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Teaching Methods for 7-12
There are many different competencies that must be acquired in order for a student to achieve mastery of the English language. Thus for a teacher to be successful in the classroom I suggest they implement a variety of methods to ensure students are exposed to all aspects of English including: phonology and phonetics, pronunciation, intonation, speech vs. written English, grammar and vocabulary. The best teaching method to ensure that students achieve their maximal potential for success is one that is diverse and multi-tiered in nature, incorporating many different teaching methods to ensure students are exposed as broadly as possible to the material being presented.
Not all students learn in the same manner. Thus the teaching method I propose will incorporate lectures, visual aids, group skills development and kinesthetic activities to encourage students to engage all of their senses while learning.
Many different methods can be used…
Lindsay, J. "Direct Instruction." [online]. 29, November, 2004:
'What Direct Instruction Is and Is Not." [online]. 29, November, 2004:
That model has been adapted from their work and is shown in the following illustration labeled Figure 1 in this study.
Personality Development and Cultural Socialization
Source: Finkbeiner and Koplin (2002)
Finkbeiner and Koplin additionally relate that the constructivist view is one that holds that "individuals construct the world in ways that help them make meaning of it and from it. Thus our cultural identity is the result of cognitive and constructive processes. From early childhood we categorize what we perceive, we form concepts and prototypes and we attribute meaning to our experiences." (2002) Accompanying these cognitive processes are brain activities in the domain of emotions in which feelings and perceptions are associated with the concepts that result form the process of constructing meaning and self-identity. The result is that the individuals develops not only a cultural identity but also, due to the emotional connection develops cultural preferences…
Wagner, Jon (1993) Ignorance in Educational Research Or, How Can you Not Know That? June/July 1993. Educational Researcher Vol. 22 No.5 pp. 15-23.
Connole, Helen (1993) The Nature of Social Science Research.
Yates, Lyn (1997) Qualitative Studies in Education. 1997. Vol. 10. No. 4, 487-498. The Research Enterprise. In Issues and Methods in Research: Study Guide, H. Connole, B. Smith & R. Wiseman, Distance Education Centre. University of South Australia, Underdale, SA. Chapter 1.
Lather, Patti (1992) Critical Frames in Educational Research: Feminist and Post-Structural Perspectives. Theory Into Practice, Volume XXXI, Number 2, Spring 1992.
Teaching Methods - Differentiation
An earnest observer of human beings eventually realizes that there are many types of intelligence and that different people have different skills, needs and knowledge. Differentiation is based on that realization and celebrates it. Abandoning more rigid methods of teaching, Differentiation consciously sets out to discover and use the uniqueness of each student, which can cause valuable critical transformations in teaching and allow teachers to recognize and seize opportunities for teaching individuals.
Definition of Differentiation
Differentiation is a student-centered teaching method that: acknowledges and celebrates the existence of many types of intelligence; examines the age, needs, interests, knowledge, skill level and learning style of each student; tailors well-organized lessons for each student in a qualitative, flexible, dynamic and fluid manner; works toward required educational standards and beyond; and evaluates student performance based on whether the student has mastered the lesson content.
Visual Comparison of Undifferentiated vs.…
Tomlinson, C.A. (2010). Critical Transformations. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from www.youtube.com Web site: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNfshXciwUA
Tomlinson, C.A. (2010). Seizing Opportunities. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from www.youtube.com Web site: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6a6XSSDyKQQ&feature=related
In the field of education there are many aspects that teachers have to understand in order to be effective educators. The current essay will compare and contrast the terms philosophy, ideology, and theory applied to the teaching profession. Philosophy is defined as all learning exclusive of technical precepts and practical arts, the sciences and liberal arts exclusive of medicine law and theology. (Merriam-Webster Online, n.d.) Considering the definition how does philosophy apply to the teaching profession? As educators one has the task of teaching subject matter to his or her students. Philosophy encompasses all learning exclusive of those mentioned above, therefore it is easy to state that philosophy and the teaching profession goes hand in hand. Teachers teach content to a student; the student is learning the content that the teacher is teaching them, it is equilibrium; one could question if teaching could exist without the role of…
Heyting, F., Lenzen, D., & White, J. (Eds.). (2001). Methods in Philosophy of Education. London: Routledge.
Merriam-Webster Online. (n.d.). http://www.merriam-webster.com
Reagan, T. (2002). Language, Education, and Ideology: Mapping the Landscape of U.S. Schools. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Through these tests there has been an overall improvement in the quality of education as it requires schools to improve their performance, and if they fail to meet the AYP for two or more years it has to offer its eligible students a chance to transfer to high performing schools.
How should teachers/educators be held accountable for student learning?
It has undoubtedly been proved that effective teachers play an active role in student learning and enables them to meet difficult standards. Therefore teachers should be held accountable to some level, though student is responsible for their own learning. Firstly to ensure the improvement of teacher quality appropriate qualification check, careful monitoring, teacher evaluation, support for initial teachers including initial license and system of certification and compensation should be developed.
Secondly, teachers should be held accountable at certain levels after being appointed. They should be accountable at the district level through…
Anderson (2004). "Improving America's School." The State Content and Student. 27
United States. Education Commission of the States. Department of Education. Accountability next Generation Models. By Denver. Web.
Chad and Charles (2003). "Teacher Evaluation, Teacher Effectiveness and School Effectiveness: Perspectives from the U.S.A." Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 17.1: 101-28.
As the teachers used cooperative learning, I saw that it is important to put some forethought into how you assemble the groups. If the groups are composed of students of varying abilities, then the cooperative learning process has a better chance of succeeding. This allows the members of the group to effectively learn from one another, and will increase the level of academic achievement. The teacher also needs to consider the social makeup of the group when setting up this teaching strategy. The students need to be able to work together and effectively communicate. Putting together students who may regularly not get along in class will adversely affect the learning experience.
Most of the teachers used technology only when it was beneficial to the task at hand. Using computers or other pieces of technology just because they are available is not necessarily beneficial. The teachers needed to evaluate in advance…
They also agree on ways of scoring the tests. The assessments given are either e summative or formative (Gamble 2008. Teachers need to expand their instructional repertoire by getting to learn different classroom initiatives from other PLC members when responding question. The third element involves taking into consideration on how to respond if the students do not learn. PLC makes use of an 80% test score as an informal evaluation of learners understanding (LaFee 2003).
In instances that a few students score below 80%, a teacher with high marks teaches all these learners instead of every teacher having to teach their students individually all again. When most of the students gets below 80%, teachers can learn successful initiatives from their PLC and make plans to teach the lesson again (LaFee 2003).Working in PLCs gives teachers' time to collaborate with one another other closely, thus helping them to share strategies as…
Gamble, J. (January 01, 2008). Professional Learning Communities. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 24, 7, 17-17.
LaFee, S. (May 01, 2003). Professional Learning Communities. School Administrator, 60, 5, 6-12.
It is hard to make too much out of the importance of collaborative teams in the improvement process. It is just as important, though, to highlight that collaboration does not lead to better results unless people are paying attention to the right issues. Collaboration is a means to an end, not the end itself. In a lot of schools, staff members are willing to work together on a diversity of themes as long as the focus of the discussion stops at their classroom door. "In a PLC, collaboration represents a systematic process in which teachers work together interdependently in order to impact their classroom practice in ways that will lead to better results for their students, for their team, and for their school" (About PLCs, n.d.).
