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I chose this student as one I would mentor using the teaching techniques. I chose scaffolding techniques of personalizing the curriculum to his specific needs, working to determine what his interests were. After speaking with him, it was apparent he had little confidence in his ability to analyze, make intelligence remarks and confided in me he was intimidated by the far more participative students in the class. It was clear he needed to gain confidence in his ability to learn and speak. The paradox was that he was scoring well on test and quizzes yet rarely said anything and seemed to be bored at times in class.
In coaching this student through a personalized lesson plan, I concentrated on the areas of his strengths in social studies first. He had an innate ability to define abstract ideas well, and could white board them well. I had him walk through ideas…
Examine how teacher recruitment evolved fifteen years
Learning is a process that commences from the time of birth of any individual and has no limits to the extent to which a person may reach. It is for this reason that ministries of education and education boards as well as teaching fraternity unions and organizations have been established (eynolds, 2010). Through these institutions, teachers are educated, trained, verified and employed into the various learning institutions. ecruiting of the teachers is a process that takes a lot of initiatives since teaching is a demanding profession.
Education is a service that has evolved and developed over the years incredibly. As time progressed, people realized the need for better and more quality education. Initially, emphasis was put on the teachers' compensation and the mobility of the labor rather than techniques of attracting and hiring quality teachers. Over the last fifteen years, various…
Park, C.C., Endo, R., & Rong, X.L. (2009). New perspectives on Asian-American parents, students, and teacher recruitment. Charlotte, NC: IAP, Information Age Pub.
Catano, V.M. (2009). Recruitment and selection in Canada. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Compton, R.L., Morrissey, W.J., & Nankervis, A.R. (2009). Effective recruitment & selection practices. North Ryde, N.S.W: CCH Australia.
Cochran-Smith, M., Feiman-Nemser, S., McIntyre, D.J., & Association of Teacher Educators.
Scaffolding serves as immediate need of creating lesson plan customization and support for specific student needs. Over time, I observed this student gain greater mastery of the subject and find purpose in studying American history. We set the goal of having him go to the whiteboard and lead discussions of World War I at least three times during the semester. We practiced and walked through concepts. As I learned to modify my teaching style to restrain myself from carrying the class from a response standpoint, this student began to progress. I deliberately began leaving out aspects of Word War I history and would look to him to fill them win when I asked questions of the class. Soon, he was participating and is now on his way to presenting three times in front of the class.
What this experience showed me was that having emotional intelligence and situational awareness as…
Teacher Performance Evaluation: The University of Arizona Teacher-Course Evaluation (TCE)
The University of Arizona's Teacher-Course Evaluation, or TCE, is a tool that aims to evaluate not only teacher performance, but also the course being offered by the University in general. The tool seeks insights from students about specific course features that must be improved and if necessary, modified to further enhance the curriculum. At the same time, the teacher performance evaluation is another way through which the University can best assess whether the course itself needs improvement, or perhaps the manner of delivery needs to be improved instead (Johnson, 2002:9). The TCE assumes a dual role as a tool for analysis and decision-making of the University administration: it determines and prescribes for the University the appropriate action needed to improve both the curriculum and teaching quality of its instructors/professors.
The methodology of the conduct of evaluation itself provides insightful learning…
Johnson, V. (2002). "Teacher course evaluations and student grades: An academic tango." Chance, Vol. 15, No. 3.
Wode, J. And J. Keiser. (2011). "Online course evaluation: Literature review and findings." Unpublished dissertation. Columbia College Chicago.
Teaching Rubrics and Checklists
Teacher Created Checklist for Classroom Threaded Discussion
Check off the following requirements as you leave your posts:
Did I leave an initial introduction post?
Do I have an identifying image?
Did I respond to my teacher's posted questions?
Did I respond to at least three student posts?
Do I have accurate spelling and grammar?
Do my posts use appropriate language?
Were all of my posts original thoughts and my own work?
Grade Sheet for Technology Projects
Portion of Assignment
Post clearly states name and other required information.
Post clearly states name, but is unclear on some of the introduction information.
Name posting or information is unclear.
Student only posted name.
Student posted a creative and descriptive image.
Student posted a creative image that was not as descriptive.
Student's image was neither creative nor descriptive.
Student failed to post an image or the…
The ultimate goal is to increase student achievement by improving the hiring process by adding another layer of screening, namely teacher efficacy. The following aims will support the ability to achieve these goals.
Aim 1: To evaluate the association between full and part time faculty regarding the characteristic of teacher efficacy.
Hypothesis One: Part-time teachers sampled will report statistically lower teacher efficacy scores than will sampled full time faculty in business Programs at Maryland Community Colleges.
Aim 2: To evaluate the association of student performance and the efficacy scores of full and part-time faculty.
Hypothesis Two: Teachers with higher efficacy scores will result in higher averages grades than teachers with lower teacher efficacy scores.
These hypotheses will allow the researcher to fulfill the basis requirements of the research study. However, in order to provide more depth and useful information the research will also address the following research questions…
Bandura, a. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Blanton, H., Christie, C. & Dye, M. (2002). Social Identity vs. Reference Frame Comparisons: The Moderating Role of Stereotype Endorsement. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38, 253 -- 267
Brouwers, a. And Tomic, W. (2002). A test of the factorial validity of the Teacher Efficacy Scale. Open University, Heerlen, Netherlands, 67-79.
Bruce, C.D. et al. (2010). The effects of sustained classroom-embedded teacher professional learning on Teacher efficacy and related student achievement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1598-1608.
The study also found that the promotion of personal teaching efficacy was most evident in schools when other teachers and administrators set goals that were high but achievable, the school climate was organized and serious, and when academic excellence was highly regarded (Hoy & olfolk,1993). In addition, teacher efficacy had a great deal to do with the perception that principals could influence their superiors. That is the influence of administrators led to greater efficacy of teachers. These findings are consistent with previous research (Hoy & olfolk,1993).
According to Goddard et al. (2004) collective efficacy is also an important aspect of teaching efficacy as it pertains to student achievement. The authors assert that The connections between collective efficacy beliefs and student outcomes depend in part on the reciprocal relationships among these collective efficacy beliefs, teachers' personal sense of efficacy, teachers' professional practice, and teacher's influence over instructionally relevant school decisions…
Anderson, R., Greene, M., & Loewen, P. (1988). Relationships among teachers' and students' thinking skills, sense of efficacy, and student achievement. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 34(2), 148-165.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Cantrell S.C., Callaway P. (2008) High and low implementers of content literacy instruction: Portraits of teacher efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education 24
Research studies and the insights of accomplished teachers who have helped turn around struggling schools confirm that any effort to recruit and retain accomplished teachers for hard-to-staff schools must be part of a comprehensive plan -- not a separate or stand-alone strategy.
The foundational point that Berry makes in this article, stresses that the need for recruitment and retention principles that stress a better overall working environment is key to change. Recruiting highly skilled teachers that are board certified requires allowing these teachers the opportunity to see the best possible working environment for their skill set. Berry also makes list of several key ingredients in a multi-faceted solution. The second set of talking points, dictated by Barry, include the remaining five, what quality teachers need in their work environment to stay in challenging schools and help them turn around:
Board-certified teachers need administrators who know and embrace the…
Anderson, Lauren, and Brad Olsen. "Investigating Early Career Urban Teachers' Perspectives on and Experiences in Professional Development." Journal of Teacher Education 57.4 (2006): 359.
