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If both parties agree, another alternative dispute resolution method may be used. Specific reasons must be in writing for any decision to terminate the tenured faculty member.
The post-tenure review process is mandatory when an administrator is faced with deciding whether to terminate a tenured faculty member with allegations of dating an 18-year-old student and receiving evidence of phone records and witness documentation of the faculty member being seen with the student, buying liquor for the student, and kissing the student on school grounds. The administrator submits required documents to the APT review committee. The committee reviews the documents, convenes, deliberates, and vote. The vote is based on the school's rating policy to determine whether the faculty member warrants an acceptable rating in the academic areas and in institutional service (the Texas a&M University System Health Science Center Rules, 2007). The votes are done by private ballot and require the…
Sec. 51.942. Performance Evaluation of Tenured Faculty. (1998). Retrieved from State of Texas Education Code: http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/ED/pdf/Ed.51.pdf
The Texas a&M University System Health Science Center Rules. (2007, Aug 15). Retrieved from 12.06.99.Z1 Post Tenure Review: http://www.tamhsc.edu/facultystaff/rules/12.06.99.Z1-Post-Tenure-Review-Rules.pdf
Academic Freedom. (2013). Retrieved from the Free Dictionary: http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Academic+Freedom
Elder, G.L. (2013). Texas law tough on sexual relationships between teachers and students. Retrieved from total criminal defense: http://www.totalcriminaldefense.com/news/article/sex-crimes/teacher-student-sex/
Tenure and Higher Education
Does Tenure Work in Education or is it Outdated?
My position is that Tenure still works. The topic tenure has formed much intense discussion in current years. There is an argument by few that tenure is an outdated idea and concept, and, therefore, if institutions remain competitive, then for this purpose they actually need to be more expert as well as flexible to appoint and dismiss the teaching staff as per the changing needs of the students (Allen).
On the other hand, others have the argument that tenure is fundamental and important for the safety of academic autonomy. Thus, without tenure, it means all institutions will go back to the times when the staff was fired for teaching unpopular views (Abbot, 1988).
However, several state legislatures are there who have consented post-tenure evaluation for faculty. These include, Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas, and Florida. Moreover, in Florida and…
Allen, Henry Lee. The NEA higher education journal. National Education Association. Tenure:
Why F. A c u l t y, and the Nation, Need It. www.nea.org
Abbot, Andrew (1988). The System of Professions. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Allen, Henry L (1996). Faculty Workload and Productivity in the 1990s: Preliminary Findings
This denotes that different perceptions of tenure are produced by different statuses and tenure opportunities amongst personnel. The present research question is designed to yield a discussion on how these differing perceptions may impact the effectiveness of an organization. This will require examination of matters such as the impact of hierarchy and the quality differentials between tenured or tenure-track professors and part-time, non-tenure track or adjunct professors.
5. Does tenure impact research, service, and teaching?
This research question hints at better understanding the purpose and results of the granting of tenure. Tenure, our research denotes, was created as a way of protecting opportunities for university professors to focus on matters such as research and publishing. As a result, we anticipate that its defense is often steeped in the view that such protection allows for better research and better service to the community. Simultaneously, critics of tenure argue that there is…
erm effectiveness of a vast sense, there are no standards of the continent to measure the effectiveness of institutions, and has raised the effectiveness of the community colleges and led to the emergence of several different views including: the pattern of managerial leadership that determines the effectiveness of the educational institution, and the quality of leadership Education adopted by the senior management of educational institutions of great importance to the success of this multiple mission oriented community colleges. It is observed that colleges having multiple missions can easily increase the college effectiveness. he strategy which is highlight in this paper show that management and leaders of higher education can better serves their students and their country it further analyse the ways of effective leadership strategies that is effective for a healthy education institution.
Premeaux & Mondy (2002). Perspectives on enure. Journal of Education for Business Volume: 77, Issue: 6, Pages:…
The paper is about academic tenure the discussion of this paper defends the tenure and presents some recommendations to make tenure more effective. The most attractive thing in this paper is the belief that the facilitator can make tenure more flexible and effective. It is also highlighted that the university administrators can easily create an environment of motivations, expectations and rewards for the tenured faculty members. The management should encourage the faculty members to honestly fulfil their responsibilities and develop the determination and measures tenure work as it is quite good for effective organizations.
Pounder (2001). "New leadership" and university organisational effectiveness: Exploring the relationship. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 22 (6):281-290.
The above article suggests that new leadership which is transformational leadership is the precise method necessary for the outcomes of leadership. From researches it is clear that there is a direct link between the practices of particular type of leadership and organizational effectiveness. These are the actors within a system that make the organization what it is. It is therefore important to understand how they perceive their work environment and the leadership role of their leaders. So while organizations and universities have many similarities in their formal structures and programs, each has an internal environment of its own, which creates a working environment and which guides the choice of an approach to achieve its objectives and solve problems. It is analyse in this paper how the most important research streams learning and leadership would be associated with each other. The findings of this study show that transformational leadership is the best way for universities to achieve organizational effectiveness.
The Wood and De Jarlais study of 2006 set out to accomplish three objectives. Those three objectives as stated by the study were to: (1) to provide assurance to the University and its constituents that professional resources and particular areas of expertise are being used to the best advantage; (2) to provide for the systematic recognition of excellence and develop incentives for superior performance; and (3) to provide means for the improvement of performance in furtherance of the University's mission (UH Board of egents, 1981).
The study was a conducted over a relatively long period of time (10 years) and surveyed over 1000 cases during that time frame. The participants were gathered from the ranks of the professors, department chairs and deans at the University of Hawaii. The stakeholders included the egents at the University of Hawaii, the participants, the students and the professors, deans and chairs from the…
Euben, D.R.; (2005) Post-tenure review blues? Academia, Vol. 91, Issue 6, p. 70
Wood, M. & Des Jarlais, C.; (2006) When post-tenure review policy and practice diverge: Making the case for congruence, Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 77, Issue 4, pp. 561-588
Wood, M. & Johnsrud, L.; (2005) Post tenure review: What matters to faculty, The Review of Higher Education, Vol. 28, Number 3, pp. 393-420
" Secondly, an "established custom within academe" would make it possible, together with the "expectations" would then facilitate the relationship between the faculty and its employees.
The most surprising insight about tenure is that it is a relatively "late arrival to the American system," as noted by Altbach et al. (2001, p. 12). It was formally implemented only in 1940. The system in the United Sates therefore accounts for only 60 years at the time of writing, out of some 360 years in Europe and the UK. Another interesting insight in the light of this I the fact that there is considerable tension between the primary aims of American universities; to both teach young students and conduct research (Altbach et al., 2001, p. 18).
Baldwin & Chronister (2001, p. 20) suggest that a non-tenure system be implemented to elevate the respect for full-time non-tenure faculty to the same level as…
Altbach, Philip G., Gumbport, Patricia J. & Johnstone, D. Bruce. (2001). In Defense of American Higher Education. Baltimore, MD, the Johns Hopkins University Press.
Baldwin, Roger G. & Chronister, Jay L. (2001). Teaching without Tenure: Policies and Practices for a New Era. Baltimore, MD, the Johns Hopkins University Press.
Burgan, Mary. (2006). Whatever Happened to the Faculty?: Drift and Decision in Higher Education. Baltimore, MD, the Johns Hopkins University Press.
Garcia, Mildred & Moses, Yolanda (2000). Succeeding in an Academic Career: A Guide for Faculty of Color. Westport, CT, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
In fact, he seems to have done all that he could upon entering the department to reshape it to fit his own ideas. hile freedom of expression is valid, the department also has a right to advocate a particular approach to education and to choose new professors who fit into that approach.
Under the circumstances, the President should in no way disagree with the recommendation and submit his own recommendation to grant tenure to the Board. There seem to be valid reasons to not grant the professor tenure. The President may wish to interview members of the department individually who have allegedly said nasty things about the professor that should have had no bearing on the tenure decision before he comes to a final instance. If he determines that their reasoning was indeed based upon the professor's record and not personal grievances, then he should affirm the recommendation to deny…
Wilson, Robert. (2008, September 29). Ithaca College professor says political views influenced her tenure denial. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved April 25, 2009 at http://www.normanfinkelstein.com/article.php?pg=11&ar=2029
In taking the approach that improvement in these areas can be achieved by establishing some form of post-tenure review, institutions are sending the signal that the blame for school-wide failures falls upon the teachers. A failure on the part of the institution to take this responsibility and the eroding of its confidence in its teachers promotes a deeply unhealthy context for academic freedom or creativity.
