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Texas Prison eform: A Success Story
The prison population in the United States experienced an unprecedented expansion between the 1970s and the end of the first decade of the 21st century (Editorial Board, 2013). Beginning with a prison population of 174,000 in 1972 it grew to over 1.4 million by 2010, representing over a 700% increase (PSPP, 2010). By comparison, the growth of the U.S. population was a modest 32% during the same period (Multpl.com, 2013). In other words, the American prison population grew at a rate 21-times faster than the population in general. By the beginning of the 21st century, American prisons housed 25% of the world's prisoners even though the country was home to only 5% of the global population (ACLU, 2011).
Tough sentencing laws passed by state legislatures have been blamed for the unprecedented increase (ACLU, 2011). These 'tough on crime' policies have prompted critics to…
ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union). (2011). Smart Reform is Possible. States Reducing Incarceration Rates and Costs while Protecting Communities. New York: American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2013 from www.aclu.org/files/assets/smartreformispossible.pdf.
Editorial Board. (2013, Mar. 23). Shrinking prisons, saving billions. New York Times, SR12. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/24/opinion/sunday/shrinking-prisons-saving-billions.html .
Grissom, Brandi. (2013, Aug. 2). Texas lawmakers close inmate facilities due to dropping prison population. Pegasus News. Retrieved 21 Oct. 2013 from http://www.pegasusnews.com/news/2013/aug/02/texas-lawmakers-close-inmate-facilities-dropping/?refscroll=798.
Kyckelhahn, Tracey. (2012). State corrections expenditures, FY 1982-2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2013 from www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/scefy8210.pdf.
This provision allowed voter registrars reject the applications where voters did not check the box or checked it mistakenly. 40,000 out of 70,000 rejected applications were results of Bohac's HB1268 provision.
The corruption certainly goes beyond these problems. According to a report by Texas Observer, numerous Texas officials elected to public positions use campaign money in violation of campaign regulations and advocate the interests of various interest groups in exchange for monetary and other material support. For instance, Troy Fraser has served in Texas Senate for fourteen years and has won two elections unopposed. His worst showing of the last decade was in 2008 which he won with 85% of the vote. He has amassed a whopping $1.3 million in campaign funds and of that 97% came out of special interest contributions. The Observer writes:
You might wonder what Fraser, with no competitive election in sight, is doing with all…
Dye, Thomas, et al. Politics in America: Texas Edition (5th edition). New York: Prentice Hall, 2002.
Mann, Dave and Abby Rapoport. "Lifestyles of the Corrupt and Elected.' Texas Observer, 16 Jan. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
"Public Corruption Investigation Urged in Texas." Campaign Legal Center Blog. 21 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2011
"Texas Voters Tiring of Corruption, Cronyism." Estate of Denial. 15 Sep. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2011
The fundamental law of the State of Texas is clearly stated out in the Constitution of the State of Texas. This document was officially adopted by the voters of the State in 1876 and has since them been amended in several occasions. In addition, under this constitution, the principles for the operation of state government and legal system have been outlined. The principle of separation of powers has given way to three distinct branches of the government that include the legislature, the executive, and the judicial. The departments are guided by specific constitutional provisions. However, some of the provisions have been perceived as inhibitory to the proper functioning of the State and must be reformed. Therefore, to improve the effectiveness of Texas government, it is necessary for these provisions to be reviewed and necessary reforms adopted.
The legislative department is the dominant branch of the state…
Kraemer, Richard H, Charldean Newell, and Prindle David. Essentials of Texas Politics. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008. Print.
May, Janice C. The Texas State Constitution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, USA, 2011. Print.
Texas Politics: 13 Jan 2014. © 2009, Liberal Arts Instructional Technology Services. University of Texas at Austin 3rd Edition - Revision 88
Texas oadhouse Won't Scrimp on Making Employees Happy
The objective of this work in writing is to read the case located in Chapter 10 and prepare a response to questions which are to be addressed in each section of this study.
Do Employees Who are Taken Care of Actually Take Care of Customers In the Same Manner?
For the Texas oadhouse, taking care of its employees does in reality transfer to the employees taking good care of the customers of the organization. The Texas oadhouse has initiatives that serve to influence the employees feelings of being taken care of and loved by the business. For example prior to each shift beginning the employees are called into a gathering in the restaurant for what is called an "alley rally" which is a motivational gathering. There are competitions such as the chance for an employee to win $20,000 for being the best…
Case Study: Texas Roadhouse. Chapter 10.
Texas Revolution -- Battles
Battle of Gonzales
hile the battle at the Alamo is by far the most famous battle in the Texas Revolution, there were other, less-well-known battles that also deserve attention. As to the beginning of the Revolution, the first shots were fired in that revolution on October 2, 1835, in the small community of Gonzales, Texas, according to History.com. Those shots were fired as Mexican soldiers were attempting to disarm the citizens in Gonzales, which lit the flames to the all-out war. The state of Texas had "technically been a part of the Spanish empire" since the 17th century, but there weren't very many Mexican-Spanish settlers in Texas in the late 1820s, and the History.com site explains that Mexico City had only a "tenuous" hold on Texas.
After Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in 1821, the government of Mexico was hoping that the many Anglo-Americans migrating…
Calvert, R.A., De Leon, A., and Cantrell, G. (2007). The History of Texas. Wheeling, IL:
Harlan Davidson, Inc.
History.com. (2010). First shots of the Texas Revolution fired in the Battle of Gonzales.
Retrieved January 29, 2014, from http://www.history.com .
Texas Military Engagements,1836-1865
Major Military Engagements Texas 1836-1865
Texas engaged in many military battles between 1836 and 1865. It is difficult to evaluate how Texans performed in the theatre of war without evaluating multiple military episodes including the Texas evolution, the Mexican War, The Civil War and the multiple wars against Indian renegades (Barker & Pohl, 2001). For the most part many credit Texans with achieving tremendous military accomplishments. There are however certain battles where military representatives performed less stellar than in others. The combined experiences of the Texas military are described in greater detail below.
There are some battles that Texas engaged in where military representatives faire far worse than expected. The war for independence was somewhat suppressed for example in one battle by Mexican soldiers supported by Austin's colonies (Barker & Pohl, 2001). At certain times during the Texas evolution the army was divided and disintegrated (Barker &…
Barker, E.C. & Pohl, J.W. (2001, Jul). "Handbook of Texas Online: Texas Revolution."
Texas State Historical Association. 17, Oct. 2005: http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/TT/qdt1.html
Dawson, J.G. (1995). The Texas military experience: From the Texas Revolution through
World War II. Texas: Texas A& M. University Press.
The fact that such a small number of Texan patriots were able to withstand the onslaught of so many Mexicans seemed like a potent dramatization of a conflict between native vs. white, where whites 'proved' their superiority, and slave vs. free, where whites fighting to defend 'their' territories against a 'dictatorial' power.
Eventually, despite the loss of the Alamo, the Texans prevailed and the Mexican President Santa Anna was taken captive and forced to sign the Treaty of Velasco in 1836, which gave Texas its independence and designated the Rio Grande River as the border between the new Republic of Texas and Mexico. As Santa Anna was a prisoner of the Texans at the time the Mexican Congress refused to ratify the treaty, as Santa Anna had been compelled to sign the treaty illegally, under duress. The Mexican Congress also noted that the traditional Texas boundary had always been further…
Lee, Roger a. "The Mexican-American War." The History Guy. 2008.
