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II. Peter Senge - the Learning Organization
Peter Senge, who describes himself as the "idealistic pragmatist" states that learning organizations are: "...organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together." (1990: p.3) the learning organization in the view of Senge is an organization that has the capacity to adapt in an environment of rapid change and because of their flexibility will grow and excel. These types of organizations have learned how to connect to the commitment of the individuals in the organization and have the capacity to experience growth through learning at all levels. The learning organization is one that is perpetually and intentionally seeking to expand its creative capacity. According to Senge the organization must do more…
Merrill, Martha (nd) Dialogue from Peter Senge's Perspective. Dialogue Digest. Online available at http://www.soapboxorations.com/ddigest/senge.htm
O'Callaghan, William G. Jr. (2004) Think Like Peter Senge: Applying His Laws of Systems Thinking to Identify Patterns that Shape Behavior. School Administrator Journal. November 2004. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JSD/is_10_61/ai_n7069371/pg_3
Peter M. Senge (1990) the Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Currency Doubleday, 1990), 371
Peter Senge Interview on Organizational Learning. Economic Development Leader - Creating the Leading Edge in Economic Development. 1 Apr 2007. Online available at http://econdevleader.blogspot.com/2007/04/peter-senge-interview-on-organizational.html
This is especially important in the context of the Broker Front Office Tool (BFOT) strategies aimed at streamlining attracting, selling to, and servicing indirect channel partners and resellers. This aspect of bringing the Voice of the Customer (VoC) into the transformation of it initiatives into channel-based strategies is even more difficult than evolving change management programs within the four walls of any organization. Bringing change to agents and the indirect channels in the context of the Broker Front Office Tool (BFOT) forces the issue of gross margins, channel training, and pricing applications, three of the highest priorities for any agent, to the forefront of the change management strategies. Literally any channel relationship hinges on these three priorities and the extent to which strategies can be created to accentuate and strengthen a company's ability to deliver on these is the extent of the lasting success of any channel-facing strategy. it' contribution…
The Agenda (2003) - Chapter 4: Put Processes First. The Agenda: What Every Business Must Do to Dominate the Decade. Accessed from Michael Hammer and Company website on October 2, 2006:
Aguirre, Calderone, Jones (2004) -10 Principles of Change Management. Resilience Report, Booz, Allen Hamilton. New York, NY. Accessed from the Internet on October 2, 2006:
.. Second, to understand a system we need to understand how it fits into the larger system of which it is a part... Third, and most important, what we call the parts need not be taken as primary. In fact, how we define the parts is fundamentally a matter of perspective and purpose, not intrinsic in the nature of the 'real thing' we are looking at. (Kofman and Senge, 1993, p. 27)
This systems thinking allows an individual to grow as part of the whole system and not an individual entity. Individual success is thus dependent on how the system functions and how he manages to influence it from his position in it. For example, a manager in the advertising department can no longer think about his department alone but needs to understand that his performance will directly influence other departments such as sales and finance.
Kofman, Fred and…
Kofman, Fred and Peter M. Senge "Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations." Organization Dynamics.
Despite the occasionally inherent resistance to the learning process in some systems and within certain individuals, Senge stresses a manager must have a vision of a learning organization as a group of people who are continually enhancing their capabilities to create what they want to create. He calls his own view as that of an idealistic pragmatist, seeing organizations as places "where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together." (Senge, 1990, p.3) "hen you ask people about what it is like being part of a great team, what is most striking is the meaningfulness of the experience. People talk about being part of something larger than themselves, of being connected, of being generative."(Senge, 1990, p.13) Thus learning is innate…
Senge, Peter. (1990) Catalyzing Systems Thinking Within Organizations.
Senge, Peter (1994) The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization.
System optimization can also apply to the organization itself where the primary goal is profit maximization. Since an organization also runs as a system, it is important to get all its resources pooled together in the manner that best meets the specific needs of the organization. Optimization thus should not be confused with speed, increased activity, higher technology etc.
We know a system is working well when it is meeting all the needs of the organization in helping it achieve its targets and goals. There must not be any bottlenecks and delays for us to conclude that the system is working properly. System optimization helps in attaining just the right kind of balance required to produce the best results. This optimization level may be too low or too high for another firm but as long as it meets the needs of this organization, we can safely conclude that the system…
What is Systems Thinking?
Systems thinking is an ongoing process that involves seeing the big picture, even while acknowledging the importance of details. One of the pillars of servant leadership, systems thinking allows the leader to make decisions that take the entire organization and its values into account. For example, the leader of one department would not make a choice that adversely affected any other department in the organization. A systems thinker aligns ethics with organizational goals.
Systems are by definition complex, involving multiple roles, components, values, and views. Thus to be a systems thinker, a servant leader needs to be comfortable with complexity (Laub, 2018; Sipe & Frick, 1993). A servant leader needs to respect diversity of opinion and outlook, and draw connections between multiple parties and their seemingly conflicting needs. Likewise, systems thinking requires adaptability and flexibility. The servant leader needs to be aware of his or her…
Davis, C. (2018). Servant leadership and systems thinking. https://research.phoenix.edu/center-workplace-diversity-and-inclusion-research/blog/servant-leadership-and-systems-thinking
Laub, J. (2018). Leveraging the Power of Servant Leadership. West Palm Beach: Palgrave.
Sipe, J.W. & Frick, D.M. (1993). Seven Pillars of Servant Leadership. New Jersey: Paulist.
A case study of a tech start-up reveals some of the challenges associated with implementing systems theory in new product development. This area of study hold promise, but there are some implementation issues in the real world that have been identified and perhaps in need of further exploration.
Systems thinking focuses on the interrelatedness of different systems, different roles and different disciplines. The system is not simply a set of parts, but it is how the parts work together, how they interact with one another, that forms the system. By focusing on the integrated whole, systems thinking is a natural fit for new product development. Most new product development is overseen by a project manager who works with the different teams involved to drive the new product from concept to market. The reality is that this role should naturally involve a level of systems thinking.
Yet, there is…
Systems Thinking, Technology, and Oganizational Change
Models of Poblem Solving
Diffeent Appoaches to Poblem Solving
Identification of Complex Poblem
Analyzing the Poblem
Identification of a Range of Potential Solutions
Evaluation of Potential Solutions
Fomative and Summative Evaluation
Values and Ethical Issues
Copoate Responsibility and Ethics
Thinking and Decision Making Stategies
Poblem Solving Pocess
Complex Poblem Solving
This section of the pape is focusing on the intoduction of complex poblem solving, which eflects the affiliation between the meanings of classical poblem-solving and complex poblem-solving. Complex poblem solving tasks ae situations involving dynamic envionments because untimely actions decide the envionment fo subsequent decisions that ae equied to be made with the featues of the task envionment and it can be changed independently of the action of solves (Funke, 2010; Chan, et…
System Issues & Chikfila
Systems thinking is a way of synthesizing the issues surrounding any organization in both a macro and micro manner. This allows more shared values through teamwork, mental paradigms, the ability to think in the future, and look at projects in a way that are best for the organization as a holistic entity. Thus, when the process of inquiry is moved from the individual and rote (only knowledge) to an organization that moves through different, more analytical modes of thinking, the individual involved are more active participants and there is a shared vision alone with a personal and team mastery of the question in point. This evolution engenders personal buy-in, a feeling of empowerment, and clearly a new way of processing disparate information (Senge, 2006).