This is to say that such a policy is demonstrated by the present research to invoke a negative atmosphere for teachers and does not appear to be justified by any real or empirical evidence. Allen continues on to indicate that "nothing in the data on faculty workload and performance, gathered across all types of postsecondary institutions, suggests that faculty with tenure neglect reaching their students, rest on their laurels and no longer produce relevant research or scholarship, promote dangerous ideologies in the classroom or anywhere…
Allen, H.L. (2000). Tenure: Why Faculty, and the Nation, Need it. The NEA Higher Education Journal.
Alstete, J.W. (2000). Posttenure Faculty Development: Building a System for Faculty Improvement and Appreciation. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 27(4).
American Association of University Professors. (1999). Post-Tenure Review: An AAUP Response. AAUP.org. Online at http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/PTR.htm
CSSA Board of Directors. (1996). Resolution of Post Tenure Review: Adoption of Fresno Model as Baseline.
Specifically, the Association warns against limits and dangers to academic freedom that could result from post-tenure reviews, and essentially suggests a bevy of alternative options for imposing sanctions and other disciplinary actions rather than resorting to post-tenure review, and that a proper review process can be identified by its lack of intrusion into areas best covered by other processes contractual agreements. t is not surprising that they conclude post-tenure reviews are ineffective when they have removed any effectiveness form their definition of a proper review.
Resolution no. 3/17/96 on post-tenure review: Adoption of Fresno model as baseline. (1996, March 17). CSSA board of directors. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from California State University Website: http://www.csustudents.org/plenary/resolutiondocuments/96-3-17_Post_Tenure.pdf
n this incredibly succinct and straightforward resolution, the California State Student Association lays out their reason for wanting to implement a system-wide post-tenure review process (namely the unmitigated existence of individual unnamed professors who were deemed…
In this incredibly succinct and straightforward resolution, the California State Student Association lays out their reason for wanting to implement a system-wide post-tenure review process (namely the unmitigated existence of individual unnamed professors who were deemed to be ineffective in the classroom). Their reasoning also includes the stated rules governing professor's performance in relation to academic freedom, and cites the fact that the students' tuition pays the salaries of the professors. The system wide implementations of the proposed post-tenure review process is essential to ensure the same quality of instruction at all CSU campuses, the students maintain. Costs associated with this implementation are not addressed.
SACUA. (1998, January 12). Comments by the University of Michigan's president and provost on post-tenure review. Retrieved November 6, 2009, form University of Michigan Website: http://www.umich.edu/~aaupum/leecb.htm
In entirely unequivocal language taken from the approved minutes of two meetings, the President and Provost of the University of Michigan both spoke out against post-tenure review as it is usually understood in the modern context, with President Bollinger asserting that post-tenure review has always existed in the form of consequences for lack of performance. Both felt that the addition of a post-tenure review program to existing performance reviews would be an unnecessary financial burden and an "anti-intellectual" move for the university to make. Concerns regarding lack of performance standards are summarily dismissed.
Indeed, regardless of how the discussion is framed, this power struggle between administrators and educators remains a constant and relevant force. Still, some research comes to support this idea that tenure helps to promote inequality across certain lines. For instance, Evans et al. (2008) remark on the gender and race lines that permeate the educational hierarchy. According to Evans et al., "sixteen percent of faculty in undergraduate and graduate pro- grams are of ethnic minority decent. African-American men make up 2.6% and African-American women make up 2.7% of all faculty (U.S. Department of Education, 2003). These startlingly low percentages are mirrored in most psychology departments where women and ethnic minorities continue to earn less than men on average and are still underrepresented in most academic departments (APA, 2000b; icherski & Kohout, 1996)." (p. 50).
This suggests that to an extent which has little to do with administrative power, tenure has…
Custer, R.L., Foster, T., & Martin, E. (1999). Post-tenure review in industrial and technology education. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 37(1). Retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v37n1/custer.html
De George, R.T. (Ethics, Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure. Journal of Academic Ethics, 1, 11-25.
DiLeo, J.R. (2005). Uncollegiality, Tenure and the Weasel Clause. Symploke, 13(1-2), 99-107.
Elias, R.Z. (2001). Accounting Faculty Opinions on Post-Tenure Review. Accounting Educators' Journal, XIII.
Tenure refers to a legally secure position, an “indefinite appointment” at an institute of higher learning (AAUP, 2019, p. 1). Of course, extenuating circumstances may enable the educational institution to sever the contract and terminate the tenured faculty. One of those extenuating circumstances would be financial exigency: an unavoidable and unfortunate situation in which the institution experiences severe budget shortfalls and must completely reconsider reallocating resources in order to remain viable at all. A similar extenuating circumstance that may legally permit the termination of a tenured faculty member would be the restructuring of the institution to the degree that whole departments were eliminated, thus eliminating all associated faculty within that department. Other extenuating circumstances that would legally permit the institution to terminate tenured faculty would be serious legal or ethical violations. Otherwise, though, tenured faculty enjoy greater job security and benefits versus their non-tenured colleagues.
According to the American Association…
Fairweather (2002) advocates the well-rounded professor who is a master of both teaching and research. In his study, Fairweather (2002) found that the emphasis on research vs. teaching varies significantly based on the type of institution. Further, the researcher found that a very small number of faculty members were able to achieve both teaching and research excellence, and that being in the classroom positively affected both variables.
Miron, J.A. (2001, September 24). he economics of the enure System. Retrieved July
19, 2009, from Library of Economics and Liberty Web Site: www.econlib.org/library/columins/mirontenure.html
Discussing the modern controversy over the tenure system, Miron (2001) presents both sides, in addition an alternate view. He shows that critics of tenure see the practice as offering overcompensation for the amount of work performed by academics. Further, he writes that those who commend tenure suggest it allows for academic freedom. Arguing that the current arguments against tenure…
Tierney, W.G. (1997, January/February). Organizational Socialization in Higher
Education. Journal of Higher Education. 68.1, pp. 1-14.
Posing a new argument in the popular debate regarding socialization in higher education, Tierney (1997) makes several remarks that are of interest to one studying the effects of tenure. Pointing out that few faculty members know what exactly is expected of them, other than a general demand to produce, the author allows the reader to understand the nature of tenure better. Studying socialization, Tierney (1997) offers two views of socialization: the modernist and postmodernist. According to the modernist perspective, the goal of socialization is to learn culture. In the postmodern view, culture is more fluid, defined by each person in the culture, and socialization is the process by which one becomes a part of that culture. According to Tierney (1997) results interviews with academics support both views.
Similar to ERIC, the Chronicle of Higher Education website provides links to many articles and studies concerning tenure and post-tenure review on both sides of the issue. The vast majority of these articles were produced by the Chronicle itself, for its print and online subscribers. Given that most of the subscribers to the Chronicle are almost certainly employed in the realm of higher education, the balanced views presented by the collection of articles as a whole is perhaps unsurprising given a definite desire not to alienate readership. Though there are some very strong opinions on both sides represented in the articles and information found on the Chronicle website, there is nothing especially inflammatory or groundbreaking in any of the articles. Best used a source for recent developments in the tenure issue.
CE (2009). "Post-Tenure Review." merican council on education. ccessed 8
September 2009. http://www.acenet.edu/M/Template.cfm?Section=Home
Though the merican Council on…
APSA (2009). "Post-Tenure Review Analyzed." The American political science association. Accessed 8 September 2009.
Though this website does address the issue of post-tenure review both more specifically and more comprehensively than many other sites, it does nto provide a wide range of opinions or an abundance of resources. The description of various forms of post-tenure review and real world cases of their application is very useful for coming to an understanding of such reviews and how they are and will continue to alter tenured positions and higher education in general, but the obvious professorial bias in the site makes some of the conclusions and assertions drawn rather suspect. Excellent for providing an overview of ideas and suggesting avenues of future research.
tenure elimination in detail. In the first part of the essay, I have given explanation regarding tenure and why it is rewarded to teachers. Later, I have discussed the benefits and drawbacks of eliminating tenure for public school teachers.
