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We have over 418 essays for "Technological Disaster"

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Psychological Implications of Disasters

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68229708

Technological Disasters

Japan Tsunami Disaster March 2011 -- Present

Societal Consequences Discussion

The earthquake and following tsunami that hit Japan was truly a disaster -- part natural and part technological. It affected the Japanese population in many ways. There were the initial consequences that included massive loss of life and population displacement. However, there are also lasting consequences that can even include factors such as the mental health, physical health, and other societal consequences that can be long lasting. This analysis will look at the impact to the citizenry from multiple perspectives, discuss the roles of non-governmental agencies (NGOs) in the after math of the disaster, and discuss what organization would lead a recovery response if such an event occurred in the United States.

Societal Consequences Discussion

The societal consequences that have come as a result of the disaster can be thought of from different perspectives and on many different…… [Read More]

References

IASC. (2007). IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. Retrieved from IASC:  http://admin.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/IASC-Guidelines-Mental-Health-Psychosocial.pdf 

Kormino, T. (2015). Role of International NGO in an Uprecedented Disaster in Japan. Disaster Risk Reduction, 13-26.

Pietrangelo, A. (2011, April 12). Feeling for Japan: Coping and Recovering from Disaster. Retrieved from Natural Choice:  http://www.naturalchoice.net/blogs/greenies_0411.html 

PSID. (N.d.). Recovery. Retrieved from Psychosocial Support in Disasters:  http://www.psid.org.au/recovery
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Disaster Recovery Refers to the IT Components

Words: 1705 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29359382

Disaster recovery refers to the IT components of the business that, in times of a disaster, need to be safeguarded so that business can be continued. Disaster recovery is more a preventive plan set in motion prior to the organization and implementation of the business than a series of actions that are followed once the disaster hits the company. Given that most companies are, to a large extent and in many ways, reliant on their IT system, and that collapse of IT system has ramifications beyond the company, disaster recovery has become a significant part of planning to today's organization.

Disasters can be classified into two areas:

Natural disasters -- for example floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes where mitigation measures ahead of time can work towards avoiding or reducing data loss and IT cessation.

Man-made disasters -- such as terrorism where surveillance and avoidance planning can also work towards mitigating and…… [Read More]

Sources

Bahan, C. The Disaster Recovery Plan. SANS Reading Room, 2003

 http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/recovery/ 

Bell, Judy. Why Some Recovery Plans Won't Work. Disaster Recovery

Journal. Spring 2003
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Disaster Recovery Emergency Planning and Disaster Recovery

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76462573

Disaster ecovery

Emergency Planning and Disaster ecovery: Technological and Managerial Solutions

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a body that is entrusted with alerting, evacuation coordination and managing disaster situations. Their website http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas deals with emergency issues and how response to disasters are usually undertaken by the agency. This portal in particular covers the use if technology to advance alert systems to the general public during and impending disaster. The alert system that is used by the agency and several other bodies will be focus of the paper and a detailed look at how successful these alert systems described in the FEMA website are and how they can be improved to ensure a much higher success rate in the future.

The approaching disaster alert system described in the FEMA website is known as the Emergency Alert System (EAS). This is a system that is used by the alerting authorities to…… [Read More]

Reference

FEMA, (2012). Emergency Alert System. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from  http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas
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Disaster Recovery Planning Over the

Words: 4106 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25012740

For example, the company could consider placing the data recovery system in the desert between West Texas and Nevada. In general, these areas are not subject to tornados or hurricanes. You could then choose, to place the location for all backup servers in a facility that will protect it against the weather such as: placing it underground. Once the facility is complete, you want to ensure that there is key staff to monitor and address any kind of issues that arise. Using such a system, will allow you to reduce the overall amounts of lost data that can occur at a particular location (due to weather / terrorist related activity).

Emergency Operations Center

The next issue that is going to be faced by the company / location is: establishing an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). In general, an EOC will serve as a place where the company can effectively coordinate a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Great Britain Intelligence and Security Committee." Report into London Terrorist Attacks on 7 July 2005." London:

Stationary Office. 2006. Print.

Hoffer, Jim. "Backing Up Business - Industry Trend or Event." Health Management Technology, 12.9, (2001): 79

85. Print.
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Disasters the Environment and Public

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73900839

Answering the posed question depends on one's understanding of "substantially different." On the one hand, there is the basic commonality of a recognition of the threat that natural hazards and man made activities pose upon environmental safety. Also, there is the common element of intensified efforts made in the direction of attaining environmental sustainability. What differs however is the extent to which researchers, lawmakers, organizations and individuals will go to protect the environment. Additionally, differences are obvious in terms of the emergence of new threats, such as bioterrorism. So yes, even if they refer to environmental threats and protection, the issues throughout this course will be substantially different from those forwarded in 1996.

eferences:

Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009

Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our esponse, American Journal of Public Health,…… [Read More]

References:

Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing,  http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence  last accessed on October 2, 2009

Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our Response, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 9

Revkin, a.C., January 22, 2009, Environmental Issues Slide in Poll of Public's Concerns, New York Times

2009, Fuel Economy Website,  http://www.fueleconomy.gov  last accessed on October 2, 2009
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Technological Advance Most Influencing National

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91091536



From the first generations of this technology to its current iteration, latent semantic indexing is proving valuable for tying together seemingly unrelated events through the use of linguistic modeling and probability theory. Determining the scope, relative urgency or lack thereof, and the potential threat internationally all can be ascertained through the parsing of unstructured content obtained from surveillance. Using this technology it is going to be possible to outsmart terrorists before they strike, replicating their knowledge network to an extent they themselves are not even aware of. In this respect, knowledge becomes a major deterrent by being able to understand how terrorists make decisions and thwart their actions before they can ever begin. Speed and closure of security strategies based on this level of knowledge is nearly impossible for an adversary to respond to, hence its potency for battling terrorism globally. Determining context and its role in defining linguistic modeling…… [Read More]

References

Michael Cooney "Prototype software sniffs out insider threats." Network World, February 25, 2008, 46.  http://www.proquest.com  (Accessed April 28, 2008).

Chris H.Q. Ding "A probabilistic model for Latent Semantic Indexing." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56, no. 6 (April 1, 2005): 597-608.
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Dombrowsky Disaster as a Trigger Joseph Scanlon

Words: 4055 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37721294

Dombrowsky

"Disaster" as a Trigger

Joseph Scanlon, Director of the Emergency Communications esearch Unit at Carleton University, states that the term "disaster" has undergone a transformation in the wake of 9/11. Its transformation is the center of debate for researchers whose work relies on an adequate definition and understanding of "disaster" -- yet Scanlon makes clear that he has been particularly struck "by how much of the debate [is]...influenced by awareness of various events and how much of that awareness [is] media related" (Scanlon 2005:13). In the field of emergency communications, that awareness has led to a new culture of "disaster" maintenance, and it has been largely influenced by media representation. According to Wolf Dombrowsky, "the term 'disaster' has only ephemeral significance. It is a trigger, a flag to signal a meaning, a stimulus to produce a specific reaction" (Dombrowsky 1998:15). Dombrowsky's assertion has been challenged by several researches, but…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, D 2005a, 'An Interpretation of Disaster in Terms of Changes in Culture,

Society and International Relations. What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old

Questions. [Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli] International Research

Committee on Disasters.
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Bigger Disasters by Kenneth G

Words: 526 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 37343517



Analysis of the data:

The information contained in this article is highly useful and informative for someone who truly wants to understand why America is repeatedly under attack by its own organizations. There may be variety of other factors too but Brill correctly identifies the presence of complex systems and lack of understanding about low probability issues as the critical factors affecting American accident-prone organizations today. e fail to understand that some of the very high consequence accidents that have low probability of ever occurring are the actual cause of future problems and hence must not be ignored at any cost. Here we can apply Murphy's law and say that if something can go wrong, it will- given the current organizational system working in America.

