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Combating Property Crime in San Antonio
Words: 461 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11975955
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Research Proposal Part II: Counteracting Property Crime in San Antonio
With a diverse population of more than 1.3 million residents, San Antonio’s real median household income average of $55,083 compares favorably with the national median average of $55,775 (San Antonio household income, 2017). Moreover, San Antonio offers residents and visitors alike with a wide array of historical, cultural, recreational and entertainment venues, including the ever-popular Alamo (About San Antonio, 2017). In this large and relatively affluent city, the bad news is that it is not surprising that property crime remains a problem but the good news is that property crime levels are decreasing, albeit modestly, as discussed further below.
Literature Review
In 2011, San Antonio experienced a total of 80,871 property crimes (i.e., burglaries, larceny thefts, and vehicle thefts as shown in Table 1 below. By 2016, though, the city’s property crimes had declined to a total of 77,786…

About San Antonio. (2017). Visit San Antonio. Retrieved from .
Property crime comparison. (2017). Location, Inc. Retrieved from https://www.neighborhood
San Antonio household income. (2017). Department of Numbers. Retrieved from http://www.
Uniform crime reports. (2017). City of San Antonio. Retrieved from http://www.sanantonio. gov/SAPD/Uniform-Crime-Reports#30262666-2017.
Wachter, S. M. (2016). Shared prosperity in America\\'s communities. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Williams, E. L. (2016, September 26). What the FBI’s crime numbers mean in one city. The Atlantic. Retrieved from .

Texas Election System as Each
Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31592851
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Pluralist theorists often dispute that political power in Texas is dispersed among an extensive range of rival groups and interests, and that this rivalry serves to limit the power of any single group on the institutions of government. Even though there are noticeable dissimilarities in the resources of groups, there is adequate opposition and dealings among the groups to attain the objectives of a democratic society. Public policy, in this outlook, reveals the cooperation of rival interests (the Power of Interest Groups, 2010).

Supporters of elitist theory contend that political power in Texas is concerted in the hands of a comparatively small amount of people who obtain their funds from influential institutional bases. These institutions are joined collectively with multifaceted interconnected associations, and access to their leadership places is limited. Known as the Texas Establishment, those who dominated authority in the past were mostly white males from the higher socioeconomic…

Works Cited

"Lone Star Election Laws: A Comparative Study of Texas's Campaign Finance System." 2000,

viewed 29 March 2011, from

"Texas Politics - Voting, Campaigns and Elections." 2011, viewed 29 March 2011, from

"The Power of Interest Groups." 2010, viewed 29 March 2011, from

Texas Constitution
Words: 1595 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30904549
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The Texas Constitution: An Examination and Discussion

On the most fundamental level, a constitution is a plan or contract between the government and the people governed. A constitution details the agreed-upon powers, responsibilities and limitations upon all involved parties, while asserting the proper procedure for action. The constitution is the foundation for all basic laws upon which the legal system rests. In the history of the existence of the state of Texas, seven separate constitutions have been drafted and approved, with the last one receiving approval on February 15, 1876. The preceding six constitutions were adopted during the following years: 1827, 1836, 1845, 1861, 1866 and 1869. At this time, the current constitution contains amendments that were approved by voters as recently as November of 2017.

An examination of the Texas constitution reflects certain insights about the state and its unique viewpoints about government, autonomy and self-protection. Any state constitution…

Texas Constitution of 1876 Texas
Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43675340
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omen, for example, only gained their right of suffrage in 1920 and Article VI of the Constitution of 1876 only gives "male persons" over the age of 21 who have "resided in Texas for at least one year" the right to vote.

Compact Theory: The compact theory holds that the formation of the Union of the United States was through a "compact" of all the States individually and the creation of the national government was believed to be a creation of the states. Hence the states were the final judge of whether the national government had overstepped the boundaries of the "compact." One of the versions of the compact theory (the unilateral compact theory) was used by the Confederate secessionists to declare their secession from the Union, which signaled the start of the Civil ar (Lind, para 11). In the Texas Constitution of 1876, the compact theory is used to…

Works Cited

ARTICLE III- Legislative Department: Constitution of the State of Texas (1876)." The University of Texas at Austin. March 11, 2005. July 26, 2006.

Dye, Thomas R. Politics in America. Sixth Edition, 2004. Pearson Prentice-Hall: New York

General Characteristics of the Texas Constitution." Liberal Arts Instructional Services: University of Texas at Austin. 2006. July 26, 2006.

Lind, Michael. "Do the People Rule?" New American Foundation. February 1, 2002. July 26, 2006.

Politics Mexican Government the Zapatistas
Words: 347 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77196986
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S. And Mexico as this political issue binds them on common ground, creating the synchronic relationship between them. Mexico must do more to create jobs and economic growth to keep her young people at home, because the implications of emigration on both countries are staggering. Hispanics are now the fastest growing minority in the country, and most of them have come from Mexico. These emigrants are taxing the social systems of the country, especially in order States like California and Texas, and Mexico is losing an entire generation of young men, which can only cripple the country in the long run. Mexico is a land of poor people, and the government must work to create better living conditions, better jobs, and a vibrant economy to turn the country and the people around.


Author not Available. (2005). Zapatista Delegates. Retrieved from the Web site: July 2005.

Mahler, Gregory…


Author not Available. (2005). Zapatista Delegates. Retrieved from the Web site:  July 2005.

Mahler, Gregory S. (2003). Comparative Politics: An Institutional and Cross-National Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hispanic Politics the New Wave
Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73083598
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This is mainly because of several key elements which portray Huston as a friendly and safe city over other locations which prove less appealing to homeowners and other residents.

In terms of the increase of the Latino population, this is a trend which has been occurring elsewhere in the nation for the past few generations. In 1990, the largest immigrant wave was recorded entering into U.S. soil. It was with this new and modern wave of immigrants that we see the new conception of the Latino immigrant within modern American culture. In fact, in the last decade of the twentieth century, the Latino population within the United States as a whole grew by almost 58%. That is a huge increase within the short span of only ten years. And so, it can be assumed that the large increase of Hispanic and Latino immigrants into the Huston are has also been…

Lyndon Johnson's Texas Roots Lyndon
Words: 2235 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20555143
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Getting liberal legislation passed into law was LBJ's benchmark of effective leadership. He knew how to do it. The most successful at this of any president ever, he followed every detail of legislation and demanded that his aides not simply think they had the support of a representative in Congress but know they had it! "You've got to know you've got him, and there's only one way you know'...Johnson looked into his open hand and closed his fingers into a fist. 'And that's when you've got his pecker right here.' The president opened his desk drawer, acted as if he were dropping something, emphatically slammed the drawer shut, and smiled" (p. 88). Meanwhile, Congress complained it was "bullied, badgered, and brainwashed" (p. 91) by President Johnson's strong-arm Texan tactics.

Schulman (1995) argues that Johnson's liberalism changed national social policy "profoundly" and "permanently altered the nation's political landscape" (p. 121).…


Schulman, B.J. (1995). Lyndon B. Johnson and American liberalism: A brief biography with documents. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press.