Berry, Barnett. "Recruiting and Retaining Board-Certified Teachers for Hard-to-Staff Schools." Phi Delta Kappan 87.4 (2005): 290.
In the work entitled: "Idaho Standards for lended Early Childhood Education/Early Childhood Special Education Teachers" stated is that: "The characteristics of development and learning of young children are integrally linked and different from those of older children and adults. Listed as 'Standard One' is "Knowledge of Subject Matter" explained as the teacher understanding the "central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the disciplines taught and creates learning experience that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students.": (Western Illinois University, nd) Within the standard is the assumption that the educator knows how to assist young children with integration of the domains of development, or language, cognition, social-emotional, physical and self-help) as well as the traditional content areas of literacy mathematics, science, health, safety, nutrition, social studies, art, music drama, and movement. (Ibid, nd; paraphrased) The teacher has a comprehension of theories, history and models that form the basis…
Will, George F. (2006) Will: Ed Schools vs. Education. Newsweek 2006 Jan 16. Online available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10753446/site/newsweek/
National Association of Scholars (2005) U.S. Department of Education. 2 November 2005 Online available at http://www.nas.org/aa/DoEd_ltr_EdSchPoliticization.pdf
Peart, N.A. And Campbell, F.A. (1999). At-risk students' perceptions of teacher effectiveness. Journal for a Just and Caring Education, 5 (3), 269-284.
Wasicsko, M.; Callahan, C.; and Wirtz (2004) Integrating Dispositions into the Conceptual Framework: Four a priori questions. KCA Journal Fall 2004 Vol. 23 No.1 Online available at http://www.educatordispositions.org/dispositions/four%20a%20priori%20questions.pdf
Teacher evaluation is a controversial topic. It is often thought by the general public and even some educators that once a teacher rises to a certain level there is little incentive to alter practices based on current research or training and even more alarming the ability for an administrator to terminate a teacher's contract can be difficult.
According to surveys of parents and administrators, incompetence in the teaching profession has become a major concern (Bridges 1984). On one occasion 45% of polled public school parents felt that some teachers in the local schools should be fired. In another survey school administrators estimated that 5 to 15% of their teachers performed unsatisfactorily. Yet dismissal of tenured teachers for incompetence is still relatively rare. (Ellis, 2003, p.1)
Evaluation can be seen as a mere formality put in place to ensure less questioning about funding. "...evaluation procedures risk becoming meaningless exercises for the…
Hawley, W.D. & Valli, L. (2003) Guide to the National Partnership for Excellence and Accountability in Teaching (NPEAT). ERIC Digest. Retrieved 27 July 2003 from EBSCOhost at http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=ED426056&db=eric&tg=AN .
Weiss, E.M & Weiss, S.G. (2003) New Directions in Teacher Evaluation. ERIC Digest.
Retrieved on 27 July 2003 from EBSCOhost at http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=ED429052&db=eric&tg=AN .
Interview questions need to cover a broad range of topics, related to both the pragmatic concerns of the interviewer and the interviewee as well as the theoretical and experiential background of the applicant (Employment Guide 2007). It is necessary to determine not only the applicants basic expectations of the job, and their reaction to questions regarding the specific job's demand, but also the breadth of knowledge they possess on a given subject and their general working relationship with colleagues and with students (Employment Guide 2007). Direct yet open-ended questioning is generally the most efficient technique for ascertaining these qualities; paying close attention to how on-point their answers are and the level of enthusiasm expressed during their response can both be effective ways of determining a good match (Employment Guide 2007).
In no way should it be imagined that the use of a teacher recruiting agency in some way eliminates the…
CERRA. (2009). "Teacher cadets." Accessed 14 May 2009. http://www.cerra.org/teacherCadets
Employment Guide. (2007). "Teacher interview questions." Accessed 14 May 2009. http://www.job-employment-guide.com/teacher-interview-questions.html
Guarino, C.; Santibanez, L. & Daley, G. (2006). "Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature." review of educational research, 76(2), pp. 173-208.
NCSL. (2009). "Teacher recruitment." Accessed 14 May 2009. http://www.ncsl.org/programs/educ/trecru.htm
In turn, teachers and their leaders should take steps to increase the responsibility for managing their schools and assessing the performance of their peers. (1990)
The work of Charles Kowalski entitled: "Caring for Teachers in Uncaring Schools" (2002) states that stress in teachers "can be more insidious than in other professions by its "fuzzy" nature: it arises from a vague system of rules and returns; it is often self-inflicted; and unlike in the business or medical professions, the debilitating effects are not often counterbalanced by moments of exhilaration and satisfaction." Kowalski notes that stress is more likely to affect "younger, less experienced teachers over older, more experienced ones; those of lower academic rank over higher; single teachers over married; and women over men, although men are at greater risk of self-destructive reactions to stress." (2002)
Causes of teacher stress may be various factors and may be "both external and internal."…
Johnson, Susan Moore (1990) Teachers at Work: Achieiving Success in Our Schools. Basic Books, New York 1990.
Kowalski, Charles (2002)Caring for teachers in uncaring schools. Curriculum Innovation, Testing and Evaluation: Proceedings of the 1st Annual JALT Pan-SIG Conference.May 11-12, 2002. Kyoto, Japan: Kyoto Institute of Technology. Online available at http://www.jalt.org/pansig/2002/HTML/Kowalski.htm
Lauzon, Lara (1999) Teacher Wellness. Vol. 1, Issue II. Fall 1999. Online available at http://www.speakwell.com/well/1999_fall/articles/teacher_wellness.html
Miller, Geri, et al. (1999) Teacher Stress: A Case Study.. ERIC Digest. Online available at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED467833&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED467833
This can again be combined with pragmatism and functionalism in terms of learning language and grammatical structures and usage.
In including aesthetics in all school subjects, teachers are free to add an element of enjoyment to their teaching that will benefit both teachers and students. This not only enhances the classroom experience, but also what students are able to take away from the classroom for future reference. Lessons that are enjoyed in an integrated way, via both aesthetics and functionalism, will benefit students for far longer than information presented in a boring, rote fashion.
In this, the teacher's view of him- or herself is also important. In working with both students and subject matter, the teacher needs to develop a philosophy of teaching that resonates specifically with his or her personality. This is an important aspect of integrating teaching, learning, and an optimal experience of both for teacher and student.…
Haynes, Felicity. (1999). "Aesthetic Education." Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. http://www.ffst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/aesthetic.htm
Kohli, Wendy. (2000). "Educational Theory in the Eighties: Diversity and Divergence." Educational Theory, Summer, Vol. 50, No. 3. http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/Educational-Theory/5%20Kohli.pdf
Today being a productive teacher is more challenging than ever. Children are much more used to varied classroom approaches, with the Internet, computers and other electronic equipment becoming the norm. Gone are the days when students sit quietly in their seats while the teacher stands and does mathematics on the chalkboard and reads from a textbook.
I believe I am well prepared to meet this educational challenge. I know it is important to make my class interesting and enjoyable, so the students look forward to acquiring new knowledge. I also learned through individuals such as Greenway -- a specialist in areas such as experimental learning, accelerated education, team building and personal development -- ways to improve my teaching style. ather than seeing teaching as a standard and traditional process to be regimentally followed, Greenway calls it an art form. "Learning is a creative process. Facilitating learning is at…
Bittel, Bill. (1989) .Self-directed learning can change you. Adelaide, Australia: Hyde Park Press.