Limited and justifiable conclusion:

e can thus conclude that despite America's best efforts to avoid accidents, there is a good chance that not only it…… [Read More]

We can thus conclude that despite America's best efforts to avoid accidents, there is a good chance that not only it will have accidents and disasters both natural and economic but also they will be bigger and wider in magnitude and impact. This will happen not because of we lack serious interest in controlling accidents, but primarily because of that very fact. This doesn't mean we must not control accidents but rather we must try not to focus on the too obvious ones only. We must also take into consideration the ones that are unlikely to happen but if they occurred, they could have a huge impact on our economy and society.

Article: Critiqued:

This article can be found at  http://www.forbes.com/2010/09/21/bp-toyota-gas-technology-cio-network-disasters.html
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natural disasters emergency management preparedness

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39609470

Natural disasters have the potential to dramatically alter life in local communities. The loss of human life reverberates through the generations, as does the loss of local businesses and the generalized economic and psychosocial strain. Yet there are also larger impacts from localized events, such as changes to public policy and political philosophies resulting from major natural disasters. One of the most impactful natural disasters in recent American history is undoubtedly Hurricane Katrina. Hurricane Katrina showed Americans the many shortcomings of federal disaster relief response programs like the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which was restructured after the event (Zimmerman, 2015). In addition to the political ramifications from Katrina, the storm revealed weaknesses in local, state, and federal infrastructure: showing that public spending patterns need to change in order to make American communities more resilient in the future. Another reason why Katrina remains one of the most important and impactful…… [Read More]

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Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery

Words: 2060 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52903638

Disaster ecovery

Intrusion detection is the method of keeping track of the events taking place inside a computer or perhaps a network and then examining them to get indications of potential situations, that are transgressions or impending dangers of breach of IT security procedures, appropriate usage guidelines, or standardized security strategies. Intrusion prevention is the method of carrying out intrusion detection as well as trying to stop recognized potential situations. Intrusion detection as well as prevention systems (IDPS) happen to be mainly centered on determining potential situations, writing down details about them, trying to end all of them, as well as reporting these to security managers. Additionally, businesses make use of IDPSs for various other objectives, like identifying issues with security guidelines, documenting current risks, as well as stopping people from breaking safety guidelines. IDPSs have grown to be an essential accessory for the security system involving just about any…… [Read More]

References

Allen, J., Christie, A., Fithen, W., McHugh, J. And Pickel, J. (2000). State of the Practice of Intrusion Detection Technologies. Pittsburg, PA: Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, January.

Base, R. And Mell, P. (2001). SP 800-31, Intrusion Detection Systems. Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Kent, K. And Mell, P. (2006). SP 800-94, Guide to Intrusion Detection and Prevention (IDP) Systems (DRAFT). Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Kent, K. And Warnock, M. (2004). Intrusion Detection Tools Report, 4th Edition. Herndon, VA: Information Assurance Technology Analysis Center (IATAC).
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Infrastructure and Disasters the Twenty-First

Words: 1282 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91551910

hat could not be predicted was that the city's infrastructure would so miserably fail the people of New Orleans.

As images of looting and stranded citizens filled the airways, taken from news helicopters, the city's police force had virtually abandoned their posts, and some were accused of participating in the looting that followed the disaster there was something noticeably missing in the images; there were no police rescues, no Red Cross, no fire department rescue teams and no National Guard. Journalist John McQuaid described it this way:

But Katrina was much more than a natural event; human hands played a role in the damage and in the storm's equally disastrous aftermath. Katrina exposed deep institutional flaws in the nation's emergency response, supposedly upgraded following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. It easily overwhelmed the federal levee system, built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, that protected New Orleans…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018509938 

Andrews, Joseph L. "In Katrina's Wake: Healthcare Crises in New Orleans Dr. Joseph L. "Joel" Andrews Spent Two Weeks in the New Orleans Area in December 2005 as a Physician Volunteer for the American Red Cross Hurricane Katrina Disaster Relief Programs. Three Months after the Hurricane Had Hit, He Witnessed Firsthand the Storm's Devastating Effects on Residents in the City's Various Communities." The Humanist Nov.-Dec. 2006: 32+. Questia. 14 Dec. 2007
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How Technology Shapes Disasters

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13283483

ole of Technology in educing and Exacerbating Disaster isk: A Case Study of -- Haiti

Examine how technology(s) exacerbates.

Examine how technology(s) reduces the vulnerability of different people facing the same risk.

Make policy recommendations that would reduce the risk for the most vulnerable.

How to involve communities in technology development.

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Abstract

The technological inventions and life often go hand in hand and the disasters have often been…… [Read More]

References

Cashmore P. (2010) Haiti Quake Relief: Hoe Technology helps. Cable News Network [online]. Available from [13Nov 2014]

Choney S.(2010) Mobile Giving to help Haiti Exceeds $30 Million[online].Available from [11November 2014]

Encyclopedia of the Nations (2014)Haiti- Agriculture. Available from
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Formulating a Disaster and Risk Management Plan

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35317636

Lynchburg Security

Formulating a disaster and risk management is necessary for this jurisdiction. This is based on the knowledge that risk management is a demanding initiative that requires an appropriate and responsive. Satellite units are professionally trained to meet global demands. The Lynchburg, Virginia security system has met federal requirements of quality, and as a result, the system has proved suitable to respond to various hazards experienced in this jurisdiction. This report will attempt to present the Homeland Security apparatus of this jurisdiction. The report will assess the current situation of possible hazards and actual preparedness whilst presenting the elements of disaster management at Lynchburg. This section is a critical analysis of how disaster is managed within this jurisdiction compared to the critical disaster management measures in the United Kingdom.

Homeland Security stakeholders

The Lynchburg Homeland Security system is comprised of stakeholders like administrators, first responders, and the local law…… [Read More]

References

Agostino, D.M., & Jenkins, W.O. (2011). Catastrophic planning: states participating in FEMA's pilot program made progress, but better guidance could enhance future pilot programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.

Brownstein, C. (2007). Report of the DHS national small vessel security summit managing the risk. Arlington, VA: Homeland Security Institute.

Davis, B.J. (2011, November 1). Interagency Logistics Education and Training: Building Homeland Defense and Civil Support Liaisons: Disasters within the United States

Edkins, J. (2011). Missing: Persons and Politics. Cornell University Press.
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Challenger Shuttle Disaster While People

Words: 1002 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91888424



In addition, the Rogers Commission made specific recommendations related to these issues. They suggested that NASA restructure its management system, including bringing astronauts into management positions, which will increase attention to flight safety issues. They suggested a full examination of all critical systems before conducting any more shuttle launches. They were instructed to establish an Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality control. These suggestions bring safety back to prominence in decision-making, and should downplay the effect of pressure to meet deadlines (Harwood, 1986).

The Rogers Commission also criticized NASA's communications and instructed them to devise ways that information flows from bottom to top as well as from top to bottom. In addition they expressed concern about a tendency for management to be somewhat isolated from others, further interfering with communication (Harwood, 1986). If middle management had been able to communicate effectively with upper levels in 1986, the GDSS would have…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eberhart, Jonathan. 1986. "Challenger disaster muddles NASA's future." Science News, March 15.