Chick-Fil -- A is an American fast food restaurant chain specializing in Chicken Sandwiches. Their headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, and have…
Works Cited and Consulted
Chick Fil -- a Controversy. (2013). The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/chick-fil-a-controversy
Chick-Fil-a. (2013). Press Releases. Retrieved from: http://www.chick-fil-a.com /Pressroom/Press-Releases#?release=LGBT-statement
Chick-Fil-a. (2010). Corporate Message. Retrieved from:
They must never become complacent and assume that they have considered all factors and can now relax, or they can slip into the "boiling frog" phenomenon: circumstances may turn so gradually negative that they do not notice the changes until they have large problems instead of small ones to solve (Beckford, 2002).
Just as the example of the soldiers at the bridge faced with a battle situation for which they had no previous experience, business leaders must expect the unexpected. If they create a culture of lifelong learning within their businesses, their staff and employees will always be open to looking at old facts in new ways, ready to find forward-thinking solutions. uch a company philosophy and structure can keep even the oldest company packed with fresh ideas and innovative solutions to the new problems they face.
Barker, Randolph T., and Camarata, Martin R. 1998. "The Role…
Swanson and Torrco discuss how the Human Resources Department must not only support but play an active part in a company's overall business strategy. Because of this they must be an integral part in any kind of systems thinking. The authors give multiple examples, such as the type of traning given to employees as well as their efforts to maintain the quality of employees' work. How such HR goals are achieved will have a profound effect on company culture and must be part of the company's overall plan.
Vogelsang-Coombs, Vera. 1997. "Governance Education: Helping City Councils Learn." Public Administration Review, Vol. 57.
This article tightly focuses on how one group can become dysfunctional -- city councils. The authors suggest ways city councils can learn to function more effectively. While it remains to be seen if city councils, as a group, would put in the time and effort to use systems thinking to improve their functioning, and whether dynamics within the group would or would not thwart such attempts, the article has a good discussion on "groupthink," a group phenomenon that blinds the group to lurking risks and dangers.
The key constructs of systems thinking were constituted in the first half of the 20th century in fields such as psychology, ecology, organismal biology, and cybernetics (Capra 1997). They include: sub-systems/parts/wholes, environment/system/boundary, process/structure, emerging properties, hierarchy of organizations, negative and positive feedback, data and control, open systems, holism, and the observer. The practical application of these constructs in many fields was discovered by von Bertalanffy (1950). He referred to these concepts as general systems theory (GST). These concepts were adapted in Organizational research and Management science (O/MS) and were referred to as management cybernetics (Beer 1967), systems engineering (Hall 1962), system four dynamics (Forrester 1968), and finally, in what we might refer to as the systems approach (Churchman 1968; Klir 1969; Weinberg 1975) (Mingers & White, 2009).
The systems thinking/systems approach, has been closely linked to the growth of organizational research and management science. At the start it…
Beer, S., 1967. Cybernetics and Management, English Universities Press: London.
Beer S (1984). The Viable System Model: Its Provenance, Development, Methodology and Pathology. Journal of the Operational Research Society 35(7): 25.
Bezuidenhout, C. & Bodhanya, S., 2010. Identifying opportunities in South African sugarcane supply-chain-systems: A synopsis, limitations and recommendations. Report to the South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Mount Edgecombe: s.n.
Burnett SM and Durant-Law GA (2008). Applying the RAAAKERS framework in an analysis of the command and control arrangements of the ADF Garrison Health Support. Journal of Military and Veterans' Health 17: 19-26.
Collaboration on Systems Thinking in Project Design
A critical component towards improving patient outcomes and improving the effectiveness of care delivery processes is better patient-provider communication. However, the modern healthcare environment comprises patients from different racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds, which sometimes generate language barriers during patient care delivery. Language barrier is a major challenge to Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients seeking for primary and preventative care. Patient-provider communication issues have continued to face many elderly Hispanics suffering from diabetes due to language barriers. This project seeks to examine whether the use of a bilingual interpreter call during provider visits compared to utilizing family members as interpreters, enhance medication adherence over a 3-month period.
An important component in the implementation of this project is a systems thinking approach that would help determine its relevance to the healthcare system. According to Haines (1999), systems thinking is an approach through which we…
For example, somebody with no knowledge of military jargon and technology may struggle with understanding how the military works. Systems theory allows that person to examine the linkages and structures within the military, and then to understand how those linkages and structures work towards the desired outcomes. This understanding comes on a broad level, and does not require the observer to understand the nuances of military jargon and technology.
Systems thinking also allows the observer to understand similarities and differences between systems. Understanding the similarities between systems that on the surface level are entirely unrelated is difficult when the observer is focused on the superficialities, but an examination of the underlying systems allows for this understanding to take place. The university, for example, is more similar to a military unit than it is to a symphony. hile within the university there is a clear structure of command, there is a…
Federov, G. (2001). The military unit as part of the Armed Forces' economic system. Military Thought. Retrieved October 31, 2010 from http://dlib.eastview.com/browse/doc/400163
Roelofs, L. (no date). Organizational change: Open systems concepts applied. Symphony Orchestra Institute. Retrieved October 31, 2010 from http://www.soi.org/reading/change/concepts.shtml
Similarly, a team of employees working together is greater in terms of skills, abilities, and potential personality conflicts than any one individual working alone.
Systems theory still functions as an important reminder that all systems have optimal sizes, and need to work in concert with the whole business environment. In today's merger-made climate, and in a world where taking a holistic, international perspective is important for all levels of management, systems theory can still be helpful to adopt a multidimensional and broad-reaching perspective, a reminder that bigger is not always better -- and that even when bigger is better, the bigger organization is not the same as what existed before a merger. System theory's weaknesses lie in its difficulty in treating individual employee problems, and motivating individual employees, as it provides little psychological advise as to how to motivate an 'organism's different parts, but these weaknesses do not discount the…
Kauffman, Jr., Draper L. (1980) "Systems 1: An Introduction to Systems Thinking." Edited by Stephen. A. Carlton. From The Innovative Learning Series by Futures Systems, Inc. Minneapolis, MN: Stephen A. Carlton. Cited by McNamara, Carter. (1999) "Thinking about Organizations as Systems." Management Help Website. Retrieved 9 Aug 2006 at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/org_sytm.htm #anchor1122549
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
Systems and Diffusion of Innovation Theory
Systems theory vs. diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory is based upon the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Its founder Ludwig von Bertalanffy proposed that, based upon his experience with the biology of organisms, all systems are constantly changing because they are able to interact with their environments. Systems are open and thus can acquire "qualitatively new properties through emergence" (Clark 2011). Living beings of all kinds are capable of taking in and incorporating new elements while expelling the old. This is vitally important for healthcare organizations today to understand, given the need to respect the changing nature of patients and the fact that patient's health can be significantly improved or worsened, depending on the type of care the patients receive and do not receive. Healthcare organizations must be true 'learning organizations' as new patients…
Clark, Don. (2011). Ludwig von Bertalanfy: General System Theory 1950. Big Dog and Little
Dog. Retrieved at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/bertalanffy.html
This article provides a brief introduction to the general concepts of systems theory, beginning with von Bertalanfy's career as a biologist studying organisms. It is a succinct explanation of the theory in lay person's terms, expressing it in phrases such as 'the whole is bigger than the sum of its parts.'
