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Mainstreaming involves placing special education students in regular classrooms as much as possible, and using resource rooms where the student receives special tutoring, review and instruction. Inclusion, which is considered a goal of mainstreaming is the total integration of special education students and services into the general education classroom where special education teachers collaborate with general education teachers to teach the entire class. There is still debate in education about the pros and cons of total inclusion of special education students as opposed to having them in special classes. Full inclusion of special education students would require restructuring several traditional educational policies. It also necessitates extensive collaboration between special education teachers, general education teachers, and support paraprofessionals. And it requires restructuring of the curriculum and lessons. One of the critical issues in mainstreaming and inclusion is the training of the teachers involved. This perhaps decides, more than other…
1.Bricker, D. (2000). Inclusion: How the scene has changed. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Spring 2000. Retrieved October 23, 2003,from Find Articles database. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/mOHDG/1-20/68206898/print.jhtml
2. Frederickson, N., Turner, Jane J. (2003). Utilizing the classroom peer group to address children's social needs: an evaluation of the circle of friends intervention approach. Journal of Special Education. Winter 2003. Retrieved October 23, 2003, from Find articles database. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/mOHDF/4_36/97116591/print.jhtml .
3. Kohler, Frank W., Strain, Philip S. (1999). Maximizing peer-mediated resources in integrated preschool classroom. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Summer 1999. Retrieved October 23, 2003, from Find articles database. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/mOHDG/2_19/55149241/print.html
Problems Long Division
Area Perimeter and Volume
atio Proportion Percentages
Strategic teaching describes an instructional process that focus on student's thinking capabilities and goes well beyond that. Strategic learning is correlated with strategic teaching. A strategic teacher should have an understanding of variables regarding instruction and he is required to be aware of the cognitive requirements of learning like sense of timing and a style of management. He should be a thinker and decision maker while possessing a rich knowledge base and last but not the least he is modeler and mediator of instructions (Montague & Jitendra, 2006; Mccuien, 2011).
Classroom management is another point for strategic teaching, which is considered to be the most important in maintaining an effective teaching environment that the lessons are running smoothly each day. As a teacher, one must encourage and motivate his pupil and it should be of top priorities. It…
Archer, A.L. & Hughes, C.A., 2011. Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching. s.l.:Guilford Press.
Handley, B., 2010. Speed Math for Kids: The Fast, Fun Way To Do Basic Calculations. s.l.:John Wiley & Sons.
Mccuien, A., 2011. Teach Multiplication, Division, and the Time Table All at the Same Time: An Instructional Guide for Learning Basic Math Skills. s.l.:AuthorHouse.
Montague, M. & Jitendra, A.K., 2006. Teaching Mathematics to Middle School Students With Learning Difficulties. s.l.:Guilford Press.
As such students at similar levels in both categories were grouped together to ensure optimal benefits for all participants.
When evaluated on a practical level, it was found that communicating the benefits of the program to refugee communities was critical to success. Parents in these communities needed to understand that the program offers a pathway for their children towards success and employment, as well as an effective future in the country.
Specifically, the program offers a "hands on" learning opportunity for students in Years 11 and 12 of their secondary schooling. While it is a recognized senior qualification, its focus is on practical learning, helping students to enter apprenticeships, training at TAFE, or entering the workforce after completing their schooling. The program is sufficiently flexible to allow students to design study programs that suit their needs and interests on a very practical level. This creates a platform to help young…
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (2008), Strengthening Outcomes: Refugee Students in Government Schools, DEECD, Melbourne. http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/StrengtheningOutcomes-rpt-v1.pdf
Department of Education, Employment and Training (2001), Guidelines for Managing Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Schools, DEET, Melbourne. http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/lem/GuidelinesforSchools.pdf
Francis, S and Cornfoot, S (2007). Working with Multicultural Youth: Programs, Strategies and Future Directions, Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, Woden, ACT. Available at http://www.cmy.net.au/Assets/212/1/working_with_multicultural_youth_programs_october_2007.pdf
Garrett, K.E. (2006, Aug.) Living in America: Cheallenges Facing new Immigrants and Refugees. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Available at http://www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/21623.pdf
Teaching Strategies for Students With ADHD
The article by authors Kiuhara, O'Neill, Hawken, & Graham discuss ways to improve persuasive writing in high school students. They stress the importance of persuasive writing because students with ADHD had difficulty planning and drafting text. Any teaching strategy that dealt with these weaknesses could improve the writing ability of a student with ADHD. "Intervention studies with younger, middle school students with disabilities shows that their persuasive writing can be improved by teaching them strategies for planning and drafting such text" (Kiuhara, O'Neill, Hawken, & Graham, 2012, p. 337).
The authors found a modified version, developed by De La Paz and Graham geared towards the education of younger middle school students, can be upgraded so that it would be more relevant to high school aged students (Kiuhara, O'Neill, Hawken, & Graham, 2012). The De La Paz and Graham approach addressed two sets of intellectual…
Kiuhara, S.A., O'Neill, R.E., Hawken, L.S., & Graham, S. (2012). The Effectiveness of Teaching 10th-Grade Students STOP, AIMS, and DARE for Planning and Drafting Persuasive Text. Exceptional Children, 78(3), 335-355. Retrieved from http://ecx.sagepub.com/content/78/3/335.full.pdf+html
A sad reality in the world today is that many school children suffer academically not so much because of a lack of prowess as because of the various social and economic challenges they face. Countless children suffer economic pressures at home and have little time or energy left to pay attention to school world. More often than not, parental support for school children in these circumstances is minimal at best and non-existent at worst. Many of these children are also from minority groups and sometimes find themselves the brunt of racial slurs and prejudice at school. It is therefore well nigh impossible to classify these children as anything other than "at risk." It is with these students in mind that numerous studies have been conducted focusing on educational strategies and programs that could assist children classified as at risk. This literature review will focus on what educators can learn…
Lanier, M. And Glasson, G. (2014). Investigating Strategies for Enhancing Achievement for Urban African-American Students in Middle School Science Classroom. Insights on Learning Disabilities 11(1). Retrieved from: www.ldworldwide.org
Oreopoulos, P., Brown, R.S., and Lavecchia, A.M. (2014, Aug.). Pathways to Education: An Integrated Approach to Helping At-Risk High School Students. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from: http://chairepro.mobme.info/
Paul-Fitzpatrick, A. (2014). Implementing teaching strategies to students with difficulties in learning in a mainstream inner city school -- teachers' experiences. Research Report. Retrieved from: http://uwispace.sta.uwi.edu/
Wolniak, G.C., Rude, P.A., and Rekoutis, P.A. (2012, Apr.). Fault Lines in Postsecondary Educational Opportunity: A Mixed-Methods Examination of At-Risk Students. AERA Annual Meeting. Retrieved from: http://www.norc.org/
Lesson Plan - Nurses
The context in which the lesson plan will be implemented will be a classroom setting with nursing students attending a graduate level course in nursing. The classroom does not necessarily have to be a physical classroom but can be taught in a clinical environment as well. The lesson plan can also be adapted to small groups or large classroom sizes. For this particular paper, the lesson plan is geared towards a large classroom environment with at least 20 graduate student nurses between the ages of 21 and 43 years old. The lesson topic is one that is defined by both the use of motor skills and the implementation of technology, as well as cognitive recognition of the capabilities of a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) when used to create, modify, maintain and transmit an Electronic Patient ecord (EP).
There are a number of different learning…
Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning (2010) accessed on December 9, 2011 at http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html
Hauer, J. & Quill, T.; (2011) Educational needs assessment, development of learning objectives, and choosing a teaching approach, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Vol. 14, Issue 4, pp. 503 -- 508
Sharma, S.; Sastri, O.; Ahluwalia, P.K.; (2010) Design of instructional objectives of undergraduate solid state physics course: A first step to physics education research, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1263, Issue 1, pp. 171 -- 174
Tschannen, D. & Kalisch, B.J.; (2009) The impact of nurse/physician collaboration on patient length of stay, Journal of Nursing Management, Vol. 17, Issue 7, pp. 796 -- 803
Nursing Distance Education Research
Distance education is continually growing and expanding, including in nursing education, but problems still exist. Many educators have limited background in high-end technologies and instructional design (Holly, 2009). There is concern on how the technological revolution is affecting nurse educators in times of educator shortages (Axley, 2008). There is also concerns in teaching methods where the majority of questions are lower level questions with limited high level questions, such as analysis, synthesis, or evaluation, as well as problem-based learning may not obtain all needed criteria (Russell, 2007).
