The Awakening Essays Examples

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Awakenings - Dr Oliver Sack Film Based

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51997902

Awakenings - Dr. Oliver Sack Film

Based on a true story about Dr. Oliver Sack's work in the 1960s, Penny Marshall's film Awakenings elucidates the challenges of clinical experimental psychology. Dr. Sack's fictionalized character, Dr. Malcolm Sayer had worked as a laboratory researcher until he was forced to accept a new position treating catatonic patients at a Bronx mental institution. His relative inexperience in a clinical setting could be partly to blame for his somewhat idealistic approach to treating the patients under his care. In any case, Sayer attends a conference about new treatments for Parkinson's disease. When he hears about the revolutionary drug "L-Dopa," Sayer imagines it might offer a viable treatment for the catatonic patients on his ward, whose symptoms result from their having childhood encephalitis. After applying to the hospital medical board for approval, Sayer is permitted to test the drug on one patient. In addition to the administration of L-Dopa, at first at 200 mg doses and then later at 1000 mg doses, Sayer and his staff try to interact with the patients throughout the course of their treatment. Because Sayer is convinced that somewhere underneath their sleeping exteriors rests a human soul screaming to be…… [Read More]

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Awakening Many of the Female

Words: 4681 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77343888

It is Edna who achieves both the awakening of the title, the awareness of how the social traditions imposed on her are stifling her and preventing her from expressing herself as she would wish, and also fails in that she cannot overcome these traditions and so chooses suicide rather than continue under such a repressive system. Chopin implies that there is a danger in awakening, in understanding the nature of the female role in society, and in trying to overcome that role. Chopin believes that some people possess the energy to keep up with their times and in effect to accept whatever may be their lot in life. These people do not need to examine reality or its meaning -- they indeed may not be able to do so, and instead they simply live. Madame Ratignolle is such a person, but Edna is not. Edna questions and examines, and the answers she finds do not allow her to continue as before, or to emulate her friend Madame Ratignolle and simply live. Edna corresponds to the artist, the artist who is always questioning, always examining, and in a way always discovering that the world does not live up to the ideal…… [Read More]

Allen, Priscilla. "Old Critics and New: The Treatment of Chopin's 'The Awakening."

In the Authority of Experience, Arlyn Diamond and Lee R. Edwards (eds.), 224-338. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 1977.
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Awakening Feminism Defining Feminism in

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93011106

The figures that, during the novel, have the greatest role in shaping Edna Pontellier's character, and therefore the figures from whom she must escape, are her husband and children. It is her role as wife and mother that is supposed to define her, as it did for much of recorded history. Women were thought to have very little value outside of the home, especially in the higher classes (when it was unnecessary for women to earn an income or engage in labor for any other reason). Thus, it was her interactions with and devotion to certain specified others that was supposed to define her. As she awakens to the reality of this construct, she reflects, "I would give up the unessential [for my children]; I would give my money, I would give my life for my children; but I wouldn't give myself (Chopin, Chapter 16). Once she realizes that she truly as an identity of her own, she is unwilling to have it subsumed by anyone else.

Edna's foil throughout the novel is the unflappable Madame Ratignolle, who embodies society's ideal conception of the female identity. She is fully engaged with her children and her husband, and even spends her…… [Read More]

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Great Awakening in America the Great Awakenings

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34978548

Great Awakening in America

The Great Awakenings refer to several waves of interest in religion in America. These waves have coincided with increases in economic prosperity and materialism that have caused people to view religion with less interest. It began in the 1930s as disunited attempts at religious revival and in the 1940s had matured into "the remarkable Revival of Religion" (Lambert, p. 6). During the 1740 sThe Great Awakenings aimed at inspiring people to perceive religion as a source of emotional energy and not as a set of rituals and practices. The social and economic problems faced by twenty-first century American society necessitate a similar movement that can create a sense of community in a religiously and ethnically diverse society.

During the early decades of the eighteenth century, the British colonies in America were evolving from their beginnings in the sixteenth century. Trade in slaves, sugar, tobacco and manufactured goods from Britain had created greater wealth among the colonialists, particularly in Pennsylvania and Chesapeake (American Promise, p. 127). With increasing prosperity and enterprise, people had become interested in buying goods and were spoilt for choice for the first time in history. People had become detached from religion and more…… [Read More]

American Promise. Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century. pp109-137.

Kaur, Valarie. "Shooting at Sikh Gurdwara Prompts Call for Storytelling to Bind Us Together." National. Washington Post, 21 August 2012. Web. 28 Aug. 2012.
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Second Great Awakening Impact of

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89148855

Indeed, the Eastern awakening caused groups and societies to spring up that were characterized by their desire to do missionary work in the United States ("Second Great").

In the Appalachian region, however, the antecedent of the Second Great Awakening was the first and other revivals that had occurred since then. The tone taken in this region was the same evangelistic, camp meeting gospel preached at such events in the past, complete with emotional fervor. Indeed, it was this region that gave rise to newfound strength for Methodists and Baptists, whose popularity ever since can be credited to this period in history and its spiritual events. Thus, the Second Great Awakening was an important part of American History in which denominations were formed and strengthened and the social working religion was formed.

Works Cited

"Second Great Awakening: Religious Revival Movement Had Profound Impact in U.S."

America.Gov. 5 April 2008. 26 July 2009.… [Read More]

Works Cited:
"Second Great Awakening: Religious Revival Movement Had Profound Impact in U.S."

