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Local Participation in Tourism Development

Words: 7386 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 82371250

Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only (Butler, 1998).

Taken together, the foregoing indicates that irrespective of the precise definition that is used, sustainable tourism development is based on three main principles, economic, environment and social which are described below:

1. Economic: This principle refers to something that affects to the majority number of people and enhance the economic situation which is related to sustainable management of economic in tourism sector. This can regarded as opportunities to educate and train employees, support local suppliers, trade, producers and so on (Chapman, 2007). This principle is consistent with the observation by King (2008) that, "tourism in Thailand, as with tourism in the Asian region more generally, is a highly diversified, complex, and changing phenomenon, the impact and consequences of which…… [Read More]


'Bung Kan Is Thailand's 77th Province.' 2011, March 23. Pattaya Daily News. [online]

available: .

Burton, S., & Steane, P. 2004. Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.

Cater, E. 1993. 'Ecotourism in the Third World: Problems for Sustainable Tourism
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Sustainable Marine Tourism in Similan

Words: 5220 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 50833690

Another case study, this one by Cole (2011) examines the cultural and community impacts of tourism, both sustainable and unsustainable, on specific cultures in Indonesia. Cole concludes as well that in order to help keep the cultural and community influences and positive attitudes intact, it is important to consider the local community as a major stakeholder in the sustainability of a tourist destination. Cole states in her article, "ourism has the potential to empower communities and the sustainable tourism agenda needs to focus on how to bring this about. As the case study illustrates, understanding tourists and tourism processes is the first stage to empowering the local community to make informed and appropriate decisions about their tourism development. Considerable investments are required in communication and trust building between the actors in tourism. his paper examines how action research, focus groups and the creation of a tourism forum can be concrete,…… [Read More]

These are the questions which are very difficult to answer, but in order to have a maintained tourism system they plays an important role.

Moreover, the use of term "itself" is confusing for a sustainable tourism. Alternative tourism, 'soft' tourism, ecotourism, and 'green' tourism are the types of tourism which can be used with sustainable tourism which is a high class branch of tourism. The story behind tourism in 1919, about 664 million tourists were present, and those who were known as mass tourism were approximately 80%. Development of sustainable tourism is affected by the differences in between mass tourism and sustainable tourism (Berno and Bricker, 2001).

If one can make a difference between 'good' tourism (best known as the alternative forms of tourism) and 'bad' tourism (particularly mass tourism) then sustainable tourism can appear as disruptive force in the society (Swarbrooke, 1999). To confuse ecotourism with sustainable tourism can give a bad result because all sustainable tourism does not take place at natural area and not all types of ecotourism are sustainable. According to Wall (1997), as the mass tourists might not prefer to visit threatened remote areas, their demand may be lesser than that of
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Concept of the Multiplier

Words: 2076 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29082372


Thailand, like many third world countries, is interested in identifying the mechanisms by which economic growth may be achieved. Economic growth and more specifically 'rapid economic growth falls within the province of the mid-term and long-term macroeconomic policies (Dervis and Petri 1987, p. 211). Dervis and Petri, survey 20 'middle income' countries, in an attempt to identify the factors which contribute to successful development-which they identify as moderately rapid economic growth as measured by changes in the GDP ((Dervis and Petri 1987, p. 213-214). The work Dervis and Petri is over 20 years old; it is useful only to set a baseline for the macroeconomic challenges faced by developing countries, in comparison to the macroeconomic challenges faced by Thailand in 2011 and beyond.

Primary indicators of success in included among others, three factors. First, political stability- the authors note that often many developing countries experience a period of rapid…… [Read More]


Bhanupong, N 2010, "Effectiveness of Thailand's macroeconomic policy response to the global financial crisis," ASEAN Economic Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 121-135, viewed 12 Dec 2011, Http://

Brawley, M & Baerg, N. 2007, "Structural adjustment, development, and democracy," International Studies Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 601-615, viewed 13 Dec 2011, Http:// /

Chaikledkaew, U Lertpitakpong, C. Teerawattananon, Y. Thavorncharoensap, M. & Tangcharoensathien, V. 2009, "The current capacity and future development of economic evaluation for policy decision-making: A survey among researchers and decision makers in Thailand," Value in Health, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. S31-S35, viewed 12 Dec 2011,  Http:// 

Chipman, J 1949 "The generalized bi-system multiplier," The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 176-189, viewed 12 Dec 2011,
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Operational Art in Comparison With

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 33328099

The Thai and American cultures differ greatly. Communications and the success of operations will be much facilitated with the help of translators and regional experts to facilitate communications and mutual understanding. According to The U..A. Joint Publication 3-0, such capabilities can even save lives during combat situations.


For the situation in Thailand, the priority is ground force reinforcements and fires. These can however not be deployed properly without the necessary language and intelligence capabilities. It is therefore suggested that language and intelligence capabilities be deployed first. On this basis, intelligence can then be gathered regarding the existing capabilities on both sides, while communications can be established with local military leaders.