December 8, 2008. http://www.historyguy.com/Mexican-American_War.html
Texas Revolution." Global Security. Last updated January 20, 2008. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/texas-revolution.htm
Texas Laws egarding Illegal Drugs
Vice, Drugs and the Law
Dr. Lance Hignite
Texas Laws egarding Illegal Drugs
The history of the United States policy towards drugs in general is a two-dimensional frame, the first being supply reduction, the reduction and control of the supply of drugs through legislation, law enforcement, interdiction, sentencing, and incarceration, and the second being demand reduction, the reduction of the demand for drugs. Demand reduction is operationalized through education, prevention and treatment (Jensen & Gerber, 1996).
The war on drugs has largely been waged in the south-western border region of the United States. Five federal border districts including California South, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas West, and Texas South alone are responsible for roughly one quarter of federal narcotics prosecutions annually. Narcotics cases make up roughly 30% of the federal criminal caseload each year, and the number of Hispanic and noncitizen defendants…
Anderson, K. (2005). Crime in Texas: your complete guide to the criminal justice system.
Drug Possession Laws (2011). State Drug Possession Laws and Penalties. Internet Resource:
Gould, J. (2002). Zone Defense. Washington Monthly, 34(6), 33.
Texas ules of Evidence
The most recent Texas ules of Evidence were codified effective January 1, 2007 (Texas Courts Online. December 21, 2011. P. 1); further examination provides an interesting insight into Texas Law. There are Ten Articles with articulated rules under each article.
Article I defines the general provisions of the codified rules, with purpose and scope as follows. Purpose: "these rules shall be construed to secure fairness in administration, elimination of unjustifiable expense and delay, and promotion of growth and development of the law of evidence to the end that the truth may be ascertained and proceedings justly determined" (Texas Courts Online. December 21, 2011. P. 1). Scope: According to Article I: General Provisions the "rules govern civil and criminal proceedings (including examining trials before magistrates) in all courts of Texas, except small claims courts" (Texas Courts Online. December 21, 2011. P. 1). Article I also sets forth…
The Supreme Court of Texas. (March 12, 2012). Texas Rules of Evidence. The Supreme
Court of Texas. PP. 1. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.supreme.courts.state.tx.us/rules/
Texas Courts Online. (December 21, 2011). Texas Rules of Evidence. Texas Courts
Online. PP. 1-24. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.courts.state.tx.us/rules/TRE/tre-all-010107.pdf
The complexity of Sam Houston as a man perhaps exemplifies the difficulties in arguing whether the revolution was justified. Houston has become associated with the racism of the Texan's cause, because of his effective defeat of Mexico. But Houston himself lived amongst the Cherokees early in his life and married a Cherokee woman. hen he fought for Andrew Jackson as a populist, he warred against the Creeks Indians, although he eventually resigned amongst accusations for being too sympathetic to Native Americans. Finally, Texas, the state he is most associated with, ceded from the Union, but Houston resigned as governor rather than lead a Confederate state. To the death, he was a die-hard Unionist in one of the nation's most independent of states (Campbell, 1993).
Campbell argues that Houston's life embodies the contradictions of the righteousness of the Texan cause. According to Campbell, however, Houston's support of Texan independence was not…
Campbell, Randolph. Sam Houston and the American Southwest. New York:
HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993
Causes of the Texas Revolution." History. University of Austin. 13 Feb 2008. http://www2.austin.cc.tx.us/lpatrick/his1693/causes.html
Nostro, Rita. "Sam Houston." Hyper History. 12 Feb 2008. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b4houstonsam.htm
French Intentions With Texas
Both Spain and France were major European Powers during the Age of Discovery, roughly after 1600. Spain, of course, annexed Mexico and much of Central and South America, while the French concentrated on the Great Lakes region and south down the Mississippi. In 1682, for instance, Vavelier and La Salle journied down the Mississippi and with 300 soldiers and the support of King Louis XVI established the Louisiana Territory. The Spanish were continually wanting to expand their territory in the New World, seeing this as a way to also dominate Europe. They were wary of French intentions in the Mississippi region, and between 1686 and 1691 sent a total of 9 expeditions from New Spain (Mexico) to Texas, four by sea and two by land, to search for the French.
The French, in particular, just as they would do further north, enlisted the aid…
Apache Indians. (2006). Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved from:
French-Spanish Rivalry In Texas. (2007). National Humanities Center. Retrieved from:
Can the Texas lifestyle be considered as a primary factor behind the high incidence of cancer diagnosed in Texas and is the rate of cancer higher there than in other areas of the United States?
H1: There is a relationship between lifestyles in Texas that affects the overall rate of incidences of cancer in the Texas population especially when comparing the incidence of cancer in Caucasian women as compared to African-American and Hispanic women.
H2: There is a relationship between the amount of self education sought by both genders and the overall rate of diagnosis of cancer in Texas.
H3: There is a relationship between the watershed system and the rate of air pollution in Texas and the overall number of cases of cancer in children in Texas as compared to other areas of the United States.
H4: There is a relationship between the number of cases of…
Variable Name: Readoll
Variable Label: The amount of dollars spent in Texas on cancer research during a specific period of time.
Source: Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of State Health Services, Publication No. 10-13121 (March 2009) The Cost of Cancer in Texas, 2007
United States citizens had been available for these jobs during the immense unemployment that existed during the 1930s, forcing the Mexicans out. World War II saw these workers enlisting in the military, working in factories, or moving into other jobs as the economy generally expanded.
The Mexican immigrants not only provided the plentiful labor that was needed, but they provided it cheaply -- typical wages were between fifty or sixty cents an hour, or around ten dollars per acre (enteria 2003). Demand for agricultural products specifically and throughout the economy in general continued to expand during World War II and in the decades following, but prices were kept fairly stable during the war and even when they began to increase evenly due to economic expansion, worker's wages did not really rise (enteria 2003). This meant that farmers were making an increased profit utilizing the under-paid and under-appreciated Mexican immigrant workers,…
Campesino. (2009). "The Bracero program." Farmowrokers.org. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://www.farmworkers.org/bracerop.html
Koestler, F. (2010). "Bracero program." The handbook of Texas online. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/ articles/BB/omb1.html
Renteria, R. (2003). "UTEP works to recover history of braceros." El Paso Times. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://are.berkeley.edu/APMP/pubs/agworkvisa/historysearch012803.html
Zatz, M. (1993). "Using and abusing Mexican farmworkers." Law and society review 27(4), pp. 851-63.
The Texas legislature approved a bill that would force online or catalogue retailers with a physical presence in Texas to collect state sales tax on every transaction. This has been called an "affiliate nexus" tax and would include any retailer that has a nexus (stores, or distribution centers) inside the state of Texas. The bill also dictates that a retailer's corporate subsidiaries be included when discussing any individual company. Governor Rick Perry vetoed the bill because, as he stated, he had "serious concerns about the impact and appropriateness" about the bill. ("Gov. Perry Vetoes HB 2403") The governor's concerns included such things as unintended consequences due to the nature of catalogue and internet retail business. I agree with the Governor because these types of business can have a number of offices or centers in a number of states, and bills like HB 2403 can force individual companies to…
"CBS 7 Exclusive Report: A Bill Banning Texting While Driving in the Works."
CBS 7 News. 9 Nov. 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.