Texas Have Inspired Discussion About the Pay
Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50818165
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Texas have inspired discussion about the pay of public officials. State representative Terry Keel, claiming to be cutting expense corners, said that he would block a bill to increase the pay of Texas judges. In an as-yet-unresolved conflict of stories, Houston representative Rodney Ellis has ties to a scandal regarding this proposed legislation, in which the Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court threatened political retribution if judges were not given a pay raise (see, for example, "Judge pay hits Houston pols in purse" by Rick Casey in the June 1, 2005 Houston Chronicle). Nationwide, different groups are becoming a more and more vocal opposition to large government salaries -- Citizens Against Government aste, at, regularly cites examples of ineffectual and even corrupt elected and appointed officials getting pay raises.

Non-profit executives' pay is no less controversial; in an organization without shareholders or even, as in government, constituents who…

Work Cited

Turley, J. (2004, February 12). "Non-profits' executives avoid scrutiny, valid reforms." USA Today, p. 15A

Texas History
Words: 3692 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43630442
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German Influences on Texas Culture

If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.

Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…


Alvarez, A. (2002). "Oktoberfest in Fredericksburg." Texana Food and Events. 19, November 2004: 

Butt, H.E. (2004). "Oktoberfest in Texas." 20, November, 2004: 

Galan. (2001). [Online]. "Accordion Dreams: cultures of music and dance." Available


Texas' Capital Punishment
Words: 2595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74304655
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Capital Punishment in Texas

Khalil, Samy. "Doing the impossible: Appellate reweighing of harm and mitigation in capital cases after Williams v. Taylor, with a special focus on Texas." Texas Law Review, 80(1): November 2001. Proquest Database.

In this article, Khalil examines how state and federal courts have overturned death sentences, from a period covering the reinstitution of the death penalty in 1976 to 2001. The author focuses on sentences that have been upset due to the failure of defense lawyers to both investigate and present mitigating evidence during trial. The author makes a strong argument by referring to Williams v. Taylor, which argues that appellate courts cannot be expected to reweigh harm and mitigation when attorneys present adequate defense representation. In the case of Texas, the author rightly observes that appellate courts would have difficulty reviewing all capital cases arising from Texas, since even fact-finders in Texas are not required…

Owens, Virginia Stem and Owens, David Clinton. Living Next Door to the Death House. New York: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003.

In this book, the authors present the effects of executions in the town of Huntsville, Texas, known as "the death penalty capital of the United States." While other accounts focus on the victims or the offenders, Owens and Owens conduct in-depth interviews with prison guards, wardens, chaplains and other people who are involved in executions, many of which are Huntsville residents. Particularly affecting are the interviews with the technicians who directly administer the lethal injections to the inmates who are executed.

These interviews show that many of the people whose lives are directly affected by the death penalty system have conflicted feelings regarding capital punishment. This honestly written book presents a balanced account regarding a community's views regarding the death penalty. The fact that the community in question is directly involved

Politics of Mexico and the Influence of Catholicism
Words: 3958 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92225315
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Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…

Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.

Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.

Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.

Politics Immigration
Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56523065
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Immigration reform, once seeming close under President Bush after the introduction of the Comprehensive Immigration eform Act of 2007, has completely stalled since that point. That bill died in the Senate (Marre, 2007), and there has been little action on immigration reform since then, despite the support for the ideas of CIA by both Presidents Bush and Obama. There are few reasons why immigration reform has stalled. The first reason is that the economy went swirling down the porcelain. This shifted the priorities towards the end of the Bush Administration and for the first couple of years of the Obama Administration. Both presidents were forced to address economic issues, orchestrating bank bailouts and other measures to stabilize the economy. Immigration reform, while still viewed as important at the time, was simply viewed as less important. While Democrats had the clout to pass an immigration reform bill, they were concerned with…


Marre, K. (2007). 46-53 immigration bill goes down in the Senate. The Hill. Retrieved November 12, 2014 from 

Smith, D. (2007). Senate kills Bush immigration reform bill. Reuters. Retrieved November 12, 2014 from 

Foley, E. (2014). Conservatives warn that GOP must act on immigration, not just attack Obama. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 12, 2014 from /2014/11/10/republicans-immigration-reform_n_6128980.html

Civil War in Texas
Words: 848 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74118958
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Texas in the Civil War

The American Civil War was a monumental conflict in American history. The conflict was brewing for a long time, as southern and northern states argued over the role of the federal government and the extent of state rights. The debate erupted into an outright war with the election of Abraham Lincoln. Seven southern states formed the Confederacy as before the inauguration of President Lincoln. The issue of states' rights originates with the debate of slavery. unaway slaves would escape the south and head to northern states where they would be deemed free, however, Southern states argued that they were still slaves and wanted a return of their property (Baum 1998). The main issue at hand is what rights extended beyond a state. Southern states naturally supported the stance that citizens of every state could take their property anywhere within the United States, in this case…


Baum, D. (1998). The shattering of Texas unionism: Politics in the Lone Star state during the Civil War era. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Bell F. Walter. (2005). Civil War Texas: A Review of the Historical Literature. Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 109(2), 204-232.

Buenger, W.L. (1984). Secession and the Union in Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Present Day Racism in Texas
Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 81765737
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Texas Voter ID Law

For a state which has a history of discrimination, segregation, racism and outright bigotry, one would think the state government would be more open to hoeing a more positive path for the future at large. Unfortunately that does not seem to be the case when it comes to the Texas Voter ID law. Lawyers who challenged the legislation described it as follows, "A law requiring Texas voters to show government-issued identification before casting a ballot is the latest example of the state's long history of discrimination against minorities and puts unjustified burdens on the right to vote for more than half a million Texans" (Fernandez, 2014). This paper will attempt to demonstrate how this law needs to be treated as the form of discrimination which is absolutely is and how it is a form of legislation so bigoted and underhandedly racist, it is evocative of the…


Fernandez, M. (2014, September 22). Plaintiffs Claim Bias During Closing Argument Against Texas Voter ID Law. Retrieved from 

Greenblatt, A. (2013, October 22). The Racial History Of The 'Grandfather Clause'. Retrieved from 

Lithwick, D. (2014, Septemver). Voter ID Laws May Worsen Voter Fraud. Retrieved from

Capital Punishment in Texas Look
Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86600087
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2. Discuss and examine public education in Texas. What is the purpose and function of an I.S.D. What are the purposes of the SOE and the TEA? In your opinion, is the TAKS

test good for educating students in Texas? If the Legislature eliminates the TAKS test, then what should it be replaced with?

Texas education, much like the education in the United States as a whole, faces a crisis in meeting the requirements of a global community. The United States is being far surpassed by competing international educational systems. A study was conduct by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) which looked at the educational systems in developed countries across the planet. The educational system in the U.S. ranked surprisingly low when compared against other countries.

The PISA studies fifteen-year-old students across the globe on three different subjects. The test given is similar to the Texas TAKS test…


Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed. . (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Pro-Death Penalty:

Texas Department of Criminal Justice. (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Executed Offenders: 

(Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 2010)

(Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed., 2010)

Government of Texas Like All
Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75325156
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In the event that the amendment is approved, the amendment will take effect when the official vote canvass confirms that the proposal has received majority approval unless the terms of the amendment specify a later effective date. The canvassing procedure is required to be completed within 15 to 30 days following the election date. If the amendment is rejected by the voters the legislature has the option of resubmitting the proposal to the voters for reconsideration.