The trend toward establishing professional learning communities in schools has not been without its struggles. Everyone from grade level teams to state departments of…
About PLCs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.allthingsplc.info/about/aboutPLC.php
Professional Learning Communities. (2009). Retreived from http://www.centerforcsri.org/plc/program.html
The 3 Big Ideas. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.academyofsingaporeteachers.moe.gov.sg/cos/o.x?c=/ast/pagetree&func=v iew&rid=1069406
Vescio, V., Ross, D. & Adams, a. (2006). A review of research on professional learning communities: What do we know? Retrieved from http://www.nsrfharmony.org/research.vescio_ross_adams.pdf
Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis
Quantitative Methods and Qualitative Methods
Constructivist Learning Theory
Group Work and Team Work
Drama, ole Playing
The paper is a research proposal which discusses the issue of teaching methods that are unable to deliver students with the required level of translational skills for students enrolled in Language and Translation courses in colleges. The research will be based on finding the problems with the current teaching methods and the consequences of the flaws. The research is also aimed to find out possible solutions by evaluating the teaching methods which can be used to improve the current structure.
The Problem Statement:
The students of Translation and Languages in Colleges usually face a lot of problems in developing required translation skills that are must for a professional qualified translator. There are a number of reasons that cause the problems in acquiring the level of translation…
Alavi, M. (2011). Computer-mediated collaborative learning: An empirical evaluation. MIS Quarterly, 18(2), 159-174.
Hiltz, S.R. (2004). The Virtual Classroom: Learning without limits via computer networks. Norwood, NJ: Ablex
Bain, Ken. (2004). What the Best College Teachers Do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lieberman, A. (2004). Teacher Leadership. California: Jossey-Bass.
ELLs frequently disappear in these comprehensive settings. Similar interpretations about mainstreaming have been made in other English-speaking countries such as Australia, Britain and Canada, where ELLs are also categorized and served under a larger authority of diversity education or literacy education intended for native English speakers who may have learning requirements very dissimilar from their own (Harper and de Jong, 2009).
Teaching approaches are founded on theories. ESL teachers often use an assortment of methods. According to Theories in Second Language Acquisition, ESL teachers engage in undertakings that involve students in the learning procedure, like dialogue. Theories in Second Language Acquisition specify that students absorb some features of the second language liberated of teaching. The ESL teacher's guidance on education may be incomplete and reliant on student capability. ESL teachers find instances that enable both individual and group education by paying consideration to classroom undercurrents. ESL teachers have to stay…
Britto, Rory. (2007). The Dissipation of Methods in ESL: Expanding to Fill the Void. Journal of Education, 188(3), p.75-84.
Harper, Candace a. And de Jong, Ester J. (2009). English language teacher expertise: the elephant in the room. Language & Education: An International Journal, 23(2), p.137-151.
Mitchell, Josalin. (2010). Roles of an ESL Teacher. Retrieved December 22, 2010, from eHow
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5449862_roles-esl-teacher.html
Feedback should also inform the planning of subsequent lessons and activities and come from a variety of perspectives including the student, classmates, and the teacher (Kirkwood, 2000).
Problems with this method of instruction occur when expectations are unclear or feedback is ambiguous, sporadic, or overly negative. Classroom behavioral norms must be established and respected. Care must also be taken to protect and support students from undue ridicule and criticism in order to achieve and maintain a classroom culture that nurtures an open learning environment.
According to Bell (2010) project-based learning (PBL) is a novel means to learning that teaches a plethora of strategies critical to success in the new millennium. Through inquiry students drive their own learning working independently and collaboratively to research and create projects that reflect their knowledge. PBL facilitates student mastery of essential skills in areas from technology to oral communication and advanced problem solving.…
Bell, S. (2010, January). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. Clearing house. Vol. 83 Issue 2, 39-43. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&hid=15&sid=ebf395cc-8104-492c-933b-de898987f0d8%40sessionmgr13
Clair, L., & Gallimore, R. (1996, September). Using moral dilemmas in children's literature as a vehicle for moral education and teaching. Journal of moral education, Vol. 25 Issue 3, 17. Retrieved August 30, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=104&sid=ebf395cc-8104-492c-933b-de898987f0d8%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=9611104206
Davis, E.A. (2003). Prompting middle school science students for productive reflectiuon: Generic and directed prompts. Journal of the learning sciences, Vol. 12 Issue 1, 91-142. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=10&sid=a4ef73a1-4242-4854-89b5-ba92d87225e8%40sessionmgr12
Feng, W. & Hannafin, M.J. (2008, March). Intergrating webquests in preservice teacher education. Educational media international, Vol. 45 Issue 1, 59-73. Retrieved August 30, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=104&sid=cb1d0322-ea66-4df4-9ecb-f838dbf3e7ac%40sessionmgr111
Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking." (National Institute for Literacy, 2003) The importance of fluency is that: "...it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension." (National Institute for Literacy, nd) Examples of classroom instruction in reading that promote reading 'fluency' are monitored oral reading aloud by students and independent silent reading of a repeated nature. Vocabulary "refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively. In general vocabulary can be described as oral vocabulary or reading vocabulary. Oral vocabulary refers to words we use in speaking of recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print. Vocabulary is also very important to reading comprehension." (National Institute for Literacy, 2003) The Institute of Literacy states that children "learn the meanings of most words indirectly, through everyday experiences with oral and written language." (2003)…
Putting Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (2003) National Institute of Literacy. Online available at http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/PFRbooklet.pdf.
Repeated Reading: A Fluency Building Strategy (nd) Ohio State University. Online available at http://www.coe.ohio-state.edu/gcartledge/urbaninitiative/Repeated_Reading_Teachercopy.pdf.
Building a Powerful Reading Program: From Research to Practice (nd) Institute for Education Reform. Online available at http://www.csus.edu/ier/reading.html
Erickson, Joan L.; Wilson, Kathleen M.; and Trainin, Guy (2005) Teaching Fluency with Quick Reads: Does the integration of technology result in greater student growth. Online available at http://www.pearsoned.com/RESRPTS_FOR_POSTING/READING_RESEARCH_STUDIES/R8.%20Pearson%20Learning%20Group%20Quick%20Reads%20Efficacy%20Study%20Statement%20of%20Work.pdf .
This approach also is supported by volumes of empirical research and it is particularly well suited to effective learning in the physical sciences. Instead of focusing on narrative explanations of scientific concepts in the traditional educational approach, inquiry-based methodology utilizes practical materials designed to allow students to experiment and directly observe and experience the scientific concepts presented in each lesson (Huber & Moore, 2001).
According to the available research, hands-on inquiry-based active learning is much more effective than traditional educational methods (Huber & Moore, 2001; MDE, 2010). While the financial costs associated with procuring commercially-produced active-learning educational materials can be a considerable barrier for many public education systems, the general approach can also be implemented through improvised materials without substantially detracting from the value of the instructional method (Huber & Moore, 2001).
Based on the available empirical research on active learning and inquiry-based learning, it should be anticipated that…
Adams, D. And Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting
Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Huber, R.A. And Moore, C.J. "A Model for Extending Hands-on Science to be Inquiry
Based." School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 101, No. 1 (2001): 32-35.