"Governor Perry Vetoes HB 2403." Office of the Governor Rick Perry. 31 May
Texas courts have two levels: local and state. Article 5 of the State's Constitution lays out the judiciary structure, and further definition can be found in the Texas Probate Code and Texas Government Code (Bessette, et al., 15). There is a very complex structure to the courts in Texas, featuring numerous layers of courts and a great deal of jurisdictions that overlap one another. The appellate system is also unusual in that it is bifurcated (Bessette, et al., 17). That is something found in only Texas and Oklahoma. The most active courts are Municipal Courts, with District and County Courts handling a large number of cases, as well (Maxwell, Crain, & Santos, 55). All three of the courts often share buildings. The Texas Supreme Court is responsible for administration, with aid from the State Bar of Texas, the Texas Office of Court Administration, and the Texas Judicial Council (Maxwell, Crain,…
Bessette, Joseph M., Pitney, Jr., John J., Brown, Lyle C., Langenegger, Joyce A., Garcia, Sonia R., Lewis, Ted A., & Biles, Robert E. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy and Citizenship: Texas Edition. NY: Cengage Learning. 2011. Print.
Maxwell, William Earl, Crain, Ernest, & Santos, Adolfo. Texas Politics Today (2009-2010 ed.). NY: Cengage Learning. 2010. Print.
eprestitive on Paul against the amendment states, "(.-Tex.) I had serious questions about the resolution. "I am concerned that we are going to do something here today that Castro did in Cuba for 40 years. There is a prohibition against flag-burning in Cuba. And one of the very first things that ed China did when it took over Hong Kong was to pass an amendment similar to this, to make sure there is no desecration of the ed Chinese flag. That is some of the company that we are keeping if we pass this amendment." Paul also raised the issue of states' rights. "Just look at the words of the amendment. Congress, more power to the Congress. Congress will get power, not the states. That is the opposite of everything we believe in, or at least profess to believe in, on this side of the aisle."
ep. James Sensenbrenner…
Army Lawyer and 2
April 23, 1999 and Two
Selection Process and Qualifications
In the words of Maxwell, Crain, and Santos, "Texas elects its judges (except municipal court judges) in partisan elections" (286). In theory, therefore, the selection of judges in Texas does not differ significantly from presidential and congress elections (Streb 7). To begin with, the basic qualifications of most judges in Texas are established in the constitution. However, additional qualifications may be prescribed in the relevant legislation creating statutory courts. According to the American Judicature Society, to be eligible for selection as a judge in the Supreme Court, Court of Criminal Appeals, and Court of Appeals, one must in addition to being a U.S. citizen and a resident of Texas also be licensed in the state. One must also have practiced as a judge and/or lawyer for a minimum of 10 years. The age limit for individuals seeking election as judges in the aforementioned courts…
American Judicature Society. "Advocating Integrity in American Justice." Judicial Selection. American Judicature Society, 2014. Web. 14 February 2014 < http://www.judicialselection.com/judicial_selection/methods/index.cfm?state=TX
Maxwell, William, Ernest Crain, and Adolfo Santos. Texas Politics Today. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Streb, Matthew J., ed. Running for Judge: The Raising Political, Financial, and Legal Stakes of Judicial Elections. New York: NYU Press, 2007. Print.
Texas Criminal Process Outline
Arrest- taking a suspect into official custody. Not all interactions with police, including interrogations, rise to the level of an arrest.
Probable cause required for an arrest
Arrests may be warrantless or with a warrant.
Once under arrest a person has several rights (known collectively as Miranda rights):
The right to remain silent;
The right to have an attorney present during questioning;
The right to an appointed attorney if unable to afford an attorney.
Booking- the process of admitting an arrested person into custody.
Basic identifying information gathering.
Photograph (mug shot)
Search of suspect and inventory and storage of personal belongings
Bringing charges: Charges in Texas can be brought in one of two ways, via information or indictment.
"An information is a written statement presented in behalf of the state by the prosecutor, charging the defendant with the commission of an offense. An…
White, Roderick. "Texas Criminal Process." The Law Offices of Roderick C. White. N.p.
2014. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
Texas Hold 'em
To solve this problem, there are a couple of steps. These steps are based on the principle of expected outcomes, which are played out over the long run. So the first step is to calculate the odds of receiving a card on the river that could win me the hand. The second step is to calculate the expected payoff based on those odds. If this payoff is better than the $10,000 I would have to call at this point. Past money in the pot is not relevant because it has already been bet.
This strategy will work because it is based on mathematical principles that hold up over the long run. In order to win at poker in the long run, short-term results -- a loss here for example -- must be ignored. If a bet is greater than the expected payoff if I win, that means…
Texas Parole Board
The Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles
The Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles (herein referred to as the board) is a Texas-based state agency charged with determining "which eligible offenders to release on parole or discretionary mandatory supervision, and under what conditions" (Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, 2014). The board, moreover, makes decisions concerning parole revocation and issues clemency recommendations to the governor in an attempt to ensure that offenders are successfully reintegrated into the society, and more importantly, that the safety of the public is preserved (Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, 2011). The board is independent of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, but the two work closely, with the latter carrying out such responsibilities as supervising parolees, determining their release, and housing convicted felons (Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, 2011).
A Brief History of the Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles…
Lucko, P.M. (2010). Board of Pardons and Paroles. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 30 April 2014 from https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mdbjq
Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles. (2014). A Decision-Making Body. Texas Body of Pardons and Paroles. Retrieved 30 April 2014 from http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/bpp/
Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles. (2013). Mission Statement. Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles. Retrieved 30 April 2014 from
Baggett continues by pointing out that the Texas Republican Party was basically born out of the policies of the hig party, and reflected the vision of Henry Clay.
hat was the hig party all about? In the ikipedia encyclopedia explains that the hig Party was "formed to go against the policies of President Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_whig_party.The higs believed that Congress should have more power than the president and higs favored a program of "modernization and economic protectionism."
Two hig party members, illiam Henry Harrison and John Tyler were elected to the Presidency of the United States. The party was joined by those who were angry at President Andrew Jackson - considering him "a dangerous man on horseback with a reactionary opposition to the forces of social, economic, and moral modernization" ikipedia explains - and in particular they were angry because Jackson "killed the bank of the…
Anderson, John. "Follow the Money: How George Bush and the Texas Republicans Hog-Tied
America." Kirkus Reviews 75.15 (2007): 758-758.
Baggett, James Alex. "Origins of Early Texas Republican Party Leadership." The Journal of Southern History 40-3 (1974): 441-454.
