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dangers of teenage smoking. Specifically, it will look at how teenagers begin smoking, and what can be done to help them quit.
THE DANGES OF TEENAGE SMOKING
The health hazards of smoking are well-known and documented. In 1992, over 400,000 people died from complications from smoking each year, including lung and throat cancer, stroke, and heart disease. The number today is even higher. Additionally, some studies have also shown that starting to smoke as a teenager has the potential to permanently damage lung tissue.
A study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute has shown that smoking in the teenage years causes dramatic and lifelong DNA damage in the lungs. In fact, the young smokers could be at a permanently higher risk of developing lung cancer, even if they later quit (Editors).
Teenagers begin smoking for a variety of reasons, including peer pressure and a concerted effort by…
Boseley, Sarah. "Film Icons Blamed for Teenage Smoking." The Guardian. 27 Feb. 2001. 20 Oct. 2002. http://society.guardian.co.uk/Print/0,3858,4142939,00.html
Breznicky, Steven, Anthony DiPietro, Lisa Fischer, Jessica Givner, Jennifer Lage and Carol Sarmiento. "Smoking Handbook: Teenage Smoking." Eastchester Middle School. 2002. 20 Oct. 2002. http://www.westnet.com/~rickd/smoke/smoke6.html
Brook, Judith S. "Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults: Childhood and Adolescent Personality, Familial, and Peer Antecedents." Journal of Genetic Psychology 158.2 (1997): 172-188.
Douglas, Stratford. "The Duration of the Smoking Habit." Economic Inquiry XXXVI.1 (1998): 49-64.
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…
Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.
Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.
Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.
Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
In here, the teens are seeking for adventure and experiment with different ideas. During this time, the adolescent battles over his own set of values vs. The set established by parents and other adult figures. They also begin to take on more control of educational and vocational pursuits and advantages. It is during this time that adolescents' self-dependence and a sense of responsibility become apparent, along with their quest to contribute to society and find their place in it.
With the way they respond to peer pressure, social demands and other factors that lead to irresponsible actions, teens should know their consequences. Excessive drinking, smoking and drugs can cause damage to vital organs including liver, lungs, heart and pancreas. It can also cause death, not only of the person who consumed such but of a third party as well. Drinking while driving may cause an accident or worse, even death…
Robert Sherman. (2003). Teenage Behavior Problems - Parental Interventions
Retrieved April 22, 2007. At http://www.character-education.us/interventions.htm
Teenage Risk-taking: Biological and Inevitable? (2007). Retrieved April 22, 2007 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070412115231.htm
Adolescence. (2007). Retrieved April 22, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescence
Teen Girls and Media
Because of its pervasiveness, mass media such as magazines and television programs are increasingly in a position to influence the behavior and attitudes of teenage girls. In fact, television programs such as ER and sports-oriented teen magazines have been lauded for providing girls with positive role models.
Unfortunately, these programs and magazines remain the exception rather than the rule. Rather than promote healthy lifestyles or give positive role models, much of the media targeted to teens are both physically and psychologically harmful. This paper examines two of these main effects - the promotion of unhealthy habits and lifestyles and the growing tendency of these media to sexualize teens and turn them into consumers.
For noted feminist Germaine Greer, the popularity of television shows such as Baywatch represent a growing pandemic, where all women are expected to conform to an unrealistic body shape. Greer terms…
Brumberg, Joan Jacobs and Jacquelyn Jackson. "The Burka and the Bikini." Boston Globe, November 23, 2001: A31.
Downey, Maureen. "Media give narrow view of women, study finds." The Atlanta Constitution, April 30, 1997: D11+.
Gardner, Marilyn. "Children and body images." Christian Science Monitor. December 16, 1998: 17+.
Gerhart, Ann. "Nipped in the Bud." The Washington Post, June 23, 1999: C01.
Over the last five years research has indicated that the brain of an adolescent is not as developed as researchers once thought. In fact, advances in technology have made it possible to further examine the development of the human brain. esearchers have found that part of the frontal lobe, referred to as the pre-frontal cortex that is believed to be the management center for the body, is not fully developed in adolescents (Sowell et al., 2001; Cobb, 1998). The article explains that the lack of development in this part of the brain explains some of the behaviors that are displayed by teenagers because it is responsible for advanced cognition ("Adolescence, Brain Development..,"2004). Advanced cognition permits human beings to prioritize thoughts, visualize, think in the abstract, predict consequences, plan, and manage impulses ("Adolescence, Brain Development..,"2004). With these things being understood the underdevelopment of this part of the brain could explain why…
Achenbach T.M. (1978). "Psychopathology of childhood: Research problems and issues." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46,759-776.
Adams, Gerald R., Raymond Montemayor, and Thomas
Gullota, eds. Psychosocial Development during Adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications (1996).
Adolescence, Brain Development and Legal Culpability. (2004) Juvenile Justice Center
How can the trend toward increased alcohol consumption in teenagers be reduced? The answer to this critical societal question is being addressed by a number of researchers. It is believed that advertising offers a potential explanation for the rise.
In 1999, the .S. Federal Trade Commission called for the alcohol industry to modify its practices in order to limit underage exposure to alcohol advertising (Federal Trade Commission [FTC], 1999). According to a report by the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY, 2002), however, the industry may not have responded. According to guidelines announced in September 2003 by the Beer Institute and the Distilled Spirits Council of the nited States, underage youth should not constitute more than 30% of the audience for alcohol advertisements. The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) at Georgetown niversity recently found that more than 25% of the radio commercials that aired for…
U.S. Federal Trade Commission (1999). FTC Reports on Industry Efforts to Avoid Promoting Alcohol to Underage Consumers (FTC Press Release). Available: http://www.ftc.gov/opa / 1999/9909/alcoholrep.htm. Retrieved: November 20, 2002
US Newswire (2003) " African-American Youth Overexposed to Alcohol Advertising, According to Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth." 1066.
US Newswire ( 2003) "Hispanic Youth Exposed to More Alcohol Advertising Than Non-Hispanic Youth, Report Finds." 1008.