Howeve the effects of style on pefomance ae contingent on the natue of the task. Fo example visual leanes ae likely to pefom bette on pictoially-based tasks than on vebal-based tasks. Thee is no significant coelation between intelligence and leaning style. Howeve each indicates that academic achievement was positively coelated with a stategic appoach to addessing leaning styles and negatively coelated to an apathetic appoach. Leaning style was also found to coelate significantly with othe academic pefomance elated factos such as self-efficacy and academic locus of contol (Cassidy, 1999).
A style of thought is a pefeence fo using abilities in cetain ways. Stenbeg and Zhang (2005) point out that leaning styles have cetain geneal chaacteistics. Fist of all styles ae pefeences, not abilities. Thee is a diffeence between how ceative a student is (ability) and how much the student likes to be ceative (style). Styles ae not "good" o…
references. Instructional science, 27: 355-371. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from http://www.ncu.edu.tw/~ncume_ee/nsc88cre.ee/nscdsg/nscdsg96-sadler_smith-riding-cognitive_style_instructuctional_preference.pdf
Sternberg, J., & Zhang, L. (2005, Summer). Styles of thinking as a basis of differntiated instruction. Theory into practice, 44(3), 245-253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=111&sid=4dc68d17-580a=4983=af18=762283ca50ef%40sessionmgr114
Yerxa, J. (2003). Learning styles: Medical education in general practice. Adelaide: university of Adelaide. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from http://www.curriculum.adelaide.edu.au/medical_education/topic.asp?topic=8
Preparing Students to Face these Issues: Proposed Strategies
As Mahanay-Castro (2010) notes, "many factors influence the success of students leaving secondary school special education programs." In the author's opinion, rather than equipping such students with the necessary skills for life after school, educational processes instead mainly concern themselves with the students' academic concerns. Some of the strategies schools may adopt so as to ensure students are well prepared for life after school are highlighted below.
To begin with, schools can plan field trips for such students. These field trips should be designed in a way that allows students to understand more about an issue at hand. For instance, schools can organize a field trip to the bank so as to enable students learn how the banking system works.
Secondly, schools can use pretend play or role-play so as to ensure that students learn some relevant skills. For instance, as Browder…
Browder, D.M. & Spooner, F. (2011). Teaching Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Mahanay-Castro, C. (2010). Building Transition Programs for Students with Disabilities: How to Navigate the Course of Their Lives. Maryland: R&L Education.
In my experience, it is actually possible to transform this potential liability of digital technology in the classroom into a definite benefit. That is primarily because the topic of identifying credible academic sources of information was rarely, if ever, a topic that was ever addressed previously. Today, students who have had to participate in exercises designed expressly for that purpose are much better qualified to do so than many of their predecessors.
Future Implications of Technology in Education
I would expect that one of the critical issues facing the future of education in relation to technology is academic integrity. Already, plagiarism has increased dramatically as a function of the tremendous expansion of the resources available at the click of a mouse in conjunction with the ease with which sources can be copied through copy-and-paste functions. According to some of the available literature, digital technology in contemporary education has also introduced…
Luppicini, R. "Educational technology at a crossroads: examining the development of the academic field in Canada." Educational Technology & Society. International Forum of Educational Technology & Society. 2008. Retrieved February 01, 2011 from HighBeam Research, at: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-193084646.html
Mcmillan-Culp, K., Honey, M., and Mandinach, E. "A retrospective on twenty years of education technology policy." Journal of Educational Computing Research, Vol. 32, No. 3; (2005): 279-307.
With the conceptual tools offered by psychology, we now can, for instance, more readily investigate the effects of mistreatment on children's development.
My concern regarding the general disharmony of the relationship between adult and child stems from the awareness that we adults have the inclination to view the child as grossly inadequate. In our misguided efforts to help them, we downplay the significance of what the children themselves find applicable or attractive to their interests during their formative years. To put it briefly, the child's natural curiosity and spontaneity is suffocated by the unnecessary, if not outright damaging, and constant interventions of adults, who have the tendency to treat the child, often unconsciously, as an inferior human being. Such attitude, of course, implies distrust in the value of the child's self-regulation in the learning process.
This general attitude inevitably percolates through elementary educational structures, potentially reducing education to a mere…
Moyer also cites literature showing that learning math through literature involves higher cognitive processing, potentially increasing the rate of absorption of knowledge. Main points of Moyer's article include the following. One, children's literature can promote enhanced learning of mathematical concepts, and two, a plethora of math-related children's literature already exists and therefore teachers should actively try to incorporate those books into their everyday curricula. Finally, the author emphasizes that math-related children's literature is beneficial for the simultaneous development of language and math skills. Literature is actually an ideal medium for the conveyance of mathematical concepts.
Moyer's article is based on a review of literature and on expert opinion. The author also offers several examples to back up her statements, and therefore the article is well-researched and reliable. The ideas the author presents are instrumental for elementary school teachers who might otherwise rely too heavily on textbook-taught mathematics, neglecting the wealth…
In this regard, one general officer states, "Military ethics based upon 'me-ism' or 'egotism' cannot function. Military ethics is about knowing whom and what we owe. That is exactly what is meant by 'service before self' (in the Air Force), 'selfless service' (in the Army), or 'commitment' (in the Navy and Marine Corps)" (Toner, 2003, p. 37). This larger sense of duty and responsibility is the crux of military ethics today: "Military ethics cannot properly exist without the concept of owing. If we know why we owe what we do, we are able to recognize the obligation, responsibility, and duty which give rise to moral thinking and ethical reasoning" (Toner, p. 37).
Nevertheless, there are broader considerations involved in any discussion of military ethics that must be taken into account as well, particularly in an increasingly globalized world where different value systems and cultures will undoubtedly affect the perception of…
Ashmore, R.B. & Starr, W.C. (1994). Teaching ethics: An interdisciplinary approach. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.
Bruhn, J.G., Zajac, G., Al-Kazemi, a.A. & Prescott, L.D. Jr. (2002). Moral positions and academic conduct: Parameters of tolerance for ethics failure. Journal of Higher Education, 73(4), 461.
Cahn, S.M. (1986). Saints and scamps: Ethics in academia. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.
Davis, M. (1999). Ethics and the university. London: Routledge.
The majority of peoples learning in fact take place when they view and discover from those around them. In this facet, the civilization and the people who are embers of it play a major function. Civilization includes family, acquaintances, relatives and the citizens who live in the community, county or even the nation. Take for example the instance of people in indigent civilizations. In these poor civilizations, the lack of assets significantly influences and obstructs schooling. Frequently the children of such civilizations cannot afford expensive manuscripts, computers, laboratories or realistic work and may have to just barely get by. In such civilizations, stripped literacy is at times all that some can afford (Impact of Society on Education, 2009).
Societal standards also significantly impact schooling. In many underdeveloped nations where female liberation and liberty is missing, approximately half the population has strictly restricted or abridged schooling. This is due to the…
Impact of Society on Education. (2009). Retrieved January 18, 2011, from Web site:
Ruiz, Pedro Ortega and Sanchez, Eduardo Romero. (2011). Intercultural Education and Migration: Educational Proposals. Retrieved January 18, 2011, from Web site:
S. citizens. Given the occasion to get supplementary education and obtain better paying employment, undocumented students would contribute more taxes and have more money to invest in the country (Undocumented Students Face Barriers to Higher Education, 2009).