Dillon, J. (1997). "Questioning." In D.W. Hargie, (Ed), The handbook of communication skills (pp. 103-133). New York: Routledge.
D'Zurilla, T.J., & Goldfried, M.R. (1971). "Problem solving and behavior modification." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, (78), 104-126.
Fabian, J. (1990). Creative thinking & problem solving. Chelsea, MI: Lewis.
What is the most critical
aspect of a teacher's leadership skills however is their ability to make
their students actively question and grow their perception of who they are
and what their strengths are. A true teacher leader can guide students to
what they are excellent at as well, giving them insights into how best to
find the intersection of their talents and passions. The true test of a
teacher who is leading is in their commitment of constantly being willing
to also get measured by their peers and the certification organizations
that periodically test teachers for competency according to Anderson,
olheiser, Kim (1998).
In summary, the teacher leader is one who has found a passion for service
to others while the same time having a strong passion to continually learn
new techniques for teaching, for pursuing their own personal academic
interests and sharing the insights gained with students. The…
Anderson, Rolheiser, Kim (1998) - Anderson, Stephen; Rolheiser, Carol;
Gordon, Kim. Preparing Teachers to be Leaders. Educational Leadership, v55
n5 p59-61 Feb 1998. (EJ560893)
Berry, Johnson, Montgomery (2005) - Berry, Barnett; Johnson, Dylan;
Montgomery, Diana. The Power of Teacher Leadership. Educational
Leadership, v62 n5 p56 Feb 2005. (EJ725886)
Teaching evaluation tool: eview
The "Training Evaluation Form" from the Computer Science Department of Baker College contains 11 quantitatively-graded items that are evaluated by the student on a scale of 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree' or 'excellent' to 'poor.' There is also the option of a neutral or 'average' rating for each of the quantitatively-scored items. Some of the statements the students must pass judgment upon ask if the training met expectations such as: "I will be able to apply the knowledge learned." Others directly relate to the construction of the course such as "the content was organized and easy to follow" and "the training objectives for each topic were identified and followed; the course materials were pertinent and useful." Although these do not directly reference faculty performance, the teacher's presentation of the material will obviously impact student perceptions of the usefulness of the material. esponses…
Cueso, Joe. (2012). Assessment resources. University of South Carolina. Retrieved:
Training evaluation form. (2012). Baker College. Retrieved:
Teacher Evaluation Tool
Teaching evaluation tool paper.
Teacher evaluation form: Warren Wilson College
Warren Wilson College gives out an anonymous teaching evaluation form to all students at the end of every course. One of the most interesting aspects of this form is the extent to which it demands students engage in a certain degree of self as well as professional evaluation of the teacher. The first questions on the form are: "to what extent did you come to classes prepared to engage actively in learning; did you complete all course requirements, on time, as indicated in the syllabus for the course; to what extent did you take advantage of opportunities to improve the quality of your work and learning in this course?" There is an implied presumption that a student who invests more of him or herself into the course will be better able to give an accurate review of…
Dorasamy, N. & Balkaran, R. (2013). Role of student ratings of lecturers in enhancing
teaching at higher education institutions: A case study of the Durban University of Technology. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 5 (5): 268-281.
Warren Wilson College. (2013). Teacher Evaluation Form. Retrieved:
Normand and Kohn's (2011) review of Paul Chance's book The Teacher's Craft: The Ten Essential Skills of Effective Teaching, notes that most of what the author presented in the book was an "invaluable" reminder of useful strategies of which they were already familiar. The strength of this book is manner in which it links these strategies together in one resource.
Chance presents insights into how to manage behaviors and maximize conditions to facilitate student success. He defines teaching as creating activities that "improves rate, durability and transfer of learning" and explains each element and its significance. The book recommends teachers incorporate strategies to improve classroom behavior and self-esteem. For instance teachers should present classroom behavioral objectives in terms of the positive as opposed to the negative. In others words what to do instead of what not to do. The emphasis should be on positive rather than negative comments.…
Normand, M.P. & Kohn, C.S. (2011, Summer). Teach your children well: A review of Chance's the tetacher's Craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching. Journal of applied behavioral analysis, Vol 44, Issue 2, 417-420. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from http://seab.envmed.rochester.edu/jaba/articles/2011/jaba-44-02-0417.pdf
Discussion and Response: Teacher Performance or Effectiveness
What are the ramifications of the performance/effectiveness distinction for teacher evaluation?
The authors' deconstruction of the performance-effectiveness paradigm is useful on several fronts: It is imperative that policymakers clearly define the constructs they charge school districts with measuring, and it is crucial that educators understand the distinctions among the constructs. In the first case, it is incumbent upon policymakers to develop frameworks that can be articulated in praxis, particularly when the expenditure of funds to support the policy implementation is substantive. Policies that are grounded in some imagined reality are not only useless, they are harmful. Policy slippage is a known phenomenon -- policymakers understand how and why it happens. The less specificity in policy language, the greater the policy slippage. The greater the gap between necessary resources and actual allocations of resources, the greater the policy slippage. In the second…
The two sets of works, where posted and some of the other students also felt a desire to turn their art projects into monsters and/or creatures that expressed how they felt about trying the new food. The work proved to express both positive and negative expressions of allowable likes and dislikes.
Regarding the whole Exercise:
When the lessons where completed parent volunteers expressed that their children had been more frequently asking to try new foods and learn about them at home, parent involvement at home therefore reiterated lessons and sparked a whole new set of learning that included, in at least one case an alteration in unhealthy eating habits. The goal of the lesson was to do a project-based program with students that exposed them to new words and to healthy eating experiences. Additionally, at least three of the students brought snacks to school, that were much more reflective of…
Teacher's role in a classroom that exists in a multi-cultural society can be a very daunting and at times complex. However, there is a proper way to engage in teaching a class of that nature in a respectable yet effective way. However, there are certain things that should not be occurring, either from the students or the teacher him or herself, and those will be explained as well.
What to Avoid
The things that should avoided are perhaps the most important so they should be stated first. First, any teachers or students that engage in racist, sexist or religiously insensitive ways need to be immediately coached and/or removed from the classroom if they cannot or will not refrain from such behavior. Examples of this would include a Muslim being mocked or taunted for wearing traditional Muslim garb (e.g. hijab, etc.) or a child from a foreign nation like India or…
Asthana, A. (2006, March 18). Teachers warn of crisis over Muslim girl's uniform fight |
UK news | The Observer . Latest news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian | theguardian.com | The Guardian . Retrieved September 18, 2013,
Starnes, T. (2013, September 18). School Makes Female Students Wear Burqas - Fox
Teacher Education in Nigeria: A Comparison with the United States
There is no nation that can grow beyond the quality of its education (Lawal, 2003). A nation can only develop meaningfully and attain professionalism through a good teacher education program, which begins with the organization of teacher education and the resolving of its problems. The paper concerns itself with teacher education in Nigeria, comparing this nation's program with that of the United States. Emphasis is placed on the appointment of professional teachers, the curriculum of teacher education and its expectations in both regions. The paper suggests ways that could lead both nations towards a good teacher education.
Teacher education is a key aspect of the education process or training that deals with the process of acquiring skills in teaching profession (Lawal, 2003). Teacher education is an essential program that enhances the skills of learning and teaching. In Nigeria, adequate…
Adeniji (1972) Summary of Discussion and Recommendation in a Philosophy for Nigeria Education, Report of the National Curriculum Conference 1969, Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books.