Stages of Change Model: 43-year-old Smoker
The first stage of the Transtheoretical Stages of Change model is that of pre-contemplation, in which the client is still not fully committed to the need to taking action to make a necessary change. In the case of a 43-year-old smoker who began smoking in childhood, the smoker may be reluctant to commit to change because of a history of failed attempts. At this stage, the counselor would need to give the smoker options to convince the client that the next time will be different—for example, the use of medications, patches, or supportive group or individual counseling, versus going cold turkey. Asking questions such as, “What needs does smoking serve in your life,” may be useful, to identify the social and physical needs smoking has fulfilled. A typical, Caucasian resident of the United States who has resided in the US for the entirety of…
When one thinks of teens and drugs, illegal substances such as marijuana and cocaine immediately come to mind. However, the real culprits aren't the drug pushers in the school yards; it's the medicine cabinets in their own homes. A national study has revealed that today's teens are more likely to have abused a prescription painkiller to get high than they are to have experimented with a variety of illegal drugs; 'Generation Rx' has arrived. Although this fact is initially surprising, when one reviews the reasons why teens turn to marijuana, one can easily see why prescription drugs have become even more popular.
The reasons teens use marijuana, repeated below, are even truer for prescription drugs.
Parents don't discuss the danger of drugs with their children.
Teens are left with less adult supervision because of societal changes.
Young people have more access now than they had ever had before.…
Teens becoming 'Generation Rx'" CNN 22 Apr. 2005. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2005/HEALTH/parenting/04/21/drug.survey.ap/(Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).
Use Of Drugs Among Teens And The Reasons Why They Use It." Available:
http://www.casacanada.com/drug3.html (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
In addition, smoking is addictive, and the earlier a person starts, the more likely they are to continue, making it more difficult to quit as one ages. Young people do not understand smoking, because they tend to have an "it will not happen to me" mentality, and it should not be available to teens, you should have to be an adult to make the choice to smoke, because it is a health choice, as well as a lifestyle choice.
In conclusion, smoking is hazardous to your health and well-being, and that has been proven. People start to smoke too early in life, and then they find it difficult to quit. The earlier you start smoking, the longer smoke can do damage to your lungs, making it more likely you will develop lung disease such as emphysema or lung cancer. Smoking is no less dangerous than drinking, it can harm others…
If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…
The American Cancer Society. Who Is At Risk? "Tobacco and Cancer." 2001.
The American Heart Association. Publications and Resources. "Tobacco Smoke."
California Department of Health Services. Youth Media Network. "Effects of Secondhand Smoke." November 2001.
Emphysema Foundation For Our Right to Survive. Medical Info Pages. "About Smoking With Emphysema." January 2002.
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
Drug Use in Adolescents
The author of this report has been charged with writing a brief scholarly report with a few key components. The author of this report has been asked to select a topic of interest. That selected topic shall be substance and drug abuse in adolescents. As part of this scholarly report, there will be three major components. The first will be a description of the area of interest and why the author of this report is interested in it. Second, there will be a brief literature review with scholarly sources that cover that same topic. Finally, there will be a reflection and reaction to the literature review including whether there was agreement, how the author of this report perceives the involved paradigm(s) and so forth. While many kids avoid the pitfalls and negative outcomes of drug use and abuse, many fall prey sometimes or many times and…
Jaynes, S. (2014). Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse
Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators. Journal Of At-Risk
Issues, 18(1), 35-40.
Lanza, H.I., Grella, C.E., & Chung, P.J. (2014). Does Adolescent Weight Status
Smoking becomes a symbol of anti-cultural rebellion and even more so it takes on the symbol of something holy unrealistic and undesirable. The basic affect is to create a sense of empowerment as a result of smoking they feel that they are now better than they were before, in both a sense of adulthood as well as "counter-culture" mentality. Teenagers all desire to rebel against the normalcy of society, this is a natural response to the restrictions that society institutes upon teenagers. The decision to "go against the grain" is one that teenagers make in subtle and forthright ways, whether it takes the form of not doing homework or arguing with parents. Smoking has become such a controversial subject, through it's almost bombardment of health information and anti-smoking campaigns, that it epitomizes the one thing that youth can do to fight against the establishment. This becomes a crucial reason for…
Canada Tries Tough Smoking Labels, http://www.discount-cigars-store.com/news/canada_tries_tough_smoking_labels.htm
Dichter, Earnest, Why Do We Smoke Cigarettes?, the Psychology of Everyday Living,1947
Facts & Figures: Cigarette Smoking in Canada, Individual and Population Health, Canadian University,2000.
Kaiserman, Murray J, the Cost of Smoking in Canada, 1991, Chronics Diseases in Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Volume 18, No.1 -1997
Toward an Effective olution
In principle, the most effective solution to the tremendous problem of cigarette smoking in the U.. would simply be to impose legislation banning the manufacture, sale, or consumption of cigarettes altogether. In fact, it is impossible to justify any logical distinction between the current illegal status of marijuana (at the federal level and in almost all of the individual states) and the fact that a slightly different cultivated vegetation that is empirically linked to almost half a million preventable premature deaths annually is still perfectly legal to market at great financial profits. However, from a practical perspective, the U.. already had experience during the Prohibition era of the 1920s with the difficulties of trying to ban alcohol. In addition to widespread violation by otherwise law-abiding citizens, that ban created such a tremendous opportunity for profit associated with the black market production and distribution of alcohol that…
Anderson, S., Ling, P., and Pollay, R. "Taking Ad-vantage of Consumers: Advertising
Light Cigarettes: Reassuring and Distracting Concerned Smokers"
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 8 (2006): 1973-1985.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Smoking and Tobacco Use: Health
The Topic Company: DN.
1) Does the organization treat management and leadership as one in the same? YES or NO
2) Does the organization rely heavily on employee training and development? YES or NO
3) Does the program use employee feedback at the lowest levels in its overall decision making process? YES or NO
4) Do you believe all stakeholders are aware of the organizations goals and objectives and are willing to work towards the achievement of those goals? YES or NO
5) in your opinion is the organization structured in a way that inhibits innovation? YES or NO
6) Are there any other aspects that you believe should be improved within the organization? If so, how?
1) Bulmer, M. And Warwick, D. (1993). Social research in developing countries: surveys and censuses in the Third World. London: outledge.
2) Ebbutt, D. (1998). Evaluation of projects…
1) Bulmer, M. And Warwick, D. (1993). Social research in developing countries: surveys and censuses in the Third World. London: Routledge.