Once this is complete, the next step is to deploy reinforcements to increase the ground force troop numbers. Language capabilities by means of translators and regional experts should be installed in sufficient numbers to ensure optimal ground operations.

The…… [Read More]


U.S.A. Joint Publication 3-0. 2008. Joint Operations.

The United States Naval War College. 2008. Service Capabilities Vignettes for North Africa and Thailand.
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Businees Enterprise and Innovation in

Words: 2876 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58348268

As a consequence, the government created the National Innovation Agency. This agency focuses on ensuring collaboration between different important players in the innovative field in order to improve the results of innovative processes in Thailand.

The most important sectors that the agency focuses on are represented by bio business, like biotechnology, bio-based materials, and natural products, and by energy and environment, design and branding. The strategic programs developed by the agency refer to building the national innovation system, cluster grants and venture capital schemes, innovation management and entrepreneurship professional development program, and promoting an innovation culture. This reveals the country's strong interest in supporting innovation processes.

Regarding the activity of building the national innovation system, the National innovation Agency has supported the establishment of the University Business Incubator. This program must reach the objective of supporting and developments of commercial value and innovation from research and development. The principles that…… [Read More]

4. Lorlowhakarn, S. & Ellis, W. (2005). Thailand's National Innovation Agency. CACCI Journal. Retrieved April 9, 2012.

5. Sander, F. (2011). Thailand's Innovation Challenge: Complex Products, Simple Tasks. The World Bank. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from .

6. Lack of Innovation as Thai R&D Falls Flat (2011). Bangkok Post. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from .
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Impact Assessment of Eia Report

Words: 2386 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9888334

EIA eport

The project in question that of Building a reduced-sulfur generating, coal-fired plant by GHECO-One in Map Ta Phut, Thailand was examined for potential environmental impact due to the possible damage that the plant could cause. The company has stated throughout that their wish is to construct a plant that will be both environmentally and physically safe for the people, plants and animals that live within the region. This evaluation looks at that report with a specific view towards whether this environmental assessment is overly politicized in order to pacify the examining board of the country, and whether the site will have a cultural impact for the regions fishermen and others who either work in the area or are in some way affected by it. This evaluation is conducted to determine if the impact assessment met all of the requirements of a truthful and straightforward telling of the facts.…… [Read More]


EBR., 2009. Construction of GHECO-One coal-fired IPP power plant continues in Thailand. Retrieved from es_in_thailand_090526

Fujitsu., 2012. Fujitsu's ICT helps to solve environmental issues in Thailand. Retrieved from - 02.html

GHECO-One., 2010. Thermal power plant project. Retrieved from ONE/Summary%20report%20of%20GHECO-ONE_English.pdf

Hariharan, M., 2011. Thailand's Map Ta Phut crisis -- The NGO side of the story. Retrieved from - connections/2010/03/thailands-map-ta-phut-crisis -- .html
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Royal Kraal Elephant Farm in

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 48636517

" In addition, the increased popularity of cultural tourism may be related to the ability of this tourism model to preserve cultural practices rather than modifying and transforming them into so many tourism packages, essentially destroying their traditional qualities in many cases (Butcher, 2002). In this regard, Butcher (2002, p. 88) points out that, "Tourism is not always seen as destructive in relation to the host culture. It is sometimes seen as a positive factor when it reinforces a cultural practice."

Authors such as Smith (2003), Walle (1998) and Boniface (1995) have all studied how cultural tourism can be used to promote local economic development while preserving local cultures. Likewise, cultural tourism has been used to help preserve rather than change the cultures of the Masai peoples in Kenya and Tanzania in sustainable ways. For example, through cultural tourism, Butcher suggests that, "The assimilation of primitive elements into the modern…… [Read More]

Review of Existing Tourism Research ~ Cultural Heritage Tourism

Cultural heritage tourism has emerged as among the most visible and is widely regarded by the tourism industry as the most successful (Francis-Lindsay, 2009). As an example, the Swedish International Development Agency confirms that the tourism industry "has for some time been accepted as the biggest industry in the world" and has suggested that "cultural heritage provides much of its lifeblood" (quoted in Francis-Lindsay, 2009, p. 152).

Although every tourist is unique, cultural-heritage tourists are typically motivated by a keen interest in
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Study of Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Activities

Words: 8137 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 91076246

Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Activities

For most of the developing countries tourism industry is playing a very important role in boosting their economies. In 2004, it was found out that Asia Pacific was one of the fastest growing tourism regions (Cruey, 2005). According to WTO, up to 3% of world's tourism market is made up of Thailand, Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka. It was in 1970's that the development of Thai international tourism started (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). Tourism industry accounts for 5.1% of Thailand's National Gross Domestic Product (Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2009). For the purpose of providing a proper development direction, the National Economics and Social Development Plan (NESDP) served as a guide (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). The result of the survey which was conducted by the Universities of USA and Thailand, showed that Thailand stood on the first place as best hospital city for all the…… [Read More]


Blamey, R.K. (2001). Principles of ecotourism. In Encyclopedia of Ecotourism, Weaver D (ed). CAB International: Wallingford, England; 5 -- 22.