Davidson, Chandler. Race and Class: Texas Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
Texas Tribune: Key Challenges That Pose a Threat to the Proposed Growth Plan
The Texas Tribune is an Austin-based, member-supported, not-for-profit organization that commits itself to informing Texans and engaging with them about statewide issues, politics, and public policy. Founded by oss amsey (owner, Texas Weekly), Evan Smith (former editor-in-chief, Texas Monthly) and John Thornton (recognized venture capitalist in Austin) in 2009, the Tribune grew from being a simple premier newsletter into one of the country's largest statehouse news bureaus, home to over 50 dedicated business leaders, designers, technologists, editors, and reporters. Most of the popularity that the Tribune enjoys stems from its coverage of major candidates for office, who are accorded opportunities to explain to the Texas citizenry, through various platforms including the organization's op-ed site TribTalk, Trib Newsletters, and live events on how they plan to tackle various issues related to public policy. The Tribune provides its content…
Ellis, J. (2014). The Texas Tribune is Five Years Old and Sustainable, Now what? Niemen Lab. Retrieved 20 March 2015 from http://www.niemanlab.org/2014/11/the-texas-tribune-is-5-years-old-and-sustainable-now-what/
Ferrell, O.C. & Fraedrich J. (2014). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision-Making and Cases (10th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning
Griggs, T. (2015). Inside the Texas Tribune's Audience Growth Strategy. Investigative News Network. Retrieved 20 March 2015 from http://journo.biz/2015/03/17/inside-the-texas-tribunes-audience-growth-strategy/
Morrow, J.R., Jackson, A.W., Disch, D.J. & Mood, D.P. (2011). Measurement and Evaluation in Human Performance (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Works CitedHowell, Kenneth Wayne, ed.The Seventh Star of the Confederacy: Texas During the Civil War. No. 10. University of North Texas Press, 2009.Moneyhon, Carl H.Texas After the Civil War: The Struggle of Reconstruction. No. 14. Texas A&M University Press, 2004. Accessed at
Slide 8: Implementation: Practical Assessment
Given the assumed basis for the discipline's failure, which is a
disconnect between students, instructors and material, it will be necessary
to consult both students and teachers on their perception of the program's
success. This will be observed in a number of ways.
-Collective assessment of grade improvements for varying struggling
-Individual and regular teacher evaluations with students identified
as needing extra attention.
-Anonymous student surveys concerning the appeal of the program in
-Instructor assessments based on grading/anecdotal evidence concerning
program improvement strengths and weaknesses
Slide 9: Adoption
Ultimately, this adoption is necessary. The science program is
faltering at the expense of all students. It is incumbent upon the school
board to allot the funding necessary to allow this change, lest our
students enter the world with no appreciation for the foundational value of
a science education.
omen, for example, only gained their right of suffrage in 1920 and Article VI of the Constitution of 1876 only gives "male persons" over the age of 21 who have "resided in Texas for at least one year" the right to vote.
Compact Theory: The compact theory holds that the formation of the Union of the United States was through a "compact" of all the States individually and the creation of the national government was believed to be a creation of the states. Hence the states were the final judge of whether the national government had overstepped the boundaries of the "compact." One of the versions of the compact theory (the unilateral compact theory) was used by the Confederate secessionists to declare their secession from the Union, which signaled the start of the Civil ar (Lind, para 11). In the Texas Constitution of 1876, the compact theory is used to…
ARTICLE III- Legislative Department: Constitution of the State of Texas (1876)." The University of Texas at Austin. March 11, 2005. July 26, 2006. http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/constitutions/text/IART03.html
Dye, Thomas R. Politics in America. Sixth Edition, 2004. Pearson Prentice-Hall: New York
General Characteristics of the Texas Constitution." Liberal Arts Instructional Services: University of Texas at Austin. 2006. July 26, 2006. http://texaspolitics.laits.utexas.edu/html/cons/0302.html
Lind, Michael. "Do the People Rule?" New American Foundation. February 1, 2002. July 26, 2006. http://www.newamerica.net/index.cfm?pg=article&DocID=719
Texas Department of Insurance illustrates why and when the Texas Department of Insurance was formed and how much it has accomplished since the time it was established. This paper highlights the number of people employed by the TDI, their annual budget and their board of governors.
The Texas Department Of Insurance
The prime purpose of the Texas Department of Insurance is to efficiently manage files on all the insurance carriers in Texas. These files are categorized by their respective types and region and are provided to other school districts upon request. The Texas Department of Insurance is divided in such a way that each group governs each insurance type. "For example, property and casualty, life and health, and workers' compensation are each separate departments with teams of experts capable of answering inquiries and complaints about each of those specific types of insurance" (Texas Comptroller Of Public Accounts, Purchase School District…
SLSOT Procedures Manual. Available on the address http://www.slsot.org/pman1.htm.
Accessed on 9 Feb. 2004.
Texas Comptroller Of Public Accounts. Purchase School District Insurance Through
Cooperative Agreements. Available on the address http://www.window.state.tx.us/tpr/tpr4/c1.ed/c105.html . Accessed on 9 Feb. 2004.
Pluralist theorists often dispute that political power in Texas is dispersed among an extensive range of rival groups and interests, and that this rivalry serves to limit the power of any single group on the institutions of government. Even though there are noticeable dissimilarities in the resources of groups, there is adequate opposition and dealings among the groups to attain the objectives of a democratic society. Public policy, in this outlook, reveals the cooperation of rival interests (the Power of Interest Groups, 2010).
Supporters of elitist theory contend that political power in Texas is concerted in the hands of a comparatively small amount of people who obtain their funds from influential institutional bases. These institutions are joined collectively with multifaceted interconnected associations, and access to their leadership places is limited. Known as the Texas Establishment, those who dominated authority in the past were mostly white males from the higher socioeconomic…
"Lone Star Election Laws: A Comparative Study of Texas's Campaign Finance System." 2000,
viewed 29 March 2011, from
"Texas Politics - Voting, Campaigns and Elections." 2011, viewed 29 March 2011, from
"The Power of Interest Groups." 2010, viewed 29 March 2011, from
The Texas Constitution: An Examination and Discussion
On the most fundamental level, a constitution is a plan or contract between the government and the people governed. A constitution details the agreed-upon powers, responsibilities and limitations upon all involved parties, while asserting the proper procedure for action. The constitution is the foundation for all basic laws upon which the legal system rests. In the history of the existence of the state of Texas, seven separate constitutions have been drafted and approved, with the last one receiving approval on February 15, 1876. The preceding six constitutions were adopted during the following years: 1827, 1836, 1845, 1861, 1866 and 1869. At this time, the current constitution contains amendments that were approved by voters as recently as November of 2017.
An examination of the Texas constitution reflects certain insights about the state and its unique viewpoints about government, autonomy and self-protection. Any state constitution…
Disguised in stolen civilian clothing, the escapees made their way to the prison gate where they pretended to install video monitors before raiding the guard tower and seizing numerous weapons. They then stole the maintenance truck and drove away.
The prisoner's first robbed a Radio Shack in Pearland by breaking through the outside wall, tying the safe to the truck, and pulling it out. Later they robbed Oshman's Sporting Store in Irving by holding up the store at gunpoint. When Aubrey Hawkins, a local police officer, arrived at the scene, he was almost immediately shot dead. Due to the wide-publicity that the escape received, Wayne Holder was able to recognize and report to authorities that the group of seven escapees were staying at his RV Park in Woodland Park, Colorado.
Almost immediately, three of the escapees were caught by the Colorado Springs SWAT Team. Shortly thereafter two more were found…
tephen Austin (1793-1836) is known as the Father of Texas because he was instrumental in leading the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by U.. settlers. His name is on a number of streets, schools, parks, and Texas tate facilities. Based on the text, though, and the way that historical figures tend to become more mythic as their legend grows, I wondered about different points-of-view surround Austin and even the legality and morality of the Texas annexation.