Adoke, I. (1995), "National Orientation for Self-Reliance" Department of Social Studies (Handout) F.C.E. Zaria
Akinyemi, J.A. (1972). "Teachers Education" In Fafunwa Babs, New Perspectives in African Education, London: George Allen and Unwin, p. 84.
Campbell, J.R. (1972) In Touch with Students, Columbia: Educational Affairs Publishers
It is important to note, from the onset, that growth in every sector is often preceded by an assessment of current performance, appraisal of desired performance, and formulation of the measures to be taken to close any existing gap. This evaluation model for Washington High School is inclusive of the subsystems meant to not only assess, but also gauge teaching, administration, and programs. Teacher evaluation, according to Darling-Hammond et al. (as cited in Razik and Swanson, 2009), “generally addresses four purposes: individual improvement, school improvement, individual accountability, and organizational accountability” (p. 195).
2. Practice and Performance
There will be two observation schedules – formal and informal. At least one formal observation (in a class setting) shall be undertaken every two years. With regard to the informal schedule, two such observations (in a class setting) will be completed annually. Feedback is designed to facilitate the growth of…
Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2012). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
Grissom, J.A. & Youngs, P. (Eds.). (2016). Improving Teacher Evaluation Systems: Making the Most of Multiple Measures. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Razik, T.A. & Swanson, A.D. (2009). Fundamental Concepts of Educational Leadership Management. Belmont, CA: Ally and Bacon
Thank you for your interest in becoming a teacher in our school. As you know, our school district is faced with some significant challenges in responding to the needs of students in the 21st century marketplace, but we are proud of our school’s achievements in recent years in these areas. Some of the components of the positive student-centered school culture that we promote include teacher accountability, individualized instruction wherever possible and an environment that is conducive to learning. Of course, all members of the school district share in promoting this culture, but the process begins at the top and it is the responsibility of educational leaders at all levels – including classroom teachers – to contribute to this student-centered school culture.
To this end, some of the functions, activities and leadership behaviors that shape our school’s culture include providing young learners with a “transformative intellectual experience” because when…
Chan, M. & Main, E. (2012, October-December). The transformative educational experience: A new building paradigm for higher education campuses. Planning for Higher Education, 41(1), 75-79.
McLester, S. (2012, September). Rick & Becky Dufour: Professional learning communities at work. District Administration, 48(8), 61-65.
While there is only so much a teacher and a school system can do for a student, the school systems and employees within the same should do all that they can to inform and prepare students for adult life, the workplace and their place in society. There is so much to see in the news and other media that is very discouraging and disheartening. While at least some of that is emblematic of the “if it bleeds, it leads” mentality, there are some practices and ideologies that need to change and evolve. To at least help put education on a better path, the author of this philosophy and plan will focus on several important aspects and ideas. These would include that everyone is worthy of dignity and respect, that our differences are a source of strength and inspiration, that bullying behavior is never acceptable, that all of us need…
Al Khaiyali, A. S. (2014). ESL Elementary Teachers\\' Use of Children\\'s Picture Books to Initiate Explicit Instruction of Reading Comprehension Strategies. English Language Teaching, 7(2), 90-102.
Brown, E. L., Vesely, C. K., & Dallman, L. (2016). Unpacking Biases: Developing Cultural Humility in Early Childhood and Elementary Teacher Candidates. Teacher Educators\\' Journal, 975-96.
Guala, E. G., & Boero, P. B. (2017). Cultural analysis of mathematical content in teacher education: the case of Elementary Arithmetic Theorems. Educational Studies In Mathematics, 96(2), 207-227.
Hernández-Bravo, J. A., Cardona-Moltó, M. C., & Hernández-Bravo, J. R. (2017). Developing elementary school students\\' intercultural competence through teacher-led tutoring action plans on intercultural education. Intercultural Education, 28(1), 20-38.
James, P. C., & Benson, D. (2014). School chaplaincy, secularism and church - state separation in a liberal democracy. University Of Queensland Law Journal, The, (1), 131.
Lotherington, H. (2017). Elementary School Language and Literacy Education for Civic Engagement: An Evolving Playbook for Postmodern Times. Language & Literacy: A Canadian Educational E-Journal, 19(3), 4-20.
Ray, D. C., Huffman, D. D., Christian, D. D., & Wilson, B. J. (2016). Experiences of male counselor educators: a study of relationship boundaries. The Professional Counselor, (2), 107. doi:10.15241/dr.6.2.107
Teasley, M. L., & Nevarez, L. (2016). Awareness, Prevention, and Intervention for Elementary School Bullying: The Need for Social Responsibility. Children & Schools, 38(2), 67-69. doi:10.1093/cs/cdw011
Case Study: Professional Interview Analysis
The individual interviewed for this case study is a 7th grade teacher of history and literature in a public school. He is named Terry X for the purposes of anonymity. He has been a teacher for 5 years.
The background of the analysis conducted for this case study is composed of parts: much of it has come from Koonce (2016), Knight (2008), Kristjansson (2014), and others who have focused on teaching approaches, issues in education, and the concept of character education, which is particularly important to Terry, as this case study analysis will reveal. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and understand Terry’s approach to education and to locate its place in the wider discussion of the how educational approaches can be used to meet the goals of all stakeholders. The conclusion that this analysis yields is that not all stakeholders have a…
Knight, G. (2008). Issues and alternatives in educational philosophy (4th ed.). Berrien
Springs, MI: Andrews University Press.
Koonce, G. (2016) (Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues expanded
(18 Ed.). McGraw Hill Publishers.
Kristjansson, K. (2014). There is something about Aristotle: the pros and cons of
Aristotelianism in contemporary moral education. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 48(1): 48-68.
Lickona, T. (1993). The return of character education. Educational Leadership, 51(3),
Policy Problem: Teacher Shortage in South Carolina
As noted by Pederson (2017), South Carolina continues to experience a severe shortage of teachers. Although improving the quality of teachers has long been a federal initiative, and one of the goals of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and other federal policies has been to increase accountability for educators, South Carolina’s challenge has often been to simply recruit teachers to fill needed openings (Pedersen 2017). As noted by Pedersen (2017), higher salaries have often been touted as the solution to increase interest in becoming an educator, as well as relaxed requirements to enter the profession. Retention, however, is also an issue, and the state has been faulted for having insufficient mentorship and support for new teachers. There are also concerns that relaxed requirements will dilute the quality of teacher performance. But South Carolina is not alone in experiencing a shortage. Since 2006, Florida…
Using rubrics can help one better assess a student’s learning because it gives a clear set of measures or criteria that can be used to evaluate the performance of the learner to see whether the student’s achievement is in alignment with the objectives of the class. The rubric acts as a scoring tool that tells the teacher what to look for in the student’s work. It can also be used by the student as a guide to tell the student what the teacher will be looking for in the work and how it will be graded. For example, a simple rubric for an essay might give each letter grade off to the side and then beside that letter grade a description of the type of paper that will earn such a grade. So an F paper might have for its description “incomplete sentences, no topic, only half a page”…
Mrs. X has taught for a total of 23 years. She has a bachelor’s degree in elementary education. During her teaching career, Mrs. X has taught grades 5 and 6. It is important to note that the said grades cater for the education requirements of children around the ages of 10 and 11 years.