Brass, J.L. (1997). Community Tourism Assessment Handbook. Western Rural Development Centre, Utah State University, ed.

Business Day, (2005). Tourist Sector Wins 3.65BN Baht Budget. [Electronic bulletin board], February 24, 2005.

Carter, R. And Fabricius, M. (2007). UNWTO Conference in Topic is Creating campetitve advantage for your destination, Budapest, UNWTO Consultants (TEAM tourism Consulting).
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Consumers' Perspectives What Criteria Influence

Words: 12814 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 15669368

Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).

In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…… [Read More]

references and Marketing strategies for green shares: Specifics of Austrian market.' Journal of Bank Marketing 22, (4)

Grankvist, G., Lekedal, H., and Marmendal, M. (2007) 'Values and eco- and fair-trade labeled products.' Journal of British food 109, (2)

Green Label Thailand (2010) 'Thai Green Labal Scheme'. [online] available from [13 July 2010]

Gulf Daily News (2010) 'Toyota set to produce hybrid cars in Thailand.' [Online] available from [19 August 2010]

Gurau, C., and Ranchhod, A. (2005) 'International Green Marketing: A comparative study of British and Romanian firm.' Journal of International Marketing Review 22, (5) 547-561
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Popularity of Foreign Restaurant Consumer Attitude and

Words: 7176 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 90727544

popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok

Thailand as a tourist destination

Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)

Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…… [Read More]


"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.

Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.

Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.

Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
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Evolution of International Tourism Citation

Words: 2345 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16280082

During the period from April to June2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak had a negative impact on Thai economies. The total revenue from tourism was 10% lower than expected.

Seenprachawong U.)

However many studies of the tourist industry in the country point out that it is extremely resilient and " in the tsunami disaster, a quick recovery process began after a deep sentiment of sadness. Investment recovered very quickly with a view to cleaning up the destruction left behind. Following recent years of strong growth, the economy of Thailand should be in a strong position to recover from this tragedy." (Seenprachawong U.)

4. Conclusion

There is little doubt that the Thai tourist industry is one that is extremely dependent on changes in the natural environment and influences on the culture from the outside. While the resilience of this industry have be shown in the face of natural disasters,…… [Read More]


Asia Market Research. March 16, 2007. 

Continued unrest, travel warnings hit Thai tourism. March 16, 2007.

Community-Based Tourism in Doi Inthanon National Park:Case Study of Ban

Mae Klang Luang Tourism Alliance, Chiangmai, Thailand. March 16, 2007.
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Satisfaction Trust and Commitment in

Words: 7853 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 285065

esearch Aim

The purpose of this research is to investigate customer's loyalty throughout the dimensions of satisfaction, trust and commitment for mobile phone industry in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition, this research also provides practical knowledge which customers are dissimilar in satisfaction and look for different levels of relationship with mobile phones. To sum up briefly, it is completely useful for marketers to comprehend which paradigms affect customers to create good relationship with companies in order to sustain the customer's loyalty.

esearch Objectives

These are research objectives which are needed to be accomplished in order to reach the above research aim which are stated as following:

To study the relationship marketing to the mobile phone industry in Thailand.

To study the customer satisfactions factor to the mobile phone.

To identify the relationship between various component satisfaction and trust.

To identify the relationship between various component satisfaction and commitment.

To identify the…… [Read More]


Bailey, S. And D.E. Schultz. (2000). "Customer/Brand Loyalty in an Interactive Marketplace." Journal of Advertising Research, 40(3), p. 41.

Bruhn, M. (2003), Relationship marketing: management of customer relationships, Pearson Education, UK.

Chung, Sungmi and Mike Sherman. (2002). "Emerging Marketing: Companies Don't Need State-of-the-Art Tools, Huge Volumes of Customer Information, and Armies of Experts to Use Continuous-Relationship Marketing Effectively." The McKinsey Quarterly, p. 62.

Churchill, G.A. And Iacobucci, D. (2005), Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations, 9th edition, Thomson, USA.
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Cardsmax Identify and Discuss Some of the

Words: 1062 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 1288637


Identify and discuss some of the benefits that Blades, Inc., could obtain from DFI.

One of the benefits would be the ability to take advantage in a lower market environment due to the decrease in the Baht. Therefore, it would be easier i.e. less expensive to acquire another business with the economic uncertainty in Thailand. Chung (2010) affirms the thoughts of the CFO by explaining that foreign debt and foreign direct investment FDI affect the recipient country's growth and welfare through different channels. Foreign debt accelerates the growth by lowering the cost of capital while FDI improves the country's welfare by providing an additional income source as well as the labor productivity spillover; a decline in domestic investment may improve domestic welfare as FDI replaces the gap. Even when the welfare deteriorates, its magnitude is mitigated, leaving more room for discretionary fiscal policy. A fiscal policy aimed to stabilize…… [Read More]