As odd as it may seem, the fact that Texas' constitution has been amended so frequently is not an anomaly. The changing nature of state constitutions is far more the standard procedure than otherwise. Unlike the U.S. Constitution which is an abstract document most state constitutions tend to be more detailed and lengthier and subject to far more amending. In fact, the length of state constitutions is arguably one of the reasons why they…

American Government & Politics Today
Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3634546
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When bureaucrats in a particular state see that a large segment of society is struggling with a particular rule or regulation, it may be time to address some changes to that rule. Texas and other states do this, but they are restricted somewhat in that federal regulations always supersede state regulations. Texas passes laws by presenting bills and having them move through the state legislature. If the bill gets enough votes, it is passed and becomes a law. However, it is very important that these bills are acceptable on the federal level, and that they comply with federal laws as well as what the state wants to accomplish. If they are not acceptable on a federal level, they cannot be laws in Texas, even if there were enough votes in that state to pass them. While some states have passed laws that go against what federal law states, it is…

Regional Characteristics of Texas Among the Fifty
Words: 777 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12605442
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egional Characteristics of Texas

Among the fifty states which comprise the American Union as it stands today, it is perhaps Texas which has experienced the most tumultuous transition from unsettled frontier to the home of modern metropolises. While most neighboring states cling fiercely to identities forged during the evolution, or even the Civil War, the state of Texas proudly proclaims its own superiority by flying six flags over its skies; honoring its history as a land coveted for five centuries by competing imperial interests, and for a brief period following the revolt of 1835, as its own sovereign union. As one of the largest American states in terms of landmass, Texas is also defined internally by four distinct geographical regions, the Gulf Coastal Plains, the North Central Plains, the Great Plains, and the Trans-Pecos (or Big Bend Country). These areas are in some cases hundreds of miles apart, and each…


Pratt, J.A. (1978). Growth or a clean environment? responses to petroleum-related cleaning in the gulf coast refining region. The Business History Review, 52(1), 1-29. Retrieved from  256&sid=21100949960773

Texas Legislative Council. Texas Legislative Council, (2012). Amendments to the texas constitution since 1876. Retrieved from State of Texas Government Printing Office website:

American Government and Politics Today
Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87039777
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Government and Elections

Should foreign interest groups be banned from attempting to influence the course of American government? Are foreign interest groups always opposed to the interests of U.S. companies and citizens?

It is reported in the work of Benen 2010) that a speech delivered by President Obama warned of "corporate takeover of our democracy" in the form of "shadowy groups raising millions in secret to help buy elections for Republicans. Benen notes the publication of 'ThinkProgress' which states that the trade association "organized as a 501c)6)…the U.S. Chamber of Commerce…that can raise and spend unlimited funds without ever disclosing any of its donors…has promised to spend…" the amount of $75 million to defeat specific candidates including such as "Jack Conway, Sen. Barbara Boxer D-CA), Jerry Brown, Rep. Joe Sestak D-PA), and Rep. Tom Perriello D-VA). As of Sept. 15th, the Chamber had aired more than 8,000 ads on behalf…

(4) authorize an agency to exercise a function not expressly authorized by law;

(5) increase the term of an office beyond the period authorized by law; (6) deal with more than one logically consistent subject matter; or (7) abolish enforcement functions or programs established by statues. (FAO, 2010)

These are only some of the actions that the President and government cannot take. The Constitution places limits on what government can do to protect the American public. This is because the forefathers understood that government should remain small rather than become the large bureaucratic machine that it presently is today. The present administration has sought to bypass Congress on many of its moves on restructuring the U.S. Government however as reported by the FAO (2010) "Congressional deliberative processes serve the vital function of both gaining input from a variety of clientele and stakeholders affected by any changes and providing an important constitutional check and counterbalance to the executive branch." Bypassing these governmental processes can results in too much power being vested in the President and his discretion. The Constitution provides for a system of checks and balances that serve to ensure that the Constitutional rights of the American people are not violated by the government in any of its actions or rulings.

Government Politics Texas - A Good
Words: 3394 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16248028
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" For most this is generally seen as a reference to the Federal Judiciary. One thinks of the arren Court, and the great number of decisions concerning civil rights, voting rights, etc. It is often not realized, however, to what an extent state judges play ar ole in shaping these issues. In many state court systems, the state system was actually more liberal than the Federal:

First and foremost, state constitutions may be used not only to broaden rights but also to restrict them. They are far easier to amend than the U.S. Constitution. Therefore, forces within a state dissatisfied with liberal court interpretations of the fundamental state law may, without nearly the same effort required on the federal level, undo those rulings....In Florida... voters adopted an amendment to the state constitutional search and seizure provision, requiring the provision to be "be construed in conformity with the 4th Amendment to…

Works Cited


Military Rule Shaping Politics and
Words: 2556 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74196784
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The definition for "subversives" is a bit vague, but Fagen explains that in Argentina and elsewhere in Latin American dictatorships the victims of violent repression tended to be union leaders, liberal political leaders, artistic people in cultural circles, student protest leaders and media personalities (p. 41). The whole point of these horrendous repressive policies was to inspire fear, confusion and "distrust" among the general population. For those who believe the United States' military always stands on the side of democratic movements it may come as something of a shock that the U.S. funded and trained many military outfits during the time of dictators in Latin America.

"An entire generation of Latin American military officers and police were armed, trained, and 'professionalized'" by American police and military leaders (Fagen, 1992, p. 43). Fagen says the repression in Argentina was, in part, designed to "Purge ideological infection"; Argentine present General Jorge Rafael…

Works Cited

Fagen, Patricia Weiss. "Repression and State Security." Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Hunter, Wendy. "Continuity or Change? Civil-Military Relations in Democratic Argentina,

Chile, and Peru." Political Science Quarterly 112.3 (1997): 453-475.

Remmer, Karen L. Military Rule in Latin America. University of Texas: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Health Politics and Policy Matt
Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75272452
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The Obama administrate had just announced that they would be revoking federal funding for the Medicaid Women's Health Program amid a fight over several clinics that were affiliated to providers of abortion amshaw & Belluck, 2012()

Gov. Perry issues a letter to Thomas Suehs who is the head of the Texas Health and Human Services Commission directing him to work with the legislative leaders to identify potential sources of funds to keep the program afloat amshaw & Belluck, 2012()

The program itself costs around $40 million which is 90% covered by the federal government. Therefore this cut in budget would mean that the Texas state would need to find about $36 million to fund the program amshaw & Belluck, 2012()

Since the program provides care to about 130,000 low-income women all over the state, Gov. Perry felt that the program was extremely beneficial to the state and that is why…

References, J. (2012). Mead: State must keep trying health care reform projects Retrieved March 10th, 2012, from Ramshaw, E., & Belluck, P. (2012). Perry Pledges to Finance Texas Women's Health Program Retrieved March 10th, 2012, from

Why Texas Should Be Encouraged to Secede the Union
Words: 789 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Other Paper #: 69263596
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Ethics of Governor ick Perry

Campaign contributions are effective rent-seeking behavior that has been shown to substantively benefit individuals and business at the same time that it dampens economic growth (Marotta, 2013). ent-seeking is the term for obtaining special favors from government officials in lieu of productive economic activity (Marotta, 2013). One individual in the state of Texas has mastered the principles of rent-seeking to such a degree that it may be his primary political skill. Governor ick Perry of Texas practices political favor absent any attempt at slight of hand. A 2011 editorial on The Opinion Pages of The New York Times provides an apt description of one mechanism that undermines productive economic activity stating that,

"There are nearly 600 boards, commissions, authorities, and departments in Texas, many of which are of little use to the public and should have long been shut down or consolidated. They are of…


Gov. Perry's cash machine. (2011, August 24). The Opinion Pages. The New York Times.