Today's learners are active and self-directed with widely varied knowledge, background, interests, and educational gaps (Holly, 2009). The different healthcare settings require a nurse's literacy in information technology for evidence-based practice, such as with electronic medical records. Nurse educators need strong knowledge in information technologies and instructional design to include all needed curriculum as well as core competencies, informatics,…
Axley, L. (2008). The Integration of Technology into Nursing Curriculum: Supporting Faculty via the Technology Fellowship Program. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 13(3), Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MaianMenuCategories...Article/PreviousTopic/IntegrationofTechnology.html .
Holly, C. (2009). The Case of Distant Education in Nursing. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(3), Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no3/holly_0909.htm .
Russell, A.T. (2007). Teaching Strategies Promoting Active Learning in Healthcare Education. Journal of Education and Human Development 1(1), Retrieved from http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1025.htm.
Formative Action Research
The goal of teaching is to have students achieve the desired learning outcomes through retaining concepts and applying them to real-world scenarios. However, there are various teaching techniques that are available to teachers in their efforts to promote student learning and achievement. In most cases, teachers tend to use the same teaching and learning approaches that were used to teach them. As the modern society continues to develop, there are concerns regarding the most suitable teaching strategy that would help to meet students’ needs and learning goals. Current teaching approaches are classified either as teacher-led or student-led teaching techniques. For new and existing teachers, the identification of the most suitable strategy to employ in the classroom is critical toward achieving the desired learning goals and improving student achievement through meeting their learning needs.
Part 1: Purpose, Problem Statement, and Research Questions
This formative action research paper…
Meguid, E.A. & Collins, M. (2017, March 17). Students’ Perceptions of Lecturing Approaches: Traditional Versus Interactive Teaching. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 8, 229-241.
The Room 241 Team. (2012, December 31). Which is Best: Teacher-Centered or Student-Centered Education? Retrieved from Concordia University - Portland website: https://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/classroom-resources/which-is-best-teacher-centered-or-student-centered-education/
Low Preparation of ESL Teachers and Students' Scores
Crumpler, . (2014). ESL Teacher electracy: A shift from flat to digital teaching and learning.
ESL Globe, 10 (2) Retrieved from: https://www.ncsu.edu/eslglobe/ELECTRACY.htm
ESL education, like all of education, is changing. The article stresses the need for ESL teachers to focus on the 3Cs of critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity. ESL teachers often struggle with teaching students how to synthesize and analyze texts in a new language. Teachers need to also prepare students to cope with online standardized assessments. PARCC and Smarter alanced Assessments will soon be digitalized, along with many other common state and national standardized tests. Using technology is a critical component of ESL education, particularly for students unfamiliar with technology in their home environments.
Duff, P. (2001). Language, literacy, content, and (pop) culture: Challenges for ESL students in mainstream courses. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 58 (1). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.58.1.103…
Vernon, S. (2012). ESL Classroom Activities for Teens and Adults: ESL games, fluency activities and grammar drills for EFL and ESL students. 3rd Ed. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
One way to enhance ESL student's comfort level with using English independently and to acculturate them to slang and English vocabulary is the use of games in the classroom. This book discusses how to use games like BINGO, Mad Libs, movie trivia, and creative storytelling to overcome student shyness. "Games provide a safe, fun outlet for competitive urges" and prevent students from becoming to grade-focused even while they teach important skills (Vernon, 2012, p.12).
Classrooms have traditionally been the stage for social change as they provide avenues for promoting and accelerating new ideas. As part of promoting and accelerating new ideas, teachers help students to develop critical thinking, self-reflection and collaboration skills that are essential to promote the creation of a better society (Blake, 2020). Therefore, diversity and social justice are important to social work and related curricular content. Accreditation standards including Common Core Standards mandate curricular content for teaching diversity and social justice. When developing instructional strategies for their classes, teachers need to integrate diversity and social justice components with respect to mandated curricular content. This instructional 3-week unit for 6th grade history class leverages a contemporary educational theme in diversity and social justice.
Unit Background and Contemporary Educational Theme
As they continue to progress in their learning, sixth grade students are generally ready to enhance their understanding of history. The…
Teaching Strategy for Special Ed
Special Education Standard
Direct instruction is the most widely-used teaching strategy, although it has become controversial in recent years. Critics argue that it limits the creativity of good teachers and provides a crutch for poor ones (What is direct instruction? 2011). It is a teacher-centered approach that relies on structured lesson plans, offering little or no variation and no opportunity for discussion or active participation. The effectiveness of direct instruction has been demonstrated widely but it can be a poor choice for students with disabilities who would benefit from another approach.
What is Direct Instruction?
"Direct instruction is a theory of education which posits that the most effective way to teach is by explicit, guided instructions" (What is direct instruction? 2011). Although it is the oldest form of instruction, it gained attention in the 1980s when implemented in the schools of inner-city Baltimore. Instruction was…
Adams, G., and Carnine, D. (2003). Direct instruction. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://nichcy.org/research/summaries/abstract1
National Institute for Direct Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nifdi.org/15/
What is direct instruction? (2011). Teach-nology. Retrieved from http://www.teach-
We talked in class about the things a flat person would have trouble doing and the dangers that a flat person might encounter.
The parts of decorating and sending the flat person worked because it allowed children of all abilities and educational needs to become involved with the project and have a hands on approach to the story.
The areas where I feel the lesson was weak included the testing of the story comprehension through written testing. The children are still learning to correlate storylines to ideas and some of them had difficulty moving to the next strategy of teaching with regard to the story.
When I do this project next year I will incorporate some music that can relate to the story so that children can learn to imbed the story in their minds through the memory of lyrics and musical notes that go with it.
The children did…
Brown, Jeff. Flat Stanley. Publisher: HarperTrophy; Revised edition (March 1996)
Post-Observation of Field Teaching Experiences
The purpose of this paper is to provide a description concerning what was learned about teaching and learning in the course in general and through the observation of real-world classroom teachers as well as how this author plans to implement the lessons learned in his own teaching practice. To this end, a series of major take-aways on teaching and learning are discussed together with supporting examples, followed by a description of selected learning strategies and evidence-based practices that were observed which the author intends to implement to support student learning. Finally, a summary of the teaching experiences and the findings that emerged from this reflection are presented in the conclusion.
The four field experiences completed during this course yielded a number of significant take-aways that provided valuable insights and exemplars, but the following observations represent those that had a particularly significant impact:
Teaching Critical Thinking
Critical thinking has been explained as the capability to evaluate and assess information and facts. Critical thinkers establish important issues and concerns, construct them clearly, collect and examine pertinent data, make use of abstract concepts, contemplate open-mindedly, and also communicate efficiently with other individuals (Duron et al., 2006).
I recommend the following 4 teaching strategies to be the most relevant to critical thinking. (We will only discuss two in detail here):
Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
Teach the process
Adapt tasks and assessments
Incorporate games into lessons
Teaching Strategy 1: Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
"Teachers who have been great questioners inspire their learners, promote higher level thinking, support creativeness, as well as improve self-concept in their learners and also themselves." (Johnson, 1990)
Teaching that encourages critical thinking utilizes questioning methods that demand students to evaluate, synthesize, and also…
Duron, R., Limbach, B. And Waugh, W. (2006). Critical Thinking Framework For Any Discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Volume 17, Number 2, 160-166.
Hemming, H.E. (2000). Encouraging critical thinking: "But.. .what does that mean?" Journal of Education, 35(2), 173.
Johnson, N.L. (1990). Questioning makes the Difference. Beavercreek, OH; Pieces of Learning.