America.Gov. 5 April 2008. 26 July 2009.
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Spring Awakening Examining Melodrama as

Words: 784 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45135830

This suggests that it is an intellectual understanding of her friend's beatings and not a true emotional empathy that she is after. Though the scene is most definitely tragic, if it is approached with the same intellectual curiosity that the two adolescents bring to it can only be seen as an episode of horribly dark humor. The fact that Wendla can be so foolish as to desire an intellectual understanding of child abuse shows her complete lack of a true appreciation for the situation, and is thus a comic -- not necessarily humorous, but comical nonetheless -- situation.

The end of a play is also one way to determine if a particular work is a comedy or a tragedy. The fact that Moritz and Wendla are both unnecessarily dead at the end of the play at first seems to suggest a tragedy, as does Melchior's expulsion. When the characters end up worse than they were at the start of the action, it usually indicates a tragedy. But this is not actually where Spring Awakening leaves off. Instead, Melchior returns to his village -- or at least its graveyard -- and encounters Moritz and the masked Man. This scene is not…… [Read More]

Wedekind, Frank. Spring Awakening, Edward Bond, trans. London: Methuen Drama, 1980.
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Chopin and Oates An Awakening

Words: 993 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4195957

The wildly prolific Joyce Carol Oates also delves into the role of modern women in her fiction writing, although a quick review of her works spanning the course of the 20th and 21st centuries, suggests it is more difficult to draw as direct a connection between Oates' major works and biography than it is with Chopin. However, like Mrs. Mallard of "The Story of an Hour" briefly delights in a fantasy coming to life, only to find her hopes dashed when the promise of freedom is taken away, the heroine Connie of "Where are you going, where have you been," finds her fantasy of being seductive and more beautiful than her conventional mother and sister to be far different than she realizes in reality. In Oates, much more explicitly than in Chopin, the trap of femininity 'used' as a vehicle of liberation for the teenage Connie becomes a lie, as Connie becomes the victim of rape and possibly (it is implied) even murder. The weak-hearted Louise of "The Story of an Hour" might fantasize about using her inheritance to travel. However, Connie actually makes herself look beautiful -- but when she is confronted with Arnold Friend who styles himself on…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." PBS Electronic Library. 6 Oct 2008. 

Johnson, Greg. "A Brief Biography: Joyce Carol Oates." From a Reader's Guide to the Recent
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Papyri Awakening Osiris The Egyptian Book of

Words: 3588 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64486597


Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead

The Egyptian Book of the Dead is a western title for an ancient collection of Egyptian manuscripts, the majority of which were funerary in nature. These collected writings have also been referred to as the Egyptian Bible or identified by the names of the scribes who penned them. The Papyrus of Ani comprises the most significant contribution to these texts, though there are some other minor sources which are often included. In the original languages, these works were more accurately entitled the Books of Coming Forth By Day. One of the greatest challenges to English-language speakers when confronting all the great scriptures is the language gap. Unless one has the time and inclination to learn Arabic, Hindi, Hebrew, Greek -- or in this case, Egyptian Heiroglyphs -- it becomes necessary to read the scriptures in translation. The farther removed one's own culture, and alphabet, is from the culture which spawned this scripture, the more translation becomes a vital and subjective area. This particular book review covers a translation of the Egyptian scriptures by Normandi Ellis, which have been printed by Phanes Press under the title Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of…… [Read More]

Budge, E.A. Wallis et al. (Trans.) The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani. 

Ellis, Normandi (Trans.). Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988.
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Wolves The Sexual Awakening of Little Red

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45766349

Wolves: The sexual awakening of Little Red

"The Company of Wolves" by Angela Carter depicts the fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood as a sexual awakening for the young woman, Little Red. [THESIS]. This can be seen in how the wolf is sexualized and depicted as a vibrant, attractive man in the eyes of Little Red

"He strips off his shirt. His skin is the color and texture of vellum. A crisp strip of hair runs down his belly, his nipples are ripe and dark as poison fruit but he's so thin you could count the ribs under his skin if only he'd give you the time…His genitals, huge. Ah! Huge!" (Carter 317). The story retains the general structure of the fairy tale until the end, but the descriptions of Little Red and the wolf give the story an additional sexual relevance.

For example, in the above-cited quotation, the wolf's true, sexual nature and carnivorous desire is revealed when he exposes himself to grandmother. The man/wolf is hairy and mature as a man yet he also has a strangely feminine side: "his nipples are ripe and dark as poison fruit" (Carter 317) His nipples are like poison fruit, which…… [Read More]

Carter, Angela. "The Company of Wolves." From The Bloody Chamber and Other Stories.

New York: Penguin, 1990.
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Nora's Awakening

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 914323

Nora's Awakening #2

Lori D'Angelo

Nora's Awakening

A Doll's House by Henrick Ibsen is a 1879 play that provides insight into the life of a women during the 19th century. While the play takes place over a short period time, it is during this time that Nora Helmer realizes that she is unhappy, and she needs to break away from her husband. Nora feels as though she was never given the opportunity to live the life she wanted, and after seeing what her husband, Torvald, thinks of Krogstad, a man who has committed the same crimes Nora has in order to save Torvald, she can no longer keep her thoughts to herself and resolves to stop being objectified by all the men in her life. In the play, the turning point comes in Act III when Nora compares herself to a doll and explains how she has always been treated as an object and subsequently blames both her father and her husband for not being given the opportunity to make more of herself.

One of the reason's the definitive moment in the play occurs when Nora compares herself to a doll is because it gives Nora is finally able to…… [Read More]

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New Earth Awakening to a

Words: 794 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10996615

We must be willing to fail, to falter, to suffer, in order to become greater versions of ourselves. Sometimes, being shown lesser versions of ourselves can be the key to this personal evolution.

And perhaps most importantly, we must recognize that this personal evolution does not occur in a vacuum. To the contrary, we improve ourselves only if we improve the value we represent for the whole of humanity, in whatever modest capacity this may be possible. Here, we are driven by the idea that "a human being is a part of a whole, called by us the 'universe', a part limited in time and space."