Aktar, I., & Ozturk, L. (2009). Can Unemployment Be Cured by Economic Growth and Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey?. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, (27), 203-211. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Chung, K. (2010). Foreign Debt, Foreign Direct Investment and Volatility. International Economic Journal, 24(2), 171-196. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Sun, S. (2011). Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Spillovers in China's Manufacturing Sector. Chinese Economy, 44(2), 25-42. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Wang, L. (2011). The Effects of Taiwan Direct Investment in China on Taiwan. Global Journal of Business Research, 5(2), 63-72. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
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Asian Economic Currency Crisis

Words: 2931 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14648814

Asian Economic Crisis

In the summer of 1997, an economic and currency crisis rocked the Asian markets. One by one, southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Korea and Japan saw their economies crash in the wake of heavy foreign investment. An economic boom had made the region an attractive investment opportunity for much of the 1990s. y 1997, however, domestic production and development had stalled, and foreign investors grew nervous. A divestment run on the Thai baht triggered the crash. Large corporations, extremely dependent upon the confidence of foreign investors failed to meet debt obligations and began to fail throughout southeast Asia. Currencies throughout the region faltered and nosedived from their mid-1990s positions of stability. The causes of the Asian economic crisis are varied. Lax oversight of corporations had ramifications in economic downturns that were not a concern in the mid-90s boom. Macroeconomic policies of the southeast Asian countries…… [Read More]


Chronology of the Asian Currency Crisis.(n.d.). Retrieved July 1, 2004 from Web site: 

Corsetti, G., Peneti, P., & Roubini, N. (1998). What caused the Asian currency and Financial crisis? Part I: A macroeconomic overview. Downloaded June 26, 2004 from Stern School of Business, NYU, Web site: 

Khor, M. (2000). The economic crisis in East Asia: Causes, effects, lessons. Downloaded June 28, 2004 from World Bank. Web site:  / wdrpoverty/malaysia/khor.pdf

Lee, Y-S. (1998). A political economy analysis of the Korean economic crisis. Journai of Asian Economics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 627-636.
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Business Comparative Law and Business a Company

Words: 2004 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22198377


Comparative Law and Business

A company has decided to expand its operations to another nation. The company is involved in information technology (IT) and is headquartered in Malaysia. The desire is to grow assets by beginning operations in Thailand. The fact that these are two separate countries makes the transition difficult, but it complicated by the fact that the two nations have different sets of laws which govern aspects of the transfer, and of the continuing operation of a Malaysian company in Thailand. Of primary concern is the contract law which exists in Thailand, and how those statutes direct a foreign company within Thai borders. It is the wish of the Malaysian company to maintain control in Malaysia not only for the company, but also for the settling of disputes. Since there are two different sets of laws that may govern a dispute, it is imperative that any potential…… [Read More]


X Arner, D.W., Booth, C.D., Lejot, P., & Hsu, P.F.C. (2007). Property rights, collateral creditor rights, and insolvency in East Asia. Texas International Law Journal, 42(3), 515-559.

CLW Malaysia. (2006). Laws of Malaysia: Contracts Act of 1950.

X Colon, R. (2011). Choice of law and Islamic finance. Texas International Law Journal, 46(2), 411-456.

X Davis, G.B., Ein-Dor, P., King, W.R., & Torkzadeh, R. (2006). IT offshoring: History, prospects and challenges. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 7(11), 770-792.
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Blades Acquisition NPV Analysis of NPV of

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 78896984


Acquisition NPV

Analysis of NPV of Potential Acquisition of Skates n Stuff (all figures in thousands of baht except total dollar NPV)

Future Item Value


Item NPV

Skates n Stuff Purchase

N/A (same year)

Equipment Value yrs. 1-10

N/A (same year)










Sale of Skates n Stuff

Sales Increase (10 yr total)

N/A (paces inflation)

Variable Costs (10 yr total)

N/A (paces inflation)

Fixed Costs (10 yr total)

N/A (paces inflation)

Total NPV in bahts (thousands)

Total NPV in dollars (total, assuming 1 baht = $0.023)



The numbers definitely warrant the purchase of Skates n Stuff. Despite the high inflation rate that is expected for the Thai baht, the net present value of such a purchase would be several times the value of establishing a subsidiary in the country. Sales revenue would increase fairly significantly, and the value…… [Read More]

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Legal Implications for International Expansion

Words: 2404 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36869704

" (Lee, 2009)

Core labor standards are stated by Lee (2009) to be "more or less the basic labor rights: that is, the International Labor Organization (ILO) core labor standards that have been confirmed by the UN Global Compact and adopted or discussed by the GRI and ISO 26000." (Lee, 2009) Those standards include the following: (1) a guarantee of the three labor rights (organizing, collective bargaining, and collective action) based on freedom of association, (2) a ban on forced labor, (3) a ban on child labor, and (4) no discrimination in labor. (Lee, 2009) Stated as important secondary standards are those as follows: (1) responsibility for employment; (2) industrial safety and health; and (3) training and education. (Lee, 2009) Lee states that western multinational companies "...are capable of investment, innovation, and reporting for SR, because they have been exposed to the CSR movement for some time. Thus companies in…… [Read More]


Malaysia (2009) Office of the United States Trade Representative. 8 Oct. 2009. Online available at: 

Thailand (2009) Office of the United States Trade Representative. 

