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..." And notes as well Taser use in: "...deployment against very young people, older suspects, and the number of times the Taser is used." (White and Ready, 2007) These do not fall within appropriate Taser use recommendations. It is concluded that when Tasers are used against subject that immediate emergency room care should be ensured. This study includes in the findings that there is a great need for empirical research on use of the Taser.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The implications are clearly held to view in this research that abuse of proper use of the Taser, either on the wrong individual, in the wrong manner, for too long in duration, by improperly trained officers, in departments void of appropriate standards and regulations, during verbal resistance but no physical resistance, on passive individuals, and finally without having emergency room treatment immediately following the use of the Taser on a subject has…
Jayadev, Raj (2007) Wake Forest Taser Study Ignores the Elephant in the Room, 294 Dead and Counting. South Bay. 18 Oct 2007. Online available at http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2007/10/18/18454575.php
Rose, Veronica (2007) Taser Use Guidelines. OLR Research Report 2007-R-0068 18 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.cga.ct.gov/2007/rpt/2007-R-0068.htm
Tomaschko, Lauren (2005) Riding Lightning: A Strategic Assessment Concerning the Use of Tasers in Law Enforcement. Okaloosa County Sheriff's Office. 2005 May. Online available at http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/fcjei/analyst_info/analyst%20academy/assessments%20class%204/lauren%20tomaschko%20assessment.pdf
White, Michael D. And Ready, Justin (2007) the TASER as a Less Lethal Force Alternative: Findings on the Use and Effectiveness in a Large Metropolitan Police Agency. Police Quarterly 2007 10; 170 Online available at http://pqx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/2/170 .
TASER Inc. specializes in the manufacturing of stun guns that have often been used by law enforcement agencies in their daily work. However the media has criticized Taser and the use of stun guns has generally been disapproved because it basically leaves a person numb for a while thus making it impossible for the person to take any action. This has been criticized for various reasons and the use by the general public has also been discouraged. Taser wants to market the product to more people so general public can use it for self-defense.
TASER would require some important nonmarket strategies to promote more expansive use of its products and adoption of the same by general public. The first important step would be to get in touch with interest groups that have previously supported use of lethal weapons by the public and various agencies. These interest groups can help in…
Tasers can also not be used in the diffusion of tension as well as quelling anti- social behavior in case of large crowds of individuals who are present in demonstrations and riots (NSW Police Association,2007).
A review of literature indicates that there are more benefits to the use of Tasers as compared to the disadvantages. This is because Tasers enhance the level of officer and suspect safety. This is because they generally reduce the use of 'live' firearms.
The other benefit of Tasers is that they can be discharge from a distance thereby decreasing the amount of physical force that an officer may use on a suspect.As Sekhar (2003) puts it, "The gun fires a dart from up to 21 feet away that secures itself to the person's skin or clothing.." Other deterrents such as the pepper spray are note dto cause injuries to the victim and the officers…
S. has grown tremendously in recent years to the extent that currently more than 5,000 U.S. law enforcement agencies deploy the weapon. Although the manufacturers of the dart-firing electro-shock weapons insist that Tasers are a useful non-lethal replacement for firearms that save lives, its unchecked use by the police and a number of deaths purportedly caused by the weapon has put a question mark against its efficacy. As we saw in this essay, Tasers are far from "non-lethal," they are not always used as replacement for a lethal weapon, are over-used by trigger-happy law enforcers, causes severe pain, and can be used as a torture weapon. Its unchecked and increasing use in law enforcement needs a serious review.
Budnick, Nick. "Is the Portland Police Bureau going TASER CRAZY?" illamette eek online. February 4, 2004. November 25, 2006. http://www.wweek.com/editorial/3014/4795/
Excessive and lethal force?" Amnesty International. November 30, 2004. November…
Budnick, Nick. "Is the Portland Police Bureau going TASER CRAZY?" Willamette Week online. February 4, 2004. November 25, 2006. http://www.wweek.com/editorial/3014/4795/
Excessive and lethal force?" Amnesty International. November 30, 2004. November 25, 2006. http://web.amnesty.org/library/pdf/AMR511392004ENGLISH/$File/AMR5113904.pdf
Feds Probe Stun Gun Deaths." CBS News. June 14, 2006. November 25, 2006. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/06/14/national/main1713614.shtml
Keays, Alan J. "Shocked by the shot." Times Argus. January 15, 2006. November 25, 2006. http://www.timesargus.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060115/NEWS/601150381/1002/NEWS01
electronic control devices such as Tasers among law enforcement has not seen a similarly widespread investigation into the effects of their use on citizens, criminals, and law enforcement officers themselves. One recent study, however, has attempted to rectify this gap in empirical knowledge by investigating the incident report records of the ashington State Patrol in order to determine the effects of electronic control devices on incident outcomes and the frequency of injuries. In their essay "Electronic control devices and use of force outcomes: Incidence and severity of use of force, and frequency of injuries to arrestees and police officers," Lin and Jones (2010) came to nuanced conclusions regarding the effectiveness of electronic control devices in reducing injuries, and by examining their study in more detail, it will become clear that the use of electronic control devices reduces officer injuries as well as citizens, as long as display-only cases are included…
Lin, Y & T. Jones. (2010). Electronic control devices and use of force outcomes, incidence and severity of use of force, and frequency of injuries to arrestees and police officers. Policing, 33(1), 152-178.