2) Ebbutt, D. (1998). Evaluation of projects in the developing world: some cultural and methodological issues. International Journal of Educational Development, 18, pp. 415-424.
3) Potter, C. (2006). Program Evaluation. In M. Terre Blanche, K. Durrheim & D. Painter (Eds.), Research in practice: Applied methods for the social sciences (2nd ed.) (pp. 410-428). Cape Town: UCT Press.
4) Potter, C. (2006). "Psychology and the art of program evaluation." South African journal of psychology 36 (1):
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…
Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.
Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.
Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.
West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
All participants filled out questionnaires with adolescents and their mothers in separate rooms. The mothers' questionnaire included question on topics such as parental monitoring habits, parental academic expectations, and on the nature and extent of drug-related activity and crime in the family neighborhood. The adolescents were asked questions on such topics as whether and to what extent they used drugs and whether and to what extent their friends used drugs.
The results of the study confirmed the results of prior studies in several significant respects. The principal finding of the study was that absentee fatherhood was a strong predictor of adolescent drug use in adolescent African-American males. Another important finding of the study was that this apparent effect did not apply to adolescent African-American females. Prior studies had determined that absentee fatherhood was a predictor of early drug and alcohol use as well as aggression and other forms of…
Tobacco arketing: Get Them Young or Not at All
The tobacco industry has been in a battle to capture the youth market for decades mainly because of the degree of brand loyalty that is characteristic of cigarette smokers. Cigarette companies have a lot at stake in making sure that their brand is one of the first tried by the young smoker. In its bid to obtain young smokers, R.J. Reynolds created the Joe Camel campaign with a cool character that youths found highly appealing and the company created fierce advertising, promotional, and sales campaigns to take their message to market. The Joe Camel campaign proved to be one of the most successful bids to capture young smokers in tobacco history. Ultimately, its tremendous success was in part the reason for the campaign's eventual downfall, as public outcry demanded that cigarette companies stop marketing to adolescents and as courts gained…
Magazine Ads. http://www.costkids.org/targetingkids/magazineads.htm (26).
Boyles, Salynn. "Joe Camel May Be Gone, But Legacy Lives On." WebMD Medical News, Aug 15, 2001. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1728.86774 (26 Nov. 2002).
Tobacco Marketing To Young People, Young People: A Key Expansion Market. http://www.infact.org/youth.html (26).
05 confidence level with respect to socio-economic class.
No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to parents who currently smoke.
No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to grade point average.
No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to involved sports activity.
No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to birth order.
No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to college major.
No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist…
CDC's Healthy Community Program Success Story Worksheet (modified version)
Thank you for choosing to share your story! This worksheet will help you gather and organize information. As you read each question, imagine you are telling a friend about your program or strategy. What is the first thing you would tell them that answers the question?
Consider this a summary of your policy, system, or environmental change strategy that you'll reference later. Keep your answers short, no more than a sentence if you can.
Do you have a name for the policy, system, or environmental change strategy you're trying to implement?
What risk factors does it address?
It addresses misinformation among school children regarding tabacco use and its popularity by raising children's self-esteem to a high enough level that they overcome unhealthy peer pressure to smoke.
What kind of change are you trying to implement?
The goal is to reduce the…
1. Which of the 7 Areas of Responsibility were demonstrated in the project? Give examples. The areas are listed at http://www.nchec.org/credentialing/responsibilities/
This model primarily addresses the first area of responsibility. There was a defecit in education regarding tabacco awareness. Once addressed, the numbers of teen smokers began dropping.
Healthy People 2020
Settlement of Tobacco During Clinton's Presidency:
The first ever initiative by the United States to safeguard its children from tobacco and long-term addiction to nicotine occurred during the tenure of President Bill Clinton. This was through the announcement by the president regarding a comprehensive program that was geared towards accomplishing this purpose in August 23, 1996. The comprehensive program commenced with the publication of the final rule on tobacco by the Food and Drug Administration. The publication was followed by the administration's launch of a process that required tobacco firms to educate children and adolescents regarding the hazards of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes through a nationwide multi-media campaign.
According to the legislation, tobacco products were sold to people from 18 years and above with those under the age of 27 years required to produce photo IDs as from February 28, 1997 ("Clinton Administration Outlines," 1997). As part of his outline,…
"Clinton Administration Outlines Tobacco Settlement Review Process." (1997, June 27). Health
and Human Services Archive. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: http://archive.hhs.gov/news/press/1997pres/970627b.html
Reuters (1997, August 19). Clinton Seeks to Boost Tobacco Settlement. Retrieved March 3, 2012,
National Vital Statistics Reports 54(2). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.., Ventura, S.J., Sutton, P.D., and Menacker F. Births: Preliminary Data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Reports, 54(8). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Ages 40 and older
SOURCES: ( http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/xls/POP7b.xls ) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. Ventura, S.J. And Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, 1940-99. National Vital Statistics Reports, 48(16). Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F., and Park, M.M. (2002). Births: Final data for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports, 50(5). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Ventura, S.J., Menaker, F., Park, M.M., and Sutton, P.D. (2002). Births: Final data for 2001. National Vital Statistics Reports, 51(2). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Sutton, P.D., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F., and Munson, M.L. (2003). Births: Final data for 2002. National Vital Statistics Reports, 52(10). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Sutton, P.D., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F., and Munson, M.L. (2005). Births: Final Data for 2003. National Vital Statistics Reports 54(2). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.A., Ventura, S.J., Sutton, P.D., and Menacker F. Births: Preliminary Data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Reports, 54(8). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies
Course Project: Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies
Child obesity refers to a medical condition that mainly affects teenagers and children. This happens when their bodies store excessive body fat. A child can be classified as obese if his or her weight is above the stipulated average for the age and height bracket. Weight gain occurs when energy in the form of drink and food is more than the energy burnt off (Koplan et al., 2005). Few teenagers and children suffer from obesity because of uncommon genetic diseases. The following study endeavors to identify the existing policies that affect child obesity and explain whether they are adequate or need to be revised based on their limitations and strengths. It also explains the important aspects when addressing the issue of child obesity.