I was surprised that initially Austin was reluctant to accept his Father's empresarial grant after he died, having to be persuaded by his mother. The situation, it seemed, was quite complex. Mexico granted land parcels under one government, and then changed the rules under another. I was also surprised that Austin supported anta Anna, who would ultimately become his enemy. Essentially, if one takes off the myth, it appears…
Haley, J. (2006). Passionate Nation: The Epic History of Texas. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Haynes, et.al. (2002). Major Problems in Texas History. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Texas have inspired discussion about the pay of public officials. State representative Terry Keel, claiming to be cutting expense corners, said that he would block a bill to increase the pay of Texas judges. In an as-yet-unresolved conflict of stories, Houston representative Rodney Ellis has ties to a scandal regarding this proposed legislation, in which the Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court threatened political retribution if judges were not given a pay raise (see, for example, "Judge pay hits Houston pols in purse" by Rick Casey in the June 1, 2005 Houston Chronicle). Nationwide, different groups are becoming a more and more vocal opposition to large government salaries -- Citizens Against Government aste, at cagw.org, regularly cites examples of ineffectual and even corrupt elected and appointed officials getting pay raises.
Non-profit executives' pay is no less controversial; in an organization without shareholders or even, as in government, constituents who…
Turley, J. (2004, February 12). "Non-profits' executives avoid scrutiny, valid reforms." USA Today, p. 15A
Sonnier v. State (1992)
John L. Clough found various items from his shop had been stolen and among them were four-amplifier speaker’s value ad $1400. Olga Lee Sonnier was convicted of the theft of the speakers. John found that Burton, his employee had worked for him for several months and disappeared the same time the speakers went missing. Therefore, John reported a complaint on the theft and informed the police that he suspected Burton had stolen the speakers.
Few days after the speakers were stolen, they were found in a pawnshop. The pawnshop workers reported that the speakers were brought by two men who wanted to pawn them through giving an identification of proof of Sonnier. She was then convicted of the theft after facing bench trial.
The elements of theft without the consent of the owner entail several aspects. Theft undertaken by another party is considered a component…
German Influences on Texas Culture
If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.
Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…
Alvarez, A. (2002). "Oktoberfest in Fredericksburg." Texana Food and Events. 19, November 2004: http://texana.texascooking.com/news/oktoberfest_fred2002.htm
Butt, H.E. (2004). "Oktoberfest in Texas." 20, November, 2004: http://www.heb.com/mealtime/celeb-oktoberFestTx.jsp
Galan. (2001). [Online]. "Accordion Dreams: cultures of music and dance." Available
Capital Punishment in Texas
Khalil, Samy. "Doing the impossible: Appellate reweighing of harm and mitigation in capital cases after Williams v. Taylor, with a special focus on Texas." Texas Law Review, 80(1): November 2001. Proquest Database.
In this article, Khalil examines how state and federal courts have overturned death sentences, from a period covering the reinstitution of the death penalty in 1976 to 2001. The author focuses on sentences that have been upset due to the failure of defense lawyers to both investigate and present mitigating evidence during trial. The author makes a strong argument by referring to Williams v. Taylor, which argues that appellate courts cannot be expected to reweigh harm and mitigation when attorneys present adequate defense representation. In the case of Texas, the author rightly observes that appellate courts would have difficulty reviewing all capital cases arising from Texas, since even fact-finders in Texas are not required…
Owens, Virginia Stem and Owens, David Clinton. Living Next Door to the Death House. New York: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003.
In this book, the authors present the effects of executions in the town of Huntsville, Texas, known as "the death penalty capital of the United States." While other accounts focus on the victims or the offenders, Owens and Owens conduct in-depth interviews with prison guards, wardens, chaplains and other people who are involved in executions, many of which are Huntsville residents. Particularly affecting are the interviews with the technicians who directly administer the lethal injections to the inmates who are executed.
These interviews show that many of the people whose lives are directly affected by the death penalty system have conflicted feelings regarding capital punishment. This honestly written book presents a balanced account regarding a community's views regarding the death penalty. The fact that the community in question is directly involved
Alamo is a major symbol of Texas history and one of the cultural heritage sites of the nation. It is also the subject of numerous books about its history, many seeking to restate the facts in order to overcome the influence of distorted media presentations of the story or of the many myths that have developed around the story of what occurred in that place. The Alamo by John Myers was published in 1973 and addressed the history of the Alamo in terms of what part the Alamo played in the expansion of territory for Europeans and then as a site where several Great Men came and acted in a certain way that helped create Texas and the nation.
To some degree, then, Myers subscribes to the Great Man theory of history, that certain individuals and their behavior decides issues of great moment and advance history. At the same time,…
Myers, John Myers. The Alamo. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.
Mergers & Acquisitions
One of the more fascinating and complex part of corporate news and maneuvering is when companies engage in mergers and acquisitions as a means to further their growth, development and diversification. This report shall look at two companies in particular, those being Mattel and Texas Instruments. After conducting a thorough literature review, questions about both firms will be posed and answered. While there is more than one way to launch a takeover or acquisition bid for a firm, there are some ways and methods that are better than others.
Mattel Case Study
Now that the literature relative to mergers and acquisitions has been properly sampled and queried, it should now be ascertained what the answers are to the questions described in the introduction, with Mattel being the first firm addressed. Mattel has proven themselves to be concerned with branching out and modernizing their product mix and feel…
Alexandridis, G., Petmezas, D., & Travlos, N. (2010). Gains from Mergers and Acquisitions Around the World: New Evidence. Financial Management, 39(4), 1671-1695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-053x.2010.01126.x
Bhagwat, V., Dam, R., & Harford, J. (2016). The Real Effects of Uncertainty on Merger Activity. Review Of Financial Studies, 29(11), 3000-3034. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rfs/hhw061
Brealey, R., Cooper, I., & Kaplanis, E. (2009). Excess Comovement in International Equity Markets: Evidence from Cross-border Mergers. Review Of Financial Studies, 23(4), 1718-1740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rfs/hhp104
Bris, A., & Cabolis, C. (2008). The Value of Investor Protection: Firm Evidence from Cross-Border Mergers. Review Of Financial Studies, 21(2), 605-648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rfs/hhm089
Texas Chainsaw Massacre and Pink Flamingos belong to utterly different genres, they share in common aesthetic sensibilities that celebrate the macabre, fetish, and even the grotesque. As such, both films encapsulate the punk aesthetic and its complete disregard for, and subversion of, the manufactured "beauty" packaged by the dominant culture. Both these films were released in the early years of the 1970s, Pink Flamingos in 1972 and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre in 1974. In many ways, both films capture the disillusionment with popular culture and with establishment norms and values. The early years of the 1970s arrived at the tail end of the counterculture movement of the late 1960s, during which sexual norms and gender norms, as well as norms related to race and class were being systematically challenged. As the Vietnam War wound to a bitter end, many Americans confronted deep and even existential questions about their own society…
Texas in the Civil War
The American Civil War was a monumental conflict in American history. The conflict was brewing for a long time, as southern and northern states argued over the role of the federal government and the extent of state rights. The debate erupted into an outright war with the election of Abraham Lincoln. Seven southern states formed the Confederacy as before the inauguration of President Lincoln. The issue of states' rights originates with the debate of slavery. unaway slaves would escape the south and head to northern states where they would be deemed free, however, Southern states argued that they were still slaves and wanted a return of their property (Baum 1998). The main issue at hand is what rights extended beyond a state. Southern states naturally supported the stance that citizens of every state could take their property anywhere within the United States, in this case…
Baum, D. (1998). The shattering of Texas unionism: Politics in the Lone Star state during the Civil War era. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Bell F. Walter. (2005). Civil War Texas: A Review of the Historical Literature. Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 109(2), 204-232.