Marotta, D.J. (2013, February 24). What is rent-seeking behavior? [Advisor Network]. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from  / [Type text]

Relationship between Media Politics and Cartels in Mexico
Words: 1965 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53470864
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The Perfect DictatorshipIntroductionWhat is Mexico? How has it come to be in the state that it is today? The film The Perfect Dictatorship represents a Mexico whose leaders in both politics and media are so thoroughly corrupt, and in bed together with one another, that no honest men have a chance of winning a seat in a position of power. Has Mexico always been this way? The fact is that the 21st century is unique in its own ways because of the power and influence of media and the role that crime plays in the lives of the rich and famous. In prior centuries, Mexico faced different issues, different strugglesand if the same kind of corruption was there it was manifested in different ways. One thing that is clear is that the struggle of Mexicans was more genuine in the past than in today (Hamnett, 2019). The Mexican evolution of…

ReferencesHamnett, B. (2019). A concise history of Mexico. Cambridge University Press.Jaffary, N. et al. (2003). Mexican history: A primary source reader. Rodriguez, J. (2010).Our lady of Guadalupe: Faith and empowerment among Mexican-American women. University of Texas Press.Valentine, D. (2017). CIA as organized crime. Clarity Press.

Body Politics in Online Communication
Words: 811 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60377448
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Throughout the analysis she makes, the author reaches several conclusions on both these aspects; on the one hand, she considers the discussion from the academic point-of-view; on the other hand, she follows the aim of her theoretical research and concludes on the idea of the representativeness of the body in online communication.

On the one hand, in regard to the technicalities of online communication, from the analysis conducted to the lines of the messages and responses to posts, she concludes that there is indeed distinctiveness in the way in which people communicate online vs. face-to-face communication. More precisely, in the first situation they are more willing to talk about the issues otherwise would be reluctant to address such as for instance body fat or the way in which society treats overweight people. Also, the techniques used to maintain the flow of conversation are different from those used in face-to-face conversations,…


Corey, a. (2007) Body politics in online communication. Texas Speech Communication Journal, vol. 32, no. 1., pp. 21-32.

American Government Politics
Words: 2631 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93279002
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American Government Politics. Discussed is the fourth amendment and the current policies of searches and seizures. Four sources used. Footnotes.

Fourth Amendment

Americans hold very dear the Bill of Rights. Among the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights is the Fourth, one many refer to as the most ambiguous of the all the amendments. Search and seizure law is drawn from the Fourth and over the years the Supreme Court has come to view that its main purpose is the protection of a citizen's property and privacy. However, according to the conclusion of the Court, the Fourth Amendment does not "protect all property interests or apply to all situations where people might wish to protect their privacy." Perhaps, never has this amendment felt more threatened than today. The attacks on the orld Trade Center on September 11th, spurred the hite House Administration to create the office of…

Works Cited

Civil Rights Reduced." Denver Rocky Mountain News. April 28, 2001.

McWhirter, Darien A. Search, Seizure, and Privacy: Exploring the Constitution.

Greenwood Publishing Group. October 1994.

Rosen, Jeffrey. " Liberty Wins - So Far; Bush Runs Into Checks and Balances in Demanding New Powers." The Washington Post. September 15, 2002.

Austin Texas Community College
Words: 1607 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4014964
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Austin Community College is an institution designed to help prepare students through higher learning. The community college was established in 1972 with nearly 2,400 students. By 1991, through rapid expansion, the community college had over 40 facilities and over 23,000 students. Although this growth in the overall enrollment of the community college was impressive, it was not without its difficulties. For one, Austin Community College had lackluster facilities with the communities in which it operated in. Although ACC operated 40 facilities, these facilities were quickly becoming obsolete due to rapid depreciation. In addition, many of these facilities were not owned outright by ACC. Instead, many of these facilities were leased from third-party venders. As a result, the facilities were not created to handle a rapidly growing student population. The cramped space within the facilities created high demand for larger more user-friendly accommodations. The problem faced by ACC was on of…


1) Charlotte Christiansen et. al, The Risk Return Trade-off in Human Capital Investment, 14 LABOR ECON. 971, 984-85 (2007)

2) Ewell, P.T. (1999). Assessment of higher education and quality: Promise and politics. In S.J. Messick (Ed.), Assessment in higher education: Issues of access, quality, student development, and public policy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum

3) Haley, K., Hephner LaBanc, B., & Koutas, P. (2011). New school, new job, and new life: Transitions of graduate assistants in student affairs. Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 18(2), 5-19

4) Kasper, H.T. (2002). The changing role of community college. Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46(4), 14 -- 21

How the Politics of Reform Impact Prisons
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judicial reform is based on the idea that a total or partial political reformation of the judiciary can be performed as a stage in a much grander reform concept that includes both the legal and the executive branches of government. When judicial reform is effected, the aim is to end corruption in the judicial system -- whether the issue is bribery or cronyism or any other form of corruption. Prison control, such as the concept of the Panopticon is about instilling social values in the prisoners by giving them the sense that they are always being observed and therefore should act accordingly. While this concept does not necessarily gel with the concept of reform, as in the idea to reform prison conditions so that prisoners are more comfortable and so that the penal system (like the judicial system) is cleansed of corruption, it does offer a kind of reformation strategy…

energy access pipelines and politics
Words: 1340 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Other (not listed above) Paper #: 40307626
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Eilperin, J. & Dennis, B. (2017). rump administration to approve final permit for Dakota Access pipeline. Washington Post. Feb 7, 2017. Retrieved online:

Although not a scholarly source or a primary source, this article in the Washington Post directly addresses the core political concerns related to the proposed Dakota Access pipeline. he article includes a map showing what lands the pipeline would traverse, and the author addresses the land use and land access concerns by Native American stakeholders. Because it talks about the core political, social, and economic issues, this article will be used as a current events resource when developing my argument related to energy pipelines and globalization.

Ericson, R.E. (2013). Eurasian Natural Gas Pipelines: he Political Economy of Network Interdependence. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50:1, 28-57

his is a scholarly article that places energy pipelines into a global economic context. My research will show how energy pipelines…

This is a primary source publication, a joint effort by the United States Department of Transportation and the Steering Committee on Energy Pipelines and Research. In the 70-page document, the authors provide readers with important background information on energy pipelines, showing how about two-thirds of American energy needs come from oil and gas that relies on pipelines for transportation. This is because crude oil is rarely refined and sold where it is produced. With every American as a stakeholder in energy pipeline issues, it is critical that information related to pipeline safety and security be made completely transparent. As a primary source, this publication will become instrumental in my research.

Ziegler, C.E. (2006). The energy factor in China's foreign policy. Journal of Chinese Political Science 11(1): 1-23.

