e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected). The hypothesis is that early sexual behavior is a predictor for starting and continuing smoking, as is teen pregnancy.
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the first place, and why they quit.
The objective of this information is to apply the information learned to future ad campaigns, most of which are funded by state tobacco settlement money.
The study will focus on a high school in a mid-sized Texas town, but also include those who started high school, stayed in the same town, but dropped out before their senior year. In order to provide significant statistical results, the study will focus on over 1,000 students in the primary study, plus a control group of at least 400 students. It is hoped that findings in the control group (African-American teens) can be compared to the entire 1,000-student cohort, and to sub-cohorts of Hispanic and white teens.
This survey will be performed with questionnaires which ask the students about the following independent variables:
Body Mass Index -- the hypothesis is that there is a high correlation between high BMI and starting smoking. Does it also correlate with continuing to smoke?
Gender -- the hypothesis is that more boys than girls will take up smoking and continue to smoke; these numbers have changed in the past, so it would be useful to understand how they relate in this group studied.
Sexual behavior -- it may be that there are enough teen pregnancies to study that sub-group's smoking behavior. If not, the survey will cover some sexual behaviors, attempting to learn if the students engaged in ...
Dropping out of high school -- the hypothesis is that dropping out of high school results in a higher propensity to start and continue smoking.
Home status -- the hypothesis is that those teens who come from single-parent households are more likely to start and continue smoking habits.
Church attendance -- the hypothesis is that church attendance frequency is negatively correlated with smoking initiation and continuation.
Exercise -- how much they exercise may be related to BMI
School sports participation -- may be related to BMI
It is not known if dropping out of high school is related to the 'problem syndrome,' as outlined in the literature review, above.
It may be that the students' self-declared behaviors are not true, despite assurances that the results will be kept confidential. The study will poll 10% of the students' parents in order to verify some of the claims, such as regular church attendance, single- versus dual-parent households, and known smoking behavior. Although the parents may not be aware of all their children's activities, this will provide a useful cross-check of teen behaviors.
The surveys will be made anonymous. A code will be used to tie together those students' results who also have results from parents, but these will be double-blinded for the study scorers.
In addition to straight correlations, a regression analysis will be used in order to break students into specific groups of behavior. It may be found, for example, that those who are or have been pregnant participate in a number of other behaviors. By controlling for these variables, one may be able to establish influences of specific behaviors or demographic factors on the likelihood of smoking.
Statistical significance will depend on the number in the sample corresponding to specific correlations. if, for example, 100 of the 1,000 surveyed are heavy drinkers (over 1 drink per day), the 2 SD variation will be about 6%. The standard used for statistical significance will be a P
The hypothesis is that early sexual behavior is a predictor for starting and continuing smoking, as is teen pregnancy.
Smoking in Public Places Like many smokers, David W. Cowles started smoking in his teens. He wanted to look older, to appear more sophisticated, to fit in. Today, after 50 years of smoking, Cowles has finally stopped. Still, it seems he did not stop early enough. Shortly after, Cowles was diagnosed with lung cancer and emphysema. Surgeons removed the growth in his lungs but to this day, Cowles confesses to having
Teenage Drinking How can the trend toward increased alcohol consumption in teenagers be reduced? The answer to this critical societal question is being addressed by a number of researchers. It is believed that advertising offers a potential explanation for the rise. In 1999, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission called for the alcohol industry to modify its practices in order to limit underage exposure to alcohol advertising (Federal Trade Commission [FTC], 1999). According
Half of them will ultimately die from their habit" (Smoking and teens fact sheet, 2009, ALA). Teens continue to smoke in record numbers -- particularly girls, who often report that they use smoking as a method of weight control (Smoking and women fact sheet, 2009, ALA). Demographic groups of teens that report the highest levels of weight consciousness also report the highest increases in rates of smoking: "Between 1992
This graph shows that some adolescents start to smoke as early as 11 years, but "in general the ages 13 through 18" are the years when most adolescents start. The facts according to "The Teenager's Guide to the Real World" are that "No one starts smoking after age 20." So if a person can make it to the age of 20 without lighting up that first cigarette, he or she
teenage binge drinking. Teenage binge drinking remains a prevalent problem in the United States. As teenagers learn to socialize and transition into adulthood, many may engage in drinking as a type of leisure pursuit. While social drinking contributes to teenage drinking, a large part of it falls under the category of binge drinking. Binge drinking, especially heavy binge drinking can lead to development of alcohol use disorders. While anti-alcohol
Antisocial Behavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may