Diffusion of innovation theory. (2010). Utewente. Retrieved at:
As a manager, if you see multiple archetypes you could view this as multiple problems, yet the presence of all of these archetypes could well point to the same underlying systemic problem. These archetypes, in systems thinking, are a problem identification mechanism.
For each archetype, you will soon notice its theme, generic patterns of behavior, a generic feedback loop diagram, the typical mental models that underlie the archetype, and soon you will begin to understand the implications of the archetype and the leverage points to resolve the archetypal behaviors. Once you can identify archetypes and understand leverage points, problem solving at the systems level can take hold -- the archetypes can be broken and real solutions developed.
Once we understand the root of the problem, we can propose and implement interventions, which we can then test back against our vision. We use the image of the iceberg to illustrate how…
Its business alliances have succeeded because of the past encounter and uncompromising principles of Starbucks. When Starbucks created a licensing contract with Kraft Foods, Inc., it permitted Kraft Foods to begin to make Starbucks' items available in grocery markets, and now because of that attempt their items are available all over Northern U.S. And even the United Kingdom. If Starbucks did not have the primary features of what it is looking for in an alliance, it might not have been as effective in its collaboration with Kraft Foods or any other partner. Starbucks was willing to think about the good and bad in the possible collaboration and choose on whether or not the collaboration would benefit its organization (Davidson & Fielden, 2013). If Kraft Foods, Inc. did not have the same corporate perspective and objectives that Starbucks had, Starbucks would not have engaged in business with them. Starbucks has been…
Beer, S. (2014). Diagnosing the system for organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.
Harrison, M. (2004). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (Applied Social Research Methods) (3rd ed.). Berlin: Sage Publications.
Davidson, M., & Fielden, S.L. (2013). Individual diversity and psychology in organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Smith-Acuna, S. (2010). Systems Theory in Action: Applications to Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy. John Wiley & Sons
Complete Solutions plc (CS) is a successful organization specializing in IT consultancy business with annual turnover of £40 millions. The company is located at North of England with branches in the U.S. And France. Established in 1980, the company was taken over by a larger company, and the take-over bid led to the rapid expansion of the company. Complete Solution has several sections with approximately 400 users in the UK divisions. The company internal services are based in Manchester with the Training Solutions (TS) consultancy section, Sales, and Marketing section. The overall services of Complete Solution consists of the IT consultancy service as well as selling of hardware and software, training and recruitment, software development and, outsourced services. The other services provided by the Complete Solution are consultancy services. With rapid expansion that the company is enjoying, the Complete Solution is planning to go public by…
CO3601 System Concepts (nd).Soft Systems Methodology Case Study: Complete Solutions
Checkland, P.(1985). Achieving 'Desirable and Feasible' Change: An Application of Soft Systems Methodology ST. The Journal of the Operational Research Society. 36(9): 821-831.
Gasson, S. (1995). The Role of Methodologies in IT-Related Organizational changes. Proceedings of BCS Specialist Group on IS Methodologies, 3rd Annual Conference.
Simonsen, J. (1994).Soft Systems Methodology. Computer Science/Roskilde University.
Discuss relationship systems theory healthcare deliver U.S. - What current concepts healthcare explained helped a system theory approach? - What system theory? - How researchers (Ludwig von Bertalanffy Everett M.
Systems theory and diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory was not specifically designed to cope with the challenges of the U.S. healthcare system, although it has been frequently applied to some of its issues. Systems theory was originally coined by the scientist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to sum up his idea that the 'whole' of systems -- both biological and otherwise -- were larger than the sum of their parts. According to von Bertalanffy, "in the past, science tried to explain observable phenomena by reducing them to an interplay of elementary units investigable independently of each other, conceptions appear in contemporary science that are concerned with what is somewhat vaguely termed 'wholeness', i.e. problems of organization, phenomena…
Diffusion of innovation theory. (2013). University of Twente. Retrieved:
This website contains excerpts from E.M. Rogers' work on diffusion of innovation theory, along with a helpful graphical representation of how the information is disseminated.
Kaminski, J. (Spring 2011).Diffusion of innovation theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing.
Systems of Power and Inequality
In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…
Anderson, M.L. And Hill Collins, P. (2009). Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V., and Winter, D.D. (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thorton, B. (2006). Critical consciousness and liberal education, In Watson, B. (2006) Civic Education and Culture.
Wilkerson, M. (2012, March 8). Kony 2012 campaign: Oprah and bracelets won't solve problem. The Guardian.
Systems Design Project
Change is integral to the survival of any commercial enterprise in today's globalized, technologically advanced business environment. This requires stakeholders to have personal and organizational transition skills to attain the desired change for future success (Hughes, 2006). Strategizing drives organizational change giving it direction through activities (Thornhill, Lewis, Millmore and Saunders, 2000). Internal and external environmental considerations are both relevant; along with change management required to align with strategic change. Singular change is integral to organizational modification; a concept that bears adopting as a precursor to internalizing change across the organization.