Wyatt, M.A. And O'Malley, P. (2011). Instructional Approaches and Strategies to Foster Critical Thinking. Maryland Assessment Group Conference.
Teaching Diversity in the Classroom
In recent decades it has become increasingly important that educators understand the importance of multicultural education. Given that society has become more pluralistic and diverse, there is a need for a curriculum that focuses on diversity. This research proposal recognizes that diversity can and should be taught, and proposes a methodology for doing so.
This project reviews the literature on teaching diversity. Achieving diversity in higher education involves a wide range of approaches. Teaching diversity includes the need to recruit and maintain a diverse student body, as well as faculty, and to provide instruction to a diverse group of students, provide an inclusive curriculum that reflects the contributions of non-Western and minority groups, and to teach so as to critically examine the humanities and the professions from perspectives of groups that have been marginalized.
The Center for Instructional Diversity in Research divides strategies for diversity…
Banks, J.A., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W.D., Irvine, J.J., Nieto, S…Stephan, W.G. (2001). Diversity within unity: Essential principles for teaching and learning in a multicultural society. The Phi Delta Kappan, 83(3), 196-198, 200-203. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20440100
Center for Instructional Diversity in Research. (2008). Inclusive teaching. University of Washington. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from: http://depts.washington.edu/cidrweb/inclusive/diversify.html
Center for Teaching. (2011). Diversity & inclusive teaching. Vanderbilt University. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/teaching-guides/interactions/diversity/
Davis, B.G. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
There are some papers that are to be released and referred to by her in the above article. In the first of those papers, the belief is that the present result of the aptitude tests of the teachers today is the same as was the case a generation earlier, but the best among them are not likely to become teachers. In the second paper, the result shows that the women from the best colleges are not continuing to be teachers as the pay received by them as teachers is low, and not due to the attraction of higher pay in other occupations. On the level it can be assumed that if the salary of teachers were better, a lot of the best students would still be going into teaching.
According to the columnist, "Teachers aren't exactly getting worse. They're getting more consistently mediocre." She ends her own article by saying…
Ave, Melanie. Educators want more Mr.'s in their classrooms. St. Petersburg Times. 14 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.sptimes.com/2004/11/14/Tampabay/Educators_want_more_M.shtml . Accessed on 27 May, 2005
Bhat, Sanjay. Schools struggle to reduce high teacher turnover. 3 January, 2005. The Seattle Times. Retrieved at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002138717_turnover03m.html . Accessed on 28 May, 2005
Direct Instruction: Is it the Most Effective Science Teaching Strategy? 15 December, 2004. NSTA Web News Digest. Retrieved at http://www.nsta.org/main/news/stories/education_story.php?news_story_ID=50045Accessed on 28 May, 2005
Errickson, Tiffany. Mentoring teachers. September 21, 2004. Retrieved at http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,595092712,00.html . Accessed on 27 May, 2005
(Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Motivation to Learn
Motivation to learn can be defined as the degree of cognitive effort invested to achieve educational goals (Li, 2003). It can also be understood as the degree of "seriousness" with which a student attempts to address the commitments and targets school with the purpose of: a) master the knowledge and skills rather than and get away with doing the minimum, b) clearly verify the status of their knowledge rather than try to complete the task independently of being sure that they actually learned something (MacIntyre, 2002).
Marshall (2001) have proposed to distinguish two types of motivation to learn, one that manifests itself as a personality trait and one that manifests itself as a state. In the first sense, the concept refers to a general provision that allows a student to perceive learning as an inherently valuable and satisfactory and therefore to engage in…
Barbetta, P., Norona, K. & Bicard, D. (2005). Classroom behavior management: A dozen common mistakes and what to do instead. Preventing School Failures. Vol. 49, Issue 3, p 11-19.
Bear, G.G. (2008). Best practices in classroom discipline. In Thomas, A. & Grimes, J. (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology V (1403-1420). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists
Bear, G.G., Cavalier, A., & Manning, M. (2005). Developing self-discipline and preventing and correcting misbehavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Fletcher, L., & Crochiere, N. (2004). How to Design and Deliver Speeches (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
actual. The sample size is so small and concentrated that it is possible that intra-respondent bias was also present. Finally, the results provide support for the Internet in general and social networking applications specifically supporting appreciative, expressive and creative abilities yet fails to actually define how these strategies can be attained based on the research. The result is a study that reflects more of a consensus across the teaching profession than a rejection or critique of rote memorization and the embracing of scaffolding as a teaching strategy. It is disappointing that the research is not more robust and focused on getting past the obvious conclusions, stating instructors need to sharpen their online teaching skills. The most critical questions of how to create effective scaffolding strategies for each student using the new tools available from Web 2.0-based technologies goes unanswered. There is also the lack of charting and analysis of the…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36-42. 1 Aug. 2008
Derrick Huang, Ravi S. Behara. "Outcome-Driven Experiential Learning with Web 2.0. " Journal of Information Systems Education 18.3 (2007): 329-336. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 2 Aug. 2008.
Chin-Chih Lin, Chien-Chung Lin. "Instructional Strategies and Methods of e-Learning for Nurturing Appreciative, Expressive, and Creative Abilities." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 13.1 (2008): 199-207. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.3 Aug. 2008
Mehdi Najjar. "On Scaffolding Adaptive Teaching Prompts within Virtual Labs. " International Journal of Distance Education Technologies 6.2 (2008): 35-54. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 3 Aug. 2008
1 million today, Smith explains. About 79% of ESL students have Spanish as their native language, and hence, Smith insists, "there is an urgent need for as many teachers as possible to be skilled in and passionate about working with ESL students" (Smith, 2008, p. 5).
The mentor (an ESL specialist) needs to apply "professional knowledge to actual practice" when working with another teacher, Smith explains. There are two components to Smith's mentoring suggestions: a) the ESL specialist shares his or her "best of ideas"; and b) but by mentoring, the ESL specialist is "supporting the professional and personal growth of the teacher" (Smith, 6). Smith breaks down her mentoring program ideas into six conversations, or specific aspects, of how to relate to ESL students. This mentoring is for new teachers, who need to be submerged in diversity and inclusion quickly, and for existing teachers, that have perhaps avoided becoming…
Conroy, Paula Werner, Rude, Harvey, and Phillips, Jacqueline S. (2006). Rural Challenges to Educating English Language learners with Visual Impairments. Rural Special Education
Quarterly, 25(4), 16-24.
Duncan, Arne. (2011). Preparing Students with Disabilities for Success: Secretary Duncan's
Remarks to the American Association for People with Disabilities. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved June 28, 2011, from http://www.ed.gov .
Teacher's Name: John Dillon
Skills (Focus Areas)
Uses engaging and motivating introduction
States learning objectives to the students
Reviews content presented in previous classes
Clearly explains all key concepts with simple examples
Models skills and strategies to be used by students
Uses various teaching strategies
Asks various questions that engage in critical thinking
Asks questions to check comprehension
Gives appropriate feedback on students answers and activities x
Responds to students' questions x
Explains instructions clearly and briefly x
Presents accurate and up-to-date content x
Relates lesson content to students' lives x
Relates content to other subjects
Uses recent technology and resources x
Varies activities to match different students' levels x
14. Demonstrates enthusiasm for the class and the subject x
15. Enriches class through variety in activity types x
1. Provides a…
Multicultural education researchers and educators agree that preservice teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and understandings are important: foci in multicultural education coursework (Cochran-Smith, 1995; Grant & Secada, 1990; McDiarmid & Price, 1993; Pohan, 1996). Teacher attitudes and beliefs influence teaching behaviors, which affect student learning and behavior (Wiest, 1998)."
1996 study used 492 pre-service teachers to try and gauge the attitudes and beliefs among the group when it came to understanding diversity and cultural differences in students (Wiest, 1998).
A decade earlier leading education experts Hollingsworth was able to identify a method for helping students of teaching to challenge their convictions and apply them to their careers.