Buenger, W.L. (1984). Secession and the Union in Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Within the law protects children according to chapter 262 of Texas family code by removing the child from the home if the government official believes the child is in danger. They can remove the child from the home without a court order " A governmental entity with an interest in the child may file a suit affecting the parent-child relationship requesting an order or take possession of a child without a court order as provided by this chapter.(b) In determining the reasonable efforts that are required to be made with respect to preventing or eliminating the need to remove a child from the child's home or to make it possible to return a child to the child's home, the child's health and safety is the paramount concern" (CHAPTE 262. POCEDUES IN SUIT BY GOVENMENTAL ENTITY TO POTECT HEALTH AND SAFETY OF CHILD). This law would be good if the…
CHAPTER 262. PROCEDURES IN SUIT BY GOVERNMENTAL ENTITY TO PROTECT HEALTH AND SAFETY OF CHILD. Retrieved May 7, 2012, from http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/ Docs/FA/htm/FA.262.htm
Texas Voter ID Law
For a state which has a history of discrimination, segregation, racism and outright bigotry, one would think the state government would be more open to hoeing a more positive path for the future at large. Unfortunately that does not seem to be the case when it comes to the Texas Voter ID law. Lawyers who challenged the legislation described it as follows, "A law requiring Texas voters to show government-issued identification before casting a ballot is the latest example of the state's long history of discrimination against minorities and puts unjustified burdens on the right to vote for more than half a million Texans" (Fernandez, 2014). This paper will attempt to demonstrate how this law needs to be treated as the form of discrimination which is absolutely is and how it is a form of legislation so bigoted and underhandedly racist, it is evocative of the…
Fernandez, M. (2014, September 22). Plaintiffs Claim Bias During Closing Argument Against Texas Voter ID Law. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/23/us/plaintiffs-assert-bias-during-closing-argument-against-texas-voter-id-law.html?_r=0
Greenblatt, A. (2013, October 22). The Racial History Of The 'Grandfather Clause'. Retrieved from npr.org: http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/10/21/239081586/the-racial-history-of-the-grandfather-clause
Lithwick, D. (2014, Septemver). Voter ID Laws May Worsen Voter Fraud. Retrieved from slate.com: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2014/09/voter_id_laws_analysis_shows_they_could_make_fraud_worse_and_disenfranchise.html
Juan Seguin Texas
It is not an untold secret that every American knows about the unforgettable "emember the Alamo," a war cry that the Texans used during the Texas evolution. The repetitive screaming of this war cry makes Americans remember the horrible deaths of the Anglo defenders at the hands of the brutal soldiers of Santa Anna. It was due to the sacrifices of those daunting defenders that the people in Texas were guaranteed an independent state that was free of the tyrannical Mexican rule. In the same connection, it is not possible to not mention the name Juan Seguin whenever Texas evolution is under discussion. Juan was among the many valiant Mexicans who fought fearlessly for the sake of people in America. He was a brave man whose participation for the sake of American settlers is equivalent to that of William Travis, Davy Crockett etc. Thus, it is impossible…
Chemerka, W.R. Juan Seguin. Albany, Tex.: Bright Sky, 2010.
Dawson, J.G. The Texas Military Experience: From the Texas Revolution Through World War II. College Station: Texas A & M. University Press, 1995.
Harris, Charlie. Juan Seguin: A Teacher'sGuide. Texas: University of Texas Publishers, 2009. https://academics.utep.edu/Portals/1719/Publications/Seguin.pdf (accessed September 27, 2013).
Sorell, V.A. "A Triumph for Chicana/o Visual Art and Its Historiography." Art Journal (63) 2 (2004), http://www.questia.com/ read/1P3-656179131/a-triumph-for-chicana-o-visual-art-and-its-historiography (accessed September 27, 2013).
Gay Marriage Bill in Texas:
Same sex marriages and other kinds of same-sex unions have become controversial issues in the modern United States. This issue has been characterized by attempts by the American federal government and several state legislatures to enact regulations that either allow or prohibit these kinds of unions or marriages. In the past few years, the public opinion regarding the issue has changed to become more tolerant and accepting because of the changes in the United States' society. As a result of these changes, enacting a gay marriage bill in Texas would be a significant step in ensuring that people are treated in similar ways by the government. The development of such bill is fueled by the need to treat people equally, the need to be more accepting and tolerant, and the changes in today's society. In light of these factors, the proposal of a gay marriage…
Fikac, Peggy. "Same-sex Marriage Bill Now on Table." San Antonio Express-News. Hearst Newspapers, LLC, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. .
Johnson, Luke. "Ted Cruz Introduces Anti-Gay Marriage Bill." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 13 Feb. 2014. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. .
Alamo was a heroic struggle against impossible odds and it was a place where men had made the ultimate sacrifice for freedom and hence Alamo still remains a hallowed place and shrine of Texas liberty.
This battle provided a sense of honor to the Texas revolution. With the chain of events in 1836, its importance was that it delayed Santa Anna's army in san Antonio, it enabled Sam Houston to gather and prepare a larger army which was able to defeat the Mexicans at san Jacinto win Texas independence a few weeks later which was on April 21, 1836 where 800 Texans defeated Santa Anna's Mexican force and they shouted "remember Alamo "as they were staging their attacks ( Hickman,2006). This victory ensured the success of the Texan independence. For the Texans the battle of Alamo became a symbol of heroic resistance and a rallying cry in their struggle for…
Minster, C. (2004).The Battle of Aloma. Retrieved November 1, 2012 from http://latinamericanhistory.about.com /od/TexasIndependence/p/the-Battle-of-the-Alamo.htm
Hickman, K. (2006). Texas Revolution: Battle of the Alamo. Retrieved November 1, 2012 from http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars1800s/p/alamo.htm
Hardin, L.S.(2006). Handbook of Texas Online. Alamo, battle of the; Texas state. Retrieved November 1, 2012 from ( http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/ articles/qea02).
DRT (2011) .The battle. Retrieved November 1, 2012 from http://www.thealamo.org/battle/battle.php
History of Texas
questions, (2-3 sentences each question), one page.
Explain the Empresario system. hat is it? And what is the purpose of it?
After the successful Mexican ar of Independence liberated Mexico from Spanish rule in 1821, the 1824 Constitution of Mexico joined Texas with the state of Coahuila to form the new state of Tejas y Coahuila. In order to increase the population within this unsettled frontier, and protect it from roving bands of Indians and American encroachment, the fledgling government of the Mexican Republic instituted the Empresario system. This system authorized immigration anglo agents like Stephen F. Austin to relocate large groups of colonist families to the state in exchange for land grants and settlement rights. The Empresario system granted settlers a league of land for only $100, provided the newcomers adopt Mexican citizenship, learn the Spanish language, and convert to Catholicism.
How does the Mexican Secretary…
Haley, James L. Passionate Nation: The Epic History of Texas. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2006. Print.