Police Department-Akron OH. (2006). Police use of the taser with people with mental illness in crisis. Psychiatric Services, 57(6), 883.
Ready, J, White, M, & C. Fisher. (2008). Shock value: a comparative analysis of news reports and official police records on taser deployments. Policing, 31(1), 148-170.
Walker, JG. (2011). Tase me one more time: an analysis of the ninth circuit's interpretation of the fourth amendment, qualified immunity, and tasers in brooks v. city of seattle. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2011(1), 227-243.
Moreover, police officers are also highly trained in decision making and in de-escalating potential conflicts rather than allowing them to escalate further. In the hands of untrained members of the public, it is highly likely that TASER products would be deployed in situations where it is inappropriate. Furthermore, the general public is not trained in minimizing the harm to individuals properly subdued by the TASER or in responding to medical emergencies caused even by its appropriate and justified use.
5. Specifically, what community outreach programs might TASER International institute in order to indirectly support its products in the consumer market?
The only conceivable community outreach programs that the organization might pursue to support its products in the consumer market might be those promoting its use in situations where highly trained civilians are already authorized to use deadly force, such as certain site-security professionals, bodyguards, bounty hunters, etc. In principle, any…
Alleged Crimes -- Civil Action
The four alleged crimes in this scenario are: a) an alleged armed robbery and assault on a woman at 2:00 A.M. in a high-crime area; b) an individual refused to comply with an officer's commands; c) that individual was found to be in possession of illegal substances (possibly cocaine); and d) providing false information from the woman who alleged she was robbed and assaulted.
Review of the scenario
The officer was in full uniform and so even though it was nighttime, he could be recognized as a bona fide law enforcement officer. Clearly the woman was lying to protect her husband -- albeit he had apparently assaulted her because she was bleeding -- and that behavior (lying to a police officer) brings the possibility of criminal sanctions.
The assault on the wife is a felony domestic abuse incident, though even though the wife lied to…
Berardini, N. (2015). Opinion: How de-escalation is bad business for Taser International.
MSNBC. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://www.msnbc.com .
Findlaw. (2011). Police Misconduct and Civil Rights. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://civilrights.findlaw.com .
Travis, A. (2014). Police use of Tasers continues to rise. The Guardian. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com .
The field is generally that of social control, informal and formal, and it sits in a surround, the larger political forces in a city or a nation (Manning 2008, p. 87).
The most prominent of these political pressures is a public, at least in the United States, that is ostensibly averse to constant monitoring as well as the continued militarization of the police force though the deployment of technologies such as those used in special operations. In their editorial regarding intersection cameras and automatic license plate scanners, the editors of McClatchy propose that, "somehow there has to be a way to take into consideration the uncomfortable feeling people get when they believe they are being spied on with the justifiable methods of making law enforcement more efficient" (McClatchy 2010). They suggest the place to start is the database where recorded video and license plate data is kept anywhere from a…
Editorial: balance public concerns, police technology. (2010, December 30). McClatchy
Tribune Business News.
Manning, P.K. (2008). The technology of policing: crime mapping, information technology, and the rationality of crime control. New York, NY: New York University Press, 87-88.
Moriarty, L.J. (2005). Criminal justice in the 21st century. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas
The abuse of power is a temptation that is succumbed to all too often in both groups; one recent study of an unidentified Midwestern police force found that TASES had become so effective at subduing resistant suspects and maintaining officer safety that worries arose regarding increased reliance on these devices (DeLone & Thompson 2009). The potential for abuse of TASES has been well documented in other incidents by the mass emdia; stricter enforcement methods would ensure that officers are less often in situations that warrant their use, and less prone to use them.