This is perhaps the unifying principle in our discussion. The openness which is a recurrent theme here denotes especially the imperative to remain open to one's fellow man. Nothing that we do occurs independently of the needs and wishes of family, friends, communities, societies, civilizations and so on. We are infinitesimal units of an infinitude that is well beyond our comprehension. The best we can do is attempt to comprehend this notion as a function of that which we can impact. Where we can improve our lives, the lives of those around us and…… [Read More]

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Orem S Self Care Theory and the Movie Awakenings

Words: 1873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29533031

Nursing Theory

Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory to Awakenings

There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT). This theory has established a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problem is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action (, 2012). The movie Awakenings (Parkes, Lasker & Marshall, 1990) can be used as an example of how this theory can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions. The focus here will be on the scene where the patients awakened. Dr. Sayer was present, as was the nurse manager and a staff nurse. At this point, there is a transition in the type of care that needs to be provided to the patients from wholly compensatory to partially compensatory.


All individuals need to take care of themselves in one way or the other, depending on their need at any point in time. There will be instances when the assistance that is required is beyond that of the family members or the lay caregivers within the society, thereby requiring…… [Read More]

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Orem S Self Care Theory and the Movie Awakenings

Words: 1615 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59906186

Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory

There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Orem's self-care deficit theory. This theory is predicated a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problems is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action. The movie Awakenings can be used as an example of how this can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions.

Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory

Dorothea Orem was a staff nurse, and later moved onto educational positions within nursing. She developed her concept of self-care deficit theory to explain nursing in terms of a key interpersonal relationship between nurse and patient, where the nurse helps the patient to take care of him/herself. The underlying assumptions are that the patient is a distinct individual, and should be self-reliant. It is insufficient for a patient to simply rely on medical professionals for their health. The patient should have knowledge of his/her own health problems, and understand what they can do to address those. Understanding the issues helps the patient with self-care. Orem believed that self-care or dependent-care are learned behaviors,…… [Read More]

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Chopin's Definition of Motherhood

Words: 793 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30071432


In today's culture it is sometimes easy to forget the progress women have made in regards to determining their own future, personal freedom, and changing the definition of their societal roles. Women can run for president, take charge of multi-billion dollar corporations, decide to pursue (or not) motherhood; modern culture embraces feminism and a woman's right to choose. The freedom women have today is inherited through a long series of struggles, women slowly breaking down barriers. Kate Chopin is an early advocate for altering the role of women in society. The Awakening is an honest portrayal of an 18th century women dissatisfied with her life, and more urgently trapped by the constraints of society. Chopin demonstrates to her contemporaries that women are not defined by the societal expectations, some women can and do want more than motherhood and wifehood. This paper will argue that Chopin believed that women were held to idealized and therefore unrealistic expectations, and societal institutions limited the freedom of women.

Chapter 4 introduces the reader to the term mother-women, a moniker that refers to the ideal woman of the time. The beginning of the chapter begins with Mr. Pontellier asserting that Edna is not a…… [Read More]

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Thematic Significance of Voices Music

Words: 2170 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71206245

Similarly, Mademoiselle Reisz fascinates and inspires Edna beyond words, yet Edna cannot possibly duplicate her life. Adele, kind and sympathetic as she is, in conversation with Edna, still cannot even begin to understand Edna's deep yearnings for freedom and independence; for she shares none of them. Even the longed-for Robert, upon returning from a protracted trip to Mexico, tells Edna that his own view of their future life together (should they ever have one) would be heartbreakingly similar to her present life with her husband.

Within Kate Chopin's the Awakening, noises, conversations (pleasant and unpleasant) laughter, sobbing, and sounds associated with eating and drinking, fill the novel. Symbolically, many of these, such as Edna's breaking of the glass vase in frustration near the beginning of the story, underscore the essential action, as well as the feelings of the main character. Other sounds, such as party chatter at various Creole gatherings that summer, serve to underscore Edna's essential feelings of aloneness. In conversations, similarly, Edna hears but is not truly heard; her authentic voice is never recognized for what it is by anyone on Grande Isle that summer including Robert. Sounds of laughter alternate with sounds of despair, such as Edna's…… [Read More]

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Feminist Reading Two Models of

Words: 2840 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75727939

As such, she fails to address the central problem of feminism in the Pontellier perspective, namely the impossibility of female individuality and independence in a patriarchal world. It is only in isolation that Edna can find any happiness, and she must make this isolation more and more complete in order to maintain her happiness, as the patriarchy has a means of encroaching on all populated areas, and Wollstonecraft's feminism does not offer an alternative to this need to escape humanity.

A final snort of disgust might be distinctly heard from Edna Pontellier upon her reading of this line of Wollstonecraft's, afterwards she might likely have flung the text aside (or into the fireplace, depending on the season): "Pleasure is the business of woman's life, according to the present modification of society" (ch. 4, par. 10). What Wollstonecraft means is that women are thought to be so fragile, so emotional, and so otherwise incompetent that they are taught to take and seek pleasure as a means of protection, and Wollstonecraft takes umbrage at the fact that this turns women into weaker and less effective individuals than they were designed to be. The idea that the life of a woman was in…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. 1899. University of Virginia E-Text Center. Accessed 28 May 2012.

Hammer, Colleen. To Be Equal or Not to Be Equal: The Struggle for Women's Rights as Argued by Mary Wollstonecraft and Christina Rossetti. UCC [working paper].
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Chopin's Title Selection in The

Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1687179

Here, we see that Edna realizes what is happening to her and why. She sees Robert as a catalyst for her awakening but not the answer to her yearnings for a more fulfilled life. It is also important to note how Edna refers to her life being a stupid dream. This remark illustrates the intensity of what she is going through - in essence; it pinpoints the reason behind her awakening.