Summary of Insights Learned from the Interview
Mrs. X points out that the relevance of keeping parents up-to-date on the goings on in the classroom cannot be overstated. She identified three ways through which she accomplished this objective, i.e. via email, telephone calls, parent-teacher conferences, and weekly progress reports. Of the four, I found weekly progress reports most viable on this front as they provided an inbuilt follow-up mechanism. Mrs. X also restated the need to ensure that parents were involved in the learning process – and thus were not mere spectators.…
Loughran, S.B. (2008). The Importance of Teacher/Parent Partnerships: Preparing Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 5(8), 35-38.
Menheere, A. & Hooge, E.H. (2010). Parental Involvement in Children’s Education: A Review Study about the Effect of Parental Involvement on Children’s School Education with a Focus on the Position of Illiterate Parents. Journal of European Teacher Education Network, 6, 144- 157.
This phenomenological study by Emmart (2015) examined the how teachers deal with working with traumatized students. Six female elementary school teachers were interviewed in a small urban school district. The teachers recalled experiences working with several students who had suffered from some trauma, whether it was sexual abuse of being abandoned by a parent. The interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using the Moustakas model, which is helpful for obtaining a sense of the “wholeness of experience,” according to Simon (2011). Emmart’s (2015) qualitative study applied this model by using the interview method to see through the eyes of the participants what it is like to teach a traumatized student. By placing himself in the participants’ shoes, Emmart (2015) was able to better and more deeply understand the experience and interpret the data through a close analysis of the transcribed interviews. The most striking feature of the…
Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32(4), 665-683
Emmart, M. A. (2015). Teaching students struggling with trauma: A qualitative investigation of impact upon curricular goals. Liberty University [Doctoral Dissertation].
Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597–606.
Ledford, C. G. (2017). Trudy\\'s triumph: A narrative life history of an adolescent survivor of abusive head trauma. Liberty University [Doctoral Dissertation].
Lickona, T. (1993). The return of character education. Educational Leadership, 51(3):6-11.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Simon, M. (2011). Dissertation and Scholarly Research: Recipes for Success. Seattle: Dissertation and Success LLC.
A major problem in the US schooling system is the reluctance towards change and letting go of past practices that have proven to be ineffective and counter-productive. One such practice is grade retention, which can negatively influence not just student attendance but also behaviors and attitudes. Current research confirms the popularity of grade retention in K-12 in the US education system. While, accurate data on student retention rates is unavailable, grade retention perception amid school staff and teachers is contentious due to varied results (Moore, 2017; Clotfelter, Hemelt & Ladd, 2016). In line with Jimerson (2001; as cited in Barata et al, 2015) along with Shepard and Smith (1990; as cited in Barata et al, 2015) grade retention happens to be an ineffective tool and an unconstructive teaching strategy. They add that the changes at state and federal level together with several regulations to cut this practice down,…
Repko-Erwin, M. E. (2017). Was kindergarten left behind? Examining U. S. kindergarten as the new first grade in the wake of No Child Left Behind. Global Education Review, 4(2), 1-17. Retrieved from: http://ger.mercy.edu/index.php/ger/article/view/324
Shields-Proctor, C. A. (2017). The relationship between mandatory 3rd grade retention and school performance in Florida. Retrieved from: http://search-proquest.com/openview/36c008f0662090c5d3f68569cc016/1?pqorigsite&cbi=18750&
Fairness is a term commonly used but rarely understood, critiqued, or analyzed. When used in relation to educational testing, the concept of fairness is also cluttered by the conflicting evidence supporting the construct validity of assessments or the reliability of those assessments for a diverse population. When consequential validity is also called into question, then educational testing itself becomes a quagmire. Yet teachers do need assessments to gauge student learning, or to provide students with the educational resources they need to thrive. Consequential validity refers to the ways educators use assessments, standardized or not (Denner, Norman & Lin, 2009). Teachers unfamiliar with the concept of consequential validity may be acting unfairly without knowing, causing harm to students inadvertently. The harms coming from consequential validity can be ameliorated by using a Biblical worldview and corresponding ethical approach to education.
The Bible emphasizes fairness and equity, “for God shows no partiality,” (Romans…
What are three rewards and three challenges that you will face as a teacher?
As a rabid student of popular culture, I have been interested in the so-called "achievement gap" in education, popularized in the media, the political spectrum, and even within contemporary business culture. There is clearly a demonstrable gap in educational relevancy; second, there are basic skills that are absolutely vital in order to participate in the modern global village that are not universal with the U.. educational environment. cholarship also points out that the earlier the attention to this "gap," the earlier the attention to potential reading disabilities, and the earlier the intervention towards socialization issues, the higher rate of success and inclusion. This, too, engenders challenges within the profession. For instance, today's classrooms are more diverse than ever, they are multi-dimensional as well. To help fill the gap, teachers need to be able to jump…
Kauchak, D. And Eggen, P. (2011). Introduction to Teaching, Becoming a Professional,
4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Instructors should fully explain the "purpose" behind the assignment, and should ask themselves before assigning it: a) am I offering "any autonomy over how and when to do this work?"; b) does doing this assignment promote mastery by being "an engaging task?" And c) is the purpose of this assignment clear to the students?
Teachers, students and others in the classroom community are inspired when there is a larger cause for everyone to focus on. For example, by teaching to students' strengths (their interest in wildlife), have the students write and illustrate reports on the loss of wildlife habitat in their county -- by going out into the natural world with a biologist who can point out the ways urban sprawl, pollution, and over-grazing has done damage to the ecosystems and hence taken away habitat for birds, coyotes, deer and rabbits. Students use the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose…
Life Long Learners. (2003). Dan Pink Recommends a 'FedEx day' for Students and Teachers.
Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://life-long-learners.com .
Pink, Dan. (2009). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. New York:
As a result they are often excluded from the mainstream and from being productive members of society.
I feel that it is not only ethically and morally important to help these individuals but that it also makes economic and social sense to assist those who are disadvantaged to receive a better education and advance their potential in life.
I also believe that we should be careful to consider the fact that adult education is an area that requires a very different approach and involves different modes of understanding, as well as the use of appropriate techniques, when dealing with the various categories of disadvantaged adult. For example, in terms of those adults who are disadvantaged with regard to education backlogs, one has to realize that they often face a number of unique and specific problems; such as the fact that many will have families, children and work commitments, which make…
Moore, M.G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A System's View.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Motivating Disadvantaged Adult Learners. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from http://ujop.cuni.cz/page/en/dalsi/presentations/MoDAL-basic%20idea.ppt.
Incidental teaching. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from Incidental Teaching.
As I began to realize that I was expecting less than they were capable of I realized that some of my preconceived notions about the teaching profession were coloring my viewpoint.
One example was the day a preschool student from the regular education class came to me and handed me a book that she wanted to read to me. I was surprised but let her open the book and begin reading. It reminded me not to assume the level of ability of any student as each student is an individual and develops at individual rates.
In observing the classrooms I found that problems can be dealt with by remaining flexible and keeping an open mind (Safer, 2003).
An example of this philosophy occurred when an autistic preschool student was included in the inclusion setting. "Tommy" did not respond to verbal cues nor was he a verbal child. The teacher made…
GRIESHABAER, SUSAN and CANNELLA, GAILE S. (EDS.) (2001). EMBRACING IDENTITIES in EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: DIVERSITY and POSSIBILITIES. MIDWOOD; LB1139.23.E58.