Many advocates of multicultural education suggest that field experiences be included in preparing teachers to work with diverse student populations (Pohan, 1996; Sleeter, 1995; Tellez, Hlebowitsh, Cohen, & Norwood, 1995). Sleeter (1995) describes some investigations, such as miniethnographies, that her students conduct: I regard extended…
ZEICHNER, K.M., & GRANT, C.A. (1981) Biography an social structure in the socialization of student teachers, Journal of Education for Teaching, 7, pp. 298-314.
Assessing the consistency between teachers' philosophies and educational goals.
Education; 9/22/1995; DeSpain, B.C.
I don't grade the final draft in class, as I need more time to carefully read it and give it a rubric score (TIMELINE (http://www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com/writing/writingprocess/timeline.)"
This is a valuable aspect of the writing timeline that the teacher has developed. It provides the student with the ability to earn points on having excellent ideas and content even if the grammar and spelling is not up to par.
For many students the fear of writing begins when they turn in something they worked hard to produce and thought they had a wonderful writing idea, only to have it returned with red marks all over it for grammar errors.
Grammar and punctuation are very important elements to the lesson of writing, however, one must also consider the ideas and content that were offered as well.
Dividing the grading system into two areas, one for ideas and content and the other for grammar, spelling…
The Writing Timeline http://www.mhhe.com/mayfieldpub/tsw/wt.htm in Kim's classroom and predict the advantages and disadvantages of using a tool such as the TIMELINE. http://www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com/writing/writingprocess/timeline.html
Teaching writing to exceptional children: reaction and recommendations.
From: Exceptional Children | Date: April 1, 1988 | Author: Barenbaum, Edna | More results for: "teaching writing"
The Bridge to Powerful Writing and Increased Test Scores: Skills and Effective Methodology for Teachers by Barbara Mariconda http://www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/teaching/powerwrite/
California teachers meet the challenges of a classroom that is becoming increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse. The research will be based upon several proven strategies, including reflective practice, and incorporating the knowledge gained into practice.
Action research is described as "as a tool of curriculum development consisting of continuous feedback that targets specific problems in a particular school setting" (Ferraro). Mettetal adds that action research is undertaken in order to answer a specific practical problem, resulting in action. It is relevant to the specific site where it occurs, and results are shared with individuals who are directly affected by the research.
The action research program proposed here will follow the model set forth by Ferraro. A senior teacher will take the role of the researcher and role model. As such, the senior teacher will hold monthly meetings with all student teachers. At these meetings the student teachers will report their…
Ferraro, Joan M. Reflective Practice and Professional Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education Washington DC. ERIC Digest.
Mettetal, Gwynn. Comparison of Formal and Action Research Methods. Resources for Teacher-researchers, Information on local teacher-researcher initiatives. Research about Teaching and Learning. Division of Education, Indiana University South Bend. 19 October 2002. http://www.iusb.edu/~gmetteta/Research_about_Teaching_and.htm
Multicultural Pavillion Teacher's Corner. Teacher Action Research. Created and maintained by Dr. Paul Gorski. 19 October 2002. http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/centers/multicultural/tar.html
Parsons, Sharon. Teacher Research. Access Excellence @ the National Health Museum, Classrooms of the 21st Century. 19 October 2002. http://www.accessexcellence.org/21st/TL/AR
Learning and Motivation Strategies for Success in College
This reflection essay relates to the learning and the goal-setting theory coupled with the insights I gained while attending my nursing classes. I have begun my study by detailing how my career in nursing has evolved while participating in various learning activities. The subsequent sections present a description of motivational attributes of an effective teaching strategy implemented in classroom setting. The study also offers a summary of the strategies that can be adopted in order to make a successful learning experience in college.
I attended an educational system where schooling was based on traditional teaching systems. Teaching approaches were similar to the approach of a "banking model." The school's procedure depicted the teachers' roles as depositing correct information to the learners to a point that it was needed. I began preparing for an end or term exam in my first year in…
Blerkom, D., (2011). College Study Skills: Becoming a Strategic Learner. New York: Cengage Learning
Teaching and Learning Through Using Stories in the Young Learner Classroom - Annotated Bibliography
In my research paper, I intend to analyse the methodologies and implications of using stories as a vital tool for young learners in a class room. To support my study, I have studied five papers that are either from a book or from a journal. The first and the fourth paper summarized here talks about how stories can help in increasing the vocabulary of children. Stories are described as a means to sustain brain activity in young people. The second paper by Husbands and Pearce talks about the need to have a multi-pronged teaching strategy to have an inclusive learning environment. Their article supports the need of story-telling as part of the strategy. The third paper ideates the need of creating a syllabus parallel to the contemporary one with main focus on story-telling. The final article…
Interview ith Teacher of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
The United States educational environment consists of students from different cultural and linguistic background, and a classroom may consist of students who are native English speakers and students whose origins are from Latin America, Asia, Africa, Middle East and Europe. Thus, many teachers often face challenges in adopting an effective and appropriate methodology to teach students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
This study carries out an open-interview with a teacher of culturally and linguistically diverse students to enhance a greater understanding of his teaching methodology.
The researcher uses the open-interview method to allow the teacher to express all views about the strategy used in managing culturally and linguistically diverse students. The questions used to collect the information are presented in Appendix 1.
Outcome of the Interview with a Teacher of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
The teacher reveals that his…
Echevarria, J.J. Vogt, M. and Short, D.J. Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. (4th Edition). Pearson. 2012.
Moore, K.D. & Hansen, J. Effective Strategies for Teaching in K-8 Classrooms. USA. SAGE Publications, Inc.2012.
SIOP . Frequently Asked Questions. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. USA. 2015.
Richard-Amato, P.A. Make it Happen: Interactive to Participatory Language Teaching - Evolving Theory and Practice (4th Edition). Pearson Education ESL. 2010.
Great emphasis is, for example, placed upon the emotional factors implied in the definition, while the educational factor is somewhat underemphasized. This means that children suffering from behavior or emotional disturbances will not be eligible for special education services unless this is also affecting their academic performance. This separation of issues can result in severe difficulties for these children later in life. On the other hand, if such children do receive the special education attention they need, they can learn to not only adjust to and interact with their social situation in a more acceptable way, but also to adjust to new educational environments in an effective manner.
What is needed is therefore an integrated approach towards the difficulties experienced by children with EBD. This is what the above-mentioned SPED team would be assembled to accomplish. The fact that a multiplicity of relationships with these children are implied by the…
Joughin, C. (2006, Sept.) Cognitive behaviour therapy can be effective in managing behavioural problems and conduct disorder in pre-adolescence. What Works for Children group: Evidence Nugget. Retrieved from: http://www.whatworksforchildren.org.uk/docs/Nuggets/pdfs/CBT%20nugget.pdf
Martines, D. (2007). Emotionally and Behaviourally Disturbed: Diagnostic Concerns. The Praeger Handbook of Special Education edited by Alberto Bursztyn.
Ryan, J.B., Pierce, C.D. And Mooney, P. (2008). Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies for Students With EBD. Beyond Behavior, Spring. http://www.ccbd.net/documents/bb/bebe-17-03-22.pdf
Teaching & Learning the Cognitive, Affective, & Psychomotor Domains
Janice is a 28-year-old financial advisor. She is now 7 months pregnant with her first child. She is complaining of many symptoms including fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, leg cramps and mouth/tongue sores. She is diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Write learning objectives to guide your teaching about how diet modification could improve her health and well-being.
In nursing, patients who are pregnant represent a category that can be especially complex given the fact that there are a range of various implications due to the prenatal needs of the expecting mother. The fetus is especially vulnerable in the early stages of development and symptoms that the mother has could potentially cause a lifetime full of health issues if the symptoms are sufficiently problematic. esearch has even confirmed data that supports the efficacy of certain kinds of prenatal stimulation and the future child…
All, A., & Havens, R. (1997). Cognitive/concept mapping: a teaching strategy for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1210-1219.
Burchum, J. (2002). Cultural Competence: An Evolutionary Perspective. Nursing Forum, 5-15.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services: A Model of Care. Journal of Transactional Nursing, 181-184.