Singapore (2009) Office of the United States Trade Representative. 

Hong Kong (2009) Office of the United States Trade Representative.
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Epidemiological Analysis of Obesity as a Result

Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84066957

Epidemiological Analysis of Obesity

As a result of increasingly sedentary lifestyles and poor nutritional choices, an increasing number of consumers are gaining weight and obesity has reached epidemic levels in many countries. Although the social and economic consequences of obesity are well documented, there remains a need to better understand the epidemiology of obesity in order to formulate effective population-based interventions. To this end, this paper provides an analysis of the obesity problem in the United States compared to Thailand where obesity is not as great a problem, but where the prevalence of obesity is still on the rise. A further comparison of obesity rates and obesity-related healthcare costs in New York compared to national rates and costs is followed by an assessment concerning how the political aspects of this issue hinder the ability of epidemiologists in addressing this problem. In addition, recommendations concerning four new policies or laws that…… [Read More]


Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F. And Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic perspectives on childhood obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.

Clinton, J., & Smith, D. (1999). Understanding childhood obesity. Jackson, MS: University

Press of Mississippi.

Daniels, S.R. (2006). Consequences of childhood overweight and obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47.
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Globalization Increased and Standards of Living Around

Words: 2255 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97787427

globalization increased and standards of living around the world went up and with the expansion of industrialization in many less developed countries around the world, the demands of the automotive industry around the world increased significantly. This resulted in a worldwide boom in the international automotive sector with many individual countries entering the global automotive market as potential producers. As a result, the international competition in the automotive sector grew more aggressive over a period of time.

The sharp increase in international competition in the automotive industry during the recent years and the fact that automotives are not a 'Fast Moving Consumer Good' made, the countries involve in automotive production realized the growing need to stay competitive. The need to maintain an absolute competitive advantage and constant innovation, research and development was inevitable. Moreover, the international automotive industry was dominated by a handful of big players of the likes of…… [Read More]


Abbott, J.P. (2003). Developmentalism and Dependency in Southeast Asia: The Case of the Automotive Industry. New York: Routledge. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from Questia database: 

Amrina, E., & Yusof, S.M. (2010). Manufacturing Performance Evaluation Tool for Malaysian Automotive Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. International Journal of Business and Management Science, 3(2), 195+. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from Questia database: 

Hyun, J.H. (2008). A Comparative Analysis of Transplants and Industrial Location of Japanese and Korean Automotive Industries in Europe. International Journal of Business, 13(3), 215+. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from Questia database: 

Kohpaiboon, A., Kulthanavit, P., Vijitnopparat, P., & Soonthornchawakan, N. (2010). Global Recession, Labour Market Adjustment and International Production Networks: Evidence from the Thai Automotive Industry. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 27(1), 98+. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from Questia database:
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Perceived Effect of Culture on

Words: 14190 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64453060

This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.

Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).

Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…… [Read More]


Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.

Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.

Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.
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Industry With Which I Have

Words: 3675 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28198741

I think that proper networking and research on who is making quality products, and finding a vendor with a good track record of customer satisfaction would be crucial in getting a positive consumer reaction.


Networking is invaluable when you do not miss opportunities that are available just from people talking about your product. Some of the smaller stores are involved in fairs and events where products can be introduced to the public without the burden of larger brand name competition.

Additionally, my variety of personal strengths will help me succeed when I launch my new business. I am not intimidated by the possibility that my business might fail. I know that I will work very hard to make my business successful, and if the business is not successful, I will know that I would have done everything possible to make the business succeed.

I am not afraid or intimidated…… [Read More]


The Body Shop. (2004) Where we come from. Retrieved October 2, 2004, from:

Bath & Body Works, Inc. (nd). Retrieved October 2, 2004, from: -- /free-co- factsheet.xhtml

Biesada, a. (2004) Hoovers Online. The Body Shop International PLC.

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Product Into a Foreign Market

Words: 1290 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98765337

The question we should be asking ourselves here is how the cream's features can be adapted to fit Thai climate. The best way to do this is by evaluating during a short period of time (up to two weeks) the exact effects of climate and weather on the cream. The team that will evaluate should also consider any possible side effects and chemical transformations that may occur due to the increased humidity in the atmosphere. Further more, the team will analyze whether or not the cream possibly has any side effects on the Thai skin. Indeed, if the cream has only been evaluated on Caucasian skin, for example, with its own characteristics (a larger amount of some elements, corroborated with lower amounts of others), it may prove wrong for other types of skin. All these evaluations are quite important before launching the product, so as to eliminate any possible issues…… [Read More]


1. Gross, Ames. Human Resource Issues in Thailand. Pacific Bridge Inc. Spring 1996. On the Internet at 

2. Yaffe, Hillary. The Efficiency of OTC antibiotic Creams -- Phase II. On the Internet at

Gross, Ames. Human Resource Issues in Thailand. Pacific Bridge Inc. Spring 1996. On the Internet at
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Logistic and Supply Chain Management