The studies challenge that immigration and educational policies should not be universal. Kids make up almost two million, or fifteen percent of the undocumented immigrants in the nation. They have had no voice in their parents' choice to come to and stay in the U.S. illegally but are nonetheless paying the penalty. They may work hard in grade school and high school, only to find the door to higher education blocked to them. The report also says that K-12 education mandated by the Supreme Court in 1982 is for not if the U.S. persists in making it hard for undocumented students to go to college (Undocumented Students Face Barriers to Higher Education, 2009).…
Melendez, Mel. (2005). Ingenuity brightens future. Retrieved January 25, 2011, from Web site:
Undocumented Students Face Barriers to Higher Education. (2009). Retrieved January 25, 2011,
from Psysorg Web site: http://www.physorg.com/news159554141.html
teaching methods have been facing increasing amounts of scrutiny. This is because there has been pressure from various stakeholders to improve accountability and quality. To determine how this can be achieved in a real world environment requires focusing on tactics that can address these challenges. The way that this will take place is through: providing a description of how new opportunities are promoted, the way a Thinking Map is utilized and identifying interactive tools that are effective. Together, these different elements will offer specific insights as to how these techniques can improve the total amounts of learning comprehension.
A description of a past lesson in which you see opportunities to promote flexible thinking and encourage students to pursue additional learning
In the past, gifted students have been difficult to motivate. This is from the material and work not being challenging enough to inspire them. To address these issues, a new…
Collaboration Teaching Methods
A co-teaching plan can effectively address the educational needs of a diverse group of students in Audrey and Betty's class. Betty and Audrey have unique priorities and together they can better meet the needs of students with a wide range of abilities and needs. Therefore, the ultimate objective for co-teaching is to incorporate different teaching styles into one classroom. Co-teaching eliminates the need to segregate students into different classrooms based on their scores on aptitude tests and enables each student to progress at his or her own pace. With creative and flexible lesson plans, Betty and Audrey can work together and independently with the students to foster their growth and development. In this case, Betty could focus more on students with special needs or whose first language is not English, while Audrey can offer accelerated students options to enhance their learning. The rationale is to create a…
The primary focus is therefore on hearing and speaking, while reading forms a part of the advanced stages of this approach. While the direct approach might be somewhat daunting for the introductory language student, culture is an aspect that makes language teaching meaningful and enjoyable. This aspect can therefore be included at all stages of the learning process.
The Reading Approach
This approach, as its name suggests, focuses mainly on reading, grammar and comprehension. According to Dr. Mora, this approach is used if the purpose of the target language is mainly academic. As mentioned earlier, not all textbooks are in English, and students in a specific field may wish to access texts in the original foreign language. In such a case, the Reading Approach is useful.
The approach comprises two priorities: the first being reading ability and secondly knowledge about the country associated with the target language. Grammar is taught…
American Education Research Association. (2006, Spring) "Foreign Language Instruction: Implementing the Best Teaching Methods" in Research Points, Vol. 4, Iss. 6. https://www.aera.net/uploadedFiles/Journals_and_Publications/Research_Points/AERA_RP_Spring06.pdf
Mlikotin, Anthony M. (1967, Oct.) "Soviet Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages." In the Modern Language Journal. Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 337-343. Retrieved from Jstor database:
Mora, Jill Kerper. (2002). "Second-Language Teaching Methods." http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/ALMMethods.htm
Improvement of learner motivation and engagement in the classroom environment requires accurate assessment of the current classroom environment and practices. This is primarily because the nature of the classroom environment plays a crucial role in determine the extent with which student participate in learning activities and are motivated. Additionally, teaching practices in the classroom not only influence students’ learning outcomes, but also affect their motivation and engagement in class activities. Accurate analysis of the classroom environment and practices requires utilization of measures that engage students in providing feedback regarding the classroom experiences. Assessment of students’ motivational perceptions and behaviors involves the use of questionnaires, which act as self-report tools (Tapola & Niemivirta, 2008). This paper focuses on examining and applying student input with respect to how classroom environment and practices affect their motivation and engagement as well as academic performance.
Part 1 – Administration of Student Survey
I also completed…
Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., Tyson, D.F. & Patall, E.A. (2008). When Are Achievement Goal Orientations Beneficial for Academic Achievement? A Closer Look at Main Effects and Moderating Factors. Retrieved March 3, 2018, from https://www.cairn-int.info/article-E_RIPSO_211_0019--when-are-achievement-goal-orientations.htm
Meece, J.L., Anderman, E.M. & Anderman, L.H. (2006). Classroom Goal Structure, Student Motivation, and Academic Achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57(1), 487-503.
Tapola, A. & Niemivirta, M. (2008). The Role of Achievement Goal Orientations in Students’ Perceptions of and Preferences for Classroom Environment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 291-312
Strehorn states that:
To begin, I try to design a syllabus/course outline that is not only readable, but something that will be utilized more than once per semester (the first day!). This document, aside from basic course information (names and dates), emphasizes my expectation that all students must accept responsibility for their own learning as well as my flexibility in teaching style. I try to make the course syllabus available on disk, and it is always useful to have a clear, legible copy that can be blown-up, or scanned if needed."
What kinds of materials or activities has the teacher used with success with English learners?
Answer: Strehorn states that materials used are: Dictionaries and thesauruses, audio tapes of each class period, books on tape, additional reading/reference sources, study guides, support information, sample problems however, it is not so much the fact in the type of the materials…
Strehorn, Kregg C. (2004) the Application of Universal Instructional Design to ESL Teaching [at] yahoo.com Universidad Cat lica de Temuco (Temuco, Chile) [Online available at http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Strehorn-UID.html
Education Teaching Methods - ESL
Even though the American Revolution is seen as justified today, it was not seen as such during its time period, and a sophisticated historian never sees historical events as inevitable. Nor is the decision to go to war ever a purely good ethical decision. Students will be able to take a similarly rigorous analytical approach later on to other periods of history, and to contemporary civil controversies.
The use of art will give added aid students who are visual learners, or who have untapped artistic talents that may go unnoticed in the academic classroom to shine. Making a poster a group project encourages collaboration and discussion. Debate and exchange of ideas is another essential element of the civic process the students will later engage in, as future voters. On this section of website, the graphic of the pointing Uncle Sam, although not historical, underlines the importance of political advertising in…
The issues raised in this article are very important. I agree with the proposition that thinking and writing are linked; so that you can understand elements of thinking through writing. However, I am not certain that it is such a strong correlation that you can determine thinking through writing. Thinking is much more complex than what can be discerned from what a student places on the script as a response. I would also add that to place a response requires thinking processes that are not mapped. By this, I mean that I am not sure what is actually measured when you assess the students writing. What level of thinking are you assessing? Some students may be able to provide the correct response but they cannot successfully articulate the processes that were employed to arrive at that position.
I am in complete agreement with the need to create tools that are…
Kwan, F. (2010). True/false test: Enhancing its power through writing. Journal of Instructional
Pedagogies, 4, 1-10. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global.