Haynes, Sam Walter, Paterson, Thomas, & Wintz, Cary D Major Problems in Texas History: Documents and Essays. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company., 2002. Print
Baker. She is serving in the position of the egional Director. The agency is governed based on protocols that are established in Title IV of the Social Security Act and the CAPTA. To achieve its objectives, the agency is organized into a number of different positions to include: directors, counselor and managers. The way social workers fit into the organization, are they maintain these different titles when investigating and monitoring what is happening. This is accomplished by having the more experienced case workers serving in a supervisory role. They will teach less experienced social workers how to effectively interact with clients. This is when they will learn how to deal with a host of situations and address possible challenges in the future. The combination of these areas is designed to ensure the DFPS is able to achieve their larger organizational objectives. ("Child Placing Agency Administrators," 2012) (Burstain, 2012)
About the Texas Department of Family Protective Services. (2012). DFPS. Retrieved from: http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/About/About/
Child Placing Agency Administrators. (2012). DFPS. Retrieved from: http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/CHILD_CARE/Information_for_Providers/administrators.asp?r=3&admtype=LCPA
DFPS 2010 Data Book. (2010). DFPS. Retrieved from: http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/documents/about/Data_Books_and_Annual_Reports/2010/2010databook.pdf
Burstain, J. (2012). Child Protective Services in Texas. Centers for Public Policy Priorities.
" For most this is generally seen as a reference to the Federal Judiciary. One thinks of the arren Court, and the great number of decisions concerning civil rights, voting rights, etc. It is often not realized, however, to what an extent state judges play ar ole in shaping these issues. In many state court systems, the state system was actually more liberal than the Federal:
First and foremost, state constitutions may be used not only to broaden rights but also to restrict them. They are far easier to amend than the U.S. Constitution. Therefore, forces within a state dissatisfied with liberal court interpretations of the fundamental state law may, without nearly the same effort required on the federal level, undo those rulings....In Florida... voters adopted an amendment to the state constitutional search and seizure provision, requiring the provision to be "be construed in conformity with the 4th Amendment to…
2. Discuss and examine public education in Texas. What is the purpose and function of an I.S.D. What are the purposes of the SOE and the TEA? In your opinion, is the TAKS
test good for educating students in Texas? If the Legislature eliminates the TAKS test, then what should it be replaced with?
Texas education, much like the education in the United States as a whole, faces a crisis in meeting the requirements of a global community. The United States is being far surpassed by competing international educational systems. A study was conduct by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) which looked at the educational systems in developed countries across the planet. The educational system in the U.S. ranked surprisingly low when compared against other countries.
The PISA studies fifteen-year-old students across the globe on three different subjects. The test given is similar to the Texas TAKS test…
Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed. . (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Pro-Death Penalty: http://off2dr.com/modules/cjaycontent/index.php?id=21
Texas Department of Criminal Justice. (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Executed Offenders: http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/stat/executedoffenders.htm
(Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 2010)
(Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed., 2010)
Texas House Bill (HB304) - Relating civil liability bullying a child
1. Title of the Suggested Bill
Texas State’s ‘anti-bullying’ house bill possesses the following key features. Its title appropriately alludes to the protection of children’s rights (CAIR Texas, 2017). If enacted, the law would:
a. Offer tools to educational institutions: This bill would authorize educational institutions to examine cases of bullying outside of school, develop a tip line that maintains anonymity, and enable greater educational institution latitude in penalizing pupils who engage in major cyber bullying (e.g., urging a child to kill him/herself).
b. Reduce the number of victims: Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates reveal suicide to be the second main cause of adolescent deaths.
c. Offer tools to law enforcers: Law enforcers can, by means of summonses, increasingly expose anonymous users on social media websites who post or convey intimidating messages. The law will render e-bullying and…
In the event that the amendment is approved, the amendment will take effect when the official vote canvass confirms that the proposal has received majority approval unless the terms of the amendment specify a later effective date. The canvassing procedure is required to be completed within 15 to 30 days following the election date. If the amendment is rejected by the voters the legislature has the option of resubmitting the proposal to the voters for reconsideration.
As odd as it may seem, the fact that Texas' constitution has been amended so frequently is not an anomaly. The changing nature of state constitutions is far more the standard procedure than otherwise. Unlike the U.S. Constitution which is an abstract document most state constitutions tend to be more detailed and lengthier and subject to far more amending. In fact, the length of state constitutions is arguably one of the reasons why they…
If employees feel that they have control over what they do they are more likely to make sure that what they produce is the best product possible (Methods and Techniques for Motivating Employees. (2012).
-Flextime permits workers to choose their own work schedule, to a certain extent (Methods and Techniques for Motivating Employees. (2012).
- Job sharing is a less frequent method, but very effective at averting boredom. It permits two workers to share two different jobs. The workers often alternate days or weeks, working twenty hours in each position each week (Methods and Techniques for Motivating Employees. (2012).
- Sending handwritten notes by the top brass to employees who deserve recognition. This is a great way to make employees feel appreciated and that what they do matters (Tynan, n.d.).
- Making work fun is a great way to get people excited about coming to work everyday. If a person…
Methods and Techniques for Motivating Employees. (2012). Retrieved from http://cblack.hubpages.com/hub/Methods-for-Motivating-Employees
Motivational Theory. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/motivation.htm
Top 5 reasons why "The Customer Is Always Right" is wrong. (2006). Retreived from http://positivesharing.com/2006/07/why-the-customer-is-always-right-results-in-bad-customer-service/
Tynan, D. (n.d.). 25 Ways to Reward Employees (Without Spending a Dime). Retrieved from http://www.hrworld.com/features/25-employee-rewards/
(Famous Cattle Trails)
The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas.
Abilene, History" Retrieved at http://www.kansascattletowns.com/abilene/abilene.html. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Beef Farming" Retrieved at http://www.face-online.org.uk/resources/factsheets/pdf_doc/beef.pdf. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Biodiversity and Conservation: a Hypertext Book by Peter J. Byrant" Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/\?\?Z[??[?K?X????[X??H?[Y\?X?[?L??Y??[?X??\??Y
Texas is one of the strictest states in the country for nurse practitioners who want to open their own clinics, requiring them to find a physician with the willingness and time to follow a complex set of rules. Those rules include requiring the physician to delegate prescriptive authority, review patient charts, make on-site visits or practice within a certain geographical distance of the nurse practitioner. It's a system many nurse practitioners say is unnecessary and burdensome, especially in light of the state's considerable health access problem and the success of nurse practitioners in other states who practice without such direct physician supervision (Krisburg, 2011, p. 1).
In a state where under-service and major disparities as well as a staggering set of predictions about nursing and doctor shortages in the future exists it is difficult to believe that more steps have not been taken to align Texas laws with national examples.…
Brush, B.L. (2008) Global nurse migration today. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 40 (1) 20-25. Retrieved June 28, 2011 from: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/74033/1/j.1547-5069.2007.00201.x.pdf
Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2010) The future of nursing leading change, advancing health: Report recommendations. Retrieved June 28, 2011 from:http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing/Future%20of%20Nursing%202010%20Recommendations.pdf
Krisburg, K. (2011) Nurse practitioners call for greater independence: Relaxed rules could help medically underserved. AARP Bulletin. Retrieved June 28, 2011 from: http://www.aarp.org/health/doctors-hospitals/info-01-2011/nurse_practitioners_in_texas_call_for_greater_independence.html
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) (2009) Colleagues in caring: Regional collaboratives for nursing workforce development. Retrieved June 28, 2011 from: http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=17352
S. Vital Statistics - Births (1931-1968) - Interactive Index)(esident Births and Deaths, 1942-2004). (Texas Population Projections Program).