SAFER, STEFFEN (2003). PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS to PRACTICALLY EVERY PROBLEM: THE EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER'S MANUAL. REDLEAF PRESS.
WOMG, HARRY K., WONGN, ROSEMARY T. (2004). FIRST DAYS of SCHOOL: HOW to BE an EFFECTIVE TEACHER. HARRY K. WONG PUBLICATIONS.
PELLETIER, CAROL MARRA (2003). STRATEGIES for SUCCESSFUL STUDENT TEACHING. REDLEAF PRESS.
Teaching Diversity in the Classroom
In recent decades it has become increasingly important that educators understand the importance of multicultural education. Given that society has become more pluralistic and diverse, there is a need for a curriculum that focuses on diversity. This research proposal recognizes that diversity can and should be taught, and proposes a methodology for doing so.
This project reviews the literature on teaching diversity. Achieving diversity in higher education involves a wide range of approaches. Teaching diversity includes the need to recruit and maintain a diverse student body, as well as faculty, and to provide instruction to a diverse group of students, provide an inclusive curriculum that reflects the contributions of non-Western and minority groups, and to teach so as to critically examine the humanities and the professions from perspectives of groups that have been marginalized.
The Center for Instructional Diversity in Research divides strategies for diversity…
Banks, J.A., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W.D., Irvine, J.J., Nieto, S…Stephan, W.G. (2001). Diversity within unity: Essential principles for teaching and learning in a multicultural society. The Phi Delta Kappan, 83(3), 196-198, 200-203. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20440100
Center for Instructional Diversity in Research. (2008). Inclusive teaching. University of Washington. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from: http://depts.washington.edu/cidrweb/inclusive/diversify.html
Center for Teaching. (2011). Diversity & inclusive teaching. Vanderbilt University. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/teaching-guides/interactions/diversity/
Davis, B.G. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Teaching is one of the most important, although also the most underrated, professions in the world. Teachers today prepare young people not only for their next level of schooling, but also for tertiary education and ultimately to become gainfully employed and contributing citizens themselves. The problem is that there are so many varying levels of education today, ranging from the extremely poor to the extremely excellent. One factor that plays a major role in how well teachers are able to present materials in the classroom is the education they receive themselves. Although the quality of teacher education depends on several factors, one major argument revolves around whether they should be exposed to unproven theory or not. On the one hand, the argument may be that exposing them to unproven theory may only detract from the central purpose of their education, which is to provide them with the tools…
Chye, T.E. (2008, Jul.) Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn: A handbook for NUS teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/handbook/home/foreword.htm
The Critical Thinking Community (2013). The Role of Questions in Teaching, Thinking and Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/the-role-of-questions-in-teaching-thinking-and-learning/524
National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) (2007, Jul.) Quality Indicators for Teacher Education. Retrieved from: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/PUB_QITE.pdf
Porter-Magee, K. (2013, Feb. 8). Common Core v. The false promise of leveled literacy programs. Common Core Watch. Retrieved from: http://edexcellence.net/commentary/education-gadfly-daily/common-core-watch/2013/common-core-v-the-false-promise-of-leveled-literacy-programs.html
The teacher must use effective discipline to ensure students do not interrupt one another, know to raise their hands, not get out of their seats during class, or engage in disturbing activities. This is disrespectful to the learning of others as well as simply against the rules. Drawing up a list of rules to obey for the students is one way to help students understand how the U.S. Constitution, for example, was negotiated and formulated.
Student assignments will include everything from pretending to be various historical characters in costume, to doing Internet research to understand what are reliable and unreliable sources, as well as more standardized essays and tests to prepare them to meet nationalized testing standards. Field trips will reinforce many of class lessons. To encourage student confidence without relaxing curriculum standards, teachers should assign a variety of projects in a variety of media. Some students are natural talkers…
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
While commenting on the works of Baldwin & Ford, Detterman (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993) observed that the American enterprises were more likely to lose in case of teaching employers as they diverted lump sum of $100 billion annually to tutor employees. The loss is experienced because whatever is learned in an adult learning session is not practiced at the workplaces.
This problem is indicative of the dire need for combining knowledge with current practical work. The internships of doctors and people doing Ph. D serve as examples to show the link between learning and practical work (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The variations in practical applications and formal learning make it necessary that lifetime learners find out fresh strategies to tackle these variations. These variations comprise of the high work requirements that make the job training mandatory, unavoidable variation in an occupation, tech-literacy and the disparity created between the skilled and…
Detterman, D.K., & Sternberg, R.J. (1993). Transfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing,.
Fischer, G. (1991). Supporting learning on demand with design environments. International Conference on the Learning Sciences, pp. 165-172.
Fischer, G. (1998c). Making learning a part of life-beyond the 'gift-wrapping' approach of technology. In P. Alheit & E. Kammler (Eds.), Lifelong learning and its impact on social and regional development. Donat Verlag, Bremen, pp. 435-462.
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind, New York: Basic Books.
Teaching disadvantaged adults could be one of the biggest challenges that an educator could face. Adults are already set in their ways. Their brains have already developed to the point where very little will be reshaped and habits are already set in. Not only can this pose difficulty when trying to teach something new to adults, it becomes an even harder task when trying to teach something novel to disadvantaged adults. Situational factors such as poverty, lack of complete grasp of the English language, and cultural factors could come into play and both negatively and positively affect their ability to learn and be taught (Kerka, 2002). A key concept in teaching disadvantaged adults is in the methods and materials chosen to appropriately affect their learning. An educator needs to make sure that these things are appropriate to an adult given their disadvantaged situation and that whatever method is chosen will…
Kerka, S. (2002). Teaching adults: Is it different? Educational Resources Information Center. 21(3): 32-33.
Kozma R. & Wagner. D. (2006). Reaching the most disadvatanged with ICT: What works? Education and Training Policy ICT and Learning. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Chapter 5: 97.
Lyn, T. & Ducklin, A. (1995). Further education colleges and educationally disadvantaged adults. Scottish Educational Review. 27(2): 154-164.
This is the essence of Knowles' self-directed learning.
The last sentence of Stephen Brookfield's Chapter on "Adult Learning: An Overview" states "To understand adult learning we need to know it's connections of learning in childhood and adolescence and to the formation during these periods of interpretive filters, cognitive frames and cultural values."
Brookfield's assertion is somewhat at odds with Knowles concept of the difference between child and adult learning, although it is developmental in nature. One possible way of reconciling the difference between Brookfield and Knowles is to propose a stage theory of learning that shows progression from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, incorporating different theorist's ideas about the relationship between learner and teacher at different developmental, emotional, and experiential stages.
Stage 1: Childhood. Child is eager to learn but not certain of how to go about it. Learns to please self 'in the moment' of experience, but without…
Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy.' The encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.
I am currently taking a teaching preparatory course that enables me to go to a local elementary school (K-1 center) three days a week where I work in a classroom with the teacher and her students. I am enjoying this experience a great deal. I believe that these small children are our nation's future. There's nothing that gives me greater joy than helping them build a solid foundation to succeed in the future. By teaching them the basics in reading, writing and math, I truly believe that I am making a difference in their lives.
Now, I am ready to take the necessary steps I need to follow to become certified to teach. I value your consideration of my application to your university. I assure you that my performance will exceed your expectations given my high desire to become a teacher and work with children.