Just as any other profession is in need of job security, the profession of teaching also wants the same. And it is the vehicle of tenure that is the only way to provide them with this kind of security. A teacher's status is represented by the tenure that helps him/her to secure a permanent position in a school district's faculty. The state law is responsible for granting tenure and every state has its own type and amount of protection that it provides to the teachers. The school board has the authority to award tenures to the individuals who become successful in completing a probationary period. This allowance gives about two to…
Dimaria, F. (2012). Tenure and America's Community Colleges. Education Digest, 78(1), 44-47.
Martin, D.J., & Loomis, K.S. (2007).Building Teachers: A Constructivist Approach to Introducing Education. Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning Inc..
Hassel, E.A., Kowal, J., Ableidinger, J., & Hassel, B.C. (2011). Teacher Tenure Reform: Applying Lessons from the Civil Service and Higher Education. Public Impact. Chapel Hill: NC.
Holden, C. (1997). Tenure Turmoil Sparks Reform. Science, 276 (5309), 24.
The consolidated data are envisioned to provide a generally unbiased view of the various opinions and issues raised.
Internet surveys, as discussed by Cozby (2009, p. 132) will not be administered. The reason for this is that the scope of Internet surveys are far greater than that required for this research. These type of surveys are generally administered when a wide variety of data are required from a large amount of interested parties. For the purpose of this study, surveys are limited to a specific set of participants from specific sectors of academic and public life.
urveys over time are also not considered relevant to the study. The issue of tenure is current to many academic institutions. The effects of tenure will be investigated in their current manifestation. Evolution of these issues and opinions over time is not an issue. A related issue to investigated could however be a hypothesis…
Wood and Johnsrud (2005) Post-tenure Review
O'Meara (2004) Beliefs about Post-tenure Review
remain gaps in that literature needing to be filled, which is one reason why the proposed study is needed. One particular study documents the reasoning supporting the proposed study by stating that "few empirical studies have addressed the spectrum of faculty views regarding post-tenure review" (Wood, Johnsrud, 2005, p. 394). This study would seek to at least slightly change that remark by adding its findings to the current literature.
Additionally, this study would seek to answer a number of questions regarding why post-tenure reviews are important not only to the world of academia, but to society in general. One recent study compared the manner in which post-tenure reviews take place to the method used to evaluate employees in the workforce, and determined that "colleges and universities should not be compared to businesses, and the education of students should not be compared to products produced by factories" (Pitts, Kamery, 2005, p.…
Di Leo, J.R. (2005) Uncollegiality, tenure and the weasel clause, Symploke, Vol. 13, Nos. 1 -- 2, pp. 99-107
Pitts, S.T. & Kamery, R.H.; (2005) Academic model or corporate model: Is tenure still viable?, Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 67 -- 79
Wood, M. & Jarlais, C.D. (2006) When post-tenure review policy and practice diverge: Making the case for congruence, The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 77, No. 4, pp. 561-588
Wood, M. & Johnsrud, L.; (2005) Post-tenure review: What matters to faculty, The Review of Higher Education, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 393-420
The military was a natural school for movement and delivery procedures that also served him in good stead later. Another thing that Smith took from the Marine Corps was a hands on management quality based upon fairness in evaluation and treatment. This quality has never failed him ("Frederick w. smith," 2012).
Another thing that Smith has not hesitated to do is to cut the perks for the top executives in the company when profits are low. A good example of this was Smith's own compensation which dropped by two percent due to the economy. While it may seem to be common sense to cut costs from the top down in a company during a recession, it has in recent American history been a rarity for American CEOs who have continued to rake in large perks while their lower ranking employees felt the pain exclusively. This flies in the face of…
Bomkamp, S. (2011, July 25). FedEx ceo's total fiscal 2011 pay falls 2%. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory?id=14154041 .
Frederick w. smith. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/smi0bio -.
Frederick w. smith: Young marine to chairman & ceo of FedEx. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.military.com/veterans-day/content/frederick-smith.html .
Smith, F. (Performer) (2010). FedEx ceo frederick w. smith: Delivering innovation. FORA.tv. [Video
Tenure -- Literature Review
Academic tenure is a system that many universities and colleges use to protect a senior academic's contractual right to a lifetime job unless terminated for just cause. It is typically reserved for academics who have made Assistant or Full Professor, and requires following a strict hierarchical rubric that demonstrates a strong record of published research, teaching, and administrative services. Most institutions allow for a certain period of time to establish this record; although there are a number of non-tenure track positions still available within the university system (Adjust Professor, Lecturer, Research Professor, etc.) (Amacher, 2004). The idea of academic tenure, at least in the United States, is primarily intended to guarantee the right to academic freedom, in that it protects the academic when they publish or dissent from prevailing or common opinion, or spend time and research on topics that may be politically unfashionable or controversial.…
Board of Regents of State Colleges v. Roth, 408 U.S. 564 (U.S. Supreme Court June 29, 1972).
Perry v. Sindermann, 408 U.S. 593 (U.S. Supreme June 29, 1972).
Percent of Teachers with Tenure. (2008, June). Retrieved March 2011, from Department of Education Statistics: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_264.asp
Issues in Higher Education. (2011, January). Retrieved March 2011, from American Association of University Professors: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/issues/
Teacher Tenure Should Be Abolished
Making the case against teacher tenure
Virtually all employees within the job market today are employed 'at will' -- in other words, they can be fired at any time. This principle of the capitalist economy is supposed to increase the pressure upon employees to perform to a high standard. However, one profession is exempt from such pressures -- public school teachers. "Teacher tenure, which is sometimes called career status, provides job security for teachers who have successfully completed a probationary period. The purpose is to protect good teachers from being fired for non-educational issues including personal beliefs, personality conflicts with administrators or school board members, etc." (Meador 2012). However, critics of tenure frame the issue differently, asking: "if you were the C.E.O. Of a company" and wanted it to perform to a high standard, "would you offer anybody a contract with these terms: lifetime employment,…
Ayala, Eva-Marie & Mark Agee. "Prospective teachers may have difficulty finding jobs next year." Star Telegram. 8 Oct 2008. [13 Mar 2012]
Holland, Elizabethe. "Teacher tenure is under increased attack." STL Today. 20 Jan 2012.
[13 Mar 2012] http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/education/teacher-tenure-is-under-increased-attack/article_78f8e536-b2a4-5d78-aea7-77fd94c7c696.html
" (Zemsky, 1)
The null hypothesis of the research endeavor is that online professors will report no perceptible connection between post-tenure review and job performance.
The alternate hypothesis of the research endeavor is that online professors will report that post-tenure review improves job performance.
Nature of the Study
Significance of the Study
The significance of the proposed research is based in the need for greater study of online instruction in higher education with relation to post tenure review. As with all other elements of this research process, we can initiate a discussion on the significance of the research with a reiteration of the fact that amongst educators without classification, the perspective on post-tenure review is generally hostile. This is because tenure is considered by most educators to be an important feature of the profession demanding of protection. To this end, Ceci et al. (2006) indicate that…
Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003). Post-Tenure Review at Graduate Institutions in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 241-260.
Bowden, R.G. (2009). The Postsecondary Professoriate: Problems of Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Employment Law. Academic of Educational Leadership Journal, 13(3).
Ceci, S.J.; Williams, W.M. & Mueller-Johnson, K. (2006). Is Tenure Justified? An Experimental Study of Faculty Beliefs About Tenure, Promotion, and Academic Freedom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 553-594.
DeFleur, M.L. (2007). Raising the Question #5: What is Tenure and How Do I Get it? Communication Education, 56(1), 106-112.
Allen makes the case that this functions to improve the quality of higher education and the experience had by the student. Like Scheuerman, Allen argues that tenure is under attack for reasons other than the perceived erosion of educational quality, but makes a more direct case against administrators and public officials by arguing that tenure is actually attacked as a matter of posturing for control over the work of instructors. Indeed, Allen notes that in spite of claims that the academic freedom afforded to instructors is problematic, "the evidence shows that most tenured faculty are more productive than ever in this era of tighter resources." (95-96) his functions as an effective argument in favor of maintaining and defending the institution of tenure.