This scholarly article is unique because it examines the politics of energy pipelines from a Chinese perspective. China is an energy importer, almost totally dependent on other countries for receiving oil and natural gas. This means that energy pipelines play a key strategic role in China's foreign policy. This article examines China's energy-related foreign policy from multiple angles and points of view. The author addresses various international relations between China and its energy producer partners around the world. As I want to show the interface between globalization, politics, and energy, this article helps to showcase how energy pipelines symbolize interdependence.

Fort Bend County TX
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Fort Bend County, Texas

Urbanization is the process of becoming urban. Living together in villages, towns, and cities is a natural condition of human life that has obtained since the beginning of civilization 10,000 years ago. Cities, for better or worse, have been deeply involved in developing the main characteristics of civilization-literacy, government, high arts, commerce, technology (Miller & Sanders 1990).

Urban places have been focal points for action and ideas, and gateways for trade and migration. The future of humanity is to become urban; about half of the world's population will be living in cities in 2000. Texas shares this human legacy, for in the 1990s more than eighty percent of its citizens live within city limits (Miller & Sanders 1990). For Texas, therefore, urbanization is practically complete.

In 1990 in Texas, now the third largest state, the urban population reached 81.6%, compared to the 77.5% for the United…

Works Cited

Acheson, S.

Dallas Yesterday. Ed. Lee Milazzo. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press,

Barr, A. Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971. Austin: Jenkins, 1973.

Brewer, J. Negro Legislators of Texas and Their Descendants. Dallas: Mathis, 1935; 2d ed.,

Opening Scene of Billy Lee
Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 40314089
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As the opening scene of "The Flea Circus" suggests, Texas's culture mirrors its landscape: a series of languishing monotony punctuated by the occasional prickle. Austin might have changed a lot since Brammer wrote the Gay Place, and in fact is one of the only places in Texas that can easily fit the title. However, Texas has changed relatively little since the 1960s. Especially in light of the ways oil and politics are in bed together, Texan politics has changed hardly at all.

If the Gay Place is treated as a biography of Lyndon B. Johnson, then the author treads into fairly treacherous waters. Governor Arthur "Goddamn" Fenstemaker is a complex character and a quintessential politician. He is at once an everyman's guy with his incessant cursing. And yet he is an arrogant politician too. With his intense hubris, Fenstemaker manipulates everyone around him, which is why the author presents the…


Brammer, B.L. (1995). The Gay Place.

Olsson, K. (n.d.). How Karen Olsson discovered the Gay Place. Retrieved online:

Houston in an Era of
Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28428920
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nlike many of his peers, Houston did not support long-term independence for Texas, even though he did serve as an intermittent President of the Republic. Instead, he urged for annexation by the nited States, and once it was a part of the nion, he served as the Senator from Texas. Foley presents an image of Houston at this point that is unlike any other, showing him to indeed by the roughhousing frontier man who chewed tobacco and spit it out on his front porch, just an everyday man, but also a purely brilliant politician who outfoxed England and France in the matter of annexation. To the Texas Revolution he brought not only conviction and guile, but also a wealth of military experience that ensured a military prepared to get past the December surrender of the Cos at San Antonio. Foley argues that, sagely and independently, Houston knew that Santa Anna…

Unlike many of his peers, Houston did not support long-term independence for Texas, even though he did serve as an intermittent President of the Republic. Instead, he urged for annexation by the United States, and once it was a part of the Union, he served as the Senator from Texas. Foley presents an image of Houston at this point that is unlike any other, showing him to indeed by the roughhousing frontier man who chewed tobacco and spit it out on his front porch, just an everyday man, but also a purely brilliant politician who outfoxed England and France in the matter of annexation. To the Texas Revolution he brought not only conviction and guile, but also a wealth of military experience that ensured a military prepared to get past the December surrender of the Cos at San Antonio. Foley argues that, sagely and independently, Houston knew that Santa Anna was coming and that in order to battle that warfront when it came, the Army had to be prepared.

Unflaggingly, Foley tells the story of a Houston without whose wits the Texas Revolution would have surely failed at the hands of Mexico and in whose soul lived an everyday man with the courage to live up to his convictions and see his beliefs become reality. When Jacksonian politics took a turn to the hyperbolic, he remained ever Houston the man, whose personal mores kept him from submitting to the river of involvement. Instead of giving up on the things that made him who he was, he gave up running for President, changing the future of the country but maintaining his place as a man. It was that man, Foley's Houston, that lives on in the pages of this book, the hearts of all Texans, and the namesake city, university, fort, and parks he carries on today.

Haley, James L. Sam Houston. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004. P. 3.

South Secede in 1861 Why Did the
Words: 2558 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98700491
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South Secede in 1861?

Why did the South decide to secede from the Union? What were all the circumstances, political, social, economic and moral that led to the South's decision to slice the nation in half? This paper reviews those issues -- including all the political and economic issues leading up to the secession -- through the use of available scholarly literature.

The South -- Just Prior to the Civil War -- Prepares for Secession

Prior to the national presidential election of 1860, the South was in very good shape politically, in terms of the federal government. In the book Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People, Volume 1: To 1877, the authors explain that through the Jacksonian Democratic coalition, Southern political leaders had "maintained effective control of the national government right up to 1860" (oyer, et al., 2010, p. 427). As long as the "pliant James uchanan…


Bowman, Shearer Davis. 2010. At the Precipice: Americans North and South During the Secession Crisis. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC.

Boyer, Paul S., Clark, Clifford E., Kett, Joseph F., Halttunen, Karen, and Salisbury, Neal. 2010. The Enduring Vision 1877. Cengage Learning: Florence, KY.

Cooper, William J. 2010. The Critical signpost on the Journey Toward Secession. The Journal of Southern History, Vol. LXXVII.

Cooper, William J., and Terrill, Thomas E. 2009. The American South: A History, Volume 2. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Black Seminoles
Words: 4377 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4635779
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Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.

The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…

Works Cited

Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.

Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980. 

Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.

John B Rayner Crucial Moments
Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70247112
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Rayner's efforts to create Populist alliances with Republicans also suggest that the political life of African-Americans was not simply one of a people struggling against oppression, but that the negotiation of race and politics was considerably more delicate in Texas history than one might immediately surmise. Rayner supported Republican racial policy, but he also believed that Texas and the South needed to support its farmers, and that economic policy should acknowledge agrarian needs.

After the failure of his attempt to create a settlement with the Texas Republicans, the Populist Party began to decline and Rayner returned to the Republican Party. After his affiliation ended with the Populist Party, and the Populist Party folded, Rayner's political career continued, bloodied but not unbowed, although he remained a renegade. He expressed interest in anti-immigration movements and also supported the Texas laws imposing poll taxes and literacy tests on voting rights and suffrage, perhaps…

Works Cited

Patrick, L. "Texas Populism." University of Texas at Austin. History 1693. 21 Mar 2008.

Empire an Global Race Relationships
Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73475654
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The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.

Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…

references to the Cold War. However, the main gist is related to the theme of global apartheid.

The strengths of this article in relation to the theme is that it is about global apartheid, linked thematically to other analyses thereof. Moreover, this article has a strong sense of time and place, which is important for a reliable and valid historiography. The weakness of the article is that it is not inclusive of gender issues.