Editorial. 2003. "Bad News Rising." Air Safety Week, Feb. 17. (Editorial, 2003)

Forrest, Jeff. 1995. "The Challenger Shuttle Disaster," in Aviation & Aerospace. Accessed via the Internet 11/1/05. http://frontpage.hypermall.com/jforrest/challenger/challenger_sts.htm

Harwood, William. Voyage Into History. CBS, 1986. Accessed via the Internet 11/1/04. http://www.cbsnews.com/network/news/space/51Lintro.html
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the local'state and federal levels of disaster management

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20315950

At its simplest and most succinct, the mission of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA, 2018a) is “helping people before, during, and after emergencies,” (p. 1). To fulfill this mission, FEMA engages in a variety of related actions including strategic planning, intelligence gathering, communication, and coordination. FEMA conducts risk assessments, helps communities build resilience, and helps to protect or recovery essential services. FEMA (2018b) also outlines its five core mission areas, which include prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. FEMA remains active at each of these stages of emergency management and does not discriminate against any one type of emergency, playing as integral a role in natural disaster management as in technological, cyber, and terrorist-related incidents.
Prevention involves strategic planning, information gathering, intelligence sharing, threat detection, and any other activity that would involve stopping a problem before it manifests. Protection is a phase during which a disaster may be unpreventable,…… [Read More]

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BP Solar Ever-Increasing Technological Advances

Words: 1982 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84324471



It is yet to be seen whether alternative energy will eventually replace petroleum products or whether they will simply enhance the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and availability of energy in the future. BP's move into alternative energy will help it to position itself as a leader regardless of which direction the market decides to go. BP's move makes sense from many perspectives. It makes sense for a marketing perspective because it will help to improve BP's image to one that is more environmentally friendly and in line with current public consciousness. It will help it to make better use of natural resources from production to end use of all of its product lines.

One advantage that BP has over many of the other companies entering into the alternative energy field is that it has experience in providing the needs of mass consumers. It understands the technical difficulties of supplying energy to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BP Solar International Inc. BP Solar has over 30 years experience in the solar industry: a legacy of quality, service, performance and innovation all around the world. 2006.  http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=3050457&contentId=3050613 .

Accessed October 29, 2006.

BP.  http://www.bp.com/extendedgenericarticle.do?categoryId=3&contentId=7005342 BP" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Technology and Disaster

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14218469

role that technology has played in terms of the genocide in wanda, both before and after.

With the scope and depth of technology, there is an ability to make natural disasters seem even worse -- worse in the sense that a degree of sensationalism can develop, making the incident seem more pervasive and more damaging. One of the major ways that technology has impacted the manner in which we consume news is via the fact that it makes the news more immediate and more accessible. As one theorist has argued, "…sensationalism played an important role in journalism and the spread of news. People would shoot the breeze about this guy getting eaten by a bear or that woman being involved in affair. It's human nature to be curious about things that might affect our own survival -- such as death and sex" (Sanders, 2011). Technology has taken the element of…… [Read More]

References

Binns, T. (2008). Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies. Trenton: Prentice Hall.

Collins, A. (2009). Disaster and Development. New York: Routledge Press.

Goose, S.D. (1994). Arming Genocide in Rwanda: The High Cost of Small Arms Transfers. Retrieved from:  http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50333/stephen-d-goose-and-frank-smyth/arming-genocide-in-rwanda-the-high-cost-of-small-arms-transfers 

Hillhorst, D. (2013). Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crises: Everyday Politics of Crisis Response. New York: Routledge.
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Management Dilemmas after Disasters

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49807225

Ethical Dilemmas in Human Resource (Hr) Practice

The article introduces readers to the concept of "Organizational Apologies by BP as a remedy to its role in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill and the management of its employees. Ethical behaviors remain matters of interests within and outside organizations (O'Connor, 2011). Corporate failure and scandals that continue to rock headlines raise serious concerns about management approaches employed in the workplace (Carter, 2015). Negative views about organizations could be detrimental to their growth. Examples of such cases include the initial BP's blunder in quick comprehension of the public concerns raised in the US relating to the Gulf of Mexico spill (O'Connor, 2011). Additionally, BP demonstrated a failure in prioritizing equipment safety in their operations that came into the limelight causing significant public relations and financial damage to the company.

The author informs of the essence of HR departments in facilitating continued professional…… [Read More]

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Society Has Experienced Significant Technological

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 48085959

The fact that people express particular interest in particular types of fish means that large fish are likely to be replaced by smaller fish that feed on plankton, especially considering that these fish gradually come to have less and less natural predators. Marine ecosystems are thus significantly altered as the number of predators slowly drops while plankton also drops as a result of more and more plankton-eating small fish having no one to prey on them.

The marine ecosystem no longer functions the same as a series of fish species become seriously affected by fishing. The general public thus needs to acknowledge the critical condition the marine ecosystem and to raise public awareness concerning the impending catastrophe that the world is about to experience.

In addition to the marine ecosystem being affected, overfishing is also responsible for generating economic and social problems throughout the world. "The cod fishery off Newfoundland,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

"Overfishing," Retrieved April 2, 2013, from the GreenPeace Website:  http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/oceans/overfishing/
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Relevance of Academic Knowledge to

Words: 5016 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63570089

It needs to be well understood because just like knowledge, ingorance cannot be talked about without basing on some individual or group. It should therfore be negotiated soically because it is socially constructed. Ignorance is treated indiscriminately and unitary whereby terms like uncertainity, ambiguity and vagueness are considered synonymous by most writing on disaster.Turner together with several other writers in the fields of disasters and hazards refer to about three ignorance senses consisting of distortion which he also calls misinformation, incompleteness and irrelevance whereby relevant information is discounted and overlooked. In order to prevent disasters, there are various ways in information which would be need is classified. The things which are not known; what is known but not entirely appreciated; something which someone knows but does not present it collectively with other information in a timely manner when there will be realization of its significance and action of its message…… [Read More]

References

Auf der Heide, E. (1989). Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St.

Louis: C.R. Mosely.

Britton, N. (1999). Whither the emergency manager?" International Journal of Mass

Emergencies and Disaster, 17(3), 223-36.
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Organizational Accountability in Emergency Management

Words: 8646 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 15886146



Function #1: Mitigation

At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.

At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:

The identification of hazards and the research of their causes

The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified

The offering of research and development grants to local projects

The promulgation of buildings safety standards

elative to the competencies of the local governments…… [Read More]

References:

Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal

Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X

Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14

Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
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BP Crisis

Words: 2866 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 55103452

Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

'Boards of Directors Need to Oversee Corporate Sustainability more Effectively', 2010, PR Newswire, Available from Proquest. [19 June 2010]  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=2054701491&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1276983049&clientId=45065 

'BP Engineer Called Deepwater Horizon Nightmare Well Days Before Blast', 2010, Huffington Post, Available from: [21 June 2010].

'BP Establishes a $20 Billion Claims Fund', 2010, BP, Available from: . [21 June 2010].

'Estimating Cleanup Costs for Oil Spills', 1999, Cutter Information Corporation, Available from: . [19 June 2010].
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Emergency Planning Washington DC Emergency Planning Entails

Words: 793 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32894601

Emergency Planning: Washington, DC

Emergency planning entails planning carefully for every type of hazard that may affect a particular area. It involves forecasting and developing a plan to deal with natural, manmade and technological disasters.

Washington, DC's emergency planning has of course changed entirely since September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks that left the entire country stunned and scarred had a particularly strong impact on Washington, DC. The center of America's political structure and a strong financial base, Washington continues to be a prime target for terrorists, one that will always be on a "short-list," so to speak, of cities that may yet again have to endure a terrorist attack of mammoth proportions.