Miron. (2001). he Econoimcs of the enure System. Library of Economics and Liberty.
Miron's article effectively straddles the middle of the line in an often deeply polarized discussion,…
The article by Licata & Morreale is also a consideration of post-tenure review with a fully neutral approach to examining the unanswered questions prompted by ongoing debate. This is more of a qualitative discussion than that featured in the survey method by Aper & Fry. As a result, it provides a complimentary perspective to the research already encountered, and again, also remains neutral. Its findings, accordingly, seem to support post tenure review as a more refined process less connected to penalty and more based on performance incentive.
Johnson & Kelley. (1998). Productivity and Competence: Post-Tenure Review in American Universities. Issues in Accounting Education, 13(3).
The article by Johnson & Kelly provides a useful case against the use of post tenure review, suggesting that this has been a knee-jerk response to perceptions and public views that aging and incompetent instructors are a primary cause for diminishing educational standards. The article denotes that there has rarely been empirical proof that a review policy such as this is either necessitated or can be connected to improvements in education. Nonetheless, it denotes that with the adoption of such methods of quality assurance, protections must be maintained and professional development improvements sought for instructors.
This wide array of data strands could then be manipulated to measure the veracity of the philosophical claims informing our qualitative argument.
The analysis which is envisioned as a way to address the available datasets is provided for by Creswell & Plano-Clark (2007), who denote that data-mixing is a valuable way to determine whether or not variables possess meaningful relationships with one another. According to the text by Creswell & Plano-Clark, "by mixing the datasets, the researcher provides a better understanding of the problem than if either dataset had been used alone . . .there are three ways in which mixing occurs: merging or converging the two datasets by actually bringing them together, connecting the two datasets by having one build on the other, or embedding one dataset within the other so that one type of data provides a supportive role for the other dataset." (Cresswell & Plano-Clark,…
Cozby. (2009). Studying Behavior. Mayfield Publishing.
Creswell, J.W. & Plano-Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Sage Publications.
Euben, D.R. (2005). Post-Tenure Review Blues? Legal Watch, 91(6), 70. Online at http://www.jstor.org/pss/40252874
O'Meara, K.A. (2004). Beliefs about Post-Tenure Review: The Influence of Autonomy, Collegiality, Career Stage, and Institutional Context. The Journal of Higher Education, 75(2).
Educator's Perception Of Tenure
Introduction to the concepts
According to the purpose statement, the purpose of the designed study is to use a mixed-methods approach to investigate the underlying perceptions of university professors with particular emphasis on three areas of analysis as follows: (1) Issues related to tenure and post-tenure review; (2) Cultural resistance or enthusiasm towards various implementations; and (3) Organizational effectiveness in current strategies for handling tenure and post-tenure reviews. Ultimately the researcher's goal is to gather empirical evidence related to perceptions of tenure and organizational effectiveness in order to inform policy makers and others important to making decisions about tenure and post-tenure review for an institution.
Academic tenure is offered typically to only those faculty or associate faculty in the most senior positions with strong track records in teaching, research, and/or administrative/executive roles (Joughlin, 1969). Generally, tenure is offered only when rigorous criteria are met as defined…
Amacher, Ryan. (2004). Faculty Towers: Tenure and the structure of higher education. Oakland, CA: Independent Institute.
Joughlin, Louis (Ed.). (1969). Academic freedom and tenure. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Modica, Jonathon, & Mamiseishvili, Ketevan. (2010). Black faculty at research universities: Has significant progress occurred? Negro Educational Review, 61 (1-4), 107-122.
Rudd, Elizabeth, et al. (2008). Equality and illusion: Gender and tenure in art history careers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(1), 228-235.
ecause there is a surplus of people who want to be in academic positions today, it is very easy for an academic institution to hire someone who will not be given tenure. These people can be paid a lower wage than someone with tenure, because they will not be standing on the same legal ground if they are let go at a later date (Dilts, Samavati, & Rahnama-Moghadam, 2007, p. 335). They make less, so the institution saves money, and that money can be used to hire more instructors, to purchase supplies, or for any other area in which the establishment is lacking.
People who are not tenured but who are doing the same work make about 1/2 of what tenured professors make (Dilts, Samavati, & Rahnama-Moghadam, 2007, p. 336). However, these same people have the potential to keep rising in their salary, although not to the level of a…
Dilts, DA, Samavati, H, Rahnama-Moghadam, M. (2007). Economic motivation for post-tenure review in academic institutions. Journal of Collective Negotiations, 31(4), 333-341.
If [these] postulates are correct, there very well could be an economic incentive for public authorities (i.e. states) to create post-tenure review and other methods to avoid such employment rights." (Dilts et al., 335)
This is a new insight on the subject, producing a clearer understanding of the political battle being waged between educators and those administrative and governmental forces that have sought a change in employment policies. And in some regard, teachers face a great deal of opposition not just from educational leadership but from the general public. This returns us to the insight that there is something resembling resentment on the part of other professionals that teachers are afforded this security and, to the perception of some, a freedom from critical oversight. The emergence of post-tenure policies is based on the reality that tenure would function to protect many such teachers whose protected status had allowed for a…
Chait, R.P. (2005). The Questions of Tenure. Harvard University Press.
Dilts, D.A.; Samavati, H. & Rahnama-Moghadam, M. (2007). Economic Motivation for Post-Tenure Review in Academic Institutions. Journal of Collective Negotiations, 31(4), 333-341.
The author of this response is asked to analyze the tenure and divorce happenstance for eight executives and draw any relevant conclusions about the data and its patterns. The author is asked to ask about the correlation or even causality between tenure as an executive and divorce. The correlation is to be defined in terms of magnitude, direction and practical importance. The question of how much of whether executives have been divorced can be accounted for by the length of their tenure is posed as well as how much of tenure can be explained by whether there has been a divorce.
Formulas & Analysis of Data
In looking at the data, it is not hard to see that executives with tenure have a higher prevalence of divorce than those that do not. For example, of the five executives with over 10 years of service, only one is not…
Kleiman., C. (2000, May 2). Evidence Short That Long Hours Cause Divorce - Chicago Tribune. Featured Articles From The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2000-05-02/business/0005020115_1_matrimonial-marital-breakups-marriage
MathIsFun.com. (2013, April 29). Ratios. Math is Fun - Maths Resources. Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/ratio.html
MathIsFun.com. (2013, April 29). How to Calculate the Mean Value. Math is Fun - Maths Resources. Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://www.mathsisfun.com/mean.html
For each selected school, there will be three groups of which quota sampling will be employed to achieve equal number of respondents. The three groups would be the faculty members, student administrators, and students. espondents will once again be randomly-selected from the list that we shall be acquiring from the university.
A questionnaire shall be devised by the researcher in order to gather opinion and understand attitudes on post-tenure review. An Educational Administration Disposition Belief Scale shall also be provided to better assess school administrators' views and disposition to better understand their particular disposition in the issue of post-tenure review. This instrument by Charles Southern University (n.d.) has already been used in previous studies conducted. This scale shall be modified to a 5-point scale in order to gauge disposition.
The timetable for the data gathering part of this research was based on a seven-week schedule. One week…
Charles Southern University (n.d.) Educational Administration Belief Scale Worksheet.
Retrieved from http://www.csuniv.edu/academics/graduate/ed_docs/Disposition%20Belief%20Scale%20for%20Ed%20Admn.pdf on 11 Jan 2010.
Licata, C.M. & Morreale, (2006). Faculty and Administrator Views About Post-Tenure
Practices: Qualitative Findings, in Post-Tenure Faculty Review and Renewal III:
However, some identifying information is necessary to evaluate the length of time the subject has spent at an institution, their department, professors' publishing records, and other issues that arise when conducting the review process of professors and evaluating teaching records.
Additionally, if subjects are considered to have been given a negative post-tenure review by faculty members or students, the professors might have an alternative view they wish to share with the researches. Allowing professors, students, and administrators to give anecdotal evidence to add context to the statistics compiled about departments that conduct post-tenure review and those departments that do not is essential. But the selected interviews must be balanced demographically so that a variety of views and voices are representative. Subjects must be assured that their results are confidential and any obvious identifiers are not recorded in the report, otherwise they may be less than candid.