Words: 7272 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 29877535

Salee Company Limited suffers this setback. Therefore, it should align itself in a position to maximize profits by looking in to the ways of reducing the loss. Mr. Somsak Pruksawan of the Salee Industry Public Company Limited admits that every organization, large or small businesses suffers various types of obstacle when performing businesses. Their problem is the management of the waste and the plastic defects. The management of the company notes that the company faces various difficulties. These problems range from the upstream of supply chain processes to the end customers or the consumers of their products. The material cost varies with the mass of material that that facilitates the process and the price unit of that material. The heaviness of material is vividly a result of the proportion volume and material density. However, the fraction's maximum wall widths play a role (Lindsay, 2010, p.57).

The weight of raw material…… [Read More]


Packham, D. (2010). Mould sticking, fouling and cleaning. Shropshire: Rapra Technology.

Groover, M.P. (2010). Fundamentals of modern manufacturing: Materials, processes, and systems. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

ASM International. (2009). Characterization and failure analysis of plastics. Materials Park,

OH: ASM International.
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Globalization Myths and Threats Globalization

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93665843

Peace was only temporary. Every generation had predictions echoing that humankind had acquired a lesson (Herting, 2011).

In Thailand, the concept of globalization dates back from time immemorial. The country has engaged in cultural exchanges and international commerce for a long time. However, recent communication and transport advances have heightened the rate of change. This has made the world appear like a much smaller place for global populations. Different authors have agreed that we can describe globalization as a deeper, cheaper and faster process. However, we cannot avoid the truth that globalization ends up giving someone a short end of the rod. Most cultures in Thailand are increasingly becoming tempted due to extensive exposure to Western consumerism and attitudes. Tribes deepest in the nation of Thailand remained unchanged for decades. They tend to operate on minimal technological scale and have essentially remained self-sufficient. However, these cultures are facing the threat…… [Read More]


Herting, S. (2011). Globalization: A threat to cultural diversity in Southern Ethiopia?. Hamburg: Diplomica-Verl.

Sabanadze, N. (2010). Globalization and nationalism: The cases of Georgia and the Basque country. Budapest: Central European University Press.

Scruton, R. (2010). The West and the rest: Globalization and the terrorist threat. London: Continuum.
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Constructivism in TESOL

Words: 5320 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31439046

Constructivism in TESOL-1


EFL - The term is the main topic on which the paper is based upon (English as a foreign language). It does not refer to the student learning English language which is not his or her native language nor is it being spoken in their native country English is totally a foreign language.

ESL -- This refers to English as a second language. Students who learn English as a second language intend to use it in places where English is a native language and it ain't their first or native language..

ELF - The term does stand for English as a lingua franca

EAL - Stands for English as an additional language. The term (EAL) is only applicable to certain countries where English is just an extra language.

EAP -- In this specific study means English for academic purposes

EIL - The abbreviation stands for English…… [Read More]


Anderson, R, & Freebody, P. (1981) Vocabulary knowledge; Comprehension and teaching: Newark, NJ: International Reading Association,

Bain, K., (2004) What the Best College Teachers Do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Blake, R. (2000) Computer-mediated communication: Language Learning & Technology, 4(1), 120 -- 136,

Jonassen, DH (1999) Constructing learning environments on the web: Engaging students in meaningful learning: Educational Technology Conference and Exhibition 1999: Thinking Schools, Learning Nation.
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Asian Currency Crisis the Objective

Words: 2684 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62844583

Resulting from the devaluation of China's currency was an exacerbation of problems throughout Asia.


In the summer of 1995, the reversal of the chronic weakness of the dollar resulted in the depreciation of the Japanese yen, which had been approaching an acute deflationary crisis with a steep fall in the stock market. (Makin, 2000; paraphrased)


The work of Williamson (1999) entitled: "Implications of the East Asian Crisis for Debt Management" relate that a countries debt can be viewed from four different external perspectives in terms of debt composition which include: (1) FDI; (2) Portfolio Equity; (3) Long-term loans; and (4) short-term loans. This is the ideal composition of a countries debts however the debt profile of countries in East Asia are known to profoundly differ from the foregoing profile in that they had too…… [Read More]


Banking System Developments in the Four Asian Tigers (1997) Economic Research and Data. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. 8 Aug 1997. Online FRBSF Economic Letter. Available at 

Barro, Robert J. (1998) the East Asian Tigers Have Plenty to Roar About. Economic Viewpoint Business Week 27 Apr 1998. Online available at 

Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. 1999 February Online available at 

Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. CSGR Working Paper No. 24/99. February 1999. Online available at
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Rubber Tech Purifier Chai Chalermvatcharaporn

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98085371

The RTP is able to process 5,000 tons of rubber per year, whereas its competitor can only process 4,000 tons. Furthermore, compared to his competitors, Chai has the advantage of Thailand's experience and good reputation in regard to rubber production. This comparative advantage could aid Chai boost his product to other foreign countries, as well as Thailand.