(Document ID: 2170766341)
Progression from Key Stage 3
For the 2005-year the building on strategy training initiative and material were for the purpose of increasing the rates of progress among students as well as studying how the "core subject departments can enable more pupils to progress two levels across the key stage. In order for formative assessment to occur it is critical that students have a good notion of the intentions of learning for each lesson. The Learning Intention is that which students should know or understand upon completion of the learning of the child.
Stated in the work of, ccallum & Charles (2000) is that, "Overall, teachers feel that their teaching has been positively affected by the strategies and their children are more focused, more confident and more self-evaluative, with, in many cases, noticeable improvement in their progress attributed directly to this project. Our interviews with children indicated that they have…
Macaulay, Kathryn (2005) Lesson Plans Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 English, Geography and design Technology Online available at www.bedforhigh.co.uk
Good assessment in secondary schools (Ofsted, March 2003) Online available at http://www.teaching-resource.co.uk/teachers/afl.htm
Education Teaching Methods
PLC'S: TEACHES, SCHOOLS, & CULTUES
PLC's Teachers, Schools, & Cultures
PLC's: Teachers, Schools, & Cultures
The PLC story that I choose for this paper is "Winning Streaks" by the principal of Washington Elementary School in Vancouver, WA. I chose this story because I appreciated the gradual change and progress that this school saw. Some of the most valuable excerpts of this story had to do with the struggles and the dedication of the teachers and staff at the school. For them, changing over to a PLC system was easy in theory and arduous in practice, yet they persisted through the change and came out, as the principal says, winning. It is also valuable that the teachers and staff saw value in the assessments, but did more than just obey and implement them blindly. They truly deconstructed the assessments from the perspective of the students as well as from…
Hunter, J. (2011) Professional Learning Communities. Available from http://johunter.pbworks.com/f/PLC.pdf . 2012 June 02.
McMillan, T.S. (2012) Winning Streaks. Available from http://www.allthingsplc.info/wordpress/?page_id=2620 . 2012 June 04.
Direct instruction has shown most effective in the early K-3 years, where significant IQ gains have been found and the program has shown to be effective among students with a "higher probability of failure in school over the long-term" (Becker & Engelmann, 2004). High school follow up has been conducted however and shows that direct instruction students perform better academically and are more likely to stay in school (Becker & Engelmann, 2004). Further the research supports the notion that Direct Instruction can be generalized across time and populations (Becker & Engelmann, 2004).
The Direct Instruction Model also receives the highest positive effects and outcomes among students who have been exposed to other educational models including the Open Classroom Model, the Cognitive Oriented Curriculum Model and the Behavioral Analysis Model (Becker & Engelmann, 2004).
In fact a high correlation between "academic and affective outcomes" suggest that the Direct Outcome Model should…
Becker, W.C. & Engelmann, S. (2004). "Sponsor findings from project follow through."
University of Oregon. October 11, 2004, http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~adiep/ft/becker.htm
Kozloffm, M. (n.d.). "Direct Instruction." Department of Specialty Studies, University of North Carolina at Wilmington. October 12, 2004, http://people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/effectivefeatures.html
Lindsay, J. (2004). "Direct Instruction: The Most Successful Teaching Model." October
Yet, that is arguably why the characters act as they do (Mcilliams 197). Mcilliams further notes that human incompetence is comedy (197). Since the characters are not real people but Twain's creations, students should feel free to laugh at the ignorance and misfortunes of Huck and Jim in the same way that they are free to laugh when someone deliberately falls down in an attempt at comedy.
Comedy may not be immediately obvious in Twain's portrayal of Pap Finn. Yet he is one of Twain's strongest examples of satire and irony. Carter argues that Pap Finn establishes himself as an example of all that is wrong with the Southern social system; in becoming that example, readers can look to him to see what needs to change in order for people to become better and society to improve (137). In younger classrooms, this may at first be difficult to grasp. However,…
Bollinger, Laurel. "Say It, Jim: The Morality of Connection in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." College Literature 29.1 (2002): 32-52.
Carter, Everett. "Huckleberry Fun." Making Mark Twain Work in the Classroom. Ed. James S. Leonard. Durham, NC: Duke Univeersity Press, 1999, 131-139.
Edgar, Christopher, and Ron Padgett. Classics in the Classroom: Using Great Literature to Teach Writing. New York: Teachers & Writers Collaborative, 1999.
Ferris, William R. "Trying to Tame Huck Finn." Humanities 21.1 (2000): 4-.
As a result they are often excluded from the mainstream and from being productive members of society.
I feel that it is not only ethically and morally important to help these individuals but that it also makes economic and social sense to assist those who are disadvantaged to receive a better education and advance their potential in life.
I also believe that we should be careful to consider the fact that adult education is an area that requires a very different approach and involves different modes of understanding, as well as the use of appropriate techniques, when dealing with the various categories of disadvantaged adult. For example, in terms of those adults who are disadvantaged with regard to education backlogs, one has to realize that they often face a number of unique and specific problems; such as the fact that many will have families, children and work commitments, which make…
Moore, M.G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A System's View.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Motivating Disadvantaged Adult Learners. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from http://ujop.cuni.cz/page/en/dalsi/presentations/MoDAL-basic%20idea.ppt.
Incidental teaching. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from Incidental Teaching.
Teaching disadvantaged adults could be one of the biggest challenges that an educator could face. Adults are already set in their ways. Their brains have already developed to the point where very little will be reshaped and habits are already set in. Not only can this pose difficulty when trying to teach something new to adults, it becomes an even harder task when trying to teach something novel to disadvantaged adults. Situational factors such as poverty, lack of complete grasp of the English language, and cultural factors could come into play and both negatively and positively affect their ability to learn and be taught (Kerka, 2002). A key concept in teaching disadvantaged adults is in the methods and materials chosen to appropriately affect their learning. An educator needs to make sure that these things are appropriate to an adult given their disadvantaged situation and that whatever method is chosen will…
Kerka, S. (2002). Teaching adults: Is it different? Educational Resources Information Center. 21(3): 32-33.
Kozma R. & Wagner. D. (2006). Reaching the most disadvatanged with ICT: What works? Education and Training Policy ICT and Learning. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Chapter 5: 97.
Lyn, T. & Ducklin, A. (1995). Further education colleges and educationally disadvantaged adults. Scottish Educational Review. 27(2): 154-164.
Students that have adapted, whethe it is fo cultual easons o because an anothe style was bette suited fo the subject, may continue to show highe achievement even in futue classooms that do not implement the teaching styles that have been found to be ideal fo achievement levels. Futue eseach should also look to see if teaching styles beyond the ecommendations of No Child Left Behind can acquie the impovement in achievement NCLB seeks.
Bouque J., Bouchamma, Y., & Laose, F. (2010). Aboiginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods. The Albeta Jounal of Educational Reseach, 56(1), 57-71.
Cabo, M. (2009). Match the Style of Instuction to the Style of Reading. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 373-378.
Mogan, H. (2010). Impoving Schooling fo Cultual Minoities: The Right Teaching Styles Can Make a Big Diffeence. Educational Hoizons, 88(2), 114-120.