Lafuente, M., & Grifol, R. (2001). Effects of the Firstart Method of Prenatal Stimulation on Psychomotor Development: From Six to Twelve Months. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 207-216.
Instructors should fully explain the "purpose" behind the assignment, and should ask themselves before assigning it: a) am I offering "any autonomy over how and when to do this work?"; b) does doing this assignment promote mastery by being "an engaging task?" And c) is the purpose of this assignment clear to the students?
Teachers, students and others in the classroom community are inspired when there is a larger cause for everyone to focus on. For example, by teaching to students' strengths (their interest in wildlife), have the students write and illustrate reports on the loss of wildlife habitat in their county -- by going out into the natural world with a biologist who can point out the ways urban sprawl, pollution, and over-grazing has done damage to the ecosystems and hence taken away habitat for birds, coyotes, deer and rabbits. Students use the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose…
Life Long Learners. (2003). Dan Pink Recommends a 'FedEx day' for Students and Teachers.
Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://life-long-learners.com .
Pink, Dan. (2009). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. New York:
Learning strategies do this inherently by focusing on the student and his or her capacity to learn rather than by what methods the teacher chooses to teach. Because this study was done during the dawn of learning strategies, the paper takes the form of a literature review rather than primary research. As such, the data is presented in the form of findings. The authors provide a definitive definition of learning strategies as well as giving a list of types of learning strategies that students have been known to employ and that the research to this date finds credible. Based on this, the authors conclude that teachers need to assist students with how to learn in addition to what to learn. They similarly conclude that as research into the strategies continues, they will be likely to affect and grow the implications of learning strategies.
Although the authors are correct that the…
Weinstein, C.E. & Mayer, R.E. (1983). The Teaching of Learning Strategies. Innovative Abstracts. 5.32, pp. 1-4.
While commenting on the works of Baldwin & Ford, Detterman (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993) observed that the American enterprises were more likely to lose in case of teaching employers as they diverted lump sum of $100 billion annually to tutor employees. The loss is experienced because whatever is learned in an adult learning session is not practiced at the workplaces.
This problem is indicative of the dire need for combining knowledge with current practical work. The internships of doctors and people doing Ph. D serve as examples to show the link between learning and practical work (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The variations in practical applications and formal learning make it necessary that lifetime learners find out fresh strategies to tackle these variations. These variations comprise of the high work requirements that make the job training mandatory, unavoidable variation in an occupation, tech-literacy and the disparity created between the skilled and…
Detterman, D.K., & Sternberg, R.J. (1993). Transfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing,.
Fischer, G. (1991). Supporting learning on demand with design environments. International Conference on the Learning Sciences, pp. 165-172.
Fischer, G. (1998c). Making learning a part of life-beyond the 'gift-wrapping' approach of technology. In P. Alheit & E. Kammler (Eds.), Lifelong learning and its impact on social and regional development. Donat Verlag, Bremen, pp. 435-462.
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind, New York: Basic Books.
The teacher must use effective discipline to ensure students do not interrupt one another, know to raise their hands, not get out of their seats during class, or engage in disturbing activities. This is disrespectful to the learning of others as well as simply against the rules. Drawing up a list of rules to obey for the students is one way to help students understand how the U.S. Constitution, for example, was negotiated and formulated.
Student assignments will include everything from pretending to be various historical characters in costume, to doing Internet research to understand what are reliable and unreliable sources, as well as more standardized essays and tests to prepare them to meet nationalized testing standards. Field trips will reinforce many of class lessons. To encourage student confidence without relaxing curriculum standards, teachers should assign a variety of projects in a variety of media. Some students are natural talkers…
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
Teaching Special Education Students
In the classroom, teachers are primarily responsible for ensuring that special education students are provided with equal opportunities for education. While instructors should not lower academic standards in the classroom, they should make every effort to make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. y making simple adjustments, such as allowing students to record lectures or changing the format of a test, teachers can make sure that special education students do not have academic or social disadvantages.
Setting up the Classroom
In the classroom, simple changes can make a great difference for special education students. For example, by arranging desks in a manner where each student has his own personal space, as opposed to sitting in groups, special education students have less chances of being distracted.
There should be various centers in the class that provide a space for students to go when they are finished with…
Klinger, J., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Students' perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children.
Polloway, E., Bursuck, W., Jayanthi, M., Epstein, M., & Nelson, J. (1996). Treatment acceptability: Determining appropriate interventions within inclusive classrooms. Intervention In School and Clinic.
Brattlan, Lee. (2002) Brief Reference of Student Disabilities:...with Strategies for the Classroom.
As I began to realize that I was expecting less than they were capable of I realized that some of my preconceived notions about the teaching profession were coloring my viewpoint.
One example was the day a preschool student from the regular education class came to me and handed me a book that she wanted to read to me. I was surprised but let her open the book and begin reading. It reminded me not to assume the level of ability of any student as each student is an individual and develops at individual rates.
In observing the classrooms I found that problems can be dealt with by remaining flexible and keeping an open mind (Safer, 2003).
An example of this philosophy occurred when an autistic preschool student was included in the inclusion setting. "Tommy" did not respond to verbal cues nor was he a verbal child. The teacher made…
GRIESHABAER, SUSAN and CANNELLA, GAILE S. (EDS.) (2001). EMBRACING IDENTITIES in EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: DIVERSITY and POSSIBILITIES. MIDWOOD; LB1139.23.E58.
SAFER, STEFFEN (2003). PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS to PRACTICALLY EVERY PROBLEM: THE EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER'S MANUAL. REDLEAF PRESS.
WOMG, HARRY K., WONGN, ROSEMARY T. (2004). FIRST DAYS of SCHOOL: HOW to BE an EFFECTIVE TEACHER. HARRY K. WONG PUBLICATIONS.
PELLETIER, CAROL MARRA (2003). STRATEGIES for SUCCESSFUL STUDENT TEACHING. REDLEAF PRESS.
Teaching Culture: Strategies for Building Culture in Education Institutions
Building relationships and an overall culture is important in any organization both to ensure that the organization itself operates in an efficient and effective manner, and to make sure that each individual within that organization is achieving their full potential for advancement and growth. This is no different in educational institutions, where interpersonal relationships and overall culture can have a large and direct impact on the quality of education provided and the development of educators in their profession. The following paragraphs will outline a particular example of a strategy used to build relationships and strengthen culture in an educational institution as experienced first-hand by the author, detailing the theoretical underpinnings of the strategy and the particulars of its implementation.
Building an Effective Culture in Educational Settings
One of the most essential aspects of culture in any education setting is building relationships…
Huber, J. & Harkavy, I. (2007). Higher education and democratic culture. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
Kalyanpur, M. & Harry, B. (1999). Culture in Special Education. New York P.H. Brookes.
Owens, R. (2001). Organizational behavior in education. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
The primary aspect of Billy's scenario is that he has the propensity to be disruptive. I believe that this tendency of his is due to the fact that he is able to complete his work relatively quickly, the work is easy for him to accomplish, and then he becomes bored. The larger issue involved here is the fact that he evidently needs to be on an advanced track for learning, and is involved in a school in which homogenous learning occurs.
That said, Billy is one of the primary candidates to benefit from community-building -- mostly because it will allow him to apply his considerable intellect to some other aspect of academics that he has not already mastered. There are several facets of his character that make him perfect to become involved in perspective taking. He is naturally gregarious, so the essential concept of community-building is already ingrained within him.…
Hardin, C.J. (2012). Building Community. In C.J. Hardin, Effective Classroom Management: Models and Strategies for Today's Classroom (3rd ed., pp. 139-154). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Jankowski, K.A. (2002). "Community building: A positive approach to discipline in schools." Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED475324.pdf
Kohn. (1997). I BELIEVE YOU HAVE THIS RESOURCE -- it CAME FROM YOUR PARAGRAPH
McFarland-Piazza, L., Lord, a., Smith, M., Downey, B. (2012). "The role of community-based playgroups in building relationships between pre-service teachers, families and the community." Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. 37 (2): 34-41.