Given that the small and middle size plantations could be persuaded into accepting a higher price, but the larger plantations would not pay a cent above $10,000, the RTP's price should remain unchanged. However, the company ought to consider investing more money into sales, so to increase the number of sold RTP, and also in research and development, in order to further improve the quality of the RTP and its life cycle. Also, separate funds should be allocated to the R&D department as to allow them to continue their research for technologies applicable…… [Read More]


Porter's Five Forces: A Model for Industry Analysis, 2007,, , last accessed on September 28, 2007

Rubbertech, Marketing Parts 1 to 3

Porter's Five Forces: A Model for Industry Analysis, 2007,

Rubbertech, Marketing, Marketing Part 2
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Globalization Myths and Threats the

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50682205

A market that dominates more than political and social outcome results in the unequal spread of rewards and opportunities while wealth and power concentrates in a selected population, corporation or nation, hence others are left marginalized (Kim, 2010).

Globalization leads to wealth creation: however, this is only for the few elites occupying the hub of the processes. They enjoy benefits accruing from the surge of global scale financial, technology, mergers and consolidation activities. ecent figures evidence how this has worked. Benefits have only concentrated in certain areas that the total number of world billionaires has increased by 30%, only in the last three years. Collectively, these are only 520 individuals whose combined salaries are worth more than combined salaries of 100 bottom employees (Ferrara, 2010). Such a scenario is only poised to prompt threats to the nation of Thailand. While there may be free trade between Thailand and trading partners,…… [Read More]


Ferrara, F. (2010). Thailand unhinged: Unraveling the myth of a Thai-style democracy. Jakarta: Equinox Pub.

Kim, S.S. (2010). East Asia and globalization. Lanham [u.a.: Rowman and Littlefield.

Stiglitz, J.E. (2009). Globalization and its discontents. New York, NY [u.a.: Norton.
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Burma Has Been Described as

Words: 1629 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90153579

Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

After 62 years under the colonial rule of Great ritain, urma was briefly treated to a democracy for 14 years in 1948 until a series of military juntas decimated it and hurled the country into a perfect or nearly perfect dictatorial regime. Ethnic groups struggled to restore that democracy in a passive and peaceful mass action, only to end in bloodshed and tactical repression. In 1990, the opposition candidate won by a large margin but the military regime refused to budge and, instead, imprisoned the winning candidate and her supporters. This series of events called international attention and led to a series of economic and political sanctions and pressures from the United Nations, the European Union, the United States and Japan. The repressive urma government also has problems with Thailand over boundaries and with India over illegal activist entries.

The international community believes that more economic…… [Read More]


Asian Human Rights Commission. Burma: Torture, Military Dictatorship, Political Accountability (2003).

Blaine Harder. "Burma's Insiduously Perfect Dictatorship: Opposition is Surgically Eliminated," New York Times (2000).

Central Intelligence Agency Burma. (the World Fact Book, 2004). 

Council of Foreign Relations. Getting Nowhere? Paths Toward the Restoration of Democracy in Burma (2001).
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Asiatic Religions Discuss Changes in the Religious

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14842658

Asiatic eligions

Discuss changes in the religious culture between 1750 and present day in at least one country from each of the three regions of Asia we have studied (East Asia, South Asia, and South East Asia)

Changes in modern Asian religions: Japan, India, and Thailand

Buddhism is a religion which began on the Indian subcontinent but which has spread across East and Southwest Asia. Its portability as a religion may partially be explained by its ability to blend with other religions and folk traditions. For example, the two dominant religions of Japan have historically encompassed Buddhism and Shinto: two different religions that most citizens profess to one degree or another. A common phrase "born Shinto; die Buddhist" highlights the comfort with which both of these religions exist side-by-side. However, Buddhism in Japan has been undergoing some notable changes in recent years.

Buddhism has been practiced in Japan for 1,440…… [Read More]


Kapur, A. (2010). Hindu sect devoted to its environment. International Herald Tribune, 2.

Kitiarsa, P. (2005). Beyond syncretism: Hybridization of popular religion in contemporary

Thailand. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 36(3), 461-487.

McCurry, Justin T. (2008). Religion: Buddhism forced to turn trendy to attract a new generation in Japan: Priests visit bars to reach out to young sceptics amid dramatic decline. The Guardian, 31-31.
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These Dark Satanic Mills

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21183116

Dark Satanic Mills

When Grieder writes that "the Kader fire was ordained and organized by the free market itself," he is referring to the fact that the problems that contributed to the fire are, in his view, systemic in nature. He does not accept the proposition that individual actions and oversights led to the fire, that instead the reason these oversights occurred was because of systemic problems.