The existing policies include early assessment of risk. This policy is necessary as early obesity…
Koplan, J., Liverman, C.T., & Kraak, V.I. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity health in the balance. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Langwith, J. (2013). Childhood obesity. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
teenage pregnancy on the family of the effected girl. In addition to that, this paper also highlights the prevailing rates of teen pregnancy in the U.S.A. And the adverse consequences of adolescence pregnancy. Furthermore, the strategies to prevent teenage pregnancy have also been discussed by this paper.
Setting the Scene
Teenagers are forced to confront a crisis because of an unintended pregnancy, which in most cases is an unwanted pregnancy. The unmarried adolescents, who are pregnant, have to make a number of complex decisions. These decisions include choosing between aborting and giving birth, and choosing between raising the baby by themselves or placing them for an adaption. Simultaneously, other decision in relation to school, work and interpersonal relationships are to be taken by the affected teenagers. (Wirkus & Maxwell, 2010)
Another important decision that the teens confront is to opt the manner in which they will discuss this issue with…
Birthline, Inc. (2014). Birthline of central mn:: about us. Retrieved from: http://www.birthline.org/about-us / [Accessed: 10 Mar 2014].
Chen, X., Wen, S.W., Fleming, N., Demissie, K., Rhoads, G.G. & Walker, M. (2007). Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population-based retrospective cohort study. International Journal Of Epidemiology, 36 (2), pp. 368 -- 373.
East, P.L. (1999). The first teenage pregnancy in the family: does it affect mothers' parenting, attitudes, or mother-adolescent communication?. Journal Of Marriage And The Family, 61 (2), pp. 306 -- 319.
Office Of Adolescent Health United States Of America (2014). The office of adolescent health, u.s. department of health and human services. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-health-topics/reproductive-health/teen-pregnancy/trends.html [Accessed: 10 Mar 2014].
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Using a multidisciplinary team approach in order to treat a 14-year-old pregnant teenager who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day would involve using various services. These would include nurse practitioners, registered nurses, social workers, nutritionists along with other support staff. Using this approach would help address the challenges that young pregnant teenagers may face, both physically and socially. Through group discussions and interactions with other teens, young women and their partners empower and educate one another as they progress from pregnancy into parenting (Shetty, 2009).
This would require an approach that would involve midwives, nurses; community-based young people's services and targeted youth support services. The basis of the program would be to help the teenager to quit smoking in order to improve her overall health and that of her unborn child's. It should offer advice and support on childcare, parenting and health-related topics. An intervention program should be set…
American Academy of Pediatrics: Care of Adolescent Parents and Their Children. (2001).
Pediatrics, 107(2), 429-434.
Shetty, Anisha. (2009). Adolescent Update: The Teen Pregnancy Center. Retrieved September 8,
2009, from Children's Hospital St. Louis Web site:
Qualitative data using individual stories are very important because they give insight into the challenges faced by certain groups such as pregnant teenage mothers. A more comprehensive approach to reducing adolescent pregnancy is needed. Many risk factors including a mother's own history, the absentee father, and misuse of birth control contribute to teenage pregnancies. These can override the benefits of school activity participation and performance in preventing teenage pregnancy. Therefore, programs designed to prevent pregnancy need to address many factors.
Allen E, onell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.
Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of…
Allen E, Bonell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.
Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry: Educational Researcher, 19(5): 2-14.
Chase, S. (2005). Narrative inquiry: Multiple, lenses, approaches, voices. In Codjoe, H. (2007). The importance of home environment and parental encouragement in the academic achievement of African Canadian youth. Canadian Journal of Education, 30(1): 137-156.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design. London: Sage Publications, Inc.
Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.
Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…
references utilized in this article there could have been more useful information provided from these sources. In addition, considering the fact of the redundancy of this research compared to the previous research it would have been an improvement to look at another alternative to decreasing ETS. Though the title of the research would lead one to believe that this will in fact be about ways to decrease ETS, this is not what is truly portrayed in the research in the beginning. The reader is given information as to how much money ETS is costing medically due to health issues and infant related deaths, but very little discusses the impact that breast feeding has. It appears in the beginning that the researchers want to prove that children should be breastfeed and that mothers should not smoke because the infants that are breastfed are protected from the health problems associated with ETS. However little information is given neither in the intro nor in the review of literature to show what impact there really is for a child that is breastfed by a mother that does not smoke, in relationship to ETS from second hand sources i.e. cars, malls etc. Another weakness, which I have already discussed several times through this critique, is the sample size. This was a rather small sample and the ways in which the control and test group were handled may not have been the best methods possible. Ultimately, this research left me wondering why one would want to conduct research to confirm the already obvious, while offering no additional information to the resolution or problem at hand.
Flanders-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposure to Tobacco. Biological research for Nursing, 8(2), 104-114.
Urban Problems and Solutions
In the 1990's, the United States exhibited a decreasing trend in the rates of pre-marital sex and teen pregnancies. However, the rate of teenage pregnancy in United States is yet considered to be alarming in comparison to that of other developed countries of the world. It has been estimated that about 1 million teenage girls in the U.S. are being victims of teenage pregnancy every year.
Due to the fact that teen mothers and babies are vulnerable to health hazards, the considerable birth rates among teens have become alarming. The ignorance of pregnant youngsters deprives them of taking appropriate medical attention, making them vulnerable to medical complexities. The teenage pregnancies have tremendous emotional impact on the adolescents. Under feeding, negligence in taking nutrients, habits of smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. which are common among most of the youngsters make their newly born babies prone to health…
Arthur, Shirley. 1996. Surviving teen pregnancy: Your choices, dreams, and decisions. Buena park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
Johns, M. J; Moncloa, F & Gong, E.J. 2000. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Linking Research and Practice. Journal of Extension. Volume. 38; Number: 4, pp.42-47
Wong, J. & Checkland, D. 1999. Teen Pregnancy and Parenting: Social and Ethical issues. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Lisa was a sophomore and while in the Alternative school, as was the case in the regular high school, she had been a student who had been in trouble frequently for talking back to and swearing at teachers, skipping class, not doing homework, hanging out after school and violating many of the community rules that were established by the group including smoking on school grounds, lying, being late for classes, and doing drugs. She hung out with what teachers called "the wrong crowd" after school: kids from a nearby community that were not as well off, and were part of a street gang. Lisa was white, but many of her friends were black, and the kids in this gang were vocally resistant to the inequalities that they saw in wealthy Scarsdale that were not in their poor community. Some of her afterschool friends were dropping out, and others were fighting…
Lapsley, D. Moral Stage Theory. In Killen, M. & Smetana, J. (Ed). Handbook of Moral Development.
Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html
Week 9: (October 22): Self development and Social Contexts
Lectures, on the other hand, provide information for helping people in Contemplation move into Preparation and Action." (Lach et al., p. 91)
Partners for execution of this intervention should include local health organizations such as area clinics, hospitals and long-term care facilities as well as the local chapter of the AARP. Their support will provide the project with direct channels of communication for outreach and ongoing involvement in collective and individual health behavior changes.
Resources will be gathered through public fundraising efforts and through the charitable donation of meeting facilities and health professional expertise.
Adams, J. & hite, M. (2003). Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 106 -- 114. Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1724627/pdf/v037p00106.pdf
Burbank, P.M.; Reibe, D.; Padula, C.A. & Nigg, C. (2002). Exercise and Older Adults: Changing Behavior with the Transtheoretical Model. Orthopedic…
Adams, J. & White, M. (2003). Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 106 -- 114. Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1724627/pdf/v037p00106.pdf
Burbank, P.M.; Reibe, D.; Padula, C.A. & Nigg, C. (2002). Exercise and Older Adults: Changing Behavior with the Transtheoretical Model. Orthopedic Nursing, 4, 51-61.
Lach, H.W.; Everard, K.M.; Highstein, G. & Brownson, C.A. (2004). Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Heath Education for Older Adults. Health Promotion Practice, 5(1), 88-93.
Marquez, D.X.; Bustamante, E.E.; Blissmer, B.J. & Prohaska, T.R. (2008). Health Promotion for Successful Aging. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1), 12-19.
This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.
From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…
Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence. 6th Ed.
Worth Publishers, 2004.
At any rate, the identity of the subjects may not be significant. hat will be needed are basic demographic information (such as age, level of family income etc.), and the direct answers to the survey questions.
A second ethical consideration is the use of other research paper or reports as references. But this can be easily solved by citing all the references that I will be using though a credible citation style. This then shows that the research abides with the copyright law of those published journals, articles and/or reports.
Summary of the reviewed literature will serve as one major factor for the conclusion. This will provide amble information regarding the subject matter. From the said literature review, statistics and other vital information regarding parent smokers and children smokers will be revealed. This information is not limited from one country or area alone, because for sure, the epidemiology and…
Smoking Statistics. March 1999. http://unr.edu/homepage/shubinsk/whosmok1.html . June 4, 2004.
What Smoking Does to Your Body? http://www.click2quit.co.uk/why_quit/WQ01i.aspJune 4, 2004.
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
New York Times describes how R.J. Reynolds Tobacco was found guilty of breaking its agreement to market cigarette products only to adults. The judge found that the company had pursued an advertising strategy aimed at promoting youth smoking. Important to the ruling, is the judges decision that 'actions speak louder than words' with it being reported that "the judge ruled that 'it does not matter' whether Reynolds intended to single out children and get them to smoke. The fact that it did not adopt 'reasonable measures' to shield young people from its advertisements represented a breach of the company's responsibility to help reduce youth smoking" (Winter).
It is also reported that Reynolds is not the only company accused of specifically targeting young people, a snuff making company is also accused of the same thing.
These issues have several significant implications on nursing practitioners, health practices and on health care.
Winter, Greg. "Tobacco Company Reneged on Youth Ads, Judge Rules." New York Times, 7 June 2002.
Alcohol and usiness Ethics
Introduction moral society is built on the basis of a number of unspoken, but generally agreed upon social issues. A moral society generally applies the maxim "treat others in the way you would like to be treated" and this proverb, although it's heard more frequently in the school play yard than in the corporate boardroom, should affect business decisions which affect the community at large. Some would say that operating a business within legal boundaries is not an accurate measure of an ethical business. Within the past few decades, advertising has become the focus of ethical pressure. The 'Joe Camel' cartoon character developed as a spokesperson - mascot for the camel cigarette was pulled after community outrage that the furry, cute character was likely an attempt by the company to market their addictive and destructive products to children.
A tremendous pressure has been brought to bear…
Carson, S. (1995) The Nature of a Moral Business Person. Review of Business, Vol. 17.
Cappel, J., and Windsor, J. (1999) A Comparative Study of Moral Reasoning. College Student Journal, Vol. 33.
Cummings, Christian. (2001) Alcopops. Fm4.org Accessed 25 March 2004. Available from: (http://fm4.org.at)
Don't join the alcopop generation (2001, May 21) U.S. News & World Report.
For example, if the mother has a computer at home and uses it regularly the hygienist can suggest some Web sites that contain information about the oral health effects of tobacco use. The mother might want to learn more about oral health in general, which would encourage her to monitor Jason's habits and scrutinize his behavior to the point where she might notice if he had been smoking. If Jason's oral health deteriorated over time, the hygienist might need to make more overt statements to the mother such as, "Jason assured me that he is not using tobacco, but I am concerned about the lesions in his mouth." The hygienist also needs to confide in the presiding dentist.
3. Which of the ethical principles apply to this situation? Explain your response from both the dental hygienist's perspective and the patient's perspective.