The many recent media-noted breaches of corporate ethicality and legality are also evidence of the need for stricter laws in a very different sector of society. The large amount of intertwining between the powerful corporate elite and the law makers (and enforcers, to some degree) has led to a general reduction in law abidance at many companies,…
DeLone, G. & Thompson, L. (2009). "The application and use of TASERs by a Midwestern police agency." International Journal of Police Science and Management 11(4), pp. 414-28.
Donaldson, T. (1982). Corporations and Morality. New York: Prentice Hall.
Furtado, V.; Ayers, L.; Oliveira, M.; & Vasconcelos, E. (2010). "Collective intelligence in law enforcement -- The WikiCrimes system." Information sciences 180(1), pp. 4-17.
Quinney, R. (2002). Critique of legal order: crime control in capitalist society. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction.
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
As a result, more small town police departments today have access to online resources and law enforcement networks. Not surprisingly, these innovations have provided small town police departments with access to the same level of online resources as their larger urban counterparts. For instance, a seminal study by Wasby (1975) found that there was a lack of communication of important Supreme Court decisions to small town police departments. The findings of the Wasby study were likely made obsolete by police administrators' higher educational levels today and by the introduction of Supreme Court opinions and case commentaries on the Internet, thereby providing easy access by small town police departments (Zalman & Smith, 2007).
Likewise, in their analysis of small-town police department information needs, Winn, Bucy and Klishis (1999) emphasize that even in "low-tech, nonmilitarized" settings, small-town police departments are increasingly experiencing the need for the same type of technology that their…
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Blumenson, E. & Nilsen, E. (1998, March 9). The drug war's hidden economic agenda. The Nation, 266(9), 11.
Falcone, D.N., Wells, L.E. & Weisheit, R.A. (2002). Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 25(2), 371-384.
Feagin, J.R., Vera, H. & Batur, P. (2001). White racism: The basics. New York: Routledge.
Although the San Francisco police do not carry stun guns they do carry Tasers, and Tasers work on the same mechanism as those of stun guns shooting darts that deliver electric shots to stun suspects. It is said that 334 individuals died from these electric shots during the years 20001 to 2008. If that is so, the AHP can publish the results on its page pointing out that the effects of so-called not-so-lethal stun guns are actually quite lethal indeed.
The Belmont eport
The basic ethical principles to be considered in all human research studies involves:
1. espect for persons -- This involves two categories: (a) that all people regardless of ethnic, gender, mental, physical and any sort of distinction should be treated with dignity and respect, and accorded their autonomous right to do as they wish. (b) That individuals who are more vulnerable should be accorded special…
The Belmont Report HHS.gov http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html
Rutgers Protection of human research subjects http://orsp.rutgers.edu/index.php?q=content/announcement-human-subjects-international-researcher-guidance-and-procedures
The Truth About Psychiatric Drugs (Thursday, 11 August 2011). AHRP.
In order to affect the formation and exercise of conscience, the church had to create, convince, and project an image of benevolence of itself to the world. This image, finely contructed, was then used to define its institutional mission in terms of some universal moral imperative that the church had assumed responsibility for serving..
The writer mentions the "doctrine of original sin" as a means to create this moral dilemma which provided the church the moral innitiative that it needed to fuel hysteria and therefore fear into the masses. The more fear the masses felt, the more susceptible they were to change that would benefit the church. This is much in the same way as the present day war on terror. The church however did not pretend to be able to provide people with grace itself, only the manner in which to achieve it. People could only achieve this goal…
Weapons elated to Physical and Personal Security
Physical security in the words of Linstone and Mitroff (1994) "has always been a foremost right demanded by the individual from the society" (p.329). As the author further points out, the relevance of physical security cannot be overstated given the escalating levels of crime in our cities and, indeed, everywhere else. It is for this reason that security personnel bear arms. It is also for this reason that the citizens of this beloved country have the right to not only keep but also bear arms -- a right recognized and protected by the Constitution.
In basic terms, weapons related to personal and physical security can be categorized into two: i.e. lethal and nonlethal weapons. To begin with, nonlethal weapons are those weapons that are not considered deadly or capable of causing instant death or serious body harm. One of the companies that offers…
ARMA USA. (2013). Dedicated to your Personal Protection, Welcome to the ARMA Family. Retrieved from http://www.armausa.com/about-arma/
Linstone, H.A. & Mitroff, I.I. (1994). The Challenges of the 21st Century: Managing Technology and Ourselves in a Shrinking World. New York, Albany: SUNY Press.
Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings
The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents…
police management affect the way police officers use force?