Faculty Members of Color
What problem or issue is being addressed?
The primary problem or issue addressed in this article is the vicissitudes of members of historic minority groups attempting to maintain careers in academia. Specifically, this article addresses common scenarios that befall members of faculty “of color” (Diggs et al, 2009, p. 312) as they strive to achieve tenure. The authors also consider the effect that gender has on such faculty members. There are frequent comparisons to situations which occur for minorities and women and those which take place between Caucasian men—and the inherent differences which seem to occur because of these demographic dissimilarities. From this perspective, the problem discussed is the effect of race/ethnicity/sex for those involved in academic positions in higher level education.
What are the main research questions?
The main research question is what impact race and ethnicity has for members of historic minority groups attempting…
Traditional Land Tenure in the Modern Pacific
The Nature of Traditional Land Tenure in the Pacific
The land utilization and development necessary for a modern Pacific state could feasibly occur at reasonably good clip. Hughes suggests that, "all Pacific islands could be viable at high standards of living within a generation if they adopted policies that match their endowments" (2004, p. 1). This line of thinking is decidedly that of a non-indigenous economist, yet, if Hughes and other Western economists are correct, the Pacific islands, and particularly Papua New Guinea, are rapidly losing economic ground. The policy changes recommended by Hughes and others are formulaic and familiar. The one most pertinent to this topic of traditional land tenure is to switch from "communal land ownership to individual property rights" (Hughes, 2004, p.1). This paper discusses the effect that land tenure has on modernization and economic development in the Pacific against…
Acquaye, B. (1984). Land tenure and productivity in the Pacific Islands. Rome, Italy: Institute of Pacific Studies, South Pacific University, Suva (Fiji),
Banks, G (2005). Globalization, poverty, and hyperdevelopment in Papua New Guinea's mining sector, Focaal, European Journal of Anthropology, 46, 128-43.
Banks, G. (2006). Mining, social change and corporate social responsibility: Drawing lines in the Papua New Guinea mud [Chap. 13]. In Globalisation and governance in the Pacific islands, edited by Stuart Firth, ANU E. Press. Retrieved http;//epress.anu.edu/ssgm/global_gov/pdf/ch13.pdf
Boydell, S. (2001). Land tenure and land conflict in the South Pacific [Consultancy report for the Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations]. Retrieved http://www.undp.org/cpr/documents/we_do/drt_land%20policy%20and%20conflict%20in%20pacific.pdf
05 this suggests that the variable is not contributing significantly to the model. This would suggest that removing this variable may further improve the model. In addition to this it would be necessary to remove any variables which were collinear as this could interfere with the results of the regression. After using the program PHStat to analyse the variable inflation factors (VIFs) of the variables these are all below 5, which shows that there is no collinearity between variables. Therefore the improved model would be one which included all variables except X5.
Table 2: Regression model in which all explanatory variables are included
Adjusted R. Square
Using the improved model which includes all of the variables except X5, the regression equation is given as:
47508.5 + 787.3X1 + 962.6X2 + 3.8X3-25578.8X4 + 32523X6 + 93009.2X7 + 64718.3X8
There are a number of…
Berenson, M.L., Levine, D.M. & Krehbiel, T.C. (2008) Basic Business Statistics. 11th Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Prentice Hall.
Kazmier, L.J. (2003) Schaum's Outline of Business Statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Levine, D.M., Stephan, D.F., Krehbiel, T.C. & Berenson, M.L. (2007) Statistics for Managers Using Microsoft Excel. Philadelphia, PA: Prentice Hall.
192). his begs for an empirical objective analysis of performance.
In a constructivist approach, which was essentially that used by O'Meara (2004), the more open-ended and subject-driven the research is, the better (Creswell 2009, pp. 8). his approach leads to very clear results given the scope of questioning and sampling used by O'Meara (2004); focusing on the perceived benefits of post-tenure review on faculty performance amongst a group of individuals (faculty and administration) who in this case were well-aligned in their perspective would necessarily lead to conclusive results according to this worldview. A similar analysis of public and student views on the topic, however, would likely lead to very different results, and this worldview inherently lacks appropriate structures for synthesizing such disparate conclusions in an objective manner.
his worldview has specific bearings on certain aspects of the study's finding's. O'Meara (2004) specific concerns concerning the effects of post-tenure…
The pragmatic worldview has both the clearest and the least applicable bearing on the issue at hand. On the one hand, t is easily argued that all that really matters in the issue are the practical outcomes -- post-tenure review is meant to improve faculty performance, and pragmatism would therefore hold that it is a good practice if it succeeds in this, and useless if it doesn't (O'Meara 2004, pp. 179-82; Creswell 2009, pp. 10). This is abundantly clear, but there is little to no agreement amongst various groups as to the actual practical effects of post-tenure review. This study showed that faculty consistently believe they are doing exemplary work, and thus that post-tenure review will have no effect (O'Meara 2004). Student groups and certain administrators (not in this study) have established a need for greater accountability in tenured faculty, and advocate the use of post-tenure reviews for this purpose. An empirical study of the practice's actual effects would be necessary before a true pragmatic conclusion could be drawn regarding post-tenure review.
This makes it clear that no single worldview is adequate in addressing this issue. There is a need for advocacy and the inclusiveness of the constructivist approach, but given the disparity in views ultimately an empirical (i.e. postpositivist) and pragmatic determination will need to be made. An understanding of each of these four worldviews and their perspectives on the post-tenure review is necessary to a full understanding of the issue.
In spite of endeavors on the part of certain higher education criticizers to exploit tenure as one among the culprits responsible for a profusion of institutional failings, no compelling proof exists of the fact that tenured educators fail to do their job adequately (owen, Howard, Jack & Schuster, 1986). In fact, available evidence points to a majority of tenured educators striving hard, like never before, in the current age plagued by tighter resources. Moreover, evidence indicates that the major factors that influence educator performance of their job were the institutional conditions linked to college/university location or mission, rather than tenure (ess, 1988).
The concept of tenure developed alongside teacher professionalization within the higher education context. It systemizes an enduring, formal employer-teacher bond, with individuals who effectively satisfy probation conditions being rewarded for their efforts. Tenure is earned through performance sufficiently remarkable to enjoy senior faculty approval within an…
Allen, H. L. (1997). Tenure: Why faculty, and the Nation, need it. The NEA Higher Educational Journal.
Bess, James. Collegiality and Bureaucracy in the Modern University. New York: Teachers College, 1988
Bowen, Howard R., and Jack H. Schuster. American Professors: A National Resource Imperiled. New York: Oxford, 1986
Mathis, M. (2015). Teacher Tenure Debate: Pros & Cons. Retrieved from Teach hub: http://www.teachhub.com/teacher-tenure-pros-cons
Qualitative Data Analysis:
The study by O'Meara provides us with something of a template for understanding the qualitative variables which can be identified and addressed. O'Meara's study recognizes the demand for a collection of thick descriptive data based on the experiences of those who face the subject on a first-hand basis. The study points to several key pedagogic and tenure-related issues in which the gathering of first-person accounts may provide us with a greater depth of insight into the primary research imperative. Accordingly, O'Meara reports that the study "explored beliefs held by faculty and administrators about post-tenure review and the factors that influenced beliefs within one state system. Values of autonomy and collegiality, career stage, and institutional history and context were found to influence beliefs about the purposes, processes, and outcomes of post-tenure review." (O'Meara, 178)
This promotes the use of an open-ended interview method, perhaps best executed as a…
Creswell, J.W. & Plano-Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Sage Publications.
O'Meara. (2004). Beliefs about Post-tenure Review.
Wood & Des Jarlais. (2006) When Post-tenure Review Policy and Practice Diverge.
The court originally found that Fisher had a comparable worth to her make colleagues. In fact, she actually published more than they did (204-205).