The change agent is responsible for comprehending the concept of strategic change which encompasses an understanding of change models, approaches and tools for proper implementation. Furthermore they must possess an aptness for analytical assessment of contexts, critical thinking adeptness - both of which will be applied along the change continuum within the organization through use of…
Balogun, J., and Hailey, V.H. (2008), Exploring Strategic Change, Pearson Education Limited, England
Burnes, B. (2004), 'Emergent change and planned change - competitors or allies?: The case of XYZ construction', International Journal of Operation & Production Management, Vol. 24 No. 9, pp. 886-902
Change Management Learning Center (2009), 'Five tips for: Succeeding in change management', Change Management Learning Center, available at: http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-5-tips-cm-success.htm (accessed 19 November 2009)
Chris, R. (2009), 'Working with Emergent Change in Organisations', available at: http://www.oikos-uk.com/docs_influences/Emergent%20Change%20print.pdf (accessed 20 November 2009)
For example, GM lobbied the state of California 1998 to overturn an emissions-reduction mandate that would have prohibited many of GM's passenger vehicles from being sold in the large, car-hungry state. When it was successful in the short run, GM discontinued its work on its prototype of a battery-powered car, the EV1 that ran 100 miles on a single charge. Toyota, in contrast, continued to work on its hybrid line, and the resulting Prius shows the fruitfulness of the Toyota approach (Lifton 2008). Discontinuing research on battery-powered technology was not simply bad business sense on GM's part, but also showed how one part of the company (management) could thwart the efforts of another part of the company (&D). The focus of systems theory is synergy rather than such discordant behavior. Systems theory stresses that "the system's overall behavior depends on its entire structure (not the sum of its various parts)"…
Bunkley, Nick & Bill Vlasic. (2009, October 1). G.M. To close Saturn after deal fails. The New
York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/01/business/01auto.html
GM plans to cut 10,000 Opel jobs. (2009, 5 November). BBC. Retrieved November 27, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8343517.stm
Lifton, Jack. (2008, December 10). Toyota's business model is the reason that Detroit should not be bailed out. Gershon Lehman Group. Retrieved November 27, 2009 at http://www.glgroup.com/News/Toyotas-Business-Model-is-The-Reason-That-Detroit-Should-Not-be-Bailed-Out-29852.html
System Design: Oahu Base Area Network
The aim of this paper is to examine and discuss the Navy's decision to build the largest local area network (LAN) connecting the U.S. Pacific Fleet using information-gathering techniques and design methods. The system has the capacity to connect sailors and marines within the 102-million square miles of the Pacific Fleet's command coverage. Moreover it will provide the indispensable access for supplying and training the U.S. Navy. The Oahu Base Area Network (OBAN) will be the largest LAN in the world when all the phases are complete. It was started way back in 1998. It is the supporting network for the six naval commands in the Pearl Harbor, Hawaii area. Phase one has been completed. Other phases have begun in San Diego, the Pacific Northwest and the Pacific Far East, following the original business model (Kaylor, 2000). The uniqueness of this system is in…
The feedback received by climbers upon reviewing the plan and completing the training
Customization of the plan based on team features, such as size, physical fitness of the climbers and so on
Initial control of the fitness, motivation and skills of each climber
Continuous controls of the state of each climber
Training of the team members
Physical checkups of all climbers
aising environmental responsibility awareness and support
Mental preparation: understanding the risks, such as the potential for hallucinations or frostbite
Insuring the climbers against any potential risks associated with climbing (de Garis and O'Connell, 2003 de Garis and O'Connell, 2003).
Personal commitments and desires of both climbers as well as T. Company staff
Long existent expertise of the staff at the T. Company
Financial investments. A trip to the Everest would generically commence at a minimum investment of $25,000…
Boukreev, a., DeWalt, G.W., the climb: tragic ambitions on Everest, St. Martin's Griffin, 1999, ISBN 0312206372
de Garis, K., O'Connell, D.., How to climb Everest, the Guardian, Edition of March 30, 2003
Everest, Alpine Ascents, 2011, http://www.alpineascents.com/everest.asp last accessed on February 23, 2011
How to climb Mount Everest, eHow, 2011, http://www.ehow.com/how_17485_climb-mount-everest.html last accessed on February 23, 2011
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
This process places the user in a central position for both determining system requirements and ensuring they are met.
The benefits of these systems include not only improvements in user efficiency, but also others, such as reduced training costs, reduced user errors, reduced maintenance costs, and increased customer satisfaction. However, the chief requirements in these kinds of systems become to understand the users' information needs. As we argued earlier, the systems analysts cannot determine information needs scientifically, rather the system analysts are required to obtain this needs by projecting an extrovert interpersonal style that fits more closely to an art form.
Design evaluations and maintenance are carried out with users of the systems (Smith and Dunckley, 2002). Although we believe that most of maintenance is routine, but in critical cases how systems are made usable so that users do not suffer their work requires an understanding of working around the…
Nielsen, J. (1993). Usability Engineering. New York: Academic Press.
Smith a. And Dunckley (2002). Prototype Evaluation and Redesign: Structuring the Design Space through Contextual Techniques. Interacting with Computers 14, 821 -- 843
However, the company did feel it should develop its own Database infrastructure that would work with the new underlying database management system and would mesh with existing organizational skills and the selected enterprise software solution.
Because the company followed a standardized implementation process, they were able to successfully reengineer their existing business structure. The objective of the System Development Life Cycle is to help organizations define what an appropriate system development methodology should be in order for them to continue to meet the rapidly changing business environment. The specific research approach employed by International Lumberyards, Inc. was to follow the steps of the cycle and it helped them dramatically.
This report attempted to analyze a work-related project that used a systems analysis tool for a specific business system. The report focused on the use of the System Development Life Cycle to implement a business or information technology need as…
Grabski, Severin V. (2002). International Lumberyards, Inc.: An Information System Consulting Case. Journal of Information Systems, 9/22.
Knight, Ph.D., Linda V. (2001, November 1). System Development Methodologies for Web Enabled E-Business: A Customization Paradigm. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://www.kellen.net/SysDev.htm
Peacock, Eileen (2004). Accounting for the development costs of internal-use software. Journal of Information Systems, 3/22.
Wikopedia. (n.d.). System Development Life Cycle. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Development_Life_Cycle
The second and third runs, therefore, were largely based on making adjustments to the first run strategy. In each instance, the adjustments made increased the total profit over the four years and it is believed that continuing along that same path of making slight adjustments would consistently increase the profits earned. It is for this reason that the strategy changed little -- there was no insight that was believed to lead to a better strategy and in lieu of such major insight there was no reason to pursue a radically different strategy.
The most useful concepts in this exercise were contribution margin (CVP analysis) and elasticity of demand. Understanding the cost structure of each product allowed for more intelligent pricing decisions. For example, the price cut in the X7 was significant at 25% from the base price in the base case run to 31.5% of that price in the later…
Richards, D. (2010). How to do a breakeven analysis. About.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/businessplan/a/breakeven.htm
QuickMBA.com. (2007). Price elasticity of demand. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/econ/micro/elas/ped.shtml
QuickMBA/Porter, M. (2007). Porter's generic strategies. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml
Systems of Oppression
Oppression is a systematic way of treating other human beings in dehumanizing ways by subjecting them to suffering and deprivation of such important amenities that would otherwise make them lead a bearable and a comfortable life. It may involve denying them access to education, language, and healthcare. Oppression is orchestrated by government systems such as the police, the military, laws and customs and other practices that lead to inequality in the distribution of resources in society. Oppression systems target specific groups with social identities (Young, 2004).
Principles of Systems of Oppression
obinson (2010) points out that there are some habits and cultural practices which perpetuate the oppression of individuals and groups. Although they occur in varying forms, the systems assume similar characteristics and principles.