The Force Continuum
Style of Leadership and Management
Proper Management of Police esources
Innovations in Excessive Force Training
Protection of its citizens is the fundamental mission of any government. And on the forefront of this mission are the law enforcement officers who are in fact the most visible arm that the government utilizes to protect the citizens and also to preserve public order ("Police Use of Excessive Force: A Case Study of Lethal (Deadly) Force," 2016).
And to achieve these missions, the police are given authorities that are unique in civil governments as well as granted by the society - authority to control the behaviors of the citizens with the ultimate aim of protecting them from harm. Hence in a manner that is most direct, the behavior of the members of the society are controlled and managed by the police personnel…
Atherley, L., & Hickman, M. (2014). Controlling Use of Force: Identifying Police Use of Excessive Force through Analysis of Administrative Records. Policing, 8(2), 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/police/pau003
Banker, R., Chang, H., & Pizzini, M. (2004). The Balanced Scorecard: Judgmental Effects of Performance Measures Linked to Strategy. The Accounting Review, 79(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2308/accr.2004.79.1.1
Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA [etc.]: Sage Publications.
Belasen, A., Eisenberg, B., & Huppertz, J. Mastering leadership.
these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…
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2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx
3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/
4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do
The higher levels of the police UOFC includes "heavy hands" such as physical restraints and holds, or hand strikes if necessary to gain compliance or subdue a subject (Schmalleger 2001).
If escalation is still necessary, police officers may employ a baton or collapsible "asp" authorized for their use by their agencies, or electric tasers and other pain-inducing or physically incapacitating but non-lethal forms of physical force such as rubber bullets and "pepper balls" in place of standard (i.e. lethal) ammunition. Ultimately, where no lower level of force on the UOFC is sufficient to effect an arrest or protect others from danger posed by subjects, police officers are authorized to employ deadly force, such as their duty firearms (Schmalleger 2001). In general principle, the UOFC also applies to citizens, though not in the degree to which it dictates specific responses to physical attack or resistance to lawful citizen's arrest as recognized…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
McCauley, R. (2005). Use of Force and High-Intensity Tactical Police Flashlight: Policy Concerns; the FBI Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No.11. Schmalleger, F. (2001). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…
Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.
Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Furthermore, in this game of "cat and mouse," the law enforcement officers being the cat, they have to think and act in the way that criminals do in order to catch them- officers need to anticipate criminal actions. By doing this, officers need to be "at one" with criminals thus making criminals and officers to employ very similar ways of thinking. Thinking and operating in the same manner and anticipating one another's moves allows criminals and law enforcement officers to utilize the same skill set and mentality in order to stay one step ahead of the other.
Despite these similarities, it is important to delineate the differences between police and criminals, which includes, the police being moral and ethical, using their propensity for violence to ensure the safety of the community they are protecting and ultimately using their status in society for good. Being moral and ethical are two traits…
advances in technology. The Internet has brought the idea of instantaneous global communication to a reality; smaller and smarter chips are now included in inexpensive Smart Phones, and our ability to understand and manipulate data has vastly increased. New technologies can certainly offer law enforcement a number of new tools that aid in their job. Essentially, these can be divided into different segments, all of which are useful during different situations:
Aviation Technology -- Helicopters and light planes have both improved and become more cost effective, although they are still more appropriate for larger urban areas. They are able to help with traffic issues, and with the addition of cameras and nigh vision, help track suspects or increase surveillance on large events or potential gang related activities. They are also able to be equipment with special weapons (SWAT), firefighting, and emergency medical equipment (Langton, 2009).
Biometrics -- Biometrics is a…
Communications Technology. (2007, November 13). Retrieved from National Institue of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/topics/technology/communication/welcome.htm
Types of Less Lethal Devices. (2008, July 11). Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/technology/less-lethal/types.htm
Body Armor. (2012, September 13). Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/technology/body-armor/welcome.htm
Harries, K. (1999, December). Mapping Crime: Principles and Practices. Retrieved from NCJRS.GOV: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/nij/mapping/ch1_18.html
Science and Technology sounds promising as more and more unprecedented advances in computing, artificial intelligences robotics, genetics, biotechnology and neurosciences are unraveling. The commonly held belief is that technology goes on to make our lives better. Keeping this in mind, many people also believe that it has a positive impact on our aspects of our society. Because of the advents in technologies, there are present significant improvements in the standard of education, transport, and medical care as well. Similar impacts are also noticed in the security and safety arena as well. Even though the computer and science technology has had a positive impact on safety and technology, it has a negative impact as well.