Another character responsible Edna's awakening is the doctor. As we have mentioned, Edna is living in a day and age where women are supposed to be happy fulfilling the role of wife and mother. When Edna seeks out the doctor for advice, his words are difficult to hear. While he may empathize with her, he is also being pragmatic when he tells says, "Youth is given up to illusions" (147). His words reinforce what she already knows and Edna realizes that she is trapped. She is not free and she cannot remove herself from the life she has. However, this realization does not deter her and all she can say to the doctor is how much "better to wake up after all, even to suffer, rather than to remain…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening and Other Stories. New York: Bantam Books. 1988.
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Kate Chopin Lived and Created in a

Words: 2165 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20995162

Kate Chopin lived and created in a time when society could not or was not willing to handle her. When she died, in 1903, it felt like the world was putting her on hold. She was a woman ahead of her times who rang the "awakening" for a cohort of women. Her tolling bells would only be heard more than half a century later when a man, a Norwegian professor from the department of British and American studies from the University of Oslo, Per Seyersted, brought Kate Chopin's life achievements back to life.

Since then, as Per Seyersted wrote in his Preface to the book Kate Chopin's Private Letters: "We have come a long way"(X). But, as all her readers will understand now, not only has Kate Chopin "finally received the recognition she deserves"(X), but she gave the world a special insight into the life of women and bourgeois families living in the middle of the nineteenth century along the lines others were tracing for them.

Chopin's novel, the Awakening, republished and translated in many languages at a time when women were in the middle of an emancipation movement never heard of before, made her powerful voice travel in time…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. Herbert S. Stone & Company Chicago & New York. 1899

Seyersted, Per. Kate Chopin's Private Papers. Biography and Autobyography. Indiana University Press, 1998
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Sexuality and Literature

Words: 1927 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10642403

Lover" and "The Awakening"

Both Kate Chopin's The Awakening and Marguerite Duras' The Lover address what happens when a woman searches for a way to leave her present life behind and seek a new one that may, or may not, be any better. In The Awakening, 28-year-old Edna Pontellier struggles for selfhood but does not have the strength to accept the ramifications of this possibility. In The Lover, the 15-year-old female narrator embraces self-awareness and uses her acquired strength to widen life's possibilities.

The Awakening takes place at the end of the 19th century, when the Western world was beginning to undergo major changes due to the Industrial Revolution and increased urbanization. Although women were beginning to envision a less-restrained future, they were still, for the most part, bound by tradition to be subservient to their husbands. Middle- and upper-class women were expected to stay at home as idle, decorative symbols of their husband's wealth -- entertaining friends and business associates and caring for children and their spouse's needs. They spent their other hours playing music and singing, visiting friends, or reflecting well on their husbands reputations in other ways. Despite the fact that women often brought a dowry to…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening (Electronic Version).

Culley, Margaret, ed. The Awakening. Kate Chopin. New York: Norton, 1976.

Duras, Marguerite. The Lover. New York: Harper, 1993.
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Role of Women Examined in

Words: 1558 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97496281

Deyo's commentary represents the type of attitude that forced women to conform to standards that while they are not demeaning, they are not for every female. Chopin knew that some women were not designed to be mothers and wives and she knew that there was absolutely nothing wrong with this assertion. Chopin and Edna were women out of time, living with others that could not accept the fact that a woman could be single and happy. Edna's death is seen as pathetic but what critics fail to understand about her death is that it proved to be the only acceptable way of life for Edna. All other options had been exhausted and the duty of wife and mother was simply unacceptable because it created more anxiety than anyone on the Pontellier family could bear. Edna knew that her future was bleak and she knew that a depressed, disassociated mother was worse than none at all and gave herself away to illustrate this point.

Works Cited

Deyo, C.L. "The Newest Books." Critical Essays on Kate Chopin. 1996. GALE Resource

Database. Information Retrieved May 13, 2009.

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening and Other Short Stories. New York: Bantam Books. 1988.

Parini, Jay, ed.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Deyo, C.L. "The Newest Books." Critical Essays on Kate Chopin. 1996. GALE Resource

Database. Information Retrieved May 13, 2009.
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African-American Art

Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98130099

African-American Art

The art of African-Americans became a powerful medium for social and self-expression. Visual arts including sculpture carried with it political implications related to colonialism, oppression, and liberation. Along with other forms of creative expression, African-American visual arts particularly flourished during the Harlem Renaissance. Three exemplary pieces of art that represent the character, tone, and tenor of African-American art during the Harlem Renaissance include Meta Warrick Fuller's "Ethiopia Awakening," Palmer Hayden's "Fetiche et Fleurs," and Richmond Barthe's "Feral Benga." Each of these works of art conveys liberation from oppression and a subversion of the dominant culture.

In Meta Warrick Fuller's bronze sculpture "Ethiopia Awakening," a woman embodies two distinct themes: of bondage and of liberation. The lower portion of the figure is rendered as would be an Egyptian mummy: legs and feet fully bound, wrapped tightly in cloth bearing a classical Egyptian palm-like motif. Egypt is the bastion of civilization in ancient Africa; the awakening of a unique black identity among African-Americans depends on drawing connections to the ancient history of black people everywhere. Egypt is particularly important to the black consciousness because it serves as a cultural bridge: inhabited by a group of people as diverse as African-Americans.…… [Read More]

"Augusta Savage." Retrieved online: 

Lewis, S.S. (2003). African-American Art and Artists. University of California Press.
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American Dream

Words: 1610 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78619334

American Dream

The Awakening" and "Thelma and Louise"

Although written and filmed a century apart, Kate Chopin's novel, "The Awakening," and the movie "Thelma and Louis" possess the same core theme of feminism at odds with the norms of society.