There is a quote I remember that I don't know exactly where I heard that goes "The mediocre teacher tells, the good teacher explains, the superior teacher demonstrates, the great teacher inspires." I have been fortunate to have had a number of superior teachers throughout my academic career. Each encouraged me to succeed. However, there are two that hold a special place in my memory, one from elementary school and one from high school.
I was in a self-contained sixth grade classroom and my teacher was Mr. Burke. The one most important thing he did for me was to construct an atmosphere in the classroom where learning was fun. His style of teaching facilitated learning in a positive and supportive environment. He was an excellent communicator with a ready laugh and a good sense of humor. His teaching style put everyone at ease. He had high expectations and…
Teaching Style of Lecturing
From the ancient Grecian sophists delivering rhetorical oratories to adoring throngs, to the staid scientists presenting analytical treatises to graduate students, vocalizing an organized lecture to a group of students has long been among the hallmarks of traditional educational delivery. The process of arranging complex subject matter within the relatively accessible framework of lecturing affords educators a number of distinct benefits, including the standardization of student exposure to learning material, the ability to customize lessons in accordance with the collective needs of a class, and the opportunity to inject creativity into dense and demanding instruction. Despite the historical reliance on lecturing to impart knowledge and skills to a wide audience, however, the modernization of educational communication which has occurred in conjunction with the digital age has exposed many of disadvantages inherent to the typical teacher-delivered lecture. The availability of online lecture series delivered directly from experts…
Coughlin, S. (2013, May 01). Jimmy wales: Boring university lectures 'are doomed'. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-22160988
Exley, K., & Dennick, R. (2009). Giving a lecture: from presenting to teaching. (Vol. 10). Newy York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Knight, J.K., & Wood, W.B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education, 4(4), 298-310. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1305892/
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction. (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Teaching Special Education Students
In the classroom, teachers are primarily responsible for ensuring that special education students are provided with equal opportunities for education. While instructors should not lower academic standards in the classroom, they should make every effort to make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. y making simple adjustments, such as allowing students to record lectures or changing the format of a test, teachers can make sure that special education students do not have academic or social disadvantages.
Setting up the Classroom
In the classroom, simple changes can make a great difference for special education students. For example, by arranging desks in a manner where each student has his own personal space, as opposed to sitting in groups, special education students have less chances of being distracted.
There should be various centers in the class that provide a space for students to go when they are finished with…
Klinger, J., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Students' perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children.
Polloway, E., Bursuck, W., Jayanthi, M., Epstein, M., & Nelson, J. (1996). Treatment acceptability: Determining appropriate interventions within inclusive classrooms. Intervention In School and Clinic.
Brattlan, Lee. (2002) Brief Reference of Student Disabilities:...with Strategies for the Classroom.
Teaching in America
Grant and Murray's Teaching in America: The Slow Revolution is a book with two faces. On one hand it is a book of history, covering the developments in education in general over the past century; here it is at times fascinating, at times tedious, but always informative. On the other hand, the book points to one overruling "Slow Revolution" which the authors describe as the solution to our nation's (and the world's) educational problems. While the former topic is simply a recounting of established history, the latter requires evidence and argument in support of the authors' claim; this evidence comes primarily from interviews with teachers. Hence, this book spans two realms of academia: as the researchers themselves state, "Our research is both sociological and historical" (8). This paper will investigate the credibility of the authors' latter claim, which is based on a rather isolated set of evidence,…
Grant, G., and Murray, C.E. Teaching in America: The Slow Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard
Customer Reviews. 2003. Booksunderreview.com. 16 December 2003. http://authors.booksunderreview.com/G/Grant,_Gerald/
Harvard University Press/Teaching in America/Reviews. 2000. Harvard UP. 16 December 2003. http://www.hup.harvard.edu/reviews/GRATES_R.html
Teaching Disaster and Emergency Management
The whole world has turned into a place where people encounter experiences with diverse forms of disaster. Most of the disasters are usually extremely complicated and strike unexpectedly in any region causing massive damages and loss of lives. The complexities accompanying the catastrophes require the existence of well-trained personnel oftentimes ready to deal with disasters as they occur before causing irreparable harm to people and property. In some regions, many people have lost lives and properties destroyed because of the slow response by the people dependable for handling the emergencies. This calls for the training of new and many people who provide quick and efficient response to the disasters whilst saving lives. Various regions and countries have taken up the initiative of training people expected to play a critical role in the management of disasters. There has been an argument whether teachers handling disaster management…
Alexander, D. (2000) "Scenario Methodology for Teaching Principles of Emergency
Management," Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 9(2): 89 -- 97
Neal, D.M. (2000). Developing Degree Programs in Disaster Management: Some Reflections
and Observations. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 18(3): 417-
While each student will respond to school and education differently, all can discover their personal aptitudes in academics, athletics, or the arts. School also provides key socialization functions that helps students learn and grow. As a teacher it is my responsibility to understand the process of socialization and social development in my students. As students become more aware of their personal power, they can apply what they learn in school to outward expressions such as community service, creative endeavors, or athletic performance.
Teachers learn as much from their students as our students learn from us. Students challenge us, and encourage us to change and grow just as they do. By keeping up-to-date on my profession, and the subject matters that I teach, I can provide my students with the best quality education. Incorporating current events and popular culture into my lessons will help students understand how education has a direct…
Learning strategies do this inherently by focusing on the student and his or her capacity to learn rather than by what methods the teacher chooses to teach. Because this study was done during the dawn of learning strategies, the paper takes the form of a literature review rather than primary research. As such, the data is presented in the form of findings. The authors provide a definitive definition of learning strategies as well as giving a list of types of learning strategies that students have been known to employ and that the research to this date finds credible. Based on this, the authors conclude that teachers need to assist students with how to learn in addition to what to learn. They similarly conclude that as research into the strategies continues, they will be likely to affect and grow the implications of learning strategies.
Although the authors are correct that the…
Weinstein, C.E. & Mayer, R.E. (1983). The Teaching of Learning Strategies. Innovative Abstracts. 5.32, pp. 1-4.
Teaching Strategy for Special Ed
Special Education Standard
Direct instruction is the most widely-used teaching strategy, although it has become controversial in recent years. Critics argue that it limits the creativity of good teachers and provides a crutch for poor ones (What is direct instruction? 2011). It is a teacher-centered approach that relies on structured lesson plans, offering little or no variation and no opportunity for discussion or active participation. The effectiveness of direct instruction has been demonstrated widely but it can be a poor choice for students with disabilities who would benefit from another approach.
What is Direct Instruction?
"Direct instruction is a theory of education which posits that the most effective way to teach is by explicit, guided instructions" (What is direct instruction? 2011). Although it is the oldest form of instruction, it gained attention in the 1980s when implemented in the schools of inner-city Baltimore. Instruction was…
Adams, G., and Carnine, D. (2003). Direct instruction. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://nichcy.org/research/summaries/abstract1
National Institute for Direct Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nifdi.org/15/
What is direct instruction? (2011). Teach-nology. Retrieved from http://www.teach-
Child Development Center
Louisa Bell, 27, in the Starry Night Child Development and Preschool, starts her day greeting the toddlers in the front pathway. Chris (2.5), a quite dynamic boy, comes with a huge bag with snacks and drinks inside, and so do Tamara (3), and Rachel (2). This week, Chris doesn't want to wear other apparel but his blue jeans overall with a horse and cart on the pocket.