Analyze strengths and weaknesses for essay themes, see above each book.

gender and sexuality how is related to citizenship (violence, abuse, immigration)

2. meaning of citizenship in the U.S. Empire (immigration laws change culture)

Charlie Wilson's War in the
Words: 1491 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6488133
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But by doing so, Zia and ilson gained the most powerful ally one could want when it came to appropriations. ith Doc Long's support, ilson was able to obtain $40 million from the Defense Appropriations subcommittee; a group of eleven elected officials who meet behind closed doors and decide how to spend billions of dollars. And since the recommendations from the committee have to be voted on by the full House without the specifics of where the money is being sent, Charlie ilson was able to appropriate the money without any public knowledge. This was important because the participation of the United States in the arming of Afghan mujahideen had to be kept a secret or else it risked direct war with the Soviet Union.

Part of Charlie ilson's ability to convince the other members of the U.S. House of Representatives to vote for his appropriations was the fact that…

Works Cited

Crile, George. Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert

Operation in History. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2003. Print.

Grau, Lester, and Michael Gress. The Soviet Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, 2002. Print.

Sperling, Godfrey. "Mondale in '84, He May Run if Jimmy Carter Doesn't." the

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
Words: 1139 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: Array
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This relationship between the executive and legislative branches in North Carolina is similar to that of Texas, which also has a bicameral legislature made up of representatives elected every two years to its house of representatives and senate. Texas also has elected Texas Supreme Court Justices, Appeals Courts, and District Court Divisions with justices elected to six-year terms. The longer term is presumably intended to isolate the justices somewhat from the need to please the populace. The governor is also elected every four years in Texas. (Texas Online, 2006)

The delegation of authority to local governments: hat structure and powers do the cities, counties, and other forms of local government have in the state?

In North Carolina the state has the authority to exercise its police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare on both a local and state level. Local governments have been delegated the authority to regulate…

Works Cited

How a bill becomes a law." North Carolina Research Division. 2006. [14 Oct 2006] 

How a judge becomes a judge." North Carolina Research Division. 2006. [14 Oct 2006]

Lt. Governor says all schools need automatic defibrillators." Texas State Senate Press

Release. Texas State Senate Webpage October 9,2005. [14 Oct 2006]

Chet Edwards Biographical Information Congressman
Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3068515
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According to, the bulk of Edwards' campaign contributions is donated by business labor organizations: 38.7% from business and 31.7% from labor. Total donations from labor sectors in 2004 amount to $354,006. Business sector donations can be broken down as follows: $57,700 from agribusiness, $159,737 from miscellaneous business, $63,875 from communications and electronics, $71,300 from construction, $289,346 from finance, insurance, and real estate, and $89,400 from transportation. Edwards also receives sizeable donations from other interest groups: $272,450 from lawyers and other lobbyists, and $134,500 from leadership political action committees. $11,500 was donated by oil and gas corporations.


There are definite connections between Chet Edward's voting record and the contributions he has received from campaign donors. First, Edwards has voted against the interest of prominent environmental lobbying groups such as the League of Conservation Voters throughout the past several years of his voting history. Concurrently, Edwards has received hefty donations…

Works Cited

The 17th Congressional District of Texas." Chet Edwards for Congress 2005. Retrieved 6 Nov 2005 at

McLennan County Almanac Information." McLennan County. Retrieved 6 Nov 2005 at

Representative Thomas 'Chet' Edwards (TX)" Project Vote Smart. Retrieved 6 Nov 2005 at 

Texas." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved Nov 6, 2005 at

Flaws in the Constitution for the State
Words: 986 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63914040
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flaws in the Constitution for the State of Texas and also compares it with a few neighboring states that experience the same problems in implementing the Constitution and has to constantly undergo revisions of the provisions that require it.

Constitution of Texas

There is a never-ending debate over which amendments of the constitution of Texas need revision, either partly or completely. Legislation at state level make three kinds of mistakes when it comes to framing the constitution of a state on a more or less formal basis. The first one is that the reformers expect some kind of miracles to occur so therefore underestimate the value of the existing papers and overestimate the documents of other states forgetting that the U.S. constitution did not come into existence overnight but is a product of evolutionary hard work. Second reason, they choose to rewrite constitutions is because they think that the new…


Donald S. Lutz, Cautions For Constitution-Makers

Texas Judicial Selection, available at , accessed on: February 24, 2003

Undermining the Constitution - A History of Lawless Government, by Thomas James Norton - Chapter V, available at , accessed on: February 24, 2003

Political Science Black Representation
Words: 3350 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3745896
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political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.

African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.

No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…

Works Cited

Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man

Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence

Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (October 1990)

Swain, Carol. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress

Reconciling the Constitution With Congress
Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91589685
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Constitution & Governmental Gridlock

Constitutional Change #1

A constitutional amendment is needed to overturn the Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United, Appellant v. Federal Election Commission. In this case, the United States Supreme Court held that the First Amendment prohibits the government from restricting political independent expenditures by corporations, associations, or labor unions. Corporations aren't people. Only people are people. The United States District Court for the District of Columbia reversed a provision of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) prohibiting unions, corporations and not-for-profit organizations from broadcasting electioneering communications within 60 days of a general election or 30 days of a primary election that held these actions violate the free speech clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Yet two-thirds of American small business owners say that Citizens United hurts their business, but only nine percent of the small businesses polled said that it was a…

Ann Richards
Words: 1015 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69579617
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Ann Richards, one of the most colorful individuals elected governor in Texas was born Dorothy Ann illis on September 1, 1933, in Lakeview, Texas (Biography Pp). She graduated from aco High School in 1950 and attended Baylor University on a debate scholarship and after graduating, earned her teaching certificate from the University of Texas at Austin (Biography Pp). She taught social studies and history at Fulmore Junior High School in Austin from 1955-1956 (Biography Pp). Richards married her high school sweetheart, David Richards, and had two daughters and two sons (Texas Pp). It was at the University of Texas where Richards first became politically active and has continued throughout her life volunteering in local and statewide campaigns and working for critical social causes (Biography Pp).

Richards campaigned for candidates such as Henry B. Gonzalez, Ralph Yarborough, and Sarah eddington (Texas Pp). She eventually entered politics herself by becoming the first…

Works Cited

Biography of Ann Richards

Texas State Library and Archives Commission

Bush's Brain How Karl Rove
Words: 3444 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30919959
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Rove made an art form out of stirring up his client's opponents with whispers, innuendos and lies, while his candidates stood high above the dust and dirt. "A lot of times it wasn't enough for Karl to just win. He had to crush you in the process," according to "an adversary" quoted in Moore and Slater's book on page 28. On page 175-176, the details of Guerrero's demise are written out fully; Rove produced a "mass mailing" in 1992, as Guerrero was running for re-election as State Railroad Commissioner; it suggested she was "soft on crime, pro-gay rights, antigun, and an enemy of traditional family values." Soon thereafter, came the Rove-driven word that Guerrero was not a graduate as she claimed, and she fell like a big oak tree.