One of the primary concerns for Washington, DC emergency planners is Reagan National Airport. The airport is so close to the most important landmarks and population centers in downtown Northwest Washington, DC, that it poses a continual…… [Read More]

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National Preparedness Ppd-8 Examines How the Nation

Words: 2732 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15520273

National Preparedness (PPD-8) examines how the nation should approach preparing for threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk to U.S. security. It is the view of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that "national preparedness is the shared responsibility of our whole community. Ever member contributes, including individuals, communities, the private and nonprofit sectors, faith-based organizations, and Federal, state, and local governments" (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011). Therefore, the Department of Homeland Security feels that increasing preparedness across all sectors, public and private, better enables the entire society to deal with potential disasters. Moreover, one of the Department's goals is to increase resiliency; they are aware that not all disasters can be avoided, but want to make sure the country is well-prepared to weather a disaster.

One of the recurring issues with homeland security-geared legislation is that it is seen by many as being somewhat overbroad and unconstitutional.…… [Read More]

References

Clovis, S. (2006). Federalism, homeland security and national preparedness: A case study in the development of public policy. Homeland Security Affairs, 2(3), Article 4. Retrieved from:  http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=2.3.4 

Clovis, S. (2008). Promises unfulfilled: The sub-optimization of homeland security national preparedness. Homeland Security Affairs, 4(3), Article 3. Retrieved from:  http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=4.3.3 

Hardenbrook, B.J. (2005). The need for a policy framework to develop disaster resilient regions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 2(3), Article 2. doi: 10.2202/1547-7355.1133

Tierney, K. (2007). Recent developments in U.S. homeland security policies and their implications for the management of extreme events. Handbook of Disaster Research, 405-412.
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Forest Fire Management Systems and

Words: 17324 Length: 63 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50516012

It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.

1.2.4.ationale of the Study

What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.

1.3.Definition of Terms

Fire

The Underlying Causes of Fire.

It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…… [Read More]

References

Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide:  http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .

Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.

Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.

Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
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Citizen Participation Can We Measure

Words: 3250 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 56309194

Further, the view that citizens cannot objectively assess service delivery (and, conversely, that public officials can) has been a limiting factor to the institutionalization of citizen surveys. Watson et al. point out, however, that a disparity between the subjective views of citizens and the 'objective' assessments of service quality provides city leaders with the opportunities to both communicate more effectively and take steps to reduce the disparity.

Citizen surveys have a number of distinct advantages: they identify problems, evaluate services, influence budget priorities, identify citizen preferences, and "send a message to residents that the city government is concerned about their opinions" (234).

In an effort to promote citizen surveys and explore if citizen surveys are actually effective and worth a city government's time, Watson et al. look at the citizen survey creation and tradition in Auburn, Alabama. The first survey conducted, administered in 1985, convinced public officials that surveys served…… [Read More]

References

Rosener, Judy B. (1978). Citizen Participation: Can We Measure Its Effectiveness? Public

Administration Review, 38(5) 457-463.

Rosener, Judy B. (1982). Making Bureaucrats Responsive: A Study of the Impact of Citizen

Participation and Staff Recommendations on Regulatory Decision Making. Public Administration Review, 42(4) 339-345.
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Environmental Safety in Contemporary Society

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58330375

In fact, the changes in technology and complexities of modern life enhance this idea. This is nowhere as apparent as it is in the idea of environmental safety and health, for actions taken in one part of the world do have a profound effect on other parts of the world. Even in modern, developed nations like the United States, we find mercury from Chinese factories, dust from Saharan Africa and smog from Mexico -- accounting for about 30% of the nation's ozone problems (Watson, 2005).

The Gaia Hypothesis, in fact, is a theory that the entire planet is large and complex living organism. This proposes that everything on earth, organic and inorganic, are completely integrated into a single and self-regulating complex system that maintains the conditions for life on earth (Gribbin, 2009). The complexity is so vast that we may not be able to completely understand it at present. For…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Our Nation's Air: Status and Trends Through 2010. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from:  http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011  / report/fullreport.pdf

Gribbin, J. (2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Watson, T. (March 14, 2005). Air Pollution from Other Countries Drifts into USA. USA Today -- the Nation. Retrieved from:  http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-03-13-pollution-_x.htm 

World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments. Retrieved from:  http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/
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Importance of Communications and Technology

Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1381488

Disaster Management

Communications and Technology in Disaster Management

The Importance of Communication and Technology in Disaster Management

With the ever increasing chances of disasters occurring in different levels of our societies, the need for institution appropriate disaster management procedures go without saying. The strategic application of processes within organizations and regions, mainly with the aim of protecting the most critical of its assets is a prerequisite (Haddow & Bullock, 2003). With the increasing complexities, in terms of challenges to disaster management, the need for equally complex measures for managing these disasters has been echoed and this has been practically applied in the contemporary world. Generally, the use of communication and technology in facilitating functions like coordination, commanding and control and providing warnings in disaster management has become widespread. A case in point is Australia, a country which since history have implemented and continually developed its disaster management strategies (Healey, 2006).…… [Read More]

References

Fennel, Z, (2012) what are the Benefits of Communication Technology, Retrieved July 30, 2012, http://www.ehow.com/list_5772270_benefits-communication-technology_.html

GSM Association (2005) the Role of Mobiles in Disasters and Emergencies, Retrieved July 30, 2012, https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:4iJ5YMea5RsJ:www.enlightenmenteconomics.com/about-diane/assets/disasterreport

Haddow, G.D & Bullock, J.A (2003) Introduction to Emergency Management, Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Healey, J (2006) Natural Disasters, Sydney: The Spinney Press
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Technology That Can Be Used

Words: 1118 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31868393

If the area they were placed in was prone to blizzards, earthquakes, terrorist outbreaks or anything else the public to be educated that if it heard the sirens it meant that specific disaster was likely occurring, had occurred or was about to occur.

The sirens are also universally recognized as a warning system therefore the process of installation and public education would not be significantly difficult to complete.

TSUNAMI WANING SYSTEM

The world was shocked and traumatized when the Indian Ocean Tsunami hit a few years ago and hundreds of thousands of people died as a result of that disaster.

When it struck there was very little or no warning for most of those who were impacted by its arrival.

Most people did not know it was coming until they saw the giant wave coming toward them as they stood on shore (Indian Ocean tsunami warning system (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4524642.stm).

While the…… [Read More]

References

Outdoor Warning System  http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/EM/Disaster_Preparedness/sirens.php 

Indian Ocean tsunami warning system  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4524642.stm
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Ethical Practices Within Business

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47205201

Ethical Practices ithin Business

BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster

Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Carl, Safina. BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster. Annual Report and Form- Case

4, 32:2, (2012),342-352.
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Importance of the Alcan Case

Words: 5996 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 46716205

Alcan's continued revenue growth is the result of the combined success of increasing sales in four main business units, in addition to growth through acquisition. The cumulative effects of these two factors have served to create a profitable business and one where a highly decentralized organizational structure dominates (Chang, Wang, 2011). The catalyst of the organization becoming so decentralized is the continued revenue gains made across four businesses, each competing in market areas that face heavy pricing and commodity-like market conditions. Despite the heavily process-centric based approaches the industry takes to supply chain management, production and distribution, Alcan has been also able to profitably grow sales in the more mature markets they compete in. The senior management and IT departments credit the highly decentralized nature of the enterprise-wide systems that run the company.

During the time period of the case, Alcan generated $23.6B in sales in 2006, and has 68,000…… [Read More]

References

(Benamati, Lederer, Singh, 1998)

Benamati, J., Lederer, A.L., & Singh, M. (1998). Information technology change: The impact on it management. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 38(4), 9-13.

(Drill, 2005)

Drill, S. (2005). Assume the worst in IT disaster recovery plan. National Underwriter.P & C, 109(8), 14-15.
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ERP and Information Security

Words: 8373 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74211420

EP and Information Security

Introduction to EP

Even though the plans of information security include the prevention of outsiders to gain access of internal network still the risk from the outsiders still exists. The outsiders can also represent themselves as authorized users in order to cause damage to the transactions of the business systems. Therefore, strict prevention measures should be taken to avoid such situations.