The Kadar fire occurred in a toy factory that was producing toys, mainly for export to Western nations. This is part of a practice known as outsourcing, wherein a company that wants to produce something designs the product, markets it, but hires a third-party to do the production. The underlying logic of this system lies with comparative advantage, where nations gain by trading in goods in which they have a comparative advantage with other nations. Thailand is a country that has a lot…… [Read More]

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Personal Statement Successful Completion of the Masters

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76524256

Personal Statement

Successful completion of the Masters program in Health Care Management would mark a significant step forward in my plans for personal and professional development, providing the necessary education, experience, and qualifications to pursue a more advanced and meaningful career in health care management, perhaps as a nurse administrator. My practical and academic experience to this point have been devoted to the non-administrative aspects of providing nursing care to patients in a variety of settings, both within my native Thailand and in me relatively brief but very meaningful time in the United States, and while I am immensely proud of the work I have accomplished as a nurse practitioner I believe that a career in health care management will provide me with an opportunity to ensure that more people receive better quality care. It is for the ultimate purpose of helping to shape global healthcare provision in a manner…… [Read More]

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Healthy D In Our New Global Society

Words: 800 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 58906062

Healthy D

In our new, global society, consumers the world over are increasingly besieged with food choices. The advent of processed foods and diet have had a negative effect on the developed world, and as those products increase in the developing world, similar negatives occur in the health of many. Scholars are all in agreement that what humans consume has a clear link to the consequences of our overall health; particularly for children. Eating right involves two things: A balanced approach to nutrition and the proper mindset to use foods in a health manner (freshness, portion size, condiments, etc.). Despite the trend towards highly refined products with heavy sugar content, sugary sodas, and snack foods with high carbohydrates and low nutritional value, there are alternatives.

Our company, Healthy D, is that alternative. Focused primarily on the Thai market, Healthy D. will produce a new and innovative snack bar that can…… [Read More]

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Role of Culture in International Business

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62636826

ole of Culture in International Business

In an attempt to further enhance their bottom-line while at the same time taking advantage of the benefits and conveniences of globalization, businesses are increasingly extending their operations abroad. Although there are many benefits that such businesses stand to reap, the said global expansion presents its own unique challenges. Indeed, multinational companies operating in global markets face a raft of challenges. These challenges include but they are not limited to business structure adaptation, staffing issues, regulatory and legal hurdles, economic volatility, financial reporting, etc. Multinational companies also have to contend with cultural issues as they conduct their businesses internationally. This is more so the case in terms of the management of their human resources. This text concerns itself with the role of culture in international business. The company of choice for purposes of this discussion is a global electronics company with offices in four…… [Read More]


Kania, S.M., 2010. The Role of Cultural Differences in Forming a Business Strategy. Journal of Intercultural Management, 2(2), p.16-25.

Pride, W.M. & Ferrell, O.C., 2011. Marketing. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Wagner, T., 2009. Foreign Market Entry and Culture. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag.
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Feature Story on Transwoman and Cause

Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 42103345


Geena Rocero is a model with a purpose. Rocero was born and raised in the Philippines, and recently returned to her homeland to help victims of Typhoon Haiyan. In the midst of a busy schedule, Rocero spends time in her first interview because she feels that sharing her life story is one of the first steps toward helping others. "e're all in this journey together," Rocero exclaims.

Coincidentally, the interview falls on Transgender Day of Remembrance, which commemorates all transmen and transwomen who lost their lives because of targeted attacks. "Transwomen of color are the most marginalized," Rocero reminds us. "70% of hate crime in the LGBT community is committed against transwomen of color. I want this to change. I need this to change. I get so emotional about this and I'm reminded how privileged I am," she says with tears in her eyes.

Rocero works as a model…… [Read More]

When she was a young girl, Rocero knew she was female. Her dream was to become a model. She borrowed her sister's clothes, wore her mom's lipstick, entered local beauty pageants, and eventually self-medicated with hormones. Her parents, especially her mom, supported Geena and helped her to enter beauty pageants. When she was 17, Rocero moved to the United States. She was able to work in the United States and save enough money for the gender reassignment surgery, which she had done at age 19. In fact, while on her upcoming trip to Thailand, Rocero is meeting her surgeon to "thank him for giving me a wonderful vagina."

After her sexual reassignment surgery, Geena pursued her dream of modeling. She moved to New York City in 2005 and while working as a bar hostess, met a photographer who helped her develop a portfolio. That same year, Rocero signed with her first modeling agency. Currently, Rocero is signed with NEXT Model Management. In addition to modeling, Geena has worked as a makeup artist with Benefit Cosmetics, a manager at Inc. Magazine, and a sales representative for First Go Green biodegradable products. Rocero has also worked with the Summit Series, an entrepreneurial organization, to learn how to collaborate with partners on achieving mutual goals. It was because of her broad working experience and her networking with Summit Series contacts that Rocero has been able to develop a plan for promoting her public policy initiatives around the world. Rocero's ultimate goal is to transform public policy at the trans-national level. Her vision is to serve as an ambassador for transgender issues with the United Nations.

Rocero knows she has led a privileged life because of supportive friends, supportive family members, and a supportive spiritual community in both her native Philippines and in the United States. Rocero wants to ensure that the underprivileged people of the world also have access to the support systems and resources needed to live a healthy life. Referring to brutal assaults on transwomen around the world, Geena states, "People are dying. I need to do something."