Chopin's character Edna, has had the social upbringing of any proper female of her day. Chopin describes her as "an American woman, with a small infusion of French which seemed to have been lost in dilution" (Chopin 9). Her marriage is social and filled with household schedules and social agendas. Edna's place is carved neatly and tightly. Her children were a responsibility that did not consume her for she "was not a mother-woman" (Chopin 19). She had never grown those protective wings that idolizing mothers grow and revere. Edna's husband, Leonce, reproaches her for her "inattention, her habitual neglect of the children" (Chopin 12). It was not as if Edna was a "bad" mother, she was simply not doting nor did the children dote upon her. However, reproaches such as this were rooted in Edna's indifference to Leonce. As Chopin writes, "He thought it very discouraging that his wife, who was the sole object of his existence, evinced so little…… [Read More]

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Dissolution of Marriage in The

Words: 1105 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71140262

Edna needed more than what family life could offer her but she was living in a time where women did not seek an independent life outside the home. Edna was a woman out of her time and society made sure of that.

Another aspect that leads to the breakup of Edna's marriage was the relationship she had with men other than her husband. Edna and Robert are not doubt in love but even Robert's love could not satisfy Edna. She knew this and Robert's love, romantic as it was, could never be enough. Edna needed Robert but not completely. However, Robert is significant because he brings Edna "out of a life-long stupid dream" (143). She valued their relationship but knew that it would not last. She tells him that he is a foolish man because he:

wastes his time dreaming of impossible things when you speak of Mr. Pontellier setting me free! I am no longer one of Mr. Pontellier's possessions to dispose of or not. I give myself where I choose. If he were to say, 'Here, Robert, take her and be happy; she is yours.' I should laugh at you both. (143)

In addition, Edna's fling with Arobin…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening and Othr Stories. New York: Bantam Books. 1988.
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1904 Revival Beginning in Wales

Words: 2237 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84149149


The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.

What I have learned

Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.

The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500


Corruption of the church lowered it in the eyes of the people. Historical records of the time indicate that several movements in the medieval church arose as counter reaction in order to pursue holiness. Most of these movements constituted monks, nuns, and friars who sought to separate themselves from the materialistic corruption of the church.…… [Read More]

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Principal Intellectual Movements Anglo-American Colonies Eighteenth Century

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5410188

Principal intellectual movements Anglo-American colonies eighteenth century: Great Awakening Enlightenment." You sources relevant paper. Use Reich's Colonial America reference research report if draw material source assigned, footnotes book, article,

The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment:

Wrestling for the souls and the minds of colonial settlers in the Americas

The colonial period in the Americas was a time of intense intellectual ferment. Two seemingly contradictory intellectual movements arose: that of the Great Awakening and the American Enlightenment. The Great Awakening was a period of religious revivalism that arose within the New England and Mid-Atlantic colonies. The American version of the Enlightenment, a movement which began in Europe, was characterized by intellectual curiosity and a belief in the need for rationalism over superstition when governing human affairs. Both of these conceptions of the 'human' shaped the future, evolving history of America.

While many of the American colonies were founded by people fleeing the persecution of the British Crown, once settlements began to take hold, religious fervor cooled. "Because people often lived great distances from a parish church, membership and participation suffered. In addition, on the frontier concern for theological issues faded before the concern for survival and wrestling a living from a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
"The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. December 17, 2010
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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787 the Constitution of the U.S. was written. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams were both on the committee. They were in agreement that religion was a freedom and religious beliefs should not be dictated to anyone. Many people hailing from England and other countries enjoyed that migrated to the U.S., enjoyed…… [Read More]

Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)
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Republicanism the Rise of Republicanism

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Intellectual development is reflected in the creation, development and eventual preference for a specific type of government or representation in the society. Consequently, this period of intellectual development helped promote the freedom and social order, as more forms of representation and governance were developed and implemented in American society. Republicanism's eventual dominance over other governments and political ideologies, however, reflects the society's need to preserve and champion their individual freedoms and at the same time, maintain social order despite people's political differences and beliefs.

The Great Awakening emerged as an ideology, a religious movement that embodied social order and served as a precursor to the American Revolution (declared in the late 18th century). This revivalist religious movement in American history paved the way for an "open and undisguised Unitarianism" among different Christian sects and churches in America. While there was still diversity among churches and sects, the Great Awakening improved the "religious experience" of Americans, allowing them to make better judgments and choices on their religious -- and inevitably, political -- beliefs and views (Tracy, 1842:403). In addition, religion as a major political force during this period inevitably contributed to the growth of republicanism as an ideology. Thus, the Great…… [Read More]

Castiglione, D. (2002). "Republicanism and its Legacy." European Journal of Political Theory, Vol. 4, No. 4.

Goodman, J. (2005). "What is classical liberalism?" National Center for Policy Analysis. Available at:
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Edna and Adele Opposites in

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She is not asking Adele for permission and Adele does not try to force her to do or not do anything. She does kindly ask her to think of her children but she does not attack her. Adele does not understand Edna when she tells her that she would give her money and her life for her children but not herself. Her belief system is too different from Edna's but the woman can still connect on a female level. Without this bond, Edna would have never been able to reach out to other people in hopes of forming a connection.

Adele is necessary for us to see how Edna has evolved over the course of time. This is easily demonstrated in her relationship and her feelings toward Adele. Edna's development can be seen in stages throughout the story. One way in which her change manifests itself is how she begins to view others. While she cares for her friend, Edna realizes that Adele and her husband are living a rather empty life. After a visit with them, she is "moved by a kind of commiseration" (74) for Adele. She feels a "pity for that colorless existence which never uplifted its…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening and Other Stories. "The Awakening." New York: Bantam Books. 1988.
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Naturalism in Kate Chopin's The

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" shall come back as soon as I can; I shall find you here."