4. Termination of Tenured Faculty For Cause
The American Association of University Professors has recommended that universities extend adopt regulations for dismissing tenured faculty for "adequate cause," but leave the specifics up to the university (215). Tenured university professors can be relieved of their duty for cause if they fail to maintain their "fitness" as "teachers and researchers" (215-216). One example of how this policy can be interpreted for individual universities is a university that required a tenured professor two have a review of unsatisfactory performance for two consecutive years before being terminated for cause, in addition to "clear and convincing evidence" of this status. Misconduct, neglect, and dishonesty are other conditions that would require the dismissal of a tenured faculty member for cause (216). Courts…
Through a bevy of research articles and scholarly journal research pieces, the authors of the present survey instrument have established their credentials by producing an exhaustive and multi-dimensional discussion on a highly-charged issue. Their qualifications are therefore preceded by an established status as experts in the field and as unbiased sources for discourse.
It is thus that the survey instrument produced here is used to measure responses in two participating universities. Its reliability is ensured by the objective phrasing of questions and by the selection of two universities with historically divergent patterns of perspective on post-tenure review. This denotes both an internal reliability based on the carefully structured phrasing of unbiased statements and an external reliability based on the comparative nature of the study. Researchers note that they "selected these institutions, both in the western United States, because they have had many years of experience conducting systematic evaluations of tenured…
Wood, M. & Johnsrud, L. (2005). Post-Tenure Review: What Matters to Faculty. Review of Higher Education, 28(3), 393.
Supreme Court Justices as regards their lifetime appointment status.
Life tenure by Supreme Court judges has numerous significances as well as drawbacks. However, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and, as such it should be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the federal judges should receive significant pay as result of the importance of their job.
This article includes the advantages and disadvantages of being a federal judge, as well as their tenure and salaries.
Unquestionably, life occupation of office by federal judges has an extremely vital purpose: It protects the judges against the pressure which comes from politics as a result of sporadic accountability to voters. In contrast to numerous state judges, the federal judges do not need to get worried about coming up with funds for vote hunting campaigns or coming up with unpopular rulings that are legally correct but displeasing to the electorates. An important job of the…
Denniston, L. (2013, September 24). Constitution Daily -- Smart conversation from the National Constitution Center. Constitution Check: Should Supreme Court justices have limits on their time in office? Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://blog.constitutioncenter.org/2013/09/constitution-check-should-supreme-court-justices-have-limits-on-their-time-in-office/
Joyner. "The Average Salary of Supreme Court Justices - Chron.com." Work - Chron.com. Web. 16 Sep 2016. .
Lazarus. (n.d.). CNN - Breaking News, Latest News and Videos. CNN.com - Life tenure for federal judges: Should it be abolished? - Dec 10, 2004. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.cnn.com/2004/LAW/12/10/lazarus.federal.judges/
This research cannot ask students to take additional tests -- therefore that whole wing of the research will occur independently from the qualitative survey. The research will have to use scores from prior standardized testing. Additionally, the sequential timing method will allow researchers to make general correlations between the existence of post-tenure review and the perception of educators separately from measuring academic performance. This will allow a foundation for which the quantitative academic performance measures can be interpreted. Both collection of qualitative and quantitative data play "an equally important role in addressing the research problem," (82). However, academic performance can be influenced by other measures, and so the qualitative data representing teacher perceptions should be weighted more heavily. Institutions with and without post-tenure review will then be merged through merging the data sets. This will integrate the two groups in order to allow the context of this research to make…
Predictive validity asks whether the variables in the instrument are associative of and predictive for the concepts with which they ought to be related. Concurrent validity measures whether the instrument allows for distinctions to be made between groups that should be separately identifiable. Convergent validity asks whether responses to items in the instrument which are conceptually related move in similar ways relative to each other. And divergent validity measures whether operationalized variables in the instrument are separately identifiable from other, unrelated concepts. The threats to construct validity include not clearly defining variables operationally before instrument construction, using a too-narrow concept for measurement or a too-narrow treatment for measurement that does not reflect the full nature of the concepts measured, improperly measuring the effects of multiple treatments related to the variable in ways that do not account for interaction of other variables, failure to account for the effects of such considerations…
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches, 3rd Edition. London: Sage.
Trochim, W. (2008). Research methods: knowledge base. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/pmconval.php .
Wood, M.S. & Johnsrud, L.K. (2001, November). Post-tenure review: What matters to faculty. Refereed paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE), Richmond, VA.
Donald umsfeld's tenure as Secretary of Defense from 2001-2006 during the George W. Bush Administration provides a striking example of the exercise of leadership during a time of change in a highly charged political atmosphere. umsfeld was attempting to change the internal and external profile of an enormous organization that is under constant scrutiny from many stakeholders and outside interests, some supportive and others hostile. He wanted to change the way the department fights wars by leveraging the American military's technological advantage while other leaders in other areas of federal and international governance sought to influence the country's approach to foreign policy in more diplomacy-focused ways. Perhaps it was due to so much scrutiny and powerful opposition that the secretary exercised his leadership in such an enigmatic fashion, not in the sense of Sun Tzu's invisible hand kind leadership but in a smoke and mirrors manner better suited to…
Clement, R.W. (1994). Culture, leadership, and power: the keys to organizational change.
Business Horizons, 37(1), 33-39.
Donald (Harold) Rumsfeld. (2007). Almanac of Famous People. Detroit: Gale.
Leadership and organizational politics. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.alagse.com/leadership/l3.php.
ixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) will be used in this study. Qualitative instruments, including interviews and open-form questionnaires, will be distributed to a smaller and more purposefully selected population of faculty and administrators than the qualitative survey instruments, which will be distributed to much wider and more randomized population of faculty, administrators, and students, in accordance with standard mixed methods research collection practices (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). The qualitative sample size will include at least twenty-five participants from different institutions; target sample sizes for the quantitative research will be at least fifty each of students and faculty as well as at least ten administrators at every institution. All instruments will be developed by the researchers in accordance with established practices and with input from subject area experts as warranted/needed (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007).
The latest edition of the commonly used SPSS software will be used to perform…
Mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) will be used in this study. Qualitative instruments, including interviews and open-form questionnaires, will be distributed to a smaller and more purposefully selected population of faculty and administrators than the qualitative survey instruments, which will be distributed to much wider and more randomized population of faculty, administrators, and students, in accordance with standard mixed methods research collection practices (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). The qualitative sample size will include at least twenty-five participants from different institutions; target sample sizes for the quantitative research will be at least fifty each of students and faculty as well as at least ten administrators at every institution. All instruments will be developed by the researchers in accordance with established practices and with input from subject area experts as warranted/needed (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007).
The latest edition of the commonly used SPSS software will be used to perform regression analysis on qualitative findings to determine the likelihood of a relationship between specific attitudes and perception post-tenure review processes and changes to institutional culture as well as the impact on teaching and overall service. Chi-square analysis of the quantified survey results will also demonstrate the likelihood of relationships amongst the various items on these instruments. This will provide clear analyses of both quantitative and qualitative data, which can then be rationally compared to each other in writing.
Education 520 Business Law
To avoid an anti-discriminatory lawsuit regarding hiring practices, an employer should declare him or herself an 'equal opportunity employer.' To be compliant with the laws enforced by the EEOC, an employer must not discriminate based upon race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. The employer should also not discriminate on the basis of pregnancy, age, disability or genetic information (Laws enforced by the EEOC, 2012, EEOC).
If the institution wishes to pursue a strategy of affirmative action regarding the hiring and promoting of employees he or she should state it clearly in employment literature, usually in the form of the phrase that 'members of historically discriminated-against groups are encouraged to apply.' However, the employer must be careful not to use a quota system, or set a goal for how many members of such groups will be hired to positions, based upon their…
Affirmative action. (2012). Labor employment law. Retrieved:
Laws enforced by the EEOC. (2012). EEOC. Retrieved:
It also appears to be very reliable and error free. This site contains several pages of information and has a very handy search function for people to use to look up specific things. This site does not have a site map in order to facilitate navigation. Overall this site appears to be a very useful resource for those who are looking for information regarding tenure (Inside Higher Ed, 2009).