Payne-Tsoupos, C. (2010). No Child Left Behind: Disincentives to…
references for teaching styles matter in academic achievement: scientific and practical implications. Educational Psychology, 28(6), 615-625.
There are some papers that are to be released and referred to by her in the above article. In the first of those papers, the belief is that the present result of the aptitude tests of the teachers today is the same as was the case a generation earlier, but the best among them are not likely to become teachers. In the second paper, the result shows that the women from the best colleges are not continuing to be teachers as the pay received by them as teachers is low, and not due to the attraction of higher pay in other occupations. On the level it can be assumed that if the salary of teachers were better, a lot of the best students would still be going into teaching.
According to the columnist, "Teachers aren't exactly getting worse. They're getting more consistently mediocre." She ends her own article by saying…
Ave, Melanie. Educators want more Mr.'s in their classrooms. St. Petersburg Times. 14 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.sptimes.com/2004/11/14/Tampabay/Educators_want_more_M.shtml . Accessed on 27 May, 2005
Bhat, Sanjay. Schools struggle to reduce high teacher turnover. 3 January, 2005. The Seattle Times. Retrieved at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002138717_turnover03m.html . Accessed on 28 May, 2005
Direct Instruction: Is it the Most Effective Science Teaching Strategy? 15 December, 2004. NSTA Web News Digest. Retrieved at http://www.nsta.org/main/news/stories/education_story.php?news_story_ID=50045Accessed on 28 May, 2005
Errickson, Tiffany. Mentoring teachers. September 21, 2004. Retrieved at http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,595092712,00.html . Accessed on 27 May, 2005
Teaching used to be easier than it is now. Teachers presented the information, assigned homework, made up tests, and graded students. It was the teacher's job to separate the wheat from the chaff, and the test was one of the most effective tools for that important task. Tests were sometimes complicated or tricky. Students who were weak readers found that their reading difficulties depressed their grades in all subjects, because only the best readers could negotiate the complicated test formats often used in social studies and science classes.
However, it was an easy way to grade. Tests were constructed to have ten items, not nine or eleven; or twenty, not nineteen or twenty-one. This made grading easier: "-2" to "-0" was an A, because those grades were 90% or higher.
The way teachers graded affected the way they wrote their tests: that 20th question might not have been important; that…
This type of education has worked best within societies that contain large amounts of oppressive practices, where the oppressed need to learn some autonomy. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000).
It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. Some environments, as seen above, would benefit more from the behaviorist philosophy than from the humanist philosophy, and vice versa. It is therefore important to establish an initial focus, determine goals, and assess student needs. When there is for example a need for strongly skill-centered learning, such as a computer-skills course, this would benefit little from a behaviorist methodology. When the course is however more flexible and artistic, it might be better to focus on students' individual needs and concerns. In order to find what would work best in a specific classroom therefore, once should assess needs…
Bullen, Mark. (2004) "Andragogy and University Distance Education." University of British Columbia. http://www2.cstudies.ubc.ca/~bullen/bullen1.html
Kett, J.F. (1994) the Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties. From self-improvement to adult education in America, 1750-1990, Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press.
Merriam, S.B. And Caffarella, R.S. (1991) Learning in Adulthood. A comprehensive guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy', the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.Last updated: January 30, 2005
Teaching Impression and eality
Out of all things I expected myself to do, teaching was probably the least of my expectations. However, things unraveled and led me to get a job at ICCD School.
Prior to this job, I had no experience as a teacher at any level. However, I had been raised by two parents in the field of education, both of whom would always come home with their share of amazing stories that I enjoyed hearing. I also got an ample amount of opportunities observing my parents at their work place, during breaks, when they would be busy with enrichment programs and would bring me along so that I would be able to spend quality time with them. Although I can't say I spent a lot of time bonding with them during their working hours, I can doubtlessly say I got to learn a lot from those trips.…
Magolda, M.B. (2000). Teaching to promote intellectual maturity. Jaussy Bass Publishers.
Orfalea, P. (2008). An eye for opportunity . Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 34(3), 46
Reid, G. (2003). Dyslexia a practitioner's handbook. Moray House School of Education University of Edinburgh
Slavin, R.E. (2001). Effective programs for latino students in elementary and middle schools . Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Klockare et al.'s "An interpretive phenomenological analysis of how professional dance teachers implement psychological skills training in practice." This article is beneficial to virtually anyone who is working as a dance instructor. Its area of focus is the psychological skills that are associated with dance (primarily implicitly). The original research conducted in the article attempts to determine what specific psychological skills dance teachers believe is important for their students to learn, and the desired outcomes that such skills engender.
The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with six different dance teachers to attain data to help them answer the aforementioned research question. Furthermore, the authors also analyzed these interviews through an interpretive phenomenological analysis method, which is "suitable for novel research areas" (Klockare et al., 2011). The results were extremely revealing. Firstly, they indicated that the instructors sought to implement psychological skills training at an organizational, and not necessarily individual, level. Granted,…
Ellinor Klockare, Henrik Gustafsson & Sanna M. Nordin-Bates (2011) An interpretative phenomenological analysis of how professional dance teachers implement psychological skills training in practice, Research in Dance Education, 12:3, 277-293, DOI: 10.1080/14647893.2011.614332
She says that even "ordinary" situations, as soon as mandatory state testing is emphasized, that testing process becomes less valuable because it often ends up measuring results that are more representative of test-taking preparation rather than they are representative of genuine learning and academic proficiency.
The interview subject expressed intense frustration at the way that the tenure system in modern education undermines the system. She has encountered several different fellow teachers who were tenured but clearly no longer motivated or particularly interested in teaching except as a regular paycheck. Some of them simply do the minimum and never challenge their students. Other teachers have even been disciplined for serious conduct issues. However, those teachers are almost always retained and even when they are suspended or placed on modified administrative duty, they still receive their full salaries. According to the interview subject, the tenure system is much too protective of…
I believe that students who are capable of 'learning to learn' are much more capable as professionals, in whatever field they aspire to, but especially nursing. It is important for these students to understand the importance of continuing to learn and applying the knowledge they gain through learning to other situations. As Gagne espoused a progression of intellectual knowledge in a step-by-step process, I too would require the same type of process from my students. Beginning with the most fundemental nursing requirements and standards and adding to that each day in my classroom would assist my students in gaining the necessary knowledge they will need to succeed in the nursing community. Progression allows for a simple method of adding incrementally to their knowledge.
As I stated in the opening paragraph, my teaching philosophy will likely be very different in the future; that is because I will be using the same…
Basi, S.; (2011) Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of service-learning through a school-based community project, Nursing Education Perspectives, Vol. 32, Issue 3, pp. 162 -- 167
Lillibridge, J.; (2007) Using clinic nurses as precptors to teach leadership and management to senior nursing students: A qualitative descriptive study, Nurse Education in Practice, Vol. 7, pp. 44-52
This is when learning comprehension will decrease. As a result, these concepts should be used to create a foundation for everyone. (McLoughlin, 2005, pp. 125 -- 129)
This means that the ideas presented in a traditional format should be augmented with the PBL method. This will build upon the foundation that was established and it will help students to use these concepts on their own. It is at this point that the total amounts of learning comprehension will increase dramatically. Once this happens, is when the student will be able to recall these ideas at different times throughout the course of their lives.