The dental hygienist is experiencing an ethical dilemma. On…
Community Analysis: Columbus, Ohio - Hilltop Area/Franklinton
Identification and History
The Franklinton/Hilltop area of Columbus, Ohio is located on the west side of the greater metropolitan area. Franklinton is in a river valley next to the Scioto iver and the Hilltop area is just west of that on a rise. The Hilltop area is defined as the area between I-70 on the north, the B & O. railway to the east and south, and the I-270 outerbelt to the south and west (Greater Hilltop Area Commission, 2011). Its main street is West Broadstreet, otherwise known as U.S. route 40. There are welcome signs to the area near Mound Street and Hague Avenue. Franklinton is bordered by the Scioto iver on the north and east, Hague Avenue on the east, Stimmel oad and Greenlawn Avenue on the South, and I-70 on the West. The main street in this area is also…
Bush, Bill (2011). Census shows Columbus' growth was uneven. February 11, 2011. The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved from http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2011/03/11/census-shows-columbus-growth-was-uneven.html
City-data.com (2011a). Franklinton neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Franklinton-Columbus-OH.html
City-data.com (2011b). Greater Hilltop neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Greater-Hilltop-Columbus-OH.html
City of Columbus (2003, July). The Franklinton Plan. Department of Development, Planning Division. Retrieved from http://development.columbus.gov/UploadedFiles/Development/Planning_Division/Document_Library/Plans_and_Overlays_Imported_Content/franklinton.pdf
Some of them embraced this message of fear and hatred so much so that they drove west along the highway (in cars driven by adults, of course) to Geselltown, pelting the teens that they saw out of the car windows with rocks and calling them names. Other teens silently listened to the speeches of the elders, but still wished they had the freedoms of the teens in Geselltown. When they grew up they went to Geselltown and got a job in the Mitsubishi plant, but the other teens married others from Gemeintown and taught their children to be afraid and to hate their neighbors.
In effect, the inhabitants of Gemeintown mirrored the theories of Communism, who ranted and raved against the liberals in the West. Communism was born of an attempt to keep the old system of family ties, which honored the elders of a clan or country above themselves…
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism Are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine.
Cohen, a.P. (1985). The Symbolic Construction of Community. Edited by Peter Hamilton. Key Ideas. London: Routledge.
A de Benoist, a. translated by Tomislav Sunic. (1994). Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft: a Toennies, Ferdinand.  1963. Community and Society (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft). Translated and edited by Charles P. Looomis. New York: Harper & Row.
Viskovatoff, a. (1999). Foundations of Niklas Huhmann's theory of social systems. Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Vol. 29(4). Dec 1999. Pp 481-517.
The Intolerance of Zero Tolerance
Zero Tolerance Policies in Public Schools
One has only to turn on the television, log onto the Internet, or glance at a newspaper to see that violence is everywhere in our society. The nightly news is dominated by one act of depravity after another: murders, rapes, and violent assaults, among others. Hate crimes send shockwaves through seemingly peaceful communities. A cross is burned in a field, a Jewish cemetery is ransacked, the tombstones broken and covered with swastikas, a gay college student is crucified on a fence, left to die by his homophobic classmates, and a Black man is dragged behind a speeding car. Such horrific incidents seem almost commonplace. Mutual intolerance of one group for another breeds hatred and cruelty. People today appear quick to anger and even quicker to react...violently. Stabbings and shootings and bloody assaults are as frequent as fights on…
Bauder, David. (14 October 1999). The Washington Post.
Fagan, Patrick. (1998). "The Breakdown of the Family: The Consequences for Children and American Society." Issues '98: The Candidate's Briefing Book, 6, 11. The Heritage Foundation.
Garbarino, James, PhD. (January 2001). "Where Do We Point the Finger of Blame?" Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155. The American Medical Association.
Kemp, Dawn; and Center, David. (2000, August) "Troubled Children Grown Up: Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminals." Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 3. Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University, 223-238.
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
506, CV = 2.00, df = 58). Although reason cannot be presented as to why there was a failure to reject the null hypothesis it is important to note that differences between the groups were not found. Although reasons for these differences are not definable by the results it is important to realize that sometimes no differences in healthcare issues are as important as those that are statistically significant. Unfortunately, however, in the present situation, and although no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups, there is no way to define the quantity of the number of cigarettes being smoked that made the groups equal. For all the researcher knows the mean number of cigarettes smoke by each group might well have been 1 or 101 cigarettes. Again, for this very reason an explanation for failing to reject the null hypothesis cannot be given.
The other statistically significant…
The writer concludes that the social scientists have been correct when they have mentioned the family dynamics and parental behavior as major influences in the growth and development of the child.
Also Henry iller (1993) asserts that the ability of the parents to develop an intimate connection with their baby and their essential responsibility throughout the newborn's growth and maturity has a profound impact on the behavior of the child because it helps their child to build and grow an upbeat body figure, self-worth, ethical principles and academic and social capability.
Therefore in light of the above mentioned facts it is essential for parents to spend a lot of time with their children and engage in constructive activities so that they can be emotionally connected with their parents and grow up to be trusting and loving individuals.
Annie Murphy Paul. Do Parents Really Matter? Psychology Today, Vol. 31, January-February…
Annie Murphy Paul. Do Parents Really Matter? Psychology Today, Vol. 31, January-February 1998
Betsy Bates. Parents' 'Prompting' Behavior Encourages Smoking. (Survey of Seventh and Eighth Graders). Family Practice News; 11/1/2001.
Fred Hutchinson. Parents Who Quit Smoking When Their Kids Are Young May Have a Big Influence on Whether Their Offspring Will Quit Smoking in Young Adulthood. PR Newswire; 3/1/2005
Henry B. Biller. Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. Auburn House, 1993
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
......paraphilias & fetishes; (Do not engage in any contact or activity that would be considered inappropriate!) In your reflection discuss: What was the site? To whom did it apply? What were the sexuality issues? Specifics? Include the content & resources found there.
Salirophilia is defined as a "parphilic" sexual fetish in which individuals sexual arosal is obtained by basically getting really dirty -- in the literal sense. Individuals will use dirt, mud, or other soiling techniques to make the other person look dirty. This paraphilias does not involve any physical harm however, rather the only harm is done to the person's appearances. There are some reports where some deviations include the use of bodily fluids in some deviations. Treatment is only sought when this practice becomes problematic in some manner.
1) Watch and reflect on a movie containing material related to class topics: alternative sexual behaviors as…
Business Marketing Ethics:
Snuff Out Joe Camel
Business Marketing Ethics: Snuff out Joe Camel
Reynolds is acting in an unethical and socially irresponsible manner
R.J. Reynolds' use of Joe Camel smacks of "target marketing" toward children. The use of a "cool" cartoon figure surrounded by admiring friends and an attractive girlfriend seems tailor-made for enticing children, who are drawn to cartoon figures and crave acceptance and "coolness" at least as much as adults crave acceptance and "coolness." The targeting of children for an "adults-only" product is particularly reprehensible because children are a recognized vulnerable group; the vulnerability of children is the reason for so many laws treating them as "infants" who cannot decide for themselves. In the face of our society's treatment of children as a vulnerable group that must be protected, Joe Camel is an anti-social use of marketing.