Students that have adapted, whethe it is fo cultual easons o because an anothe style was bette suited fo the subject, may continue to show highe achievement even in futue classooms that do not implement the teaching styles that have been found to be ideal fo achievement levels. Futue eseach should also look to see if teaching styles beyond the ecommendations of No Child Left Behind can acquie the impovement in achievement NCLB seeks.
Bouque J., Bouchamma, Y., & Laose, F. (2010). Aboiginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods. The Albeta Jounal of Educational Reseach, 56(1), 57-71.
Cabo, M. (2009). Match the Style of Instuction to the Style of Reading. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 373-378.
Mogan, H. (2010). Impoving Schooling fo Cultual Minoities: The Right Teaching Styles Can Make a Big Diffeence. Educational Hoizons, 88(2), 114-120.
Payne-Tsoupos, C. (2010). No Child Left Behind: Disincentives to…
references for teaching styles matter in academic achievement: scientific and practical implications. Educational Psychology, 28(6), 615-625.
I view education holistically. Students are developing their character and their values in addition to facts and figures. Language learning is a critical component of character development because language mastery enhances cross-cultural communication. A fellow teacher offers a powerful statement on the role of progressivism in the classroom: "In a progressivist classroom, teachers plan lessons to arouse curiosity and push the student to a higher level of knowledge. The students are encouraged to learn by doing and to interact with one another. This develops social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points-of-view," (Wilt 2003). A progressive teaching philosophy acknowledges the persistence and potency of change. Optimism and creativity will motivate my students to achieve, inspiring their curiosity and ability to think critically.
The means by which I will achieve my teaching objectives include the use of proven classroom management techniques, the implantation of creative cooperative learning strategies, and…
Haugen, L. (1998). Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement. Iowa State University. Retrieved online: http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/philosophy.html
Sofsian, D. (n.d.). Teacher education philosophies. Retrieved online: http://ezinearticles.com/?Teacher-Education-Philosophies&id=227410
Wilt, B.L. (2003). A personal philosophy of education. Retrieved online: http://schoolmarm.org/main/index.php?page=p-genphil
Description of Learning:
Educational institutions are teaching subjects for a digital future but it is from a superficial manner however students need a deeper knowledge of it as a curriculum. When teaching students about math, it should be integrated in all subjects they are learning by being motivated by educators (Singhal, 1997). As shown in the examined scenario planning with an elementary school, it is apparent things became better for the students as far as the educational resources, and environment, which ultimately affects the learning process. Educational institutions must engage partnerships with other schools around the world. By providing student exchanges they will produce world class students, the internet is facilitating the process of globalization and providing virtual interaction with others. As it is shown in schools, technology is the key to change the educational environment and resources. The internet is encouraging students to engage in meaningful cross cultural dialogue…
Teacher Behavior/Class Culture
Avoiding Seeking Help in the Classroom: Who and Why?" appeared in the Educational Psychology Review in 2001. The article, by Allison Ryan, Paul Pintrich, and Carol Midgley, is mainly a literature review in the interrelated areas of achievement goal theory, social-goal orientation, and classroom dynamics and how these things impact the decision to seek academic help. The researchers investigated the causes of help avoidance, which has been found to increase during early adolescence (p.94). Therefore, the population in question is early adolescents, although the researchers to include references to studies that deal with other student populations. The article is well-written, well-organized, and clear. Help-seeking is the main focus of the paper, and is described by the authors as "an important self-regulatory strategy that contributes to student learning," (93). As help-seeking directly relates to actual student performance, the current research is important and can help educators understand and…
"Many of our current challenges are unprecedented," the president explained. "There are no standard remedies, or go-to fixes this time around. That is why we are going to need your help. e'll need young people like you to step up. e need your daring and your enthusiasm and your energy." I will continue to offer my enthusiasm and my energy -- and hopefully I will be daring enough to learn new skills and strategies for the betterment of my students and my community.
Critical Incidents in Education
Before I share specific school experiences I have had, I want to express my own perspective on teaching and education. I have always been very impressed by the thinking of John Dewey, who is considered the "Father of Public Education" in America, and also I've been influenced by the more contemporary strategies put forward by Albert Bandera, who is well-known for his…
Bandura, Albert. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human
Behavior, 4. New York: Academic Press, pp. 71-81
Dewey, John (2002). Waste in Education. In The School and Society (pp. 77-110).
Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press.
When students can see and manipulate objects, they can be asked to describe them and put objects in visual and verbal terms that they can relate to, in their current developmental stage. Piaget observed students relate to objects at this age by touching what is concrete, describing objects and an object's location in space.
How well did Jenny follow constructivist guidelines? What could she have done differently to make the lesson more constructivist?
Jenny made use of group activities, and socially engaged forms of learning, although a strict constructivist would have wanted her to begin with such group activities.
Discuss constructivism in terms of the constructs defined and discussed by both Piaget and Vygotsky in the text. What is the basic difference between the approaches of these two theorists?
Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next, while Vygotsky stressed the need…
Children in this stage lack conceptions of size, volume, and mass so teaching a child about something like portion sizes of food in a discussion of nutrition would be ineffectual at this stage.
Concrete Operational Stage (ages 7-11)
During this stage, children can understand the concept of multiple stages or aspects of a problem, the concept of transferable size and volume, and also reversibility of things like numbers or steps of an action. A child at this stage can understand, for example, that a large plate of fries and a small plate of fries have the same amount of food, even though the portion looks smaller on the large plate. Also, the child at this stage is no longer egocentric. The child can understand that he or she must undergo a difficult treatment, even though it hurts, because the family wants the child to get well, or that he or…
Just as Sarbanes-Oxley legislation created significant opportunities for management consultancies, the same holds true for sustainability requirements in European nations.
In conclusion, all management consultancies are attempting to position themselves as trusted advisors to firms looking to stabilizing existing sales while growing into emerging markets. Of the five included in this analysis, all also have social media channels that are well-populated with content meant to convey their thought leadership in specific areas as well. Yet in the area of equating strategies to IT investments, the majority take the approach that more IT spending is potentially the path out of strategies not performing well. Only the Boston Consulting Group takes a more strategic view of systematic change to businesses, choosing to layer in TI after the frameworks have been created. Their legacy strengths in the BCG and Growth/Share Matrices could be the impetus for this approach. Despite that fact, Boston Consulting…
Greiner, L., Motamedi, K., & Jamieson, D.. (2011). New consultant roles and processes in a 24/7 world. Organizational Dynamics, 40(3), 165.
Mors, M.. (2010). Innovation in a global consulting firm: when the problem is too much diversity. Strategic Management Journal, 31(8), 841.
Klaasjan Visscher, & J. Irene A Visscher-Voerman. (2010). Organizational design approaches in management consulting. Management Decision, 48(5), 713-731.
This is important, because physics has allowed the combustible engine to provide the world with a cost effective solution for traveling long distance. Sadly, the electric car can only be used for short to medium distances. Then, there is another potential problem that could be developing with the lithium batteries that are used, where China control 95% to 100% the resources for these batteries (lithium). This is problematic because they could restrict how much they are exporting (which they already have) to ensure that there is enough supply for the country to meet its own internal demand. (ryce 2010)
Despite this dire news, there are increased effort within the industry to support the use and development of such new technologies, to work in conjunction with the combustible engine. An example of this support for such technologies can be seen by the fact several oil companies hold the patents on several…
2011 Volt, 2010, Chevrolet. Available from: [25 April 2010].
Exxon Mobil, 2010, Yahoo Finance. Available from: [25 April 2010].
Exxon Valdez Facts, 1999, Oceana. Available from [25 April 2010].
Fuel Efficiency Standard, 2009, MSNBC. Available from: [25 April 2010].
Teacher Performance Assessment
Lesson Title: Science
Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about
State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.
Lesson Objectives and Language Demands
• Content/Skill Objectives:
Students should state the definition of science
Students should discuss the various science methodologies
Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists
Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life
Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.
Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.
• Key Vocabulary:
Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods
esources and Materials
• esources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.