Power: here, the dominant group exercises authority over the subjects through exploitation. Usually, the party on the receiving end has no capacity to…
Conway-Smith, E. (2015, October 19). 'Slaves by the will of God': Why Mauritania has the highest percentage of slaves in the world. Retrieved June 13, 2017, from: https://www.pri.org/stories/2015-10-19/
Robinson, M. L. (2010, June 3). Systems of Oppression. Retrieved June 13, 2017, from Creative Commons: http://www.creativeconflictresolution.org/jc/systems-of-oppression.html
Young, I. (2004). Five Faces of Oppression. In L. Heldke & P. O'Connor, Oppression, Privilege, & Resistance. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Sociotechnical Systems Work Approaches
The objective of this study is to examine and assess sociotechnical approaches from two perspectives and specifically the historical perspective in regards to evolution of management styles that support and enable a sociotechnical approach and stages of innovation explaining how Rogers' diffusion of innovation informs the implementation of, or lack thereof, sociotechnical system
It is reported that socio-technical systems is a work that sprung from the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in England and involved the exploration of methods for productivity improvement while raising morale in organization via use of 'action research'. (abson Education, nd, p.1) The primary assumption of socio-technical systems is that organizations 'consist of the relation between a nonhuman system and human system." (abson Education, nd, p.1) The socio-technical view holds that both of the systems must be given consideration "when jointly optimizing the two." (abson Education, nd, p.1) It was additionally explored…
Checkland, P (1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Nathanael, D. (2002) Socio-technical Systems Analysis: Which approach should be followed? In Cognition, Culture & Design, S. Bagniara, S. Pozzi, A. Rizzo & P. Wright (Eds.), Sienna: Instututo di Sienze et Tecnologie dela Cognizione, 2002, pp. 137-142. Retrieved from: http://ergou.simor.ntua.gr/Docs/Nathanael&Marmaras&Papantoniou&Zarboutis_ECCE11.pdf
Schatz, S. And King, FB (nd) Implementation of Innovation: Evolving Models for Soci-Technical Diffusion of Innovation and Changing Practice. University of Hartford Retrieved from: http://uhaweb.hartford.edu/schatz/paper/implementinnovation.pdf
Simon, H.A. (1976). Administrative behavior. NY: The Free press, 3rd edition.
Systemic thinking is the method used to deal with the complex problems and it is used to understand the relationships and pattern within the components of network of relationship. Traditionally, linear relationship focuses on the cause and effect where people view everything in a straight line. However, with interrelationship of dynamic organization and society, linear relationship is inadequate to address the societal and organizational complex problem and linear relationship is inadequate to capture the complex multifaceted relationships. (Senge et al. 1994). Based on the shortcomings of linear relationship, the system thinking has been developed to address the complex problem. The causal loop diagram based on the systemic thinking approach is being developed to capture the multifaceted complex problem and is able to provide complete understanding to the problem. (Dyehouse, Bennett, Harbor et al. 2009).
The objective of this assignment is to explore the strategy the feedback loops could be used…
Argyris, C. (1992) On Organizational Learning. Oxford, Blackwell.
Dyehouse M, Bennett D, Harbor J, et al. (2009). A comparison of linear and systems thinking approaches for program evaluation illustrated using the Indiana Interdisciplinary GK-12. Eval Program Plann.32(3):187-96.
Garvin, D.A. (1993) "Building a learning organization" Harvard Business Review, July -August, pp. 78-91.
Roberts, N. et al. (1983). Introduction to computer simulation, A system dynamics modelling approach, System Dynamic Series, Productivity Press, Portland, Oregon.
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…
Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html
Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL
Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf
ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
Enterprise systems development strategy BITISH AMEICAN TOBACCO
British American Tobacco (BAT) is a leading tobacco company globally producing 200 brands of cigarettes. The company global drive brands are Dunhill, Pall Mall, Kent, and Lucky Strike, and these brands provide 35% of the company revenue. Other international brands manufactured by the company are Benson & Hedges, othmans, Viceroy, Vogue, Kool, Gold leaf, John player, Express 555 etc. British American Tobacco operates under tobacco industry and is the second largest tobacco company in the world with market capitalization of $98.07 billion. The overall market capitalization of tobacco industry is $356 billion and within the global tobacco industry, British American enjoys 27.55% of the market share. However, Philip Morris International Inc. is an industry leader with the market capitalization reaching approximately $151.2 billion.
British American Tobacco operates in 180 markets with more than 708 billion cigarettes sold annually. The vision of the company…
Annual Report, (2011). British American Tobacco 2011 Annual Report. London British American Tobacco (2011). Our History. British American Tobacco Plc. London.
Dai, Y. & Su, Y. (2009).Assuring the Information Quality of Production Planning and Control in Tobacco Industries. Cooperation and Promotion of Information Resources in Science and Technology: 236 -- 241.
Eshlaghi, A.T. Asadollahi, A. & Poorebrahimi, A.(2011). The Role of Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) in the Contribution and Integration of the Information in the Supply Chain. European Journal of Social Sciences.20(1): 16-27.
Huang, C. & Hsu, P. (2011). Perceptions of the Impact of Chief Executive Leadership Style on Organization Performance through Successful Enterprises Resources Planning. Social Behavior and Personality. 39(7): 865-878.
Changing an Organization's Financial System
The main reason for changing the financial system was to ensure that the new system could easily be integrated with the other systems within the organization. The current system had created issues when there was an attempt to integrate it with the other systems. The lack of integration had also caused problems with data transfer and importation of data from other systems. Users had complained for a long time regarding the need for integration and this ensured that it would be easy for them to adapt to the new system. With proper buy-in from the users and the management the change was expected to run smoothly. However, it is always vital that the organization be prepared for any resistance from users due to the changes being implemented. Changes bring with them disruption and human beings tend to resist any change. The change being proposed might…
thinking is multi-faceted. As president and founder of Compass, a real estate company in Italy, my approach needed to be multi-demensional in nature. For one, Italy has high debt burdens which are often financed through governments and large corporations. Starting a real estate company therefore was challenging as I had to analyze the potential market in a manner that was unconventional. In many areas, particularly in the United States, commercial real estate is often driven by consumer demand. In Italy however, the exact opposite it true. Through my analytical ability, I was able to successfully navigate through nearly 5 years of recession like macroeconomic cycles. In addition, I was able to deliver profits that exceed nearly 60% of my peers in the industry.
Prior to my experience in Italian real estate, I accepted a role as a consultant at AB Studio Inc. This position, much like the real estate position…
1) Production Information: a code of procedure for the construction industry Construction Production Information Committee, 2003 BS 7000-4:1996 Design Management Systems
Working with clients in the field of social work requires an understanding of the various systems that interact to affect the individual on different levels. Generally, there are many factors that shape an individual's development in his/her early years and influence his/her present life. Some of the most common factors that affect a person's development and influence his/her present life include religious community, family, lifestyle, job situation, and friends. According to Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2016), clients are usually affected by continuous vibrant interactions with other systems such as family, organizations, and communities. Therefore, a social worker needs to consider systems that interact with a client when addressing his/her needs. An understanding of these systems helps in better evaluation of the client's situation since they either provide support or contribute to the client's current problems.