How computers have affected the discipline
Information security is a very crucial operational technique. Before computers were invented, the main mode of security was through manual means. Everything had to be taken care of using the…
Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal Of Police Studies, 20(3), 17 -- 40.
European Union,. (2012). Health effects of security scanners for passenger screening (based on X-ray technology) (1st ed.). Brussels: European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/docs/scenihr_o_036.pdf
Goodman, M. (2012). How technology makes us vulnerable. CNN. Retrieved 5 July 2014, from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/29/opinion/goodman-ted-crime/
Crime handling by Police officer
In the given case scenario, there are several triggers that would dictate the way the police officer would handle the involved men in the fight. First, if one or both of the men involved would display a continues aggressive behavior even in the presence of the law enforcement officer, this would be a reason for the officer to respond with reasonable force to end the duel. The disregard for the instructions that the officer may give, for instance to put their hands up or freeze would as well call for use of assistive tools like the Taser gun to incapacitate the suspects for arrest. Worse still, if one or both suspects would turn violent towards the officer, he may have to use any means possible in self-defense. The suspects may also opt for the use of human shield to avoid arrest and in…
Carter W.H., (2003). Ethical issues in using a cocaine vaccine to treat and prevent cocaine abuse and dependence. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/337.full
Division of State Police, (2014). The 1950s. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from https://www.troopers.ny.gov/Introduction/History/1950s/
Jackman T., (2010). Police fear crime increase as recession saps forces. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/29/AR2010092907447.html
Kirsch S., (2014). The Six Key Lessons of 911. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from http://www.skirsch.com/politics/iraq/Lessons911.htm
Law Enforcement Opinion
This report will cover a topic that has always been controversial. However, there have been some events as of late, most of them racially and otherwise socially charged, that have forced the argument the subject firmly back into the forefront. Of course, that topic would be law enforcement. While gun violence, politics and so forth are all the rage in the modern blogosphere and social media realms, the topic of law enforcement is high on the minds of many regular people and activists due to, among other things, the events and details surrounding what happened to people like Eric Garner, Freddie Gray, Michael Brown and so forth. There are plenty of talking heads that would paint the police as abusive and authoritarians. However, that is far from being the true picture that should be painted and this report shall aim to fill in the rest of the…
Baker, A. (2015). In Eric Garner Case, Judge Rules Against Releasing Grand Jury Evidence. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/20/nyregion/in-eric-garner-case-judge-rules-against-releasing-grand-jury-evidence.html
Barrabi, T. (2014). Michael Brown Robbed Convenience Store, Stole Cigarillos Before Darren Wilson Shooting, Dorian Johnson Says. International Business Times. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.ibtimes.com/michael-brown-robbed-convenience-store-stole-cigarillos-darren-wilson-shooting-dorian-1729359
CBS,. (2015). Family defends Trayvon Martin amid claims he was aggressor in deadly confrontation. Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/family-defends-trayvon-martin-amid-claims-he-was-aggressor-in-deadly-confrontation/
FindLaw,. (2015). Are DUI Checkpoints Legal? - FindLaw. Findlaw. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://traffic.findlaw.com/traffic-stops/are-dui-checkpoints-legal-.html
Victim's ole In Victimization
During a period in American history when increasing violence against police officers and violence committed by police officers is headline news, developing a better understanding of victimization represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning how victims can protect themselves from being the victimized followed by a discussion concerning when and where the rates of victimization are the highest. Finally, an analysis concerning how victim precipitation theory can be applied to the study of victimization is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the victim's role in victimization in the conclusion.
Explanation concerning how victims can protect themselves from being victimized
Unfortunately, the historical record confirms that even in free societies, violence can occur virtually at any time and any place, and people can become victims of these actions without any forewarning. Therefore, it…
Juvonen, J. & Graham, S. (2009). Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized. New York: Guilford Press.
Lauritsen, J. L. (2014, June). Seasonal patterns in criminal victimization trends. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/spcvt.pdf .
Paradis, P. (2013, August 4). Stand your ground laws protect a citizen's right to defend themselves. The Gazette (Colorado Springs, CO), 3.
Rates of victimization. (2016). National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from http://www. nij.gov/topics/victims-victimization/pages/rates.aspx.
As such, the question that those who oppose GMOs should be asking themselves is whether people should be left to starve to death basing on the fear of unknown long-term implications of GMOs or not.
Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.
Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.
Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.
Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.
Nottingham, Stephen. Eat your genes: how genetically modified food is entering our diet. 2nd updated ed. London: Zed Books Ltd., 2003
George Kennedy "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified…
Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.
Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.
Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.
Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.