After praying, Louisa asks them if they like watching TV. She asks them to sit on the cushion. Both Tamara and Chris want the red cushion, so Louisa has to calm them down and take another red cushion from the other room. Louisa says, she wants them to keep the cushion clean before she starts the film, then she helps the kids putting the cushions forward the TV.
She puts a Teletubbies tape on a VHS player and…
Because of the lack of clarity and certainty regarding mental retardation or intellectual disability, the effect of having students with this issue in a classroom can be somewhat more chaotic than with other developmental disorders, where specific modes of instruction have been developed. It can be difficult to predict what a student with mental retardation might be stimulated by, and there are certain areas where individual students might simply have no interest. This can make it incredibly hard to involve them in classroom activities even when special accommodations and attempts are made. Students with mental retardation are not especially disruptive, and do not tend to make learning difficult for others, but this actually runs a greater risk of their going ignored as the classroom's education develops and progresses. For this reason, specific and repeated attempts to engage students with mental retardation in every aspect of the classroom and its activities…
Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the…
I never used to like math but now it is my favorite subject since I have been going to math tutoring. Now I understand it" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1). Few words could more delightful to the ears of an elementary math school teacher. But what prompted this student's enthusiasm? The student became excited about math because of a program created by a rural school district that was seeking to raise its students' standardized test scores. The district took proactive action and created a partnership with the local university to formulate an after-school tutoring program, staffed by university volunteers from the elementary education program at the university.
Elementary children in grades 3-6 were chosen to participate who had math scores below the 30th percentile on the standardized test used by the state of Pennsylvania, the results of their Stanford 9 Achievement Tests, and classroom teachers' recommendations. The ratio of elementary students to university tutors was two students to each tutor. Sessions included individual meetings with tutors, snack time during which tutors 'previewed' upcoming math lessons, homework assistance, and games. "Each child has a folder that contains an information sheet for classroom teachers to guide tutoring with assigned homework and skill areas to be practiced. Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the resources of the local university and solicited the input of school and district administrators to create an effective program. Despite the occasional logistical and emotional problems created by the difficulties of using the same tutor for individual students from grade to grade, the program was deemed a success.
Students that have adapted, whethe it is fo cultual easons o because an anothe style was bette suited fo the subject, may continue to show highe achievement even in futue classooms that do not implement the teaching styles that have been found to be ideal fo achievement levels. Futue eseach should also look to see if teaching styles beyond the ecommendations of No Child Left Behind can acquie the impovement in achievement NCLB seeks.
Bouque J., Bouchamma, Y., & Laose, F. (2010). Aboiginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods. The Albeta Jounal of Educational Reseach, 56(1), 57-71.
Cabo, M. (2009). Match the Style of Instuction to the Style of Reading. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 373-378.
Mogan, H. (2010). Impoving Schooling fo Cultual Minoities: The Right Teaching Styles Can Make a Big Diffeence. Educational Hoizons, 88(2), 114-120.
Payne-Tsoupos, C. (2010). No Child Left Behind: Disincentives to…
references for teaching styles matter in academic achievement: scientific and practical implications. Educational Psychology, 28(6), 615-625.
I view education holistically. Students are developing their character and their values in addition to facts and figures. Language learning is a critical component of character development because language mastery enhances cross-cultural communication. A fellow teacher offers a powerful statement on the role of progressivism in the classroom: "In a progressivist classroom, teachers plan lessons to arouse curiosity and push the student to a higher level of knowledge. The students are encouraged to learn by doing and to interact with one another. This develops social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points-of-view," (Wilt 2003). A progressive teaching philosophy acknowledges the persistence and potency of change. Optimism and creativity will motivate my students to achieve, inspiring their curiosity and ability to think critically.
The means by which I will achieve my teaching objectives include the use of proven classroom management techniques, the implantation of creative cooperative learning strategies, and…
Haugen, L. (1998). Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement. Iowa State University. Retrieved online: http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/philosophy.html
Sofsian, D. (n.d.). Teacher education philosophies. Retrieved online: http://ezinearticles.com/?Teacher-Education-Philosophies&id=227410
Wilt, B.L. (2003). A personal philosophy of education. Retrieved online: http://schoolmarm.org/main/index.php?page=p-genphil
Description of Learning:
Educational institutions are teaching subjects for a digital future but it is from a superficial manner however students need a deeper knowledge of it as a curriculum. When teaching students about math, it should be integrated in all subjects they are learning by being motivated by educators (Singhal, 1997). As shown in the examined scenario planning with an elementary school, it is apparent things became better for the students as far as the educational resources, and environment, which ultimately affects the learning process. Educational institutions must engage partnerships with other schools around the world. By providing student exchanges they will produce world class students, the internet is facilitating the process of globalization and providing virtual interaction with others. As it is shown in schools, technology is the key to change the educational environment and resources. The internet is encouraging students to engage in meaningful cross cultural dialogue…
There are some papers that are to be released and referred to by her in the above article. In the first of those papers, the belief is that the present result of the aptitude tests of the teachers today is the same as was the case a generation earlier, but the best among them are not likely to become teachers. In the second paper, the result shows that the women from the best colleges are not continuing to be teachers as the pay received by them as teachers is low, and not due to the attraction of higher pay in other occupations. On the level it can be assumed that if the salary of teachers were better, a lot of the best students would still be going into teaching.
According to the columnist, "Teachers aren't exactly getting worse. They're getting more consistently mediocre." She ends her own article by saying…
Ave, Melanie. Educators want more Mr.'s in their classrooms. St. Petersburg Times. 14 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.sptimes.com/2004/11/14/Tampabay/Educators_want_more_M.shtml . Accessed on 27 May, 2005
Bhat, Sanjay. Schools struggle to reduce high teacher turnover. 3 January, 2005. The Seattle Times. Retrieved at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002138717_turnover03m.html . Accessed on 28 May, 2005
Direct Instruction: Is it the Most Effective Science Teaching Strategy? 15 December, 2004. NSTA Web News Digest. Retrieved at http://www.nsta.org/main/news/stories/education_story.php?news_story_ID=50045Accessed on 28 May, 2005
Errickson, Tiffany. Mentoring teachers. September 21, 2004. Retrieved at http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,595092712,00.html . Accessed on 27 May, 2005
(Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Motivation to Learn
Motivation to learn can be defined as the degree of cognitive effort invested to achieve educational goals (Li, 2003). It can also be understood as the degree of "seriousness" with which a student attempts to address the commitments and targets school with the purpose of: a) master the knowledge and skills rather than and get away with doing the minimum, b) clearly verify the status of their knowledge rather than try to complete the task independently of being sure that they actually learned something (MacIntyre, 2002).
Marshall (2001) have proposed to distinguish two types of motivation to learn, one that manifests itself as a personality trait and one that manifests itself as a state. In the first sense, the concept refers to a general provision that allows a student to perceive learning as an inherently valuable and satisfactory and therefore to engage in…
Barbetta, P., Norona, K. & Bicard, D. (2005). Classroom behavior management: A dozen common mistakes and what to do instead. Preventing School Failures. Vol. 49, Issue 3, p 11-19.
Bear, G.G. (2008). Best practices in classroom discipline. In Thomas, A. & Grimes, J. (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology V (1403-1420). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists
Bear, G.G., Cavalier, A., & Manning, M. (2005). Developing self-discipline and preventing and correcting misbehavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Fletcher, L., & Crochiere, N. (2004). How to Design and Deliver Speeches (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.