, C. (1999). The practical art of suicide assessment. Hoboken, U.S.
Wann, TW. (1964). Behaviorism and phenomenology. Univ. Chicago: Chicago.
Quali vs. Quanti
Van Rossem, R. & Vermande, M. M (2004). Classroom Roles and School Adjustment. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(4):396-411.
Moje, E.B. (1996). "I each Students, Not Subjects": eacher-Student Relationships as
Contexts for Secondary Literacy Reading Research Quarterly, 31(2):172-195.
Children require adequate support from their social network's within the classroom setting to improve their academic performance. Van Rossem, and Vermande, (2004) using a longitudinal design operationalize the child's integration into the classroom through an examination of the social roles the child utilizes. he researchers assess 1,241 first grade students from 71 classrooms. he analysis of the data demonstrated that classroom roles and sociometeric status were associated. When these variables were regressed against "school problems" classroom roles provided greater explanatory power than sociometeric status. he ethnographic work undertaken by Moje (1996) used social networks within the classroom to explore "how and why a high school content area teacher and her students…
The conclusions of both studies were harmonious with the stated purpose of the authors. The Moje (1996) article discussed implications for both practice and policy. There were several clear recommendations such as the need to not pressure teachers to adopt a specific paradigm for teaching literacy. Additionally, the pedagogical approaches adopted by teachers should reflect the underlying belief of the teacher rather than a forced position.
Van Rossem, and Vermande, (2004) concluded that the role approach is a useful approach for the study of social networks and student interaction. Additionally, there should be an appreciation for the variety in the social structures within the classroom. These conclusions are consistent with the original purpose of the author. The results affect teachers and policy makers within the education system. The researchers recommended that informal social networks should be understood to reduce problems in the classroom.
Both studies were interesting and should be considered by persons interested in understanding aspects of social networking within the classroom setting. The qualitative work appeared to be more focused on a practical problem with an immediate solution. The quantitative work provided greater theoretical relevance but its practical import appeared limited.
Social Order: Institutions, Socializations, And the Performance of Social Roles
Erving Goffman dramaturgical theory is a seminal theory in the field of sociology. An example of "micro-sociological analysis," it forced sociological analysis back into the examination of things which actually exist, individual behavior, instead of mere concepts. Goffman demonstrated that the examination of real things can not only clarify existing lines of thought, but open up new avenues for the study of social behavior. Thesis: Through his emphasis on the individual's performance of social roles, Goffman demonstrates that, although social organization and dynamics do influence individual behavior, it is the individual herself who determines the final shape of this behavior.
Summary of the Theory
Erving Goffman's work, often classified as "symbolic interactionism," is highly valuable for the study of socialization and the performance of social roles. Erving studied how individuals used symbols in the performance of their social roles and…
Calhoun, C.J. (2002). Contemporary sociological theory. Oxford: Blackwell
Breda O'Hara-Davies (2010): The paradox of English, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural
Development, 31:2, 107-118
In this article the author explores the contradictions present as a result of teaching English within the Brunei society. The study is important because it examines the vestigial influences of colonization. Deep currents of nationalistic fervor run counter to the need to fit into the wider global environment. Additionally, the study examined the question of the existence of a "colonized consciousness" and sought to understand the spread of the English language through Brunei. The author examines the theoretical framework of English as a colonizing tool, as opposed to English as a medium to preserve otherness and segregation. Using a qualitative research design the author found a multiplicity of themes that pointed to a movement of students towards a more centrist position. Many of the young persons were not unconsciously subsumed into the English culture. They…
Care work or social work akin with any other human endeavor has a host of different perspectives that are used either in unison or in combination to direct it.
Its dominant perspectives are the following:
This is the view that all systems interact and that when, for instance, one works with a patient one needs to involve the family and community too and take all of the patient "s life into consideration for each impacts the other. The whole works as a holistic whole and, for instance, the child's school can effect the child as much as the child can the teacher and so forth. ystems have interrelated parts, and tend towards equilibrium.
Care workers use this system in a practical way by forging networks between the different ecosystems (for instance between child's school, community, and family) and by drawing ecomaps and genograms for understanding the dynamics of…
OVERVIEW OF THEORIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR & THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
How the theme of injustice is emphasized through the author's use of characterization and descriptive details.
In the story, "just walk by," Brent Staples shows how injustice can influence the lives of people beyond their expectations. As one of the black men in a big city, incidences of injustice quickly become apparent to him. A compelling example is evident when Staples worked as a Chicago journalist. One day while on his way to the office where he was working as a writer, Staples was mistaken to be a burglar. The manager of the office summoned the security who pursued Staples almost to his editor's door. Staples could not prove his identity, and he was forced to move briskly to the company where anyone who knew him (Staples, 152). This is an outright form injustice: people mistook Staples as a burglar just because he was a black man and…
Herman, Nancy & Reynolds, Larry. Handbook of Symbolic Interactionism. Michigan: Rowman
Altamira, 2003 Print.
Joy, Anna. We Are America: A Thematic Reader and Guide to Writing. New York: Cengage
Learning, 2007 Print.