The threats of both the hackers have been increased with the software of the enterprise resource planning (EP) (Holsbeck and Johnson, 2004). By performing acts of deception, the system privileges are neglected by them and take old of the assets which are mainly the cash. Its continuous integration has not succeeded in eliminating the threat of hackers who are either the insiders or enter through the perimeter security.

Considering the financial losses caused from the system-based frauds, errors and abuse by business transactions, new ways…… [Read More]

References

Bell, T., Thimbleby, H., Fellows, M., Witten, I., Koblitz, N. & Powell, M. 2003. Explaining cryptographic systems. Computers & Education. Volume 40. pp 199 -- 215.

Blosch, M. & Hunter, R. 2004. Sarbanes-Oxley: an external look at internal controls. Gartner. August.

CobiT Security Baseline. IT Governance Institute. http://www.itgi.org

Dhillon, G. 2004. Guest Editorial: the challenge of managing information security. International Journal of Information Management. Volume 24. pp 3 -- 4.
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Multicriteria Analysis Model of Land

Words: 5174 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76556627

particularly using multicriteria analysis model of land use planning and land use management and how it affects the future of land management. It has 10 sources in APA format.

Issues pertaining to land use management, and land use planning are as varied in nature as their challenging existence. Taking diversity as one challenge, it is noticed that ascertaining the various goals, values and techniques of the land user have remained a crucial task. The intention of this paper is to detail some methodologies on selected issues of land use management and land use planning, and present relevant literature review that give credence to these methodologies.

The determination of how our land is or will be used is coined as land use planning and land management. Seeking to create a vision for use and management of lands and the natural resources, the land and resource management plans requires the involvement of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Toit, D.C. du.[July 2001]. Wise Land Use, White Paper On Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Ministry Of Agriculture And Land Affairs, available at:  http://www.polity.org.za/html/govdocs/white_papers/landdev.html?rebookmark=1 

Author not available, [2002]. United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, Chaper 10, Agenda 21, available at:  http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/land.htm 

Author not available, [2001]. United Nations Economic and Social Council, Commission on Sustainable Development http://ods-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/312/96/PDF/N0131296.pdf-OpenElement

O'Callaghan, M. [2001]. Global Vision, Sustainable City, available at: www.global-vision.org/city/intro.html
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Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater Horizon Accident One

Words: 4053 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91654562

Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater horizon accident

One of the most eminent names in the oil and gas industry is British Petroleum, considered as the largest provider of oil and gas to its customers for transportation, energy for heating and light and retail services for petrochemical products globally. The financial and operational picture of the company's performance is illustrated in table1 below.

Performance at a glance for 2010

Facts and figures

Sales and other operating revenues

eplacement cost profit

Number of employees

Proved reserves

etail sites

Upstream

efineries (wholly or partly owned)

efining throughput

$297,107 million (year 2010)

($4,519) million (year 2010)

79,700 (at 31 Dec 2010)

18,071 million barrels of oil equivalent

22,100

Active in 29 countries

16

2,426 thousand barrels per day (year 2010)

(BP's Corporate website, 2010)

On 20th April 2010 the company faced a serious challenge when one of its oil rigs started leaking and simply couldn't…… [Read More]

References

BP's Corporate website, 2010. Annual Report 2010. Retrieved through  http://www.bp.com/sectionbodycopy.do?categoryId=9035798&contentId=7066618  on 12th August 2010

Corner, P. Kinicki, A. And Keats, B. (1994) Integrating organizational and individual information processing perspectives on choice, Organizational Science, vol. 3.

Drucker, P. (1954) The Practice of Management, Harper and Row, New York, 1954.

Gellerman, S. (1989) Managing Ethics from the Top to Down, Sloan Management Review;
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Coca Cola Company Overview Coca-Cola

Words: 2273 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 3801715

Typically, buyers have the ability to switch their tastes from one soft drink brand to the other.

Barrier to Entry: It is very difficult to enter the industry due to several factors:

First, a new firm will need to implement economic of scale to enjoy cost reduction and compete favourably within the industry. To establish economic of scale, a new firm will require huge capital investment ranging from several millions of dollar. Huge capital needed to enter the industry serves as a barrier for a new firm. More importantly, a new firm will need to overcome the tremendous marketing muscle to establish market presence within the industry, and entering into the industry requires substantial capital. Moreover, government regulation is another factor making entry into the industry very difficult. egulations such as Soft Drink Inter-brand Competition Act are making the new entry nearly impossible in the U.S. market.

Assessment of the…… [Read More]

References

Annual Report, (2010). Coca Cola Company. USA.

Frost and Sullivan Research (2011).Financial Assessment of Non-alcoholic Beverages Market. Frost and Sullivan Research Service.USA.

IMAP (2011). Food and Beverage Industry Global Report -2010. A IMAP Consumer Staple Report.

Lagos, T. & Smith, V. (2001). Analysis of the Coca-Cola Company. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Humanity a Wise Steward of

Words: 1509 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99546017



In this sense, Keynes' quote seems to be more than reasonable and many people turn to it when it comes to environmental protection. What is the goal of keeping nature healthy, when we will not be here to benefit from it several decades from now? Do we psychologically actually care about what happens after we die? Can we reasonably believe that individuals have any concern about future evolution on Earth after their death?

As we have seen from the discussion here above, perhaps the strongest argument that should defend the pro-environmentalist position would be that it costs us much more not to protect the environment than it does to take the necessary measures to keep nature healthy. However, this is a conclusion that few have arrived to and it seems to me quite clear that the individualistic attitude I have mentioned is much closer to what we are experiencing now.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

THE HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERFACE- WORLDVIEW and ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN. On the Internet at http://www.eeexchange.org/sustainability/content/G/4.htmL

2.  http://www.nhh.no/geo/MAN.Site%20folder/MAN.Site/Sess4R/Cornucopians.html 

THE HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERFACE- WORLDVIEW and ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN. On the Internet at http://www.eeexchange.org/sustainability/content/G/4.HTML
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Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public

Words: 1700 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91843959

Rawl confessed that it was "bad judgement involved in even putting a person with a critical skill back in that kind of work...It is pretty clear we have to tighten those things up" (Loeb pp).

hen asked what advice he had for other CEOs, Rawl stated that they had better prethink which way they are going to jump from a public affairs standpoint before they have any kind of a problem, and cautioned that they should always have a public affairs plan, no matter how hard it is to think in terms of disasters (Loeb pp).

orks Cited

Davis, Nancy Y. The Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0l.htm

Details About the Accident. Retrieved October 30, 2005 at http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html

Loeb, Marshall. (1989 May 08). In ten years you'll see 'nothing.' (interview with Exxon CEO Lawrence Rawl about the Valdez oil spill). Fortune. Retrieved October 30, 2005…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davis, Nancy Y. The Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from  http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0l.htm 

Details About the Accident. Retrieved October 30, 2005 at  http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html 

Loeb, Marshall. (1989 May 08). In ten years you'll see 'nothing.' (interview with Exxon CEO Lawrence Rawl about the Valdez oil spill). Fortune. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Roth, Alan T. (2003 April 08). Managing Risk Issues vs. Managing Risk:
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BP and How it Can Impact on

Words: 4554 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82404581

BP and how it can impact on the performanve of the firm

In the recent times, a number of people have opposed the strategies that have been developed by BP. The major strategies that have been opposed by individuals is that of stoping the case regarding oil spill in the gulf of mexico.Operational strategy and effectiveness are vital for superior performance which is usually the main aim of all enterprises and organizations. A firm may perform better than its rivals only if the organization is capable of establishing a difference it is capable of preserving. The firms have to deliver higher values to its customers. Besides, the organizations should be capable of creating comparable values at very low costs. Delivering higher values enables companies to charge higher unit prices. Similarly, very great efficiency and effectiveness will result into very low unit costs. Operational effectiveness (OE) implies performing same activities more…… [Read More]

References

Austin, E.W., & Pinkleton, B.E. 2006. Strategic public relations management:

Planning and managing effective communication programs (2nd ed). Mahwah,

NJ: Erlbaum.