One more time, she gives into her biological role. During Adele's labor pains, Edna recalls her own childbirth, an event that offered very different kinds of memories of an awakening than she has now. "Edna began to feel uneasy. She was seized with a vague dread. Her own like experiences seemed far away, unreal, and only half remembered. She recalled faintly an ecstasy of pain, the heavy odor of chloroform, a stupor which had deadened sensation, and an awakening to find a little new life to which she had given being, added to the great unnumbered multitude of souls that come and go." As a result,

Edna "began to wish she had not come; her presence was not necessary. She might have invented a pretext for staying away; she might even invent a pretext now for going." However, she stays. "With an inward agony, with a flaming, outspoken revolt against the ways of Nature, she witnessed the scene of torture" (108-109).

Because of this internal need and drive for motherhood, Edna's other side -- her desire for freedom from the confines and constraints of society --…… [Read More]

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Human Agency Kate Chopin's Protagonist

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In prison, Malcolm X learned how to direct his will, his human agency, towards personal empowerment. Personal empowerment and self-education led to his forging ties with powerful Black leaders. Therefore, Malcolm X presents human agency as being instrumental to creating positive social change. As the author points out, genuine anger was transmuted into the ultimate goal of achieving universal human rights.

Universal human rights was also the main concern of W.E.B. DuBois, as Garth E. Pauley points out. W.E.B. DuBois was keenly aware of the devastating fact that many who supported the 14th and 15th Amendments were also willing to denigrate women. It was as if Americans felt the need to distinguish between racism and sexism. Supporters of the 14th and 15th Amendments held backwards views about women, and were willing to accept the outlandish notion that women were incapable of voting. Excluding fifty percent of the population from political empowerment was anathema to human rights, W.E.B. DuBois was trying to say. On the other hand, the so-called Southern Strategy segregated racism and sexism in a different way: by supporting the right of white women to vote but not blacks. W.E.B. DuBois tried to present a reasoned argument that showed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. Ed. Nancy Walker. Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford, 2000.

Malcolm X selections from the Autobiography of Malcolm X
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Teaching I Believe Is a Vocation That

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Teaching, I believe, is a vocation that should be pursued by those who can help students to not just master required subject matter but develop skills for critical thinking, so that, they in turn, will be able to contribute to and further build on the accumulated body of knowledge in their chosen fields. To successfully achieve the aforesaid objective requires personal commitment; mastery of the subject being taught; originality and creativity; and the ability to make students relate to the subject matter.

Given my own views on 'teaching,' I was naturally pleased to find that the objectives of my course had been carefully structured and defined to meet precisely the above-mentioned requisites. This has been particularly meaningful for me as both a student today, and hopefully, as a teacher of high schools students tomorrow.

The personal importance of successfully achieving the stated goals of the English program led to my reviewing my portfolio with a view to finding examples of work that would demonstrate a wide, but knowledgeable application of the content and skills learnt from the course. From all the pieces reviewed, I found that my work on Moby Dick and The Awakening were best equipped to showcase my…… [Read More]

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American Church History

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Great Awakening: The Beginning of Evangelicalism

The evangelicals started a new movement in the 1950s called new evangelicalism with a basis on human experiences that downplayed the role of doctrine and turned back on external church relations which in a way made it hard to differentiate evangelicalism from the mainstream Christendom. This movement has experienced several transformations since the Reformation from pietistic evangelism, fundamentalist evangelism, and classic evangelism to the more modern form known as evangelistic fundamentalism. Within the movement, the emergent church is increasingly growing to influence the postmodern culture. By advocating for diversity and pluralism, postmodernism in no way lays claim to any absolute principles in the new cultural dispensation. And so the new church primarily focuses on the younger generation. By attempting to reverse the church to the practices of the middle ages, it can only be possible to take a critical look at the spokespeople because its numerous aspects makes it difficult to distinguish as a single movement. Other voices within it are a complete departure from old traditions and eschatological ways of thought, soteriology and the role of scripture. Post-evangelicalism is in away related to the emerging church in Britain which has complimentary thoughts to…… [Read More]

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Analyzing a Character The Shadow

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In fact, rather than approve her
action, the man who first awakens her new-found sexuality, Robert Lebrun,
rejects Edna. As an idealized object of desire from far away, Edna was
attractive to Robert. When Edna makes himself available to him, in real,
physical terms, Robert's superego dominates his id-driven desire for
pleasure. Although he desires Edna as an object of fantasy, because of his
intense sense of guilt, she also comes to embody all he fears, namely the
complete liberation of his desires from all societal constraints. Edna thus
becomes Robert's scapegoat, or shadow, rather than an object of fantasy.
For a number of persons in the novel, Edna functions as a shadow. For
example, Ad?le Ratignolle, a devoted wife and mother, willfully conforms to
what society demands of a woman. Edna's eventual outsider status is what
all Adele fears-solitude, loss of family, and the pursuit of sexual
conquest. Yet for Edna, Adele in many ways is her shadow, because of
Adele's unwavering compliance to her husband, which troubles Edna. On a
personal level, even the 'shadow' of a society like Edna, can have her own,
personal shadows.

Final Reflection: Personal

As reflected in the ancient practice of the ritual…… [Read More]

Bly, Robert. A Little Book on the Human Shadow. San Francisco: Harper
Collins, 2003.

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994.
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Relationship With the Men of Edna Pontellier

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relationships of Edna Pontellier in Kate Chopin's book, the Awakening. The writer of this paper uses examples from the book to take the reader on a journey through Pontellier's relationships and how they impacted her life and actions.