Evidence of this can be seen with research conducted by Dobbs (2008). She determined that effectively integrating different traditional and PBL methods will help to improve learning comprehension. This is because these approaches are presenting these ideas to students in a various formats. (Dobbs, 2008, pp. 9…
What is Project-Based Learning. (2012). PBL Online. Retrieved from: http://pbl-online.org/About/whatisPBL.htm
World Education Report. (1998). UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/education/information/wer/PDFeng/wholewer98.PDF
Dobbs, V. (2008). Comparing Student Achievement. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Press.
Jin, D. (2011). Advances in Computer Science. Berlin: Springer.
teaching system in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Rigorous daily challenges face teachers who are striving to offer their students the best of their knowledge with regard to their subject matter. Scenarios in which more than one subject is incorporated help both teachers and students to derive greater enjoyment and learning from their education. A teaching scenario as the one described, therefore, could be of great benefit to students aiming at a career in teaching.
Such students may for example learn much regarding the subject matter to be incorporated in the lesson, as well as specific teaching methods to impart this knowledge to students. It is for example important to gather enough information regarding the specific issues and subjects involved in order to teach effectively. A variety of research methods can then be used in order to do this.
Teaching students can also learn how to make…
I am a percussion teacher, and I instruct classes of various sizes in a range of drumming techniques. My students a very diverse in terms of ages and backgrounds, and my classes can include up to twelve students. Some classes focus on group forms of percussion, such as drumming circles, which require skills for both individual and group drumming.
My teaching gradually evolved from my own practice in percussion and music. While I was not formally trained in teaching, as I work with more students, I am quickly developing a deeper understanding of the importance of teaching theories, curriculum planning, and proper assessment.
In this teaching portfolio I aim to first, summarize the feedback I have regarding my lesson planning presentation of material. Over the course of preparing this portfolio I have researched additional teaching and assessment methods, and I will outlined my preferred approaches. Finally, I will…
Asmus, Edward A. (1999). Special Focus: Assessment in Music Education
Music Educators Journal. Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 19-24.
Booth, E. (2009). "The Music teaching Artist's Bible: Becoming a virtuoso educator." Oxford University Press. New York.
Fisher, D., Frey, N. (2007). "Checking for understanding: formative assessment techniques for your classroom." Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, Virginia.
proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.
Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.
Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.
eager freshman English writer comes to the process of composition with many pre-conceived, previously successful methods for editing a first draft. A favorite teacher's well-intentioned message, a parent's unskilled assessment, or the student's own perceptions can stymie the editorial and revision process.
Not just another line item to be ticked off a list of 'to dos' when completing a well-crafted paper, revision is a key element to the desired end result of quality, thoughtful discussion, and scholarly dissection. Problematic, therefore, is overcoming several societal expectations of the writing craft -- i.e., doing it well, with structure and individuality.
Learning to properly revise in an English class can support scholarship in subjects from Calculus to Macular iology. The revision process is not limited to the prosaic essay or doctoral dissertation; understanding how to communicate in a concise, clear, and well-thought out manner is important to a successful educational career.
Bibliography for Teachers of Writing." Bedford/St. Martin's. .
Bishop, Wendy. Elements of Alternate Style: Essays on Writing and Revision. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1997.
Brown, H. Douglas. Principles of language learning and teaching. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1980.
Fasheh, Munir. "From the Soils of Culture: The Qalb el-Umour Project in the Arab World." Vimukt Shiksha. Special Issue: Unfolding Learning Societies: Deepening the Dialogues, Shikshantar. 2001.
Fregeau, Laureen. "Using dialogue and reflective journals." Writing across the Curriculum Newsletter V2 (1996): n1, 3.
teachers assess only the final product of a student's writing work. The result of this is that students are left with the impression that writing is a one-time product that cannot improve beyond the first attempt. Teachers are faced with the dilemma that students deliver work with too much room for improvement. This makes adequate assessment, teaching and improvement strategies difficult. If writing in class is treated as a process with various stages, then improvements are easier, less overwhelming for the teacher and more understandable for students. The lesson will therefore focus on the point the chapter makes regarding writing as a process, and the fact that writing can be improved throughout every stage.
Students too often feel that writing exists only to complete a finish product. Teachers often encourage them in this view. The rationale of this lesson is then to focus students' attention on the fact that…
The Teacher’s Role in A Multiple Intelligence Learning Environment
The role of the teacher in a multiple intelligence learning environment is transformed from the normal learning environment in that the teacher no longer stands in front of the classroom and lectures to the student. In multiple intelligence, the teacher's role is to observe the students from different perspectives, develop the curriculum for the students, find activities that assist the students to learn based on their individual smarts, and plan the design of the lessons (Ba? & Beyhab, 2017). Teachers are no longer required to present their lessons using the traditional methods, but rather in a wide array of ways like using music, art activities, multimedia, role play, and many more. This allows the teacher to be keen on the students and have a different group of students all learning the same subject and topic using different methods based on the…
Teaching and Learning Through Using Stories in the Young Learner Classroom - Annotated Bibliography
In my research paper, I intend to analyse the methodologies and implications of using stories as a vital tool for young learners in a class room. To support my study, I have studied five papers that are either from a book or from a journal. The first and the fourth paper summarized here talks about how stories can help in increasing the vocabulary of children. Stories are described as a means to sustain brain activity in young people. The second paper by Husbands and Pearce talks about the need to have a multi-pronged teaching strategy to have an inclusive learning environment. Their article supports the need of story-telling as part of the strategy. The third paper ideates the need of creating a syllabus parallel to the contemporary one with main focus on story-telling. The final article…
contacting 6 middle schools in Winchester, VA, where English grammar is taught to 6th graders. Three schools will be identified that teach sentence diagramming to students as part of the teaching methods. Three schools will be identified that do not teach sentence diagramming. Students from the 6th grade classes of these 2 sets of three schools will be selected for the study by delivering participation consent forms to the teachers of the classes. The students who complete the consent forms and have parents' signatures will be included in the study. A sample size of 100 students total will be the target. If fewer than 100 students are obtained for the study, it will proceed regardless but the limitation will be noted in the analysis and discussion portion of the study and how its impact on the hypothesis will be addressed (Elwell, 2013).
How Study is Performed
Support from teachers at…
Elwell. (2013). Cheat Sheet Topic: Hypotheses.
Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. & Airasian. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Boston, MA: Pearson Publishing.
Thus, children with autism do not pick up on social cues in the environment.
Francke, and Geist 125)
Despite the varied understandings of the disorder and its varied presentations, much success has been seen with intensive educational intervention, that involves awareness and understanding as well as concrete developmentally strong intervention strategies that help the environment rather than the child adapt to learning.
Breakey, Christine. The Autism Spectrum and Further Education: A Guide to Good Practice. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley, 2006.
This full length book provides a good overview of various approaches to treating autism in the field of education.
Bregman, Joel D. "Chapter 1 Definitions and Characteristics of the Spectrum." Autism Spectrum Disorders: Identification, Education, and Treatment. Ed. Dianne Zager. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. 3-39.
This article describes in greater detail the varied nature of the disorder, including definitions and degrees of affect associated with it.
Breakey, Christine. The Autism Spectrum and Further Education: A Guide to Good Practice. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley, 2006.