Axson, A.J. 2003. Best practices in planning and management reporting. New York:
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It Infrastructure to the Day-To-Day

Words: 4621 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 68534285



Table 1

Since the manufacturing activities at JMC should be brought back online in a period of 12 hours, it is evident from the above table that the classification of the disaster recovery plan is mission critical.The whole focus of Disaster recovery Plan is to try and restore the operation of various system components that are termed as mission critical. The process of restoring the system does not have to be totally reliant on technology. Some elements of the process could be manual. It is important to ensure that some aspects of the data recovery process are manually accomplished in order to minimize on the cost of the whole recovery operations. Having a Disaster Recovery Plan in place reduces the risk associated with the period of time that a disruption in a critical business process does not proceed beyond what has been deemed acceptable by company's management

During the recovery…… [Read More]

Bibliography

CAI (2005) Best Practices: Backup and Recovery Strategies

 http://www.ca.com/files/whitepapers/backup_recov_wp.pdf 

Rennels, B (2005)a Practical Guide to Disaster Recovery Planning:the basics to getting started.

 http://www.sunbeltsoftware.com/documents/disaster_recovery_planning_
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Information Technology Holds Great Promise for Improving

Words: 3297 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91590384

Information Technology holds great promise for improving the way a government serves its citizens in various services it conducts to the citizens. This rapid adoption of information technology has produced substantial benefits to the citizens, tax payers, and businesses alike. It is therefore recommended for every particular government to develop digital services to streamline all its operations. One area where governments should enhance its key functions is the establishment of online tax preparation services for the citizens.

It is quite obvious that the government is actively involved in taxation, and this is where the provision of information technology makes the entire process easier and more efficient. Electronic provision of tax forms and other tax information is very beneficial to the residents and falls within the traditional scope of government's activity. This is why government must actively engage tax payers in electronic filing since it is appropriate in boosting the efficiency…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arcot (2009) Arcot Fraud Detection and Risk Analysis for eCommerce Transactions

Solution Guide. Available http://www.arcot.com/resources/docs/Arcot_Fraud_Detection_&_Risk_Analysis_for_eCommerce_Transactions.pdf

A definition from Webopedia "Data Center Tiers" (HTML). Webopedia. 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2010-02-13.

A document from the Uptime Institute describing the different tiers (click through the download page) "Data Center Site Infrastructure Tier Standard: Topology" (PDF). Uptime Institute. 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
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Managing Homeland Security You Were

Words: 2062 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48708261

S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.

(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…… [Read More]

References

Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.

Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov

Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.

Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
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Emergency Comparative Study of Two

Words: 1479 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89041660

The exercises and training divisions work with similar divisions in Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, a Continuity of Operations department designed to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, and an Office of Domestic Preparedness and Law Enforcement Liaison work with local and federal authorities to coordinate comprehensive disaster planning efforts. (Maryland Emergency Management Homepage, 2006, Official Website)

Different organizations that are involved, how the organizations interact with or are apart of the EOC/What is the responsibilities of each member to the EOC

The federal government, including FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Authority), the Department of Homeland Security, and the state Emergency Management offices of Delaware, Virginia, and Pennsylvania are all involved, as is the National Guard. These organizations do not have specifically delineated legal responsibilities to the state of Maryland's EOC, other than to serve the citizens of the U.S. In the case of the federal government. (Maryland Emergency Management…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Droneburg, John. (2006) "Letter from the Director: John Droneburg III." Maryland

Emergency Management. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at  http://www.mema.state.md.us/MEMA/content_page.jsp?TOPICID=domprepare# 

Florida State Warning Point." (2006). Florida Division of Emergency Management. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at  http://www.floridadisaster.org/bpr/Response/Operations/swp.htm 

Maryland Emergency Management Homepage. (2006) Official Website. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at  http://www.mema.state.md.us/MEMA/index.jsp
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Low-Intensity Crises the World in

Words: 3269 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70144889

Efforts are made to make healthier choices in terms of energy and transport in both developed and developing countries. All legislators now acknowledge the need for alternative energy and transport choices to promote the health and well-being not only of current generations, but also those of the future. Indeed, on a wider scale, healthier choices can eventually mean the difference between the longevity of the human race or its ultimate destruction. It can therefore be said with certainty that the impact of the 1952 event can still be felt today. It forms the basis of the fundamental realization that air pollution is very detrimental to human health, and that alternative fuel sources are essential if the situation is to improve.

II the Fire at andoz Ltd.

II.1 the Crisis

The 1986 fire at andoz Ltd. occurred near Basel, witzerland on 1 November. Like the London smog, was more or less…… [Read More]

Sources

BBC News. 1986: Chemical spill turns Rhine red. On this day: 1 November.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/1/newsid_4679000/4679789.stm 

BBC News UK. (2002, Dec. 5). The Great Smog of London.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/2545759.stm 

Bitzer, Dirk. 1986 Environment: So many dead fish! Geschichte

http://www.geschichte.nrw.de/artikel.php?artikel%5Bid%5D=141&lkz=en
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Information Security Evaluation for OSI Systems a Case Study

Words: 4698 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 79647966

OSIIT

An analysis of IT policy transformation

The aim of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of information security policy in the context of an organization, OSI Systems, Inc. With presence in Africa, Australia, Canada, England, Malaysia and the United States, OSI Systems, Inc. is a worldwide company based in California that develops and markets security and inspection systems such as airport security X-ray machines and metal detectors, medical monitoring anesthesia systems, and optoelectronic devices. The company is also represented by three subsidiary divisions in offices and plants dedicated to the brands, apiscan Systems, OSI Optoelectronics and SpaceLabs Healthcare.

In 2010, OSI, Inc. had sales of $595 million with net income of over $25 million. As of June 2010, the company was comprised of 2,460 personnel globally. The parent company provides oversight and fiscal control to the different divisions, and is connected through its virtual network world-wide intranet system;…… [Read More]

References

Allen, J. (2005). Governing for Security: Project Stakeholders Interests. News at SEI. Retrieved on 5SEPT10 from  http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/news-at-sei/securitymatters20054.cfm 

Computer Misuse Law, 2006. Parliament UK. Retrieved from:  http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm090916/text/90916w0015.htm#09091614000131 

Diver, S. (2006). Information Security Policy -- A Development Guide for Large and Small Companies. SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room. Retrieved on 30 Sept 10 from  http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/policyissues/information-security-policy-development-guide-large-small-companies_1331 

Global IT Policy (2009) OSI, Inc.
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BP Deepwater Horizon in April 2010 Gulf

Words: 2375 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39175128

BP Deepwater Horizon

In April, 2010, Gulf of Mexico oil rig Deepwater Horizon, managed by British Petroleum (BP) suffered an explosion, sank to the bottom of the sea and precipitated an oil leak that would take months to cap (Pagnamenta & Goddard, 2010). The disaster was costly for BP both financially and reputationally, and the company's responses have not engendered much faith among the general public with respect to BP's ethics or its willingness to address the concerns of those whose lives have been devastated by the disaster. The company's strategy throughout the course of the disaster from the point prior to the disaster to its handling of the legal actions taken against it, has drawn the ire of many observers.