The methodical way in which Rove plowed acting Governor Ann Richards into the dust for his candidate, George . Bush, is…

Works Cited

Moore, James, & Slater, Wayne. (2003). Bush's Brain: How Karl Rove made George W. Bush

Presidential. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

President Lyndon Baines Johnson Large
Words: 2287 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 28325431
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" The Great Society initiative included policies concerning increased education assistance, fundamental protections of civil rights and the right of all Americans to vote, urban renewal, Medicare, conservation, beautification, control and prevention of crime and delinquency, promotion of the arts, and consumer protection (President Lyndon B. Johnson's Biography 2009).


The contributions made by President Johnson were both numerous and significant. In this regard, Firestone and Vogt (1988) report that, "As LBJ led Congress to the completion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, to a major tax bill, the first significant federal aid to education, and the program of medical care for the aged that had been pending since Harry Truman's day, surely confidence and optimism were not unwarranted" (1). Following his reelection to the presidency in 1964, Johnson was not content to rest on his laurels but continued his quest for improved civil rights in the country. For…

Works Cited

Abbott, Philip. 2005. "Accidental Presidents: Death, Assassination, Resignation, and Democratic

Succession." Presidential Studies Quarterly 35(4): 627-628.

Blight, James G. And Janet M. Lang. The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S.

McNamara. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Presidency of Lyndon Johnson Fundamentally
Words: 1658 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53912571
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I knew the Congress as well as I know Lady ird, and I knew that the day it exploded into a major debate on the war, that day would be the beginning of the end of the Great Society.'" in the end, these secrets when revealed, changed forever the way Americans viewed the Presidency, and politicians in general.

Johnson's style of compromise and bargining came to haunt him in dealing with the people and Congress over Vietnam. As Majority Leader in the Senate, he had supported President Eisenhower's foreign policy, partly to move forward his own agenda. What he never understood was that as President, he could not count on the same spirit of bi-partisanship from his Congress. In the end, his actions led to legislation that placed limits on the power of the Presidency.

American politics would never be the same after 1968. For the first time the American…


Caro, Robert a. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power. New York: Alfred a. Knoft, 1982.

Caro, Robert a. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Means of Ascent. New York: Alfred a. Knoft, 1990.

Caro, Robert a. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Master of the Senate. New York: Alfred a. Knoft, 2002.

Dallek, Robert. Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times 1908-1961. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Chisholm's Career as a Politician
Words: 1486 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59158742
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176). She experienced prejudice early on in her life, and it helped build her belief that black people could make it in a white world, but that integration was extremely necessary. She attended Boston University Law School, and passed the bar in 1959. She returned to Houston to practice law, but turned to politics when her law practice stalled. She volunteered for the Kennedy campaign in 1960, and soon became well-known in Houston political circles.

She ran for the state legislature twice unsuccessfully, but she did not give up, and dedicated her entire life to politics and her constituents. She ran again in 1966, and "Her concerns were those of the people-industrial safety, welfare programs, insurance rates, vocational education, low wages, and voter registration" (Hendrickson, Collins, & Cox, 2004, p. 181). When she won the race, she was the first black woman to serve in the Texas legislature. Her character…


Clarke, M. (2005). Race, partisanship, and the Voting Rights Act (VRA). Texas Journal on Civil Liberties & Civil Rights, 10(2), 223+.

Gallagher, Julie. "Waging 'The Good Fight': The Political Career of Shirley Chisholm, 1953-1982." The Journal of African-American History 92.3 (2007): 392+.

Hendrickson, K.E., Collins, M., & Cox, P. (Eds.). (2004). Profiles in power: Twentieth-Century Texans in Washington (New ed.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

"Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm 1924-2005." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education Jan. 2005: 45+.

Trends in Campaign Finance and Its Effect on Outcomes of Elections
Words: 3540 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55151844
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Campaign Finance and its effect on Outcomes of Elections

In this paper, we are examining the underlying trends in campaign finance. To do this we will look at four different gubernatorial campaigns. Once this takes place, is when we will be able to see what patterns are developing in how campaigns are financed.

Over the last several decades, the issue of campaign finance and its outcome on elections has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the relationship between politics and special interests will come together during an election. As political candidates, are forced to run for office through spending massive amounts of money. While having to accept funds; from a number of special interest groups that have active memberships throughout the country. This has led to a host of scandals with names such as Watergate, illustrating how this relationship between political and…


2002 General Election. (2002), Election Returns. Retrieved from: 

Contributor Results. (2011). Follow the Money. Retrieved from: 

Candidate Election Results. (2011). Vote. Retrieved from:

Contributor Results. (2011). Follow the Money. Retrieved from:

Of Independence
Words: 1188 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95224882
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Declaration of Independence

Overview of Excerpt from Declaration

The excerpt chosen for this paper is one of the most powerful passages in the Declaration of Independence. It packs a punch equal to "e hold these truths to be self-evident…" because it actually states what the Colonies intended to do, and why they fully intended to do it. "…henever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these [life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness] ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to affect their Safety and Happiness…" (Baylor / Declaration of Independence). Thomas Jefferson could have been very succinct and just gone with this passage in his text, and it would have conveyed the sympathies of the signers; that said,…

Works Cited

Baylor University. (2004). A rhetorical analysis of The Declaration of Independence:

persuasive appeals and language. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from

Mosbergen, Dominique. (2012). Texas Secession Petition Racks Up More Than 80,000

Signatures, Qualifies For White House Response. HuffPost Politics. Retrieved November

Succeeding Presidencies of Herbert Hoover and Franklin
Words: 1122 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33268478
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succeeding presidencies of Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt seem to be categorically and diametrically antithetical from every conceivable angle. Entering the office in 1929, Herbert Hoover's administration marked the end of America's most prosperous period to date. Within nine months of his assumption of office, the country began its tumble into the Great Depression. Clearly, the nation was paying for the good times of the Roaring Twenties. Roosevelt, however, took on the unenviable responsibilities of the president in 1933, and with them, he received a nation ravaged by unemployment, homelessness and starvation. During the worst economic times in recorded American history, he would become the warm, fatherly figure ordained to comfort the citizens. Where Hoover was reserved and conservative, Roosevelt was engaging and progressive. Hoover's reaction to the initial blow of the Depression was one of patience and calculated inaction. He was confident that the problem would right itself.…

Remembering the Alamo The Alamo
Words: 3127 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 37734543
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On February 26, Travis began to order fire power conservation in anticipation of further battle. The Texians burned more huts and were also engaged by Colonel Juan Bringas. One Texian was killed on this occasion.

On March 3, 1000 further Mexican troops reinforced Santa Anna's army, which now amounted to almost 2,400. Santa Anna began to plan a direct assault on the fort on March 4. A visit from a local woman to negotiate a Texian surrender, according to historians, is likely to have increased Santa Anna's impatience for battle. It was decided that the fort would be attacked on March 6. On the evening of March 5, the Mexicans strategically ceased their bombardment of the fort, and as planned, the Texian army fell into exhausted slumber.

Planning for the final assault began just after midnight on March 6, and Santa Anna gave the order to advance at 5:30 AM.…


Edmondson, J.R..The Alamo Story: From Early History to Current Conflicts Republic of Texas Press, Plano, Texas, 2000

Hopewell, Clifford James Bowie Texas Fighting Man: A Biography, Eakin Press, Austin, Texas, 1994.

Lindley, Thomas Ricks Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions, Republic of Texas Press, Lanham, MD, 2003

Petite, Mary Deborah. 1836 Facts about the Alamo and the Texas War for Independence, Savas Publishing Company, Mason City, IA, 1998.