An example of a situation that shows how systems interact with clients to affect their current…
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
Why is it important for everyone in business organizations to have a basic understanding of the systems development process? Would your response change if the organization is licensing a system rather than developing their own from scratch?
All individuals within business organizations operate as end users. In particular, being end users of the system, the hold with them business information and knowledge that the information system personnel require in order to cultivate and advance all of the elements of the design of the information system. Taking this into consideration, it is imperative for every individual within business organizations to have a basic understanding of the system's development process as their input is fundamental to the design of an efficacious information system (Rainer et al., 2013). In the case that the organization is licensing a system instead of cultivating one right from the start, my response would change. This…
Third, subsystems engineers are more attuned to how their specific product and technology areas are driven by external market forces and market dynamics than system engineers typically are. The reason is that subsystem engineers, both hardware and software, seek to understand how customer and market needs impact their existing and future designs. As both of these classes of subsystem engineers are more focused on how to create valuable contributions to their specific area of expertise, monitoring market and customer trends tends to be a passion for many of them. It is not unusual for example to see an engineering team know more about market trends, research, unmet customer needs and competitors than a marketing department for the same product (Hoberman, 2009). This is precisely why subsystem engineers in high technology companies often end up running product management, product marketing and corporate marketing because they have a better grasp of the…
David Carrington, Paul Strooper, Sharron Newby, & Terry Stevenson. (2005). An industry/university collaboration to upgrade software engineering knowledge and skills in industry. The Journal of Systems and Software, 75(1-2), 29-39.
George T. Dasher. (2003). The interface between systems engineering and program management. Engineering Management Journal, 15(3), 11-14.
R. Harrison, a.W. Colombo, a.A. We-st, & S.M. Lee. (2006). Reconfigurable modular automation systems for automotive power-train manufacture. International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, 18(3), 175-190.
Steve Hoberman. (2009). How to Produce Adequate Definitions: Clear and complete attribute definitions improve data deliverables. Information Management, 19(5), 45.
Network gives us two basic advantages: the facility to communicate and the facility to share. A network helps in communication between users in better ways than other media. E-mail, the most well-known form of network communication, offers inexpensive, printable communication with the facility of sending, reply, storage, recovery, and addition. Network supports collaboration with its capacity to share. This is the main charm of popular software called groupware that is created in such a way to allow many users to have electronic meetings and work alongside on projects. (Basic Networking Concepts)
Internet is a network of computer networks, upon which anybody who has permission to a host computer can circulate their own documents. orld ide eb is one such network, which permits Internet publishers to connect to other documents on the network. The Internet facilitates communication of a range of file types, including non-written multimedia. There are many types of…
Basic Networking Concepts" Retrieved at http://www.frick-cpa.com/netess/Net_Concepts.asp . Accessed on 10 July 2005
Files, Databases and Database Management Systems" Retrieved at http://www.cs.unibo.it/~ciaccia/COURSES/RESOURCES/SQLTutorial/sqlch2.htm. Accessed on 10 July 2005
Future Trends in EIS" Retrieved at http://www.cs.ui.ac.id/staf/sjarif/eis4.htm . Accessed on 10 July 2005
Operating System" Webopedia. Retrieved at http://www.pcwebopedia.com/TERM/O/operating_system.html. Accessed on 10 July 2005
Any degree of comprehensive analysis of Nannerl Keohane's non-fiction book, Thinking About Leadership, reveals that the author had a number of eminent reasons for writing this manuscript. The overarching theme which this work of literature is based upon, however, is what sort of qualities, traits, and tendencies are necessary to produce the most efficacious form of leadership possible. To that end, the author rarely strays from this task while utilizing a varied methodology that exposes different facets of leadership that are ultimately responsible for success. Thinking About Leadership is partially biographical, partly theoretical case study, and partly analytical of varying historical figures and contexts. The author relies upon her own experience in leadership (which is fairly significant considering that she was the first female president of Duke and a former president of Wellesley University) as well as examples of others to elucidate a number of relevant ideas related to…
Keohane, N.O. (2010). Thinking About Leadership. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
If they need to access a site for business purposes, they may not be able to do so, and that can lead to frustration and even lost contracts and opportunities (Miller, 2005). With that being the case, it would seem as though there should be a way to get around these restrictions. If people start avoiding restrictions, though, where does that end? At what point does it become unacceptable and dangerous, and at what point does it jeopardize the privacy, safety, and security of other people who have their information online?
The people who own the information (i.e. The people whose information is being collected) should be the ones to control how secure that information is in the sense of who can see it and access it. Because their names, dates of birth, addresses, phone numbers, and other information belongs only to them, they should be able to determine whether…
DiBattiste, C. (2009) Privacy and Information Security 101: Have a plan Information Security Best Practices 2009 conference archive The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Zicklin Center for Business Ethics Research. Retrieved on July 26, 2010 from http://technopolity.editme.com/files/isbp2009talks/DiBattiste-summary.doc
Cranor, L. (2008) A Framework for Reasoning About the Human in the Loop. Retrieved on June 10, 2011 from http://www.usenix.org/events/upsec08/tech/full_papers/cranor/cranor.pdf
Miller, M. (2005). Computer Security: Fact Forum Framework Retrieved on July 26, 2010 from http://www.caplet.com/security/taxonomy/index.html
There are times when software fails to provide the protection that it should, but that is generally not the case with these particular tools. They should be used by any healthcare organization that is committed to keeping patient records private but also providing them via the internet, so that a patient can be treated anywhere in the world and his or her medical history can be quickly called up and verified. It could make a serious difference in that patient's treatment.
These particular tools are specifically for the kinds of businesses where there is a careful balance between access and privacy. It is vital that companies that collect personal data have a good plan in place for how to protect and transmit that data (DiBattiste, 2009). That is why these two companies chose the tools that they are currently using, because they knew that these particular tools would be the…
Cranor, L. (2008) A Framework for Reasoning About the Human in the Loop. Retrieved on June 10, 2011 from http://www.usenix.org/events/upsec08/tech/full_papers/cranor/cranor.pdf
DiBattiste, C. (2009) Privacy and Information Security 101: Have a plan Information Security Best Practices 2009 conference archive The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Zicklin Center for Business Ethics Research. Retrieved on July 26, 2010 from http://technopolity.editme.com/files/isbp2009talks/DiBattiste-summary.doc
Miller, M. (2005). Computer Security: Fact Forum Framework Retrieved on July 26, 2010 from http://www.caplet.com/security/taxonomy/index.html
SAP Business Objects Portfolio. (2011). Retrieved on September 23, 2011 from http://www.sap.com/solutions/sapbusinessobjects/customers/index.epx
To manage and control the development activities for Visa's new system, Visa Commerce, the management system that would perhaps be best applicable is to focus the management and control on the development team that must consist of "just enough" number of members. This includes the team that chiefly handles all the requirements for the new system and the system's IT development team. Since Visa Commerce is a system for global use, it is essential that all development activities for the system must be firmly monitored and controlled. Communication to a team that is not large in number of members, yet enough to complete the system, facilitates this process.