This paper will analyze BP's strategy, in particular with respect to its balance between the public relations issues and the financial issues. BP's approach appears to be internally consistent,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Friedman, M. (1970) The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from  http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html 

Holt, R. & McNulty, T. (2008) Securing the license to act: a foundational capability. Journal of Strategy and Management 1 (1) 72-92.

Pagnamenta, R. & Goddard, J. (2010). Pollution disaster as Deepwater Horizon oil rig sinks into sea. The Times. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from  http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/environment/article7105649.ece 

Peel, M. (2010). Opposition grows to BP's strategy. Financial Times. September 15, 2010. In possession of the author.
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The Built Environment and Social Networking

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98404965

Bowling Alone Putnam; School Ties, Space, and esilience by Carpenter; and Globalization of Disaster: Trends, Problems and Dilemmas by Alexander. I chose these articles because each in its own way deals with the problem of community and change. Bowling Alone focuses on the impact of women in the workplace, family mobility and changing demographics on declining civic society. School Ties examines the effect that social networks and built environments have on one another. Globalization of Disaster looks at an entire global community that has been changed by rapid technological advancements in communications, travel, and commerce. The idea of resilience offered by School Ties is helpful in addressing the problematic issues identified both by "Bowling Alone" and Globalization of Disaster and in this reflection paper I will show how the concept can be applied.

Bowling Alone was a very interesting read because it identifies the disintegration of the stable, social family…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, D. (2006). Globalization of Disaster: Trends, Problem and Dilemmas.

Journal of International Affairs, 59(2): 1-22.

Carpenter, A. (2013). Social Ties, Space, and Resilience. Community and Economic

Development Discussion Paper, 2(13): 1-21.
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Web 2 0 With a Focus

Words: 6782 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3008169

0 is "…a broad name used for a number of different experiments that are being done in the research community" (eddy & Goodman, 2002, p. 12). The emphasis here is in 'experiment' as Web 2.0 is a platform for the testing of new applications and innovation, as well as being an area for research and development in education and science.

The differences in the way that Web 2.0 functions can be seen in the concept of the Internet as a new platform or environment. This is a concept that exceeds the idea that a new Internet would merely offer new applications that would be in essence an extension of Internet 1.0. As Tim O'eilly and John Battelle note, Web 2.0 means "… building applications that literally get better the more people use them, harnessing network effects not only to acquire users, but also to learn from them and build on…… [Read More]

References

Anderson a. ( 2007) What is Web 2.0? Ideas, technologies and implications for Education. Technology and Standards Watch, Feb. 2007. Retrieved from  http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/techwatch/tsw0701b.pdf 

Atchison S. (2007) Are You Chasing the Web 2.0 Trend? Part 2. Retrieved from  http://www.clickz.com/3626152 

Bogatin B. ( 2007) Web 2.0 Social Networks: Cool but marginal and unprofitable?

Retrieved from  http://blogs.zdnet.com/micro-markets/?p=1062 )
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Information Systems and Amazon

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31010650

Amazon

The systems development life cycle is a means by which the life cycle of software can be understood. There are a number of different conceptions of the systems development life cycle, such as the waterfall, the build and fix, rapid prototyping and more. The concept has been around for over a decade, so doubtless Amazon already is quite aware of it, and utilizes it. The benefits of understanding this life cycle include that it allows for more effective project planning -- knowing what will need to be done when, based on life cycle analysis. Systems design can also take into account the expected life cycle of the system in question, while resources can be made available at the right times for things like implementation, integration, testing and installation (Kay, 2002). This is especially the case when there are resource requirements that the firm needs to acquire.

This process would…… [Read More]

References

Heinrich, C. (2005). RFID and beyond: How real world awareness improves the supply chain. SAP. Retrieved June 26, 2015 from  http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Frederic_Thiesse/publication/36382783_RFID_and_beyond/links/00463525cee5168239000000.pdf 

Kay, R. (2002). System development life cycle. Computerworld. Retrieved June 26, 2015 from  http://www.computerworld.com/article/2576450/app-development/app-development-system-development-life-cycle.html 

Amazon (2015). AWS cloud security. Amazon.com. Retrieved June 26, 2015 from  http://aws.amazon.com/security/ 

Botha, J. & Solms, R. (2004). A cyclic approach to business continuity planning. Retrieved June 26, 2015 from  http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.108.5058&rep=rep1&type=pdf
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Appropriate Strategic Decisions at PRCM

Words: 2198 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38308096

PCM Strategic Management

As per strategic management principles, many companies and organizations decide to outsource some of their services because various reasons. PCM management outsourced almost all the aspects of mine design such that they can reduce and control operational costs. When some aspects are outsourced, the company offering the services will incur the costs of all the operating machines and labor used. It is cheaper for many organizations to outsource than to acquire all the tools needed, and employ qualified personnel to work on the elements. PCM management would incur more costs as compared to outsourcing. The management would need to generate electricity supply ventilation, which is very expensive to the company. Constructing the mine, environmental safety process, and extracting coal requires expensive tools that will be used in all these operations. In addition, the company will employ qualified professionals to operate in these processes and even financial management,…… [Read More]

References

Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Cambridge University Press.

Hitt, M. & Hoskisson, R. (2012). Strategic management cases: competitiveness and globalization. Cengage Learning.

Eden, C., & Ackermann, F. (2013). Making strategy: The journey of strategic management. Sage.

Stead, J.G., & Stead, W.E. (2013). Sustainable strategic management. ME Sharpe.
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Technology Today

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71461672

Technology

Neil Postman warns against a full-scale embracing of technology and technological advancement in his article "Five Things We Need to Know about Technological Change." While the author agrees that new and emerging technologies do not necessarily pose truly unique problems for society, Postman does acknowledge that technology plays an increasingly powerful role in the world. Technology affects all aspects of human existence, from politics to education to religion. Postman presents the "five things we need to know" to encourage a prudent and balanced perspective on technological growth. The first of his five adages outlines thee disadvantages that each technology brings. For example, automobiles pollute the environment and television has dulled many minds. Postman asserts that the most powerful and influential technologies often bring the deepest dangers. The second thing on Postman's list addresses the social injustices and inequalities that technology often evokes in a culture. The rich and powerful…… [Read More]

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Worldcom Fraud

Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98460673

Worldcom financial disaster provided many substantial learning points while helping expose the importance of accuracy and integrity in accounting procedures and standards. Eight years ago, when the true nature of the rise and fall of this telecommunications giant became public, many in the financial sectors of the world demonstrated shock and disbelief at the remarkable scope of corruption seemingly stemming from this agency. The purpose of this essay is to highlight worthwhile lessons of the Worldcom accounting scandal occurring at the early part of this century in an attempt to gain understanding of the temptations, consequences and regulations of the ever changing world of finance and its accounting procedures.

Understanding and defining fraud is helpful in understanding the events of the Worldcom situation. My personal definition of fraud states that fraud is an intentional act to deceive another in order to gain a competitive advantage over that targeted person or…… [Read More]

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Leisure May Be the Death of Europe

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18153285

Leisure May Be the Death of Europe

Economics

Time to Kill

In his article, Time to Kill - Europe and the Politics of Leisure, Steven Muller examines the efforts of Europe to reconstitute itself in the aftermath of the Cold War. By analyzing such factors as economics, politics, social functions, labor and unemployment, the author concludes that, in contrast to the prevailing sense of optimism, Western Europe is in fact facing a period of, "acute economic stagnation, the undermining rather than the expansion of democracy, and serious social upheaval" (Muller, 26). The primary cause of this crisis, according to Muller, is Europe's inability to rapidly or effectively deal with revolutionary changes in the human condition, which will result in a decreasing number of individuals enjoying the privilege of employment, and an increasing amount of leisure and idleness. I agree with the author that, unlike the other technologically advanced nations such…… [Read More]

Reference

Muller, S. (1997, Summer). Time to Kill - Europe and the Politics of Leisure. National Interest, 26-37.