Texas has steadily grown in population due to the lure of the economic opportunities in the state, religious affiliations at a socio-cultural level, and general cultural phenomena of individuality, which is a theme embraced by citizens of the state. Additionally, border issues with Mexico have regularly been an issue with illegal border migration into the state, with populations disseminating into other areas of the state. If one compares the total population data with the total fertility rate (births minus deaths), then it becomes clear that Texas has and is experiencing population growth, much from migration, but also a robust total fertility rate. North Texas, which is also called Northeast Texas, is home to the biggest cities, the largest corporations, the greatest economic growth, and the greatest population centers overall. This trend would…
Enchanted Learning - Texas. March 2010. 2010 .
"Projected Population by Area, 2010." 2010. Texas Department of State Health Services. March 2010 .
Ramos, Mary G. "Oil and Texas: A Cultural History." 2000-2001. Texas Almanac. March 2010 .
"Resident Births and Deaths, 1942-2004." 2004. Texas Department of State Health Services. March 2010 .
egional Characteristics of Texas
Among the fifty states which comprise the American Union as it stands today, it is perhaps Texas which has experienced the most tumultuous transition from unsettled frontier to the home of modern metropolises. While most neighboring states cling fiercely to identities forged during the evolution, or even the Civil War, the state of Texas proudly proclaims its own superiority by flying six flags over its skies; honoring its history as a land coveted for five centuries by competing imperial interests, and for a brief period following the revolt of 1835, as its own sovereign union. As one of the largest American states in terms of landmass, Texas is also defined internally by four distinct geographical regions, the Gulf Coastal Plains, the North Central Plains, the Great Plains, and the Trans-Pecos (or Big Bend Country). These areas are in some cases hundreds of miles apart, and each…
Pratt, J.A. (1978). Growth or a clean environment? responses to petroleum-related cleaning in the gulf coast refining region. The Business History Review, 52(1), 1-29. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3113226?uid=3739552&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739 256&sid=21100949960773
Texas Legislative Council. Texas Legislative Council, (2012). Amendments to the texas constitution since 1876. Retrieved from State of Texas Government Printing Office website: http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubsconamend/constamend1876.pdf
Slavery in Texas
andolph Campbell, in his book "An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas," said that "protecting slavery was not he primary cause of the Texas evolution, but it certainly was a major result." (Campbell, 1989, pp. 48-49) The role slavery played in Texas, and the decision by the Anglos to rebel against the Mexican government has long been a tale that is not well-known in American history. Slavery was an institution that many who had emigrated from the United States to Texas either opposed, or were willing to restrict, but what many in Texas were not willing to accept was the high-handedness by which restrictions on slavery were imposed. Over time, many have viewed the Mexican government's interference in the economic foundations of Texan life the cause of the Texas evolution, but what really caused the revolution was the attempt to restrict, and then outlaw, the…
Campbell, Randolph. (1989). An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas.
United States: Louisiana State UP.
market and innovation in the field of information technology is growing too fast in the United States. Even though a lot has been said for last few decades about the employment shift in the field of IT, however, as stated by McKinsey (2009) the field still remains the most significant sectors of the economy. In Texas the Information Technology is playing a vital role in the development of the City. There are a number of companies offering various IT services within the five cities in Texas, such cities are Dallas, Houston, Austin, San Antonio and Fort Worth (McKinsey, 2009).
This paper however, seeks to analyze the entry and Mid-level information Technology jobs and the top IT companies within Texas. It also seek to highlight what most IT recruiters normally look for in a prospective candidate and the average wages offered in each city. Finally, the study analyzes the average cost…
Barry, B., (2011). For Texas 'Miracle,' Cut the Cost of Doing Business
Glassdoor (2012). Information Technology Salaries in Houston, TX Area.Available online at http://www.glassdoor.com/Salaries/houston-information-technology-salary-SRCH_IL.0,7_IM394_KO8,30.htm
Glassdoor (2012). Information Technology Salaries in San Antonio, TX Area.Available online at http://www.glassdoor.com/Salaries/san-antonio-information-technology-salary-SRCH_IL.0,11_IM757_KO12,34.htm
McKinney, D (2012). Top of the list: Houston Technology Employers. Houston Business Journal.Available online at http://www.bizjournals.com/houston/news/2011/10/14/top-of-the-list-houston-technology.html
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.
Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.
In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…
American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0
Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer
Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
Hydrogeological eport: Lipan Aquifer, Texas
Lipan Aquifer in Texas
Located in the Lipan Flats area of the counties of Tom Green. western Concho, and southern unnels, the Lipan is a minor aquifer according to classifications of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) the Lipan aquifer is used primarily for irrigation with limited consumption for livestock and rural domestic purposes (Lee 1986). However, the chemical quality of the Lipan aquifer water does not meet drinking water standards (Lee, 1986). Drinking water may contain radon at rates just above safety levels provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Upwards of 125 feet of saturated alluvial deposits of the Leona Formation of Quaternary age make up the aquifer (Lee 1986). Part of the aquifer constitution (see Figure 1.) is comprised of the "updip portions of the underlying dolomites, limestones, and shale of Permian age" (Lee 1986). These structures, which are hydrologically continuous with…
Aquifers in Paleozoic Rocks, Ground Water Atlas of the United States, HA 730-E. http://pubs.usgs.gov/ha/ha730/ch_e/gif/E118.GIF (Accessed October 11, 2011)
Beach, James A. And Stuart T. Burton, "The Lipan Aquifer," in Ground Water Reports, R360AEPC. (Accessed October 11, 2011)
Beach, James A., Stuart Burton, and Barry Kolarik. Groundwater Availability Model for the Lipan Aquifer in Texas. (2004, June). http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/gam/lipan/
Lipan_GAM_Final%20Report_Part1.pdf (Accessed October 11, 2011)
Lawrence v. Texas (2003) and McLaughlin v. Florida (1964)
While McLaughlin v. Florida (1964) is often hailed as a significant case with regard to the constitutional status of interracial intimacy - particularly non-marital; many regard Lawrence v. Texas (2003) an important case as far as same-sex marriages are concerned. This text reviews both cases.
In the case of Lawrence v. Texas (2003), law enforcement officers were responding to a private residence disturbance when they made an unexpected entry into Lawrence's apartment and found him engaging in a sexual act with another man. The said act was consensual and both individuals were past the age of the majority. Lawrence and his partner (by the name Garner) were promptly arrested. It is important to note that at the time, Texas laws forbade deviate sexual intercourse, such as that between two individuals of the same gender. Specifically, "Texas law banned homosexual sodomy…" (Schmalleger…
Schmalleger, F. & Hall, D.E. (2014). Criminal Law Today (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall:
This essay is on the law cases Virginia v. Black and Texas v. Johnson.
Issues before the Court
The issues before the court in the two cases were related to the first Amendment about the speech. Hate speech, in particular, was the concept that was analyzed. In Texas vs. Johnson, the issue was whether cross burning is one of the constituents of symbolic speech as provided by the First Amendment. In Virginia vs. Black, the issue was whether cross burning statutes in Virginia or any other state as a prima facie evidence unconstitutional or not (Holzer, 649).
The decision of the courts and the reasons
In Texas vs. Johnson, the court ruled in favor of Johnson. It argued that cross burning constitutes symbolic speech and the First Amendment in the Constitution protects it. The reasoning of the majority argued that the freedom of speech protects some of the actions that…