To manage and control the activities for Visa Commerce, an open communication should be available between each member of the development team. If possible, the development team must work as a group in one location. This is important specifically to…
Douglass, B.P. (2000). Organizing Models the Right Way.
Retrieved on February 12, 2004, from SD Magazine.
Web site: http://www.sdmagazine.com/documents/s=825/sdm0008j/
Solarski, M. (1998). Dynamic Updating of Software Components in TINA-based Systems.
Maps to increase comprehension for ESL's
English as a Second Language Learner
The academic achievement gap between linguistic minority groups and other students is a persistent problem for the American public school system (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 2003). The pattern of underachievement and a high school dropout rate for Hispanic/Latino students among immigrant groups is particularly pronounced (Wong Fillmore & Meyer, 1992) Of the school-aged English Language Learner (ELL) population, 73% come from Spanish language backgrounds (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), and their test results in reading are of particular concern as literacy skills are the building blocks for academic achievement. The gap between the test scores of Hispanic/Latino students and white students is a well documented phenomenon, existing throughout grades K-12 in both reading and mathematics (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003). According to the NCES (2000), 44% of foreign-born Hispanics fail to complete high school. A much lower percentage…
Alper, L. & Hyerle, D (2006). Thinking Maps: A language for leadership. Cary, NC: Thinking Maps.Inc.
Anderson, S., Yilmaz, D., & Washburn-Moses, L. (2004). Middle and high school students with learning disabilities: Practical academic interventions for general education teachers -- A review of the literature. American Secondary Education, 32(2), 19-38.
Ausubel, D.P. (1960). The use of advances organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272
Bahr, G.S. & Dansereau, D.F (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps as a presentation format: Delayed recall and training effects. Journal of Experimental Education 73(2), 101-118
Because Confucianism arranged classes according to moral criteria rather than economic criteria, even a poor shenshi enjoyed enormous status and respect among the lower classes, so their position as higher-level shenshi probably helped gain cooperation. Shenshi held. Shenshi were members of the gentry in their own right, as well, with the wealth, honor, and tax-exempt status due their position. Shenshi handled taxes for the central government, as well, which helped supplement their income.
One could say that our country does engage in a meritocracy similar to the shenshi system. Our children all go to public schools. Though our schools' educational systems are supposed to be locally based, in reality we have a common national standard, especially in specific subjects, including nationalized textbooks. Public school teachers are specifically instructed to create good, obedient citizens (witness the whole Thanksgiving Pilgrim mythology). Those who test well then are paid to go to on…
The myth of Narcissus is brought about to help understand the topic 'Thinking about love'. In this myth one day Narcissus had gone to hunt. The mountain nymph Echo who longed to speak to him but did not dare to utter the first word followed him through the woods. The nymph Echo showed all the efforts to express her love but was in vain, Narcissus pushed her away which left her to spend the rest of her life grieving for Narcissus. One day Narcissus became thirsty and went to a lake. Seeing his reflection in the water, he fell in love with it not realizing that it was his own reflection. However, every time he bends down to kiss it, it seemed to disappear. He was overwhelmed with fear of losing sight of his reflection and eventually he died of love and thirsty.
For both Echo and Narcissus, love…
The Organization as a Living System
There are many different metaphorical models that have been used to describe organizations, from ships to machines to human brains. Another perspective views organizations as equivalent to living organisms or really to any complex living system, where reactions happen both on an immediate and reactionary basis and as a matter of planning and decision making. This perspective can be especially useful when viewing organizations during volatile times and in a host of other conditions; though this metaphor is not necessarily better or more complete than other symbolic ways of viewing organizations, it certainly has benefits in certain applications and situations. Viewing the organization as a living organism can help one to determine how the organization makes its decisions, where the powerful and weak points of the system are, and even predict its behavior as an entity that above all wants to survive…
Fedorov, G.S. (2001) The Military Unit as Part of the Armed Forces' Economic System . Military Thought . July. Retrieved 12 February 2011, from http://dlib.eastview.com/browse/doc/400163
Flower, J. (1995) The Structure Of Organized Change: A conversation with Kevin Kelly. The Healthcare Forum Journal, vol. 38, no. 1, January/February 1995. Retrieved 12 February 2011, from http://www.well.com/user/bbear/kellyart.html .
Roelofs, L. (N.D.) Organizational Change: Open System Concepts. Symphony Orchestra Institute. Retrieved 12 February 2011, from http://www.soi.org/reading/change/concepts.shtml
Ethical System and Its Justification
In the definition of an ethical system, there are both the ethical theories and ethical principles. These provide the viewpoints upon which an ethical analysis is conducted Schwartz, 2003.
They provide guidance as to what path to take to arrive at the final decision James, 2000.
To me, good is defined as that action which is ethical in nature and which complies with the standards of the society at large.
There are several actions that I consider to be good. One example is helping another student revise for an exam. Secondly, there is the action of helping an elderly woman cross the street. There is also the act of encouraging and motivating people in their daily lives. Another action that I consider to be good is that of letting certain persons such as the elderly or a pregnant woman cut the line where you are…
James, H.S., Jr. (2000). Reinforcing Ethical Decision Making through Organizational Structure. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(1), 43-58.
Morris, M.H., Schindehutte, M., Walton, J., & Allen, J. (2002). The Ethical Context of Entrepreneurship: Proposing and Testing a Developmental Framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 40(4), 331-361.
Schwartz, M.S. (2003). The "Ethics" of Ethical Investing. Journal of Business Ethics, 43(3), 195-213.
Thong, J.Y.L., & Yap, C.-S. (1998). Testing an Ethical Decision-Making Theory: The Case of Softlifting. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(1), 213-237.
Language and Thinking
Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…
Faccone, Claudia et al. The Effct of Language on Thought. The Psychology 20 Course:
University of Carolina, 2000. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://www.unc.edu/~jdumas/projects/languagethought.htm
Hampton, James. A. Language's Role in Enabling Abstract, Logical Thought.
Commentary/Peter Carruthers. Psychology Department: University of London, 2002.
Computerized Hospital Management Systems
The paper is about the benefits and costs of a computerized hospital management system from a nurse's perspective. The author is placed in the position of a nurse of a small 100 bed-community hospital who is the only nurse in a team of doctors to participate in the hospital management's decision on whether to buy such management system. In answering six specific questions related to the benefits and economic costs of computerized hospital management systems, the paper shows -- among others - that improved health care and increase in personnel and work efficiency will well outweigh the financial burden imposed on the hospital when buying two specific managements systems: ELECTA and Microsoft Dynamics GP. In addition, the paper outlines the security standards of data and patient confidentiality, including the need for data storage integrity and data backup and recovery and how the Health Insurance Portability and…
Berczuk, C. June 2008. The Lean Hospital. 1-5. The Hospitalist, June 2008. 1-5. Accessed 16 March 2012.