This full length book provides a good overview of various approaches to treating autism in the field of education.
Bregman, Joel D. "Chapter 1 Definitions and Characteristics of the Spectrum." Autism Spectrum Disorders: Identification, Education, and Treatment. Ed. Dianne Zager. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. 3-39.
This article describes in greater detail the varied nature of the disorder, including definitions and degrees of affect associated with it.
Baxter, P., Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
Five Approaches. CA: SAGE.
Merriam, S. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. CA: Jossey-Bass.
Teaching Philosophy and Educating Students
Traditionally, the focus of education has been the primary "3Rs" -- writing, reading, and arithmetic. ut with ever-growing technological innovation driving universal change, educators need to reconsider whether or not the skills taught in schools truly offer learners the best chance to enjoy success in life, at school, and in the workplace (Sledd, 2015).
From my personal experiences and approaches in the area of education, some things vital to me in the roles of student and teacher are:
Great teachers are kind to everyone around them- students, their parents, coworkers, etc. Kindness truly has a great impact on the school and classroom environment, with students feeling loved, welcomed, and cared for.
The profession of teaching is humanistic. Compassion represents the utmost sense of understanding, as well as showing other people that they are important. Compassionate teachers instill this quality in their pupils through their actions,…
Alrubail, R. (2015, January 14). The heart of teaching: What it means to be a great teacher. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/discussion/heart-teaching-what-it-means-be-great-teacher
Alrubail's article discusses teaching requirements, apart from the experience and knowledge criteria. A student-teacher bond must exist, which can be made possible if the teacher is kind, compassionate, optimistic, inspiring, and empathic. The scholar has provided valuable advice to current and future teachers, in this essay.
Erkilic, T. A. (2008). Importance of educational philosophy in teacher training for educational sustainable development. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 3. Retrieved from http://idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr3(1)/1.pdf
This study's chief purpose is discussing and proposing a working educational philosophy through a comparison of existing main education philosophies, with regard to attitudes on important questions having basic ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) properties. The five key educational philosophies, namely- perennialism, reconstructionism, essentialism, existentialism, and progressivism, have been discussed according to curriculum, classroom management, teaching methods, and teacher role and evaluation.
Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Violations as they Pertain to the Case of Sonya
An educational institution's principal greatly influences the learning/teaching of every student within the school, for better or for worse. Studies have found that principals' approach to their post, and its eventual effect on enrolled pupils, is dependent upon their style of leadership. Some styles prove to have more benefits for pupils than others. An especially vulnerable student group is students with special education needs. They are, in fact, so susceptible that regulations are made for their protection, designed specially to look after their education. Such laws foster collaboration, inclusive planning, and shared leadership-- leadership traits that have been proven as having the most favorable impact on all students' outcomes (Schulze, 2014).
The school administrator's role as an educational leader has an extensive history. Currently, however, the significance of this particular role is greater than ever…
Boscardian, M. L. (2011). Exploring the Relationship Between Special Education Teachers and Professional Learning Communities. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 62.
Case Studies in Special Education Law: No Child Left Behind Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Case 2.2 "Sonya" pages 30-32 only) (1st Edition)
Diliberto J. A., Brewer D. (2012). Six tips for successful IEP Meetings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44,30-37
Harrison, D. (2010). Meeting the Needs of Special Needs Students Virtually. The Journal.
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
The teacher must use effective discipline to ensure students do not interrupt one another, know to raise their hands, not get out of their seats during class, or engage in disturbing activities. This is disrespectful to the learning of others as well as simply against the rules. Drawing up a list of rules to obey for the students is one way to help students understand how the U.S. Constitution, for example, was negotiated and formulated.
Student assignments will include everything from pretending to be various historical characters in costume, to doing Internet research to understand what are reliable and unreliable sources, as well as more standardized essays and tests to prepare them to meet nationalized testing standards. Field trips will reinforce many of class lessons. To encourage student confidence without relaxing curriculum standards, teachers should assign a variety of projects in a variety of media. Some students are natural talkers…
While commenting on the works of Baldwin & Ford, Detterman (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993) observed that the American enterprises were more likely to lose in case of teaching employers as they diverted lump sum of $100 billion annually to tutor employees. The loss is experienced because whatever is learned in an adult learning session is not practiced at the workplaces.
This problem is indicative of the dire need for combining knowledge with current practical work. The internships of doctors and people doing Ph. D serve as examples to show the link between learning and practical work (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The variations in practical applications and formal learning make it necessary that lifetime learners find out fresh strategies to tackle these variations. These variations comprise of the high work requirements that make the job training mandatory, unavoidable variation in an occupation, tech-literacy and the disparity created between the skilled and…
Detterman, D.K., & Sternberg, R.J. (1993). Transfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing,.
Fischer, G. (1991). Supporting learning on demand with design environments. International Conference on the Learning Sciences, pp. 165-172.
Fischer, G. (1998c). Making learning a part of life-beyond the 'gift-wrapping' approach of technology. In P. Alheit & E. Kammler (Eds.), Lifelong learning and its impact on social and regional development. Donat Verlag, Bremen, pp. 435-462.
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind, New York: Basic Books.
Teaching Style of Lecturing
From the ancient Grecian sophists delivering rhetorical oratories to adoring throngs, to the staid scientists presenting analytical treatises to graduate students, vocalizing an organized lecture to a group of students has long been among the hallmarks of traditional educational delivery. The process of arranging complex subject matter within the relatively accessible framework of lecturing affords educators a number of distinct benefits, including the standardization of student exposure to learning material, the ability to customize lessons in accordance with the collective needs of a class, and the opportunity to inject creativity into dense and demanding instruction. Despite the historical reliance on lecturing to impart knowledge and skills to a wide audience, however, the modernization of educational communication which has occurred in conjunction with the digital age has exposed many of disadvantages inherent to the typical teacher-delivered lecture. The availability of online lecture series delivered directly from experts…
Coughlin, S. (2013, May 01). Jimmy wales: Boring university lectures 'are doomed'. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-22160988
Exley, K., & Dennick, R. (2009). Giving a lecture: from presenting to teaching. (Vol. 10). Newy York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Knight, J.K., & Wood, W.B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education, 4(4), 298-310. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1305892/
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction. (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Teaching Strategy for Special Ed
Special Education Standard
Direct instruction is the most widely-used teaching strategy, although it has become controversial in recent years. Critics argue that it limits the creativity of good teachers and provides a crutch for poor ones (What is direct instruction? 2011). It is a teacher-centered approach that relies on structured lesson plans, offering little or no variation and no opportunity for discussion or active participation. The effectiveness of direct instruction has been demonstrated widely but it can be a poor choice for students with disabilities who would benefit from another approach.
What is Direct Instruction?
"Direct instruction is a theory of education which posits that the most effective way to teach is by explicit, guided instructions" (What is direct instruction? 2011). Although it is the oldest form of instruction, it gained attention in the 1980s when implemented in the schools of inner-city Baltimore. Instruction was…
Adams, G., and Carnine, D. (2003). Direct instruction. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://nichcy.org/research/summaries/abstract1
National Institute for Direct Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nifdi.org/15/
What is direct instruction? (2011). Teach-nology. Retrieved from http://www.teach-