Awakening With Help

Often times when someone does something like commit suicide the world turns a cold and blind eye to what may have contributed to that person's downward spiral. Authors of literature can take the time to explore this dark side of the person's life, which is exactly what Kate Chopin did in her classic tale The Awakening. Chopin shocked the literary world when she penned the story of Edna Pontellier and her desire to be free of a loveless marriage and boring children. It was written in a time when women were often trapped in such marriages and they had been born and raised to accept such a fate and learn to work within its confines to try and find some small measure of tolerability or happiness. In The Awakening Edna chose to find neither of these things and instead found herself elated at taking control of her destiny even though it meant her own death. The relationships she had…… [Read More]

At first glance Edna appears to be self-centered and selfish. She seemingly does not love her children or her husband to be able to commit the acts of adultery and then death that she commits. However if we peel the top and examine the underpinnings we see that it is because she loved the men in her life that her life became numb and then had to come to an end.


Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. (Mass Market Paperback, 1994).
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Trace How the World Changes

Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56949645

In conclusion, these works all illustrate the changing role of women in 19th century society. At the beginning of the century, women's work was inside the home and raising a family. By the end of the century, Victorian women were attempting to add meaning and fulfillment to their lives. Women in this country were attempting to gain the right to vote, they were forming women's groups and societies, and women like Gilman, Chopin, Wollstonecraft Shelley, and others, were attempting to create their own writing careers, allowing them to be at least partially autonomous and independent. They write of women's struggles for equality and understanding with great knowledge, skill, and perception. They also write of the realities of being a woman in the 19th century. For the most part, women's lives were unfulfilled and controlled by the men around them.


Chopin, Kate. The Awakening, and Other Stories. Ed. Knights, Pamela. Oxford: Oxford University, 2000.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wall-Paper." The Online Archive of Nineteenth-Century U.S. Women's Writings. Ed. Glynis Carr. Fall 1999. 9 May 2008.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Complete Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, ed. George Parsons Lathrop (Riverside Edition), 12 vols. Boston, 1890.

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein or,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening, and Other Stories. Ed. Knights, Pamela. Oxford: Oxford University, 2000.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wall-Paper." The Online Archive of Nineteenth-Century U.S. Women's Writings. Ed. Glynis Carr. Fall 1999. 9 May 2008. 
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Victorian Period Women as Exemplified

Words: 1310 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39324754

She begins to let her own creativity flow and through her art takes a closer view of her own father, who has controlled her since she was a young child. With her pen in hand, Edna realizes that she need not be caged in and just copy what she sees. Instead, she can draw freehand with her own interpretations. She starts to recognize the power that she has as an artist and creator of her own life.

Likewise, Edna begins to understand her sexual power. She is not only free to feel with her artwork, but also with her sensuality and sexual awareness. Now she recognizes the power with both her art and body and is ready to attempt things that once were impossible. For example, she fully experiences her physical power when learning how to swim. At first, she feels "a certain ungovernable dread hung about her when in the water, unless there was a hand nearby that might right out to reassure her." This, of course, forecasts what is to come. Later, this fear disappears, and she bravely wades to the gulf "alone, boldly and with over-confidence" and "shouts for joy" as "a feeling of exultation overtakes her,…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. "The Awakening." 20, November 2007.

Crane, Gregg. The Cambridge Introduction to the Nineteenth-Century American Novel
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American Literature Jewett Chopin and Cather

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Country of the Pointed Firs," by Sarah Orne Jewett, "The Awakening," by Kate Chopin and "My Antonia," by Willa Cather. Specifically, it will show the development of the complexity, or the straightforwardness, of the point-of-view. Point-of-view is often as difficult to pinpoint as the characters of great novels. Sometimes, the point-of-view in a novel can shift and change, but the bottom line is -- point-of-view is a compelling way to keep the reader interested in the story, while telling more about the characters. Thus, point-of-view is a central part of the telling of a tale, and that is one of the most important techniques a writer can use to get their point across to the reader.

Point-of-View in Three Works

Point-of-view is one of the devices used to make or break a novel, and these three pieces all use point-of-view effectively and quite differently to set the stage, tell the story, and keep the reader interested in the novel. Each of these works would be quite a different story if the author had chosen another point-of-view, and that is part of the reason each of these novels are both compelling and enduring.

In "The Country of the Painted Firs," the…… [Read More]

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Edna and Zora

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Gender Identity/Male-Female Roles and Power Relationship. In a discussionof characters from "The Awakening" by Despite the fact that there are numerous differences existent in the novels The Awakening by Kate Chopin, Light in August by William Faulkner, and Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston, there are some poignant similarities between these three works of literature. They were all written in the years directly preceding or occurring subsequent to the arrival of the 20th century, and they all deal with issues related to race (albeit extremely indirectly in Chopin's book). Moreover, all of these pieces chronicle definite challenges presented to women due to notions of gender and society that were pressing during this historical epoch. Some of the more salient issues affecting women during this time period, such as marriage and motherhood and the degree of autonomy (or dearth thereof) women had in living their lives is explored in the issues relating to major characters in each novel. A thorough analysis of the principle protagonists within each of these works reveals that these women were able to defy the mores of their day related to gender and its limitations, and were able to exercise a degree of freedom…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. Project Gutenberg. Web. 2006.

Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Harper Collins. 1937. Print.
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Role and Treatment of Women

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Society looks at women's bodies to define their happiness or unhappiness, but Chopin suggests that women must look deeper into their psyche to find the cause of their personal difficulties.