Cached - Similar
Dugas, M. & Eckholt, M. & and Bunzemeier, H. (2008). Benchmarking of hospital information systems: Monitoring of discharge letters and scheduling can reveal heterogeneities and time trends. 1-6. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2008, 8:15 doi:10.1186/1472-6947-8-15. Accessed 16 March 2012.
Courier costs were perceived as costs which could be reduced, evidence in this direction standing the decreasing revenues UPS has registered in 2009 as opposed to 2008 as a result of decreased customer demand.
The second threat is represented by the incremental competitive pressures within the industry. These pressures are fueled by elements such as an increasing access to technologies or the appeal of the industry which generates billions of dollars per year.
Another threat is posed by the continually changing society, in which legislations and other pressures repeatedly modify to often create more pressures for the economic agent. Since United Parcel Service operates at an international level, it is even more sensitive to these changes as it has to respect the regulations and demands imposed by all the United States, the governments of the countries in which it operates and the international community and trade associations. Also,…
Jenster, P.V., Hussey, D.E., 2001, Company analysis: determining strategic capability, 2nd edition, Wiley
Nassbaum, P., 2008, United Parcel Service (UPS) -- big, bigger, biggest, it Toolbox, http://it.toolbox.com/blogs/contactcenterview/united-parcel-service-ups-big-bigger-and-biggest-27163 last accessed on February 4, 2011
Morley, M., 2009, the global corporate brand book, Palgrave Macmillan
Pratt, S.P., Niculita, a.V., 2007, Valuing a business: the analysis and appraisal of closely held companies, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill Professional
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
Here second question that is raised for the author is that till now and for the future, many healthcare architectures have been designed that increase the availability of the patient records, not only on the national but on an international scale as well. The author in the study has only focused on the national or local availability of the patient records.
Content of the article is strong and there are a number of important facts given in the article in relation to the importance of healthcare indexing systems. The healthcare indexing systems being used in U.S., UK and Australia have been mentioned as an example. The two models of the indexing architecture given by the author in the beginning have been linked by the author with the examples. The loopholes that can be noticed in these cases are the absence of any privacy and security concerns that may be an…
Liu, V., Caelli, W., Smith, J., May, L., Lee, H.M., Ng, H.Z., Foo, H.J., and Li, W. (2010). A Secure Architecture for Australia's Index-Based E-health Environment. Proc. 4th Australasian Workshop on Health Informatics and Knowledge Management (HIKM 2010), Brisbane, Australia, p. 7-16.
Napier and Whitaker exemplify systems therapy with their presentation of the Brice family case. It is necessary to identify the origins of the systems approach in order to fully appreciate its value in the context of family therapy. It approaches the family unit as a system and therefore borrows heavily from systems theory. Systems theory is a general theory applies across many disciplines and looks at systems that have the ability to self-regulate. The theory applies to biological systems, climate, environment, and the family unit.
Systems approach recognizes the interdependencies that exist in the family as a system. The family unit consists of individuals related to one another forming a complex web that should act in congruence. Therefore, although a part of a system is essential, it is the relationship of the part to the whole that is paramount. The family as a system is dynamic since…
Napier, A.Y., & Whitaker, C. (1978). The family crucible: The intense experience of therapy. New York: HarperCollins.
Criminal Justice System
After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain.
Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says
efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…
BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e
CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html
Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/
Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html
Healthcare Information Systems
Faculty of Information Technology at the Queensland University Australia, have written this article to point out the need to change the method of access control in the current health care environment. They have introduced this method keeping in the mind the latest information technology system structures, legal and regulatory requirements and the demands of security operation in the Health Information Systems. The authors have proposed "Open and Trusted Health Information System" as the feasible solution along with the capability to dominate the provision of appropriate levels of secure access control in order to protect the sensitive health data.
Authors have also pointed out what is the problem with NEHTA work programs. NEHTA focuses on securely and reliably exchanging the clinical information with the help of electronic means and secure messaging technology. Authors have raised an important issue that these critical health information computer systems are openly connected…
Many businesses in this day and age seek to demonstrate stewardship and resolve to do business within a guideline of corporate social responsibility. In this quest many have chosen to focus on greening their business often including both procurement and manufacture, seeking to reduce the effect of their business on the environment. The different systems approaches that an organization can utilize to demonstrate more effective environmental sustainability are almost as varied as the companies themselves. The utilization of pollution prevention programs depends almost entirely on what it is a company does and what wastes they challenge to control. Additionally companies seek to demonstrate their compliance utilizing various accounting tools that are often made public and become incorporated in their systems designs. These designs will incorporate procurement, logistics, on demand manufacture, i.e. lean manufacture and many other possible systems designs to both demonstrate cost savings and produce a more…
Barrow, C.J. (2005). Environmental Management and Development. London: Routledge.
Eyeontransport, Green Logistics Forum "Download the Green Transportation & Logistics Global Report Now," at http://www.greenlogisticsforum.com/2008/free_report.shtml
Motavalli, J., & Harkinson, J. (2002, September/October). Buying Green: Harnessing the Incredible Procurement Power of Governments, Hospitals, Colleges and America's Biggest Corporations to Protect the Environment. E, 13, 26.
New, S., Green, K., & Morton, B. (2000). 3 Buying the Environment. In The Business of Greening, Fineman, S. (Ed.) (pp. 35-53). London: Routledge.
Technology has now become a euphemism for the information age. As individuals, information rarely escapes our grasp as now anybody can have access to its vast array of knowledge. More importantly, in the midst of our global society, technology has a profound role on our nation's ability to participate in a more competitive environment. As the age old adage states, "Knowledge is power," and in many instances this statement is correct. Information allows individuals to make better informed decisions regarding projects that can have grave implications on society if the solution is incorrect. Further, information allows more convenience in regards to access and search of particular concepts. Technology allows humans to live longer while allowing them to live more productive lives (Gregg, 2006). The benefits that technology derives are as difficult to enumerate as they are to fully comprehend. However, it is my contention that the information age…
1) Bill Apro & Graeme Hammond (2005). Hackers: The Hunt for Australia's Most Infamous Computer Cracker. Five Mile Press. ISBN 1-74124-722-5.
2) Stuart McClure, Joel Scambray & George Kurtz (1999). Hacking Exposed. Mcgraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-212127-0.
3) Michael Gregg (2006). Certfied Ethical Hacker. Pearson. ISBN 978-0-7897-3531-7.
4) Clifford Stoll (1990). The Cuckoo's Egg. The Bodley Head Ltd. ISBN 0-370-31433-6.