• Materials: worksheets, games, projector, Smartboard, paper, pencils, art supplies, cards, post- its, etc.)
NOTE: Attach and/or embed…
Edelson Daniel (2001). Learning-for-use: A framework for the design of technology-supported inquiry activities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Volume 38, Issue 3. Pages 355 -- 385.
Pappas Christoforos (2014). Instructional Design Models and Theories: Inquiry-based Learning Model. https://elearningindustry.com/inquiry-based-learning-model
Teaching Historical Events to Student With Disabilities
Our perspective of the concept of the passing of time and our place in the history of the world is important to us towards our growth and evolution. Lacking a sense of time and space, one is prone to be disconnected with the universe. While it can be frightening to be trapped in a moment in time and not be cognizant of the position in space you occupy, it is the experience people classified to have Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties (PMLD) go through (Tony Jones, 2013). Adolescents who have learning disabilities (LD) face a number of challenges with the strict application of Common Core State Standards for literacy when considering subjects such as social studies and history. Besides the challenges they have with reading, students with LD are required to take part in reasoning and thinking at a high level. For teachers…
Candy Bear, & Cheryl Mason Bolick. (2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Pearson.
Carole Boudreau, Anne Rodrigue, Veronique Parent, Julie Myre-Bisaillon, & Annick Tremblay-Bouchard. (2014). Teaching History to High School Students with LDs: Pedagogical Considerations & Strategies. LD School.
Janis A. Bulgren, Patricia Sampson Graner, & Donald D. Deshler. (2013). Literacy Challenges and Opportunities for Students with Learning Disabilities in Social Studies and History. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17-27.
Tony Jones. (2013). History for Individuals Experiencing Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Nottinghamshire: Talksense.
The most practical nursing education facilities began in the 1800s, but minimal education standards were not put into place until 1923, when the Goldmark eport highlighted the need for certain educational certifications for nursing practice (Scheckel, 2011). An educational philosophy began to develop shortly after, with education becoming a primary role for many advanced nursing practitioners. By the late 1940s, education for nursing was pushed out of vocational training in the field and began to require nurses going to colleges and higher education facilities in order to receive a more appropriate and in-depth education (Scheckel, 2011). Since then, there have been more developments which have specialized the roles and practice of the advanced nursing practitioner as a primary educator for nursing students and new nurses in the field. Today, there are a decreasing number of advanced nursing practitioners working as educators to teach future nursing staff. Yet this is occurring…
Blair, Kathryn. (2005). Does faculty practice validate the NP educator role? The 2005 Sourcebook for Advanced Practice Nurses. P. 9-12.
Fitzgerald, Cynthia, Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira, Katz, Janet, & Hirsch, Anne. (2012). Advanced practice nursing education: Challenges and strategies. Nursing Research and Practice, 2012(2012).Web. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2012/854918/
Scheckel, Martha. (2011). Nursing education: Past, present, and future. Understanding Nursing Education Programs. Jones and Barllett Publishers. Web. http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763752258/52258_CH02_Roux.pdf
Weber, Scott. (2006). Teaching nurse practitioners how to teach patients to take responsibility. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 18(2006), 346-347. Doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2006.00145.x
Educators' instructional 'knowledge base' encompasses all necessary cognitive information needed to cultivate efficient learning-teaching settings. Scholars indicate that it is possible to study such information. But discerning the contents that make up the aforementioned knowledge base is complicated. A majority of research works distinguish procedural (i.e., 'knowing how') from declarative (i.e., 'knowing that') knowledge (two forms of knowledge defined by cognitive psychologists) and employ this as their theoretical foundation. The above strategy is appropriate since it concentrates on comprehending the link between behavior and knowledge, that is, educator instruction quality. The foremost major research into educator knowledge (Shulman, 1987) grouped educator knowledge into a total of seven groups, which included the following ideas:
generic pedagogic knowledge (cross-curricular schoolroom organization- and management- related approaches and rules) and
1. Instructional content knowledge (that assimilates particular subjects' content knowledge and the instructional knowledge needed to teach the subject).
The second group…
(2011). Innovations for the Next Generation of Teaching Assessments. Praxis Client Conference.
Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review, 1 - 23.
The claim that a board member familiar with forensic accounting would have been able to uncover such a fraud holds little water given that it took a team of experts working in secret many months to uncover the fraud. However, the argument generally holds that better board composition, and more engaged board members, would have prevented such a fraud. Nadler (2004) argues that better boards are less important for preventing frauds as they are for driving better performance. This then shifts the emphasis of the board away from governance and towards performance enhancement.
Nadler's argument supports Nohria's claims about the relative irrelevance of strong corporate governance. No matter whether the boards take a strict shareholder approach or the expanded stakeholder approach proposed by Post et al. (2002), there are limits as the impact that they can have over a company's performance, no matter how well-composed the board is. If the…
Bowden, P. & Smythe, V. (2008). Theories on teaching & training in ethics. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organizational Studies. Vol. 13 (2) 19-26.
Nadler, D. (2004). Building better boards. Harvard Business Review. May 2004, 102-111.
Nohria, N. (2004). What really matters. Harvard Business School. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://info.umuc.edu/mba/HBS/realmathi/presentation/title/start.html#play
Post, J.; Preston, L. & Sachs, S. (2002). Managing the extended enterprise: The new stakeholder view. California Management Review. Vol. 45 (1) 6-28.
In 2004, it established its operations in Mexico to cash in on the high rate of diabetes in this country. Diabetes is responsible for 13 out of every 100 deaths in Mexico and Novo Nordisk expanded into this Latin American market. It also encompassed Mexico as part of its global campaign and its representatives went to schools and villages to spread awareness about the disease and the ways and means to cope with it.
The H system that was implemented in Mexico was different from the one that existed in Denmark and this was mainly due to the differences in culture, work attitude of the people and national factors that have a profound impact on the employment benefits of the workers. For example, in Denmark, every worker gets to participate in the decision making process. This is a part of the Danish culture and comes from the long-standing democracy and…
Shields, John. 2007. Managing employee performance and reward: concepts, practices and strategies. Boston: Cambridge University Press.
Bratton, John. 2001. Strategic Human Resource Management. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan .
Bamberger, Peter; Meshoulam, Ilan. 2000. Human Resource Strategy: Formulation, Implementation and Impact. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
No Author. No date. Human Resources UC Berkeley. UC Berkeley. [Online]. Available at: http://hrweb.berkeley.edu/guides/managing-hr/interaction/diversity/resources
Now, teachers are complaining that they feel abused and harassed with the young students.
The students tend to become abusive. They do not respect the teachers. They swear and shout at the teachers. They throw things at the teachers and in some instances, the students physically assault the teachers.
This is the reason why most teachers feel threatened and would want to resign from their works.
Thus, without the corporal punishment, the students do not learn the real value of discipline and they do not maintain proper conduct. The students who did not receive any corporal punishment when they were still on their younger years tend to have deviant behaviors as they grow older.
Meanwhile, there are also studies which have proven that corporal punishment offers nothing but negative effects to both the psychological and emotional aspects of a child. Some of the proven negative impacts of corporal punishment are:…
Curry, Lisa M. Effective Teaching through High Expectation and Class Management. 2000. USA Gymnastics. http://www.usa-dymnastics.org/publications/technique/2000/4/effective-teaching.html
Effective Instructional Strategies. http://www.flstw.fsu.edu/integrate/efins.html
Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew. 2004. "The effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior in children." Social Work Research
Lombardo, Lucien X. And Polonko, Karen A. 2000. "Comparative Analysis of the Corporal Punishment of Children: An Exploration of Human Rights and U.S. Law," International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. Vol. 29, No.2, Fall 2005 pp. 173
In recent times, researchers and practitioners are focusing more and more in understanding the role of meta-cognition in reading. This is evidenced by the opinions proposed by researchers like Brown and Palinscar and Gracia and Pearson. As there exists dissimilarity between teachings of distinct expertise and making learners conscious of the inner processes that are carried on in the mind through meta-cognition, this field of research is significant on the whole. Individual readers, more frequently, encounter trouble in gathering together the right tactics to acquire holistic comprehension of text even though they may be able to carry out distinct abilities such as skimming and scanning, tolerating ambiguity, finding meanings from context and drawing inferences. eciprocal Teaching is one technique that has established to counteract this trouble and internalize the process of comprehension. (amaiyah, 1992)
What is eciprocal teaching?