The last site that I looked at was one sponsored by the National Education Association. The National Education Association is the largest professional organization and largest labor union in the United States that represents public school teachers. This organization appears to be very reputable within the education arena. The information that is available on this site surrounds the topic of tenure. The site is set up with links to several articles that surround this topic. The information that is presented appears…
American Association of University Professors. (2008). Resources on Tenure. Retrieved from Web site: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/issues/ tenure/resources.htm
Evaluation Criteria. (2009). Retrieved August 26, 2009, from Web site:
Inside Higher Ed. (2009). What Counts for Tenure. Retrieved August 26, 2009, form Web site:
Additionally, a critical theory based approached would help explore the two groups' innate characteristics. According to research, critical theory is "a search for a more egalitarian and democratic social order," (Creswell & Plano-Clark 2008:67). It will properly prepare the study to deal with how tenure affects the power within the educational context. Critical theory breaks it down into political elements; and "With specific focus on the political nature of institutions, critical theorists analyze power interests and how research can be used to either challenge or support the status quo," (Creswell & Plano-Clark 2008:67). Additionally, critical theory would provide a clearer access to the students affected by post-tenure review. With poor educators, students are disenfranchised -- they are denied access to a good education, being subjugated by the poor educators who have no fear of termination.
Finally, the transformative-emancitory paradigm would be most effective within the context of this research. esearch…
The Google Scholar search engine appears more comprehensive in scope relative to ProQuest as well. This is attributable to the greater number of courses Google indexes from an academic standpoint to gain this data. While ProQuest does not have as much content accessible using Boolean search parameters as Google Scholar, of the documents it indexes, a higher percentage of them are accessible. There is also a greater level of flexibility in how citations are downloaded on ProQuest relative to Google Scholar. Support for APA, AMA, Turabian, and Harvard formats is available on ProQuest for example and not available on Google Scholar. This can be a significant time saving feature when larger papers are being researched.
When a Boolean search was completed using the Google U.S. Government Search, 58,200 documents were found, and like Google Scholar, when the exact search term "Tenured faculty & Post-tenure review models" was used, no matches…
Samuelson, P. (2009). Legally Speaking: The Dead Souls of the Google Book Search Settlement. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 52(7), 28.
PDF to the phrase Tenured & Post-tenure review models yielded an entire page of links to PDFs on the subject. This is especially useful when doing research. A limitation of Bing in this area however is the lack of citation support provided however that is found in EBSCO Host or ProQuest, two excellent academic databases. In conclusion, the iterative nature of Bing is very effective in targeting content of interest and the use of specific operands or qualifiers including .PDF work well. The only limitation however is the amount of content indexed at this point by the search engine.
The site Search.yahoo.com was also evaluated using the search term Tenured & Post-tenure review models both in exact phrasing and also in Boolean search. This search engine provides an estimated time for the search to be completed which for this specific phrase when configured as a Boolean search, took .49ms. Just…
Teacher Termination and Tenure
A thorough analysis of the data presented in this case study unequivocally reveals that this particular teacher should get terminated rather than receive tenure. What is unfortunate about this fact is that this decision must be made at this particular point of time. With more time, it is quite likely that the teacher would be able to increase his or her basic competencies at a level in which tenure would be a viable option. However, since the decision must be made after reviewing the data for the teacher's third year evaluations, at this point it is prudent to terminate the teacher.
One of the pieces of evidence that suggests that termination is the proper course of action in the overall evaluation for this pedagogue is the "Time on Task Results" data. This data demonstrates that of the students for which it was possible to gauge their…
n fact, the Court distinguished between Pickering's rights as citizen and his rights as an employee of an institution. Subsequent related Supreme Court decisions have continued to distinguish between an employee's rights as a citizen vs. The member of an institution (243).
2. What requirements must be observed in the awarding of rank, tenure, and salaries?
"Wide discretion" is offered to public and private institutes of higher learning regarding the awarding of rank, tenure, and salaries (213). The Courts are "less likely to become involved in disputes concerning the substance of standards" than the way those standards are enforced (214). nstitutions are constrained by First and Fourteenth Amendment considerations and due process of law. Vagueness and overbreath decisions also impact an institution's decision for awarding (or denying) rank, tenure, and salaries: decisions must…
In public institutions, tenure and other issues related to employee or staff status are irrelevant because of equal protection guarantees embedded in the Bill of Rights. The First Amendment right to free expression may be constrained by institutional concerns such as possible impediments to the educational mission of the school. For example, in Pickering v. Board of Education (1968) the Supreme Court found in favor of the state institution when "maintaining an efficient educational system" is a priority (240). In fact, the Court distinguished between Pickering's rights as citizen and his rights as an employee of an institution. Subsequent related Supreme Court decisions have continued to distinguish between an employee's rights as a citizen vs. The member of an institution (243).
2. What requirements must be observed in the awarding of rank, tenure, and salaries?
"Wide discretion" is offered to public and private institutes of higher learning regarding the awarding of rank, tenure, and salaries (213). The Courts are "less likely to become involved in disputes concerning the substance of standards" than the way those standards are enforced (214). Institutions are constrained by First and Fourteenth Amendment considerations and due process of law. Vagueness and overbreath decisions also impact an institution's decision for awarding (or denying) rank, tenure, and salaries: decisions must be based on clear institutional guidelines.
Or, the damage done to his career would have had to have been so great and irrevocable it constituted a malicious action.
What institutional practices or policies may create a constitutionally protected property interest in one's job? May faculty members in private institutions have such a property interest in their jobs?
Roth's "property" interest in employment at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh was terminated on June 30, 1969, as specified in his contract, and there were no provisions for renewal. Faculty members at private institutions that grant tenure may have expectations of retaining their position, given the stipulations of their contracts. Grounds for being granted or retaining tenure may vary from institution to institution. here is no broadly sweeping right to tenure or right to one's job, however, rather the institution must merely uphold the guidelines it sets forth in its original contract. he university created the constitutionally-protected property interests within legally…
The damage done to Roth would have to have been the type of damage that harmed his rights as a citizen, not merely as an employee, as an employer is free not to hire back a non-tenured employee such as Roth. Or, the damage done to his career would have had to have been so great and irrevocable it constituted a malicious action.
What institutional practices or policies may create a constitutionally protected property interest in one's job? May faculty members in private institutions have such a property interest in their jobs?
Roth's "property" interest in employment at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh was terminated on June 30, 1969, as specified in his contract, and there were no provisions for renewal. Faculty members at private institutions that grant tenure may have expectations of retaining their position, given the stipulations of their contracts. Grounds for being granted or retaining tenure may vary from institution to institution. There is no broadly sweeping right to tenure or right to one's job, however, rather the institution must merely uphold the guidelines it sets forth in its original contract. The university created the constitutionally-protected property interests within legally specified, acceptable limits.
Driven (Principi & Task Force)
pplication Essay: Results Driven
In the Department of Veterans ffairs where I work, getting results is highly valued. There are various examples that could be used to point out how important results are in this organization and how I go about ensuring that I get results when I am asked to do something. There are two examples that are important to discuss here. The first of these is the Farewell Ceremony that I took part in. In late 2004, I was directly asked by those high-up in my organization to plan and execute a Farewell Ceremony for the Honorable nthony J. Principi, the 4th Secretary of Veterans ffairs. This particular event took place at the Veterans conference center at the V headquarters located in Washington D.C. Many members of the President's Cabinet were leaving the administration at this time. The ceremony had a strong impact…
A second example of this results driven issue was my participation in the Secretary's task force for the employment and advancement of women in 2002. This was designed to develop a comprehensive plan that would help to correct some of the imbalances that were seen between men and women in their employment opportunities and the advancements that they were able to make. In December 2002 the task force met in Washington D.C. In order to begin work and identified that there were several major categories that the comprehensive plan would need in order to address the current situation. These included data collection and analysis, business case, and an implementation plan that was related to the Department's strategic plan. A great deal of data and feedback was collected and analyzed by the task force from many different sources regarding the task force efforts.
The task force met again in January 2003 to help develop a draft report and refine the efforts for data collection in order to ensure not only accuracy and validity but relevance to the VA as well. Focus groups were conducted in March 2003 in Los Angeles, New York, Washington D.C., and Little Rock. These cities were selected to ensure representation of both men and women from as many departmental organizational elements as was possible. These focus groups helped to validate the concerns that were raised during the first meeting that took place in 2002 with the Secretary and helped to assist the task force further in developing strategies that would succeed.