Creative Powers it Is a
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Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society.

Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of newly created wealth, D'Souza asserts that most wealth currently created is the result of personal effort, rather than means such as inheritance. The wealth can then indeed be seen as the reward for effort, rather than wealth as a result of luck in its pure sense. Morality's role should then not be concerned so much with justifying the accumulated wealth, but rather with using it wisely for the benefit of humanity, creativity, freedom and evolution.

Another characteristic of freedom, as seen above, is the recognition of new and revolutionary ideas, and implementing those when they are superior to the old. In terms of economy this is as true as in terms of morals. Those in power for example refuse to accept…

1946 Heman Sweatt an Intelligent
Words: 1386 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89338851
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Ferguson required that the decision of the lower court be affirmed. The Court agreed with Mr. Sweatt. While the University of Texas School of Law "may properly be considered one of the nation's ranking law schools," Justice Vinson wrote for the Court, such could not be said for either version of the law school for African-American students (d. At 633). "n terms of number of the faculty, variety of courses and opportunity for specialization, size of the student body, scope of the library, availability of law review and similar activities, the University of Texas Law School is superior, " noted the Court (d. At 633-634). Moreover, Justice Vinson continued, in no way could the new institution compare with the University of Texas School of law in terms of more intangible measures, either (d. At 634).

Although the decision in Sweatt was a vitally important step in the creation of justice…

It was amid this turmoil that the U.S. Supreme Court then issued its decision in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, 377 U.S. 218 (1964), or, as the case is colloquially known, Brown II. Faced with the problems and impediments to integration created by Senator Byrd's "massive resistance" campaign in Virginia, the Court made it the responsibility of the U.S. District Courts to implement school desegregation and ordered that they do so "with all deliberate speed." (Id. At 234).

Few today can argue the correctness of the Court's decision in Brown v. Board, or the case that came before it, and upon which it so heavily relied, Sweatt v. Painter. Few cases exist, moreover, that were of greater importance, and so directly affected the lives of so many.

Ultimately, the State did open the Texas State University for Negroes in Houston with "a faculty of five full-time professors; a student body of 23; a library of some 16,500 volumes serviced by a full-time staff; a practice court and legal aid association" (Id. At 633). This law school, at Texas Southern University, is today named the Thurgood Marshall School of Law.

Ethics of the Abortion Drug Ru-486
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Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues of RU 486

Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. Even from the practical prospective the abortion pill RU486 has not been a breakthrough and instead of making abortion a private and safe method it has only increased the physical discomfort and the psychological ordeal for the woman.

Abortion is the one of the most debated social issues of this century. The controversy as to the right that man has over the life of a baby in the fetus and in controlling its entry into the world is a much-debated topic. Abortion is nothing but putting an end to…


Designed by '', "Abortion Procedures," Accessed on March 10th, 2003 

BBC News, "Roe v Wade: Key U.S. abortion ruling" January 16, 2003 Accessed on March 12th, 2003

Forgotten Yet Essential Soladaras in
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However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.

On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…


Coerver, Don M.. Suzanne B. Pasztor and Robert Buffington. Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history Santa Barber, CA: ABC-Clio.

Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 no. 4 (1995): 525-553.

King, Benjamin. "Iconography and Stereotype: Visual Memory of the Soldaderas"  (Accessed May 3, 2010)

Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982

Letter to Editor as Someone
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How can we expect our children to learn how to think critically if we do not teach them about sex?

Cheers to The Dallas News for pointing out the woeful inconsistencies and shortcomings in Texan state education. The majority of Texas school districts "either teach an abstinence-only health curriculum or avoid talking about sex altogether" and the result? Texas has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the nation. When evidence proves that our methods are not working, it is time to change them. Some teens are blessed with parents who make up for their state's lack of sex education programs. Unfortunately, many Texan teens remain ignorant at the behest of irresponsible parents. If withholding medical treatment for minors is against the law, then so too should withholding access to information about safe sex.

Finally, I would like to add that young people have a right to information:…

Green Zones
Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38489789
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city regions only.

The overriding theme of the greenbelt policy around the cities as applies to entire world is discussed.

Advantages of green belts around cities

The provision of cleaner air as facilitated by the trees is discussed.

The facilitation of the access to cleaner water around the city and regular rain is outlined.

The ability to protect the natural environment is also expounded on and the problems that neglect of natural environment can lead to also well discussed.

The relationship between the greenbelts and the wildlife conservation in light of the wildlife-human conduct also highlighted.

ural life and the danger it is exposed to is also highlighted in the final section hence the need to conserve and erect the greenbelts.


Greenbelts in Texas Cities

The environment needs care form the people living within it and in particular, the urban centers must be taken care of in such a…


Kamau David, (2013). Kenya's Endemic Poaching Problem. Retrieved September 24, 2014 from 

Kuschk, (2012). The European Green Belt: From Conflict to Conservation. Retrieved September 24, 2014 from 

The Green Belt Movement, (2014). Who we Are. Retrieved September 24, 2014 from 

The Tree Bench Company, (2014). What is Greenbelt Land and its Purpose. Retrieved September 24, 2014 from

Mexican War
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Mexi War

The term "manifest destiny" was coined by John L. O'Sullivan during the administration of President James Knox Polk in the middle of the 19th century. However, the concept of manifest destiny seemed to have guided the original settling of the European colonies in North America, with the accompanying sense of entitlement to the lands and people therein. Manifest destiny suggested that God ordained America to be special, and wanted Americans to conquer and amass as much land as possible. Territorial acquisition became the cornerstone of American politics in the 19th century. Under President Polk, the boundaries of the United States stretched as far as they could possibly go, warranting war with a neighboring state: Mexico. Therefore, the events leading up to the Mexican War were directly linked to the overall concept of Manifest Destiny.

However, there were other precursors to the Mexican War. ebellions in California led to…


University of Virginia (2013). American president. Retrieved online: 

"War Fever and Antiwar Protests." Digital History. Retrieved online:

Modernist Movement
Words: 3863 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 88788504
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Tarsila Do Amaral

One of the most important razilian artists of the 20th century, Tarsila do Amaral, was born in Sao Paulo in 1886. She had a privileged childhood as the grandchild of a rich farmer. This brought with it various advantages, including an education that taught her to read, write, embroider and speak French (Damian, 1999). Finishing her studies in France and returning to razil, this artist left an impression on the Modernist movement in the country that remains to this day. With her husband Oswald de Andrade, Tarsila worked towards creating a unique artistic perspective for the razilian people. This perspective would not reject the European forms and images that had ruled the country's art world until the 1920s. Instead, these would be used and incorporated into traditional forms to create an entirely new and more inclusive perspective.

The Modernist movement came in the midst of a razil…


1. Amaral, Aracy. "Stages in the Formation of Brazil's Cultural Profile." The journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 21 (1995): 8-25.

2. Amaral, Tarsila do. Brazil, Sao Paulo drawing [Semana de Arte exhibition, 1922] c.1913.

3. Amaral, Tarsila do. Drawing Study of Black Woman. 1923.

4. Amaral, Tarsila do. Madrid: Fundacion Juan March. Tarsila, 1886-1973: 2009.