Leisure
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Business Impact Analysis

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45940302

Business Impact Analysis

The heart of any major business, beyond its human capital, is usually its technological resources and status. A business that relies on internet access and an arsenal of computer hardware and software must collect and harness the necessary knowledge, people and tools to manage this technology in an efficient yet effective way. Doing otherwise can expose trade secrets and customer data. Loss of productivity can also be exceedingly damaging.

Mission Critical Functions

As it relates to technology, there are three major functions that are mission critical. The first, and most important, is the network itself. If the network goes down, any networking and Internet functions will grind to a halt. Having such a happenstance drag on for a considerable amount of time can cause massive amounts of damage in terms of client deliverables not being provided and necessary administration work not getting done. It is true that…… [Read More]

References

Give IT employees what they need to thrive, research finds. (2009, August 03). Newswise.

Retrieved from  http://www.newswise.com/articles/give-information-technology-employees-what-they-need-to-thrive-research-finds 

Schmidt, M.S. (2012, March 13). New interest in hacking as threat to security. New York Times.

Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/us/new-interest-in-hacking-as-threat-to-us-security.html
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Government How Secure Is the

Words: 1479 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32005696

S. - Canadian border. And what makes it all even worse is that even U.S. Border Patrol Agents need to sleep every once in a while so less than a third of the 1,000 are on duty at any one moment. The real number is secret but a safe guess could be that fewer than 250 agents are on-duty defending us from the dozens of known terrorist cells operating in Canada. Of the 22 U.S. Border Patrol Sectors, there are only seven are considered absolutely critical to a secure America (Northern Border, n.d.).

The Detroit Sector for instance is one of these. It is accountable for 804 miles of total wilderness between Michigan and Canada. The Detroit area is home not just to wilderness but to the city of Detroit which has the largest Muslim populace anywhere outside of the Middle East. With a Muslim population exceeding 150,000, Detroit is…… [Read More]

References

Ackleson, Jason. (2009). From "Thin" to "Thick" (and Back Again?): The Politics and Policies

of the Contemporary U.S. -- Canada Border. Review of Canadian Studies. 39(4), p. 336-

Harwood, Matthew. (2009). DHS to Deploy More Cameras at Northern Border. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Security Management Web site:

 http://www.securitymanagement.com/news/dhs-deploy-more-cameras-northern-border -
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Structural Inequality & Diversity Root

Words: 5575 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73975506

" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:

The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.

Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).

Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).

Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
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Decline of Newspaper Readership The

Words: 2416 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88571780

) (Cornog, 2005)."

Newspapers have reflected the change in many ways including more celebrity coverage. hen asked why they respond with "The readers want it."

The editors in Louisville devoted one of their sessions to the subject, "Celebrity Coverage -- here's the Line... And Have e Crossed it?" But in addressing that topic much time was spent discussing how to use celebrity" coverage to attract readers. Lorrie Lynch, who covers celebrities for USA eekend, urged the editors to capitalize upon celebrity" coverage to attract new readers. And the gossip columnist for the Minneapolis Star Tribune known simply as C.J., offered advice on how to cover celebrities if you don't have the good fortune to be in New York or Los Angeles (Cornog, 2005)."

Covering celebrities was only one suggestion to lure new readers. In addition, there were suggestions about reporting on things that interest young readers including investigative reporting, health…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Consoli, John. Newspapers Show Some Spunk

Editor & Publisher; 5/3/1997;

Cornog, Evan. Let's blame the readers: is it possible to do great journalism if the public does not care? Columbia Journalism Review; January 1, 2005; Cornog, Evan

____. EDITORIAL: What happened to the news?
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Project Management Project Libra To Terminate or

Words: 2150 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 86801567

Project Management

Project Libra: To Terminate or Not to Terminate

Visit www.itweek.co.uk/News/11329438 to see the string of news stories related to Project Libra. Identify some of the sources of the problems the project faces.

Project Libra exemplifies several attributes of failed projects the most notable of which is the breakdown in project team, Fujitsu Services (ICL) system integrator and enterprise software vendors. Most evident of a filed project management structure is the ballooning size of payments made during the project with literally nothing to show for it.

These are the most significant lessons learned from the failure of Project Libra. First, the British government should have had a series of measurable goals and objectives in place first and required monthly updates on project status and delays. This would have drastically reduced the confusion over just what the status of the project was, as is evident from background readings on this…… [Read More]

References

Frame, J.D. (2008). Reinventing project management: The diamond approach to successful growth and innovation. Project Management Journal, 39(1), 96-96.

Gardner, D.J. (2000). How to avoid IT project failures. Consulting to Management, 11(1), 21-23.

Sutterfield, J.S., Friday-Stroud, S., & Shivers-Blackwell, S. (2006). A case study of project and stakeholder management failures: Lessons learned. Project Management Journal, 37(5), 26-35.

Tsoukakas, J. (2001). Stop IT project failures through risk management. Interfaces, 31(6), 133-135.
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De Beers and Coca Cola Critical Analysis

Words: 5181 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8533512

products or service of your chosen organization, and two (2) key factors in the organization's external environment that can affect its success. Provide explanation to support the rationale.

De Beers is the world's famous diamond company, established in 1888, with proficiency in exploration, mining and marketing of diamonds. More than 20,000 employees make contribution to the communities in which we work. De Beers carries out profitable business which helps the government reach their aims of turning natural resources into natural wealth and is working to provide good long-term development for Africa. Anglo American and the Government of the epublic of Botswana are the two shareholders of De Beers, 85% and 15% respectively. This company is made up of fully owned partnerships, investments and subsidiaries. It is involved in most of the diamond chain value such as exploration in four continents, mining in Namibia, Canada, South Africa and Botswana; valuation, arrangement,…… [Read More]

References

Austin JE (2000) The Collaboration Challenge: How Nonprofits and Businesses Succeed Through Strategic Alliances. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Baker, R (2010). Pepsi Reveals Sustainable Business Plan', Marketing Week U.K., 19 October. Available from:  http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/sectors/sustainability/pepsico-reveals-sustainable-businessplan/3019459.article 

Barkay, T. (2013). When Business and Community Meet: A Case Study of Coca-Cola. Critical Sociology, 39: 277.

Bieri1, F. And Boli, J. (2011). Trading Diamonds Responsibly: Institutional Explanations for Corporate Social Responsibility. Eastern Sociological Society.
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Strategic Issues in Business New

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22029970

There are consumer movements and environmental lobbyists serving as watchdogs on businesses. These organizations may take businesses whose activities are affecting people or environment to court and ask that businesses to pay for damages. Government has also passed tougher health and safety laws that businesses should adopt while conducting business activities.

Findings

The findings of this paper reveal that New Zealand is a country that welcomes foreign investment based on the country economic development. While the economic development of the country may not be comparable to the economic development of European countries, Canada or USA, the country has established legal structures that protect foreign investment. Moreover, people in the country enjoy high standard of living compare to some European countries making New Zealander to have high purchasing power parity. While the country might have been affected by the economic recession in 2009 and 2010, the country has recovered in 2011,…… [Read More]

References

Department of States, (2011). New Zealand. U.S. Departments of States.

Link, A.N.(2001). Evaluation of Technology New Zealand. A report for the Ministry of Research, Science & Technology Infometrics Ltd. In association with Decision Research Ltd.

World Bank (2011). New Zealand. World Bank Data.