Personally, I led the subcommittee on researching best practices for the report that was ultimately created by the task force. I led focus groups, researched relevant information, and developed the best practices section that went in the final report. At that time, the committee had been in existence for one year. The report was accepted as a blueprint throughout the Department and this indicated that the task force report provided meaningful and effective strategies for success that were not only feasible but were cost-effective and cross-functional to other minority groups as well. The report also helped to link this information to the VA's organizational goals and objectives. By implementing these strategies, measurable improvements and results will be seen which will help individuals assess their behaviors and identify different and better approaches that they might take in the future.
Chipping Away at Intel
Changes at Intel
Discuss the different changes at Intel over the first 3 years of CEO Barrett's tenure.
CEO Craig Barrett's first three years with Intel were filled with challenge and change. As a leader charged with the task of helping the company transform to meet the technological expectations of the immediate future, Barrett would oversee a number of changes both intended and inevitable. Among those which might be deemed inevitable, the most direct and consequential of changes would be that to the company's bottom line. Indeed, at the time of the case study's authoring, "analysts were predicting that by the end of the year, Intel's share of the PC chip market would be 9% worse than when Barrett had taken over three years earlier." (Palmer et al., p. 72)
This constant and steady downslide would invoke action for further change on the part…
Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cross-Cutting Issues egarding Slum Upgrading
Property ights and Security of Tenure
Secure of tenure, according to Cities Alliance (2014), "is at the very center of slum upgrading." As Cities Alliance further points out, lack of some kind of legal tenure security makes the circumstances of those who reside in slums highly uncertain. This is particularly the case given that evictions could be instituted at any moment. It is important to note that people are not likely to invest in permanent structures if they fear eviction -- meaning that the structures they put up will be largely shoddy and meant to serve temporary shelter needs. However, once people are assured of the right to keep their homes, they develop "a sense of permanence and realize that they can sell their house and recoup their investment" (Cities Alliance, 2014). Property rights also protect slum dwellers from extortion and exploitation (Cities Alliance, 2014).…
Cities Alliance. (2014). About Slum Upgrading. Retrieved from http://www.citiesalliance.org/About-slum-upgrading#Why_do_slums_develop
Moser, C.O. & Dani, A.A. (Eds.). (2008). Assets. Livelihoods and Social Policy. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
1. Housing finance and financial inclusion
2. Housing microfinance the state of the practice
Until winning this right, hee maintained what she felt was a largely inefficient pool of office personnel, many of whom had become complacent and less productive due to an assurance of job security. After being granted legal authority to fire district employees, hee canned nearly one hundred clerical workers (isen 2008). Still, she waited until legal authority had been granted by the city's elected officials before even attempting to make this type of personnel change, which shows that while hee is certainly drastic and controversial, she is also working within the confines of her job and how it is defined by the people of Washington, D.C.
Not everyone agrees with this assessment, seeing the very creation of the position of school chancellor as an affront to -- if not an outright circumvention of -- the democratic process (Kristula-Green 2009). hee's power as chancellor comes at the expense of the power…
Dillon S. (2008). "A school chief takes on tenure." NY Times. Accessed 4 September 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/13/education/13tenure.html?_r=1&ref=michelle_rhee
Haynes, V. (2008). "Rhee seeks tenure-pay swap for teachers." Washington Post. Accessed 4 September 2010. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/02/AR2008070203498.html
Kristula-Green, N. (2009). "Is Michelle Rhee breaking the alw?' New Republic. Accessed 4 September 2010. http://www.tnr.com/blog/the-plank/michelle-rhee-breaking-the-law
Risen, C. (2008). "The lightning rod." Atlantic monthly. Accessed 4 September 2010. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/11/the-lightning-rod/7058/
HP Inc. ecommendations
If HP Inc. does indeed manage to acquire Electronic Data Systems the manager and his team must first focus on integrating the acquired company in the company's strategy and activity. In fact, the acquisition was intended from the beginning as an opportunity to strengthen HP's services activity (HP, 2009).
Furthermore, the success of this acquisition would help HP significantly increase its revenues, and becoming the second IT services company in terms of revenues. This opportunity should be exploited by the managers mainly by using the extra revenues for financial relocation in HP's business sectors where the company still needs plenty of improvement.
In other words, HP should develop and expand its activity in areas like IT outsourcing, application outsourcing, and business process outsourcing. This will further have a great impact on reducing production cost and therefore the price for the company's products and services. This…
1. HP's acquisition of EDS (2009). Hewlett Packard Development Company. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from http://h30261.www3.hp.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=71087&p=irol-faqeds .
2. Strukhoff, R. (2005). HP Analysis: Carly Fiorina Facing a Skeptical Business Press. Sys-Con Media. Retrieved June 2009 from http://java.sys-con.com/node/47929.
strong letter recommendation recommend a language professor seeking tenure promotion. In letter stress
It would be extremely difficult for me to fathom a better foreign language professor than Mrs. Groschupf (CHANGE THE NAME). Her presence, knowledge, enthusiasm, and interest in her students -- both individually and collectively -- made her French courses a pleasure to take, and one of my fondest memories of my graduate experience thus far. There are certain personalities which dominate a time period in one's life, which fuse a series of moments together and enrich one's life in the process. I unequivocally assert that Mrs. Groschupf is one such personality, and that her approach towards the subject matter -- genuine, personable, approachable -- has benefitted not only me but also most every other student who took her course last semester.
What I enjoyed most about Mrs. Groschupf's teaching methodology is the fact that she actually made…
(3) How might you pose a question regarding No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in order to reveal your interviewee's philosophy regarding education?
"Do you believe that the increased focus on standardized testing within the NCLB concept is beneficial to the educational interests of students or harmful to those interests?"
"Do you believe that educational systems should place greater emphasis or less emphasis on standardized testing and why?"
(4) Does the tenure of your interviewee affect his or her philosophy? How do you pose a question so that it will reveal this information?
Absolutely. The tenured of educators would naturally affect their philosophies, particularly to the extent the length of time since their training makes more experienced educators less aware of changes in and the evolution of educational concepts to which they were never exposed. One question that might be useful to reveal this information would be: "What recent changes or…
The department could petition for more money, and explain the situation to the board to hire Dr. Gemini. If the board refuses, non-tenure track staff, such as teaching assistants and adjunct instructors, could fill the gap until a qualified female faculty member was found. Qualified female instructors in other departments could teach courses, to diversify the faculty using an in-house strategy. Bankrupting the department for one faculty member seems unwise, and defeats the purpose of leaving the department open to hiring new tenure-track professors regardless of gender -- where will the money come from?
The department does not wish to appear discriminatory, however, to the academic community at large. Recruiting new students to the department, supporting women in science through discussions and inviting prominent women in the field to speak to majors are all ways to provide role models to young women in science and improve the public relations image…
Greenburg & Rudman, LLP. (2009). Discrimination Attorneys. Retrieved April 16, 2009.
Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.
Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…
Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.
Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,
2012, from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .
FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
Carley Fiorina arrived at Hewlett Packard in 1999 after having a successful career at Lucent and AT&T. Even before she moved into the CEO's office, she had several obstacles that she had to overcome. Fiorina took over HP at the height of the tech boom. Making money in technology industry had become a lot harder than it used to be and Fiorina knew that HP had to make some serious changes in order to successful. She had a vision and she wasn't afraid to share it with others. She spearheaded the initiative to acquire Compaq Computer, despite the objections of the son of company co-founder William Hewlett and many other stockholders (Vries, 2005).
From the beginning she had to figure out how to strike a delicate balance between propelling HP's turgid culture out of its declining ways and into the high-speed Net Age while not losing the elements that…
Burrows, Peter. (1999). HP's Carly Fiorina: The Boss. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from Business
Week Web site: http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_31/b3640001.htm
Vries, Lloyd de. (2005). The Rise & Fall Of Carly Fiorina. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from CBS
News Web site:
Instead of slowing down the time spent he accelerates it with offers of trips to Chicago and San Francisco. In conjunction with this development, the relationship was beginning to move closer to a physical dimension with the Ropes Challenge Field Day and photographs of her there too. The apex of confusion for this relationship is his visit to her duplex which showed just how confused he was about the relationship and how he had let it get out of hand. His shock of her dating Ben shows he was having an affair with her in his mind already, and the comment in the car about "jumping her bones" while said in jest and negatively foreshadows what he is really thinking. He wants to consummate the relationship and have sex with Vicki Collins, and the pleas to stay with her education is actually part of his need to keep her close…