Women become scapegoats for what is wrong with society. Women are eternally 'misread' by those who claim to love them because they are only seen in terms of their physical or married life. Mrs. Mallard dies of horror when she sees that her husband is alive but his apparent resurrection from the dead is assumed to have stopped her heart with "the joy that kills" by the doctors who examine her body. They cannot conceive of the idea that a lack of freedom, rather than a lack of a man might make a woman miserable. Although Armand is himself of mixed race, as is revealed at the end of the story, it is Desiree who must suffer and is blamed for her child's race because of her gender.

Women bear the brunt of society's hypocrisies because male fantasies are projected upon them -- either of male indispensability as in "The Story of an Hour" or ideals of female chastity as in The Awakening. When female passion, as in the case…… [Read More]

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. Full text retrieved May 25, 2009 at

Chopin, Kate. "The Father of Desiree's Baby." Full text retrieved May 25, 2009 at
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American Colonialism Opportunity in Colonial

Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54310205

William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's Royal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,

Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.

Constitution (Uden). Perhaps the single greatest influence on resolving religious differences in the New World was sparked by the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia in 1686. By demonstrating that the Universe was comprehensible to man, Newton had also undermined traditional religion with its assumption of a world created by God in a way…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.
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Nurse Discuss as Well as

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The fact that a novel in the sentimental and seduction genre attained such heights of popularity is, in the first instance, evidence its impact and effect on the psyche and minds of the female readers of the novel. As one critic cogently notes:

Why a book which barely climbs above the lower limits of literacy, and which handles, without psychological acuteness or dramatic power, a handful of stereotyped characters in a situation already hopelessly banal by 1790, should have had more than two hundred editions and have survived among certain readers for a hundred and fifty years is a question that cannot be ignored.

(Fiedler 94)

The initial question that obviously arises therefore is what made this book so popular and in what way does this novel speak to the feelings and aspirations of the readers to make it such a perennial favorite. As Fudge ( 1996) notes,

It is tempting to say that popular taste given the choice between a better and worse book will inevitably choose the worse; but this is an anti-sentimental simplification no more helpful than its sentimental opposite number. Only certain bad books succeed, apparently not by the simple virtue of their badness, but because…… [Read More]

Barton, Paul. "Narrative Intrusion in Charlotte Temple: A Closet Feminist's Strategy in an American Novel." Women and Language 23.1 (2000): 26. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.

Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and Death in the American Novel. Rev. ed. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
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Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin and Dead by James Joyce

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Chopin's The Story Of An Hour And Joyce's The Dead

Marriage is commonly defined as an intimate union of a man and woman, involving a special kind of love and commitment that facilitates a harmonious relationship and family life. Too often, however, the reality of marriage proves to be far removed from the idealized images projected by society and religion since individual personalities and the drudgery of daily living lead to a deadening of relationships. Indeed, this is precisely the revelation that both Kate Chopin and James Joyce make in The Story of an Hour and The Dead although the two authors approach the subject of married relationships from rather different perspectives. Both Chopin's Mrs. Mallard and Joyce's Gabriel are depicted as awakening to the true state of their respective marriages. The difference, however, between the two protagonists is that while Mrs. Mallard awakens to her need for liberation, Gabriel regrets the lack of passion in his dull existence with his wife.

Interestingly, both Chopin and Joyce use the theme of death to reflect on the dull, lifeless state of most married relationships. However, the intent of the two authors to explore different manifestations of the married state leads to…… [Read More]

Chopin, K. "The Story of an Hour." East of the Web: Short Stories. Accessed Oct. 16, 2004: 
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Freud and Surrealism

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Freud and Surrealism

Art and science are strongly interrelated fields. It has been through the recognition of the compatibility between art and science that some of the greatest achievements in both areas have been created. It was Michaelangelo, the artist, that made revolutionary anatomical discoveries in the pursuit of art, discoveries which would become an integral part of the development of medicine. The early mapmakers were the first to create mathematical grids, and those principles would be translated into perspective and proportion for artists recreating three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional art. Along this same vein, the scientific study of the mind, psychology, has had a significant impact on art. The father of modern psychology, Sigmund Freud, discovered the metaphysical "psyche" in his search to understand the symptoms of his patients, opening up science and medicine to the world beyond the physical. Artists latched onto his theories about the importance of the subconscious and readily applied them to an artistic movement which sought to link the subconscious world of the abstract to the conscious material world. This would become the Surrealist movement, bringing messages from the subconscious through interpretation of art. Salvador Dali was one of the great artists of the Surrealist…… [Read More]

Dali, Salvador. "One Second Before Awakening from a Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Promegranate." 1944.

Rostrup, Truls. "The Surrealists and Freud." 1996.
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Buddhist Concept of Nirvana

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Religious doctrine usually includes some form of salvation as a reward for good behavior and for keeping to the tenets of the religion. Each religion treats this general idea in its own way. For the Christian, right behavior lead to salvation from permanent death and promises an afterlife in heaven. In Buddhism, the promise is not of an afterlife but of a reward in this world, a reward in the form of perfect peace through a mind free of craving and unwanted emotion. Nirvana is a state of mind and an achievement in itself, for nirvana is that state of mind to which the adherent aspires. It is considered the highest form of happiness and is achieved only by the most dedicated follower of the Buddha.

The conception of salvation usually relates to the idea of some ultimate value or being, and it can be thought of as an identity with such an ultimate state or being. It is most frequently thought of as a kind of communion with a personal Lord in a heavenly place. There are different means offered whereby the individual may gain liberation or final communion. In those religions where God is a personal object…… [Read More]

Ames, Van Meter. "Zen." In Japan and Zen, Betty Ames and Van Meter Ames (Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, 1961.

Corless, Roger J. The Vision of Buddhism: The Space under the Tree. St. Paul, Minnesota: Paragon House, 1989.