Marketing to children is particularly harmful when that marketing encourages…
Finally, assuming for argument's sake that R.J. Reynolds did not initially target children, Joe Camel apparently did create hordes of child-addicts and RJ. Reynolds knew or should have known that and reacted as an ethical company. R.J. Reynolds is a wealthy company that probably keeps careful track of who smokes its cigarettes and an ethical company would have stopped using Joe Camel after realizing that: the percentage of smokers under 18 who smoke Camels has risen from less than 1% to nearly 33% since the company began using Joe Camel; nearly one-quarter of Camel's sales are to underage smokers; kids smoke the most heavily advertised brands, and Camel has been the second most advertised brand since 1988. Rather than "pulling the plug" on Joe Camel in the face of all that information, R.J. Reynolds was apparently secretly thrilled with the child-addicts and kept using Mr. Camel quite heavily, even when attorneys' general from more than 27 states petitioned the FTC to sue the company and ban Joe Camel.
2. How my decision will affect the stakeholders of R.J. Reynolds and which stakeholders should be pleased first and second
Using the broadest definition of "stakeholder," the anti-smoking stakeholders such as children, parents, anti-smoking groups, U.S. "society" and the U.S. Healthcare system will be favorably affected by a ban on Joe Camel because the ban will stop this method of marketing an addictive "adults-only" product to a vulnerable group. Meanwhile, the pro-smoking stakeholders such as R.J. Reynolds, its employees and its stockholders, will be harmed by the ban because the ban will stop an effective marketing tool. Parents should be the first stakeholders pleased by the ban because their children are no longer targeted by Joe Camel and are less likely to smoke. Secondly, the U.S. Healthcare system should be pleased because fewer child addicts will mean fewer adult addicts, which should reduce the strain on our health system from smoking.
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
The physical needs of the adolescent mother-to-be are not dissimilar to the physical needs of a pregnant woman at any other age. However, there are specific physical and biological issues that must be taken into consideration. In fact, "adolescent pregnancies are higher risk than the pregnancies of healthy adult women," (StorkNet, 2012). Teenage mothers are more likely to deliver babies prematurely, or babies with low birth weights (StorkNet, 2012). Moreover, "complications of pregnancy such as anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and preeclampsia are also more likely to develop" in teenage mothers (StorkNet, 2012). Teenagers usually have higher nutritional needs than their adult counterparts, enhancing their prenatal nutritional needs. The reproductive organs of some teenagers have not yet been fully developed -- even at age fifteen. This would place a considerable amount of strain on a fifteen-year-old pregnant female (StorkNet, 2012).
The teenager who finds…
New Mexico Department of Health (2007). Teen pregnancy. Retrieved online: http://www.health.state.nm.us/phd/fp/teen_pregnancy.htm
Salamon, M. (2010). Teen pregnancy needs to be de-glamorized, experts say. MSNBC.com. Retrieved online: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39759635/ns/health-childrens_health/t/teen-pregnancy-needs-be-de-glamorized-experts-say/#.T0RXUMxVs7A
StorkNet (2012). Nutrition for you, nutrition for two. Retrieved online: http://www.storknet.com/ip/reproductive_years/high_risk/teen_pregnancy.html
Weiss, R.W. (2012). Teen pregnancy. About.com. Retrieved online: http://pregnancy.about.com/od/teenpregnancy/a/Teen-Pregnancy.htm
Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development & adolescent depression
This is a paper concerning the development stages of an adolescent and depression. Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development will be used to explain what may lead to a child feeling depressed or suicidal.
DEPRESSION IN TEENS
Approximately five percent of children and adolescents experience depression at some point in their lives (AACAP 1998). Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson studied the development of the adolescents. Their theories will give clearer understanding to why teenagers become depressed and what can be done about the problem. Depression comes from a variety of problems in the adolescent's life. Recognizing depression is important. "Out of 100,000 adolescents, two to three thousand will have mood disorders out of which 8-10 will commit suicide" (Brown 1996). The causes of depression in a teenager can stem from family problems, peer pressure and bullying, and changes in…
Bond, Lyndal; Carlin, John B.; Thomas, Lyndal; Rubin, Kerryn; & Patton, director, George. "Does Bullying Cause Emotional Problems? A Prospective Study of Young Teenagers." BMJ: British Medical Journal. 9/1/2001, Vol. 323. Issue7311. p. 480
Chandler, Jim M.D. FRCPC. "Depression In Children and Adolescents -- what it is and what to do about it" http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/dep/depressionpamphlet.htm
Depression in Children and Adolescents" A Fact Sheet for Physicians. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov /publicat/depchildresfact.cfm
The Depressed Child" AACAP Facts for Families American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fact sheets No. 4. 1997.
Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…
Resources needed for the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital designation are relatively limited, due in large part to the extensive work the Brookdale Hospital has recently done to begin to implement better breastfeeding and maternal practices, as noted at the close of the Problem statement section of this work. The hospital must implement additional changes, file the proper application for assessment and designation and prove and justify implementation of the 10 steps associated with the designation over a period of five years. The resources needed for this process will include participation by existing staff including nurses, nurse managers and the hiring of a certified lactation specialist. The most costly of all the implementation strategies will be hiring of a certified lactation specialist, other costs will be further detailed in the budget section of this work and will include administrative, office supplies, additional signage and support training of nursing and support staff.
Barriers to Change
Barriers to change must begin with a clear understanding and elimination of the kinds of hospital practices that are shown in evidence-based research to be particularly contraindicative of early, long-duration and successful breastfeeding including the; use of artificial nipples (pacifiers), bottles, and even nipple shields in mainly healthy newborns (McKechnie & Eglash, 2010) supplementation that is unneeded for natal nutrition, limitations in the practice of rooming in (infant stays with mother as much as possible over the first 24 hours after birth to ensure on demand nursing opportunities), limitations in skin to skin contact of infant with both mother and father, and other institutionally practiced barriers are not only common but traditionally accepted as standards of practice in most hospitals and birthing centers ("Breastfeeding-related maternity practices…" 2008 ). The Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation, and all the steps to prepare and implement it will go far to demonstrate change in hospitals including but not limited to Brookdale Hospital in NYC.