For training students to develop into active readers, reciprocal teaching…
Davis, Chris. (Fall/winter, 2000) "Literacy in the Social Studies Classroom" Center X Forum. Vol: 1; No: 1. Retrieved from http://www.centerx.gseis.ucla.edu/forum/fall00/socialstudies.htm
Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Edwards, Julie. (Winter, 1995) "Reciprocal Teaching in the Fourth-Grade Science Program" Retrieved from http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/reciprocal.htm Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Hartman, H. (1997) "Reciprocal Teaching: Human Learning & Instruction" Retrieved from http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~hhartman/Reciprocal%20Teaching.doc Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Thematic Teaching: Geography Through a Lens of Multiculturalism
All too often, students feel that they must leave their everyday lives, experiences and interests outside of the classroom. From the perspective of many students, the more rigid foci of traditional curriculum do not allow for inclusion of personal dimensions such as ethnic background, distinct cultural knowledge or unique personal history. And as students reach the pre-adolescent stages of middle school, and as the formulation of personal identity becomes a stronger force in each individual's life, this rigid quality can have the impact of alienating the individual from the formal educational process. Thus, it is incumbent upon us as educators to find ways to bridge this gap between personal life and public education; between individuals strengths and learning needs; between creative freedom and academic proceduralism. As the Head of the Geography Department for 5th, 6th and 7th Graders, I propose…
Adams, D.M. & Hamm, M. (2005). Redefining education in the twenty-first century: shaping collaborative learning in the age of information. Henry C. Thomas.
Association of Zoos & Aquariums. (AZA). (2011). Thematic Educational Activities. AZA.org.
Heilman, E.E. (2010). Social Studies and Diversity Education: What We Do and Why We Do It. Taylor & Francis.
Indiana University Northwest (2011). School of Education. IUN.edu.
Impressions of Teaching as a Profession and the eality
The teaching profession is one of the oldest ones and has experienced growth over the years as a result of its dynamic nature of the teacher's role in the education system. Teachers are assuming new dimensions as the ways by which children learn change in addition to changes in the general learning environment. The early impression of the teaching profession is that it was simply involved in imparting knowledge on the students. This was done with very little consideration of the student's academic capability or needs. Over the years, this has been evaluated to be ineffective and it has caused many children to drop out from school as a result of them finding school to be difficult as well as others who feel alienated in school. Other negative effects that have been reported include antisocial behavior as a result of the…
Barr, A.S. (1945). Impressions, Trends, and Further Research. The Journal of Experimental Education, 14(2), 200-206. doi: 10.2307/20150851
Brouwer, N., & Korthagen, F. (2005). Can Teacher Education Make a Difference? American Educational Research Journal, 42(1), 153-224. doi: 10.2307/3699458
Heafford, P.E. (1962). Impressions of Science Teaching in Pakistan. International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift fur Erziehungswissenschaft / Revue Internationale de l'Education, 8(1), 85-89. doi: 10.2307/3442377
Hourcade, J.J., & Bauwens, J. (2001). Cooperative Teaching: The Renewal of Teachers. The Clearing House, 74(5), 242-247. doi: 10.2307/30189673
Knowles stated "The richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves" (p. 66). n instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience. Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). gain, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the correct answer.
By not tapping into the experience of adult learners, negative effects may result (Knowles, 2005). The adult learner identifies their experiences as who they are. In other words, their experiences help to define them as a person. dult learners, who perceive their experiences as being ignored or devalued, perceive…
A somewhat controversial and negative environmental outcome identified from the review of literature was the competitive component to gaming. In an evaluation conducted by Gruendling et al.(1991), some learners (5%) felt threatened by competitive nature of gaming (N = 40) and stated that gaming can cause unnecessary anxiety and stress. Bloom and Trice (1994) stated that too much competition can take the fun out of the process of learning for some and perhaps discourage student participation.
Psychosocial outcomes were also identified from the review of literature. Gaming was found to have encouraged and enhanced active participation and communication-social interactions, improve peer relationships, promote teamwork and collaboration, as well as decrease participants fear, tension, stress, and feelings of intimidation (Ballantine, 2003; Bays & Hermann, 1997; Berbiglia et al., 1997; Bloom & Trice, 1994; Cowen & Tesh, 2002; Dols, 1988; Fetro & Hey, 2000; Gifford, 2001;
The works of Borko and Putnam (1998) expressed the contemporary perspectives to the concept of contextual learning. Situated recognition (uses both social and physical contexts),social cognition (uses an individual's construction of a given knowledge) as well as distributed cognition which employs or relates to both the social and situated nature of cognition (Clifford and Wilson,2000). While employing this ideas, I emphasize on problem solving, recognition of the fact that teaching as well as learning must occur within multiple contexts, assist my students in the process of learning, anchor my lesson and teachings on various diverse real life context of my students, encourage my students to learn from one another while also employing an authentic assessment technique.
Audience Analysis and Considerations
The audience basically comprises of adult learners who are either interested in advancing their careers or leaning of better ways of running their own firms. Their learning style is based…
ATHERTON JS (2002) Learning and Teaching: Learning from experience [Online]: UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/experience.htm
Borko, H., and Putnam, R.T. "The Role of Context in Teacher Learning and Teacher Education." In Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Teachers to Enhance Student Success in and Beyond School. Information Series No. 376. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Center on Education for Training and Employment, College of Education, The Ohio State University, and Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1998. (ED 429-263)
Brown, B.L. Applying Constructivism in Vocational and Career Education. Information Series No. 378. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, on Education and Training for Employment, College of Education, The Ohio State University, 1998. (ED 428-298) http://cete.org / acve/majorpubs.asp
Clifford, M., and Wilson, M. "Contextual Teaching, Professional Learning, and Student Experiences: Lessons Learned from Implementation." Educational Brief no. 2. Madison: Center on Education and Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison, December 2000.
Cognitive Strategies in Education
The purpose of this work is the first define metacognition and explain the four cognitive strategies of chunking, mnemonics, advance organizers and rehearsals and then to consider how each one might be useful in helping facilitate understanding of metacognition. Finally this work intends to create a sample lesson plan that represents the strategies.
Metacognition can be defined as the learner's awareness of the knowledge they possess as well as their ability in understanding, controlling and manipulating of their own metacognitive processes. Metacognitive skills are important both from an educational perspective and throughout the individual's life. Metacognition is a new field which has left theorists in a vague position in terms of conventional terminology. The primary factor in metacognition is the "conscious awareness" on the part of the individual in learning as to the learning taking place and their control of the learning process.
Barrett, Nancy F. (nd) Cognitive Styles and Strategies [Online] available at:
Metacognitive Skills (nd) available [Online] at: http://education.calumet. pur due.edu/vockell/EdPsyBook/Edpsy7/edpsy7_meta.htm
Jacobson, Rebecca (1998) Teachers improving learning using metacognition with self-monitoring learning strategies Education, 1998 June
Moreover, Hill reports that he used to spend 16 hours a week lecturing, and now he uses that time to mentor students individually. Thus while Hills may still be putting in the same amount of hours, his students, who are only mentored for minutes at a time each day, are bound to be happy about the reduced investment of their own time. While Hills does state that those students who were not willing to work hard and show progress "phased themselves out" he does not provide any real evidence that the reason for his system's popularity was based on the pride of personal achievement as opposed to taking an 'easier road'.
Identification of At Least Two Problems or Strengths
Starting with the positive, the main strength of this article (and its content) is that it provides ideas for developing helpful evaluation and tracking tools for teachers to measure student progress.…
Hills, J.A. (2004). Better teaching with Deming and Bloom." Quality Progress. 37(3). 57-64.