Barriers to change, that are specific to Brookdale hospital have been briefly developed in the problem statement of this work and demonstrate mostly institutional practices that are not only accepted but supported by the hospital and L&D and neonatal staff. Rooming in, where the newborn infant spends as much time as possible with the mother during the first 24-48 hours of life, leaving the bedside of the mother only when absolutely necessary is essential to change. The existence of a highly staffed and large newborn nursery, where infants spend a good deal of time and receive a great deal of care from staff rather than the mother is one of the first institutional issues that needs to change. This reduction of reliance on the newborn nursery may offset some of the costs of implementing change, as stricter rooming in policies and practices would indicate the need for fewer staff resources in the newborn nursery. Skin-to-skin contact of mother to infant should begin at the moment of birth, as is indicated by the hospital's new policies and procedures for breastfeeding support. Newborns should be given screening tests in the presence of the mother, and if at all possible while the mother is holding and/or nursing the child during skin to skin contact. Breastfeeding education should be continuous, beginning in prenatal clinics, extending throughout the hospital stay and supported and supplemented by follow up care with a certified lactation specialist and/or nursing staff that has taken CEC courses in breastfeeding support, and the number class offerings per week should be increased to every other day to support the usual uncomplicated discharge of mother and baby at 48-72 hours post delivery and the course for mothers should be a condition for discharge. L&D and nursery nurses should continue to be encouraged to take the available course with a first year goal of 100% completion. Lastly, cultural barriers to breastfeeding in the patient population should be mitigated with culturally sensitive training and breastfeeding support, long-term breastfeeding follow up and a sensitive but essential reiteration of the many benefits of breastfeeding for both child and mother, reiteration, for those who qualify, of the benefits of the Women Infant Children program which supports breastfeeding mothers with additional food and benefits for the mother not just by supplying formula or food for the infant after birth.
Role of Nurse Executive
Dressed in T-shirt that says 'Life is slum' and frayed jeans.
Oh yes! His beating was intentional. The way they kicked and stomped him -- over and over again. Though beats me why 20% didn't think so. Bigoted idiots.
Three LA Police officers stomped, kicked and beat King with metal batons. The scene was video taped by George Halliday, manager of a plumbing company, from ninety-feet away.
Q. What were your reactions?
Scandalized. I remember thinking it impossible that such acts of police brutality -- Police of all things! You would think they would be above that -- were happening today. In America. In Los Angeles.
California is oen of the most civilized states. This isn't the South after all. Here's where we're supposed to, like, love everyone else and against prejudice. Especially the police. Couldn't get to grips with this at the time. Scary.
That riots started a few…
Like many of the small towns throughout the United States, Mooresville offers a variety of residents. The groups that were observed during the window survey includes a lot of young and middle-aged families with a mixture of grandparents who seem to be the primary caregivers for their grandchildren (at least they seemed that way). A lot of the individuals seemed to be overweight, and even obese, in their physical stature. esearch shows that many of the citizens are employed and the types of jobs that are prevalent in the town are management and professional jobs at 19.5%, service occupations at 11.9% and sales and office workers at 13.9%. Other male prevalent jobs are construction, extraction and maintenance at 27.6%. Female job occupations include management and professional at 28.5% with an additional 40.5% in sales and office work as well as 17.6% in service occupations.
The physical environment of the…
1. Religions in morgan county indiana mooresville. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/county/religion/Morgan-County-IN.html
1. 2010 census population for zip code 46158. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.zip-codes.com/zip-code/46158/zip-code-46158 - 2010-
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources (2013). Healthy People 2020.
Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov
Carrabine, Lee and South 193)
As has been said before, the UK no longer makes anything, builds anything or sells anything tangible. The decline in industrial production has resulted in an overall decline in employment of industrial workers, who have not been aided by a failing system to transition to other work.
Some would say that the changes occurring in the UK, at this time with the increased importance of service industry work and intelligence rather than physical labor employment is a natural byproduct of globalization and an evolutionary product of the next phase as a "developed" nation.
They evidence this by observing that all developed nations are leaning in this direction. Yet, the transition has not and will not be easy, whether it is normal or not, a point which remains to be proven.
ith the education system in the UK in serious need of reform…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000677576' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Risky Behaviors in Adolescents
Adolescents engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors in this day in age. Youth engage in activities that put them at risk for serious injury, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and chronic disease, such as heart disease and cancer ("Despite improvements," 2004). Risky behaviors that adolescents undertake can include but are not limited to substance use, unprotected sex and sexual promiscuity, failure to use seatbelts and helmets, violent behaviors, etc. On addition, problems with school work has been linked to cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement in weapon use and violence. Also, frequently "just hanging out" with friends has been associated with smoking and substance abuse. Having close friends who drink or smoke also puts youth at a higher risk factor for engaging in those behaviors (Carpenter, 2001). This paper will discuss how risky behaviors of adolescents can lead to serious diseases, a tragic accident,…
Axmaker, L. (2003-2004). Risky behaviors can lead to serious diseases. Retrieved April
24, 2005, from Wellsource Website: http://vanderbiltowc.wellsource.com/dh
Carpenter, S. (2001, January). Teens' risky behavior is about more than race and family resources. Monitor on Psychology, 32, 1. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from PsychNET database.
"Despite improvements, many high school students still engaging in risky health behaviors." (2004, May 20). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, p.1
"Some adolescents are troubled and some get into trouble.
But the great majority (almost nine out of ten) do not
The bottom line is that good kids don't suddenly go bad in adolescence" - Laurence Steinberg and Ann Levine (20th century)
(Steinberg and Levine, as cited in Columbia World of Quotations, 1996).
Contemporary Issues and Concerns
Although adolescents may be "at risk" for a number of problems today, according to Laurence Steinberg, professor of psychology, and Ann Levine (Columbia World of Quotations, 1996), a U.S. author, most adolescents, in fact, nine out of ten, do not regulalry get into trouble. What constitutes a concern, albeit, is the one in ten "at risk" adolescent who may regularly subscribe to a number of the myriad of problems confronting today's youth, as these negative behaviors frequently reach out to impact others in society. In regard to this concern, this paper examines…