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Functions Disguise "The Odyssey" Throughout the Odyssey reader notices characters adopt disguises facilitate complicate's passage world. In fact, characters multiple disguises tale.
Disguise in Homer's Odyssey
The idea of disguise takes on a whole new meaning in Homer's "Odyssey," taking into account that it is present in numerous occasions in the text and that it appears to shape people's personality whenever it is used. In addition to changing a person's physical appearance, a disguise is also promoted as something that is meant to induce particular feelings in both the person under disguise and in individuals that he or she interacts with. Deceit is not necessarily portrayed as a concept that can be associated with shame, as it seems to be especially effective and backed by impressive intelligence.
Illusion in general can be linked to Odysseus's character and with the experiences that he goes through as a whole. The poem is…
"The Odyssey: Translated by Robert Fitzgerald." (Random House, 25 May 2010)
Ulysses and Odyssey
ODYSSEY AND ULYSSES
Ulysses and Odyssey are on the surface two different stories dealing with different characters in different time period. Yet there is something about Joyce's Ulysses that constantly reminds you of Homer's Odyssey. It takes reader sometime to see the similarities between the two epics and to draw some interesting parallels between Homeric plot and Joyce's narrative. It must be understood from the very onset that it was Joyce was borrowed heavily from Homer's Odyssey thus making the latter a more original version. However original here refers to freshness of events that are presented in the two books and doesn't refer to creativity because when it comes to that, Joyce is absolutely a genius. The way he turned an unoriginal plot into an interesting, crisp and fresh story is something only a genius could achieve.
In Ulysses, the heroic deeds of Odyssey are transformed into…
Odysseus waits for the Cyclops to return home because he "wanted to see the owner himself, in the hope that he might give me a present." (Homer, ook IX) Odysseus introduces himself and his men to the Cyclops as essentially being mass murderers, and they expect that the Cyclops will present them with gifts and offerings for these deeds. "We therefore humbly pray you to show us some hospitality, and otherwise make us such presents as visitors may reasonably expect." (Homer, ook IX) it may appear ridiculous that Odysseus expects the Cyclops to show him hospitality and give him presents after he has broken into his home, stolen his food, and declared that they have caused widespread destruction and killed many people. However, keeping in mind the way in which Odysseus treated even the woman who was like a mother to him, it can be seen that this is the…
Homer. "The Odyssey."
Kirk, G.S. The Nature of Greek Myth.
Women in the Odyssey and King James ible
The nature and role of women in Homer's "The Odyssey" and throughout the "King James ible" are much the same. While some are pure of heart, others are deceitful.
In "The Odyssey," Penelope waits patiently for her husband and never really loses faith that he will return home to her. Although she has many suitors during Odysseus' absence, she never succumbs and cleverly delays any commitment to any of them by claiming she must complete her husband's burial shroud. Even the archery contest is a delay tactic she uses to buy more time for Odysseus to return. She is described as "tall in her beauty," a loving mother and faithful wife (Homer 432). In fact most all of the women in Homer's epic are described as beautiful. Circe is so beautiful and charming that Odysseus can barely tear himself from her, even…
The Odyssey." The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. 6th Edition.
Volume 1. W. Norton & Company, Inc. pp. 432.
Holy Bible: Authorized King James Version. World Bible Publishers. 1986.
Homer's Odyssey is a complex set of both personal and cultural relationships between many characters. The main characters involved are steady and fiercely loyal to what they believe to be right, even when these things contradicted some societal ideas. Homeric culture demanded a high level of attention be paid to social norms and standards. The loyalty the characters must show is very accurately demonstrated in the relationship between Telemakhos and his mother Penelope. Telemakhos and Penelope show a high level of loyalty to one another through both love and admiration of one another and through their undying loyalty to Odysseus.
Telemakhos shows both admiration and loyalty toward his mother, his household and his father by publicly lamenting and confronting the intruding suitors in a public assembly, an assembly that is not called together frequently and seems to be reserved for very important events or occasions. Telemakhos makes clear to the…
Although each of them has a different method of enticement, they all have the same goal: to hinder him in his way back. Even if he does not have prior knowledge of their powers he does not give in to temptation, he has the power to fight them even if curiosity, one of his major "faults," is the root of all his problems (he insists on hearing the Sirens call, even though to do so, he must have himself go through excruciating torments, strapped to the mast of his ship).
The important thing to bear in mind from all this is that people are weak and easy to influence and that there will always be dark forces to impede them from the right way, the only thing that makes the difference is how hard they fight to remain on the right track.
A powerful symbol of the epic is Ithaca…
The Odyssey" by Homer, translated by Samuel Butler
Robin Mitchell-Boyask, Temple University - "Study Guide for Homer's Odyssey" (updated 31 January 2002)
role of women in "The Odyssey," by Homer, by discussing our well-defined thesis based on the Odysseus' temptations in life. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Role of omen in Homer's Odyssey
The lexical meanings of the word epic are though many but all discuss the same notion. However, according to the American Heritage Dictionary, an epic is "an extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero or a literary or dramatic composition that resembles an extended narrative poem celebrating heroic feats." Hence, Homer, a distinguished Greek literary figure whose poetic as well as heroic works considerably influenced the estern Literature of even today, produced intricate but moralistic epic legends of his times. Little is known about the "life history of this principle figure of ancient Greek literature, the first European poet," dates back to 700 B.C, residing in…
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language; Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company.
HOMER, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition, 01-01-2002
Odysseus, the Hero. Available at http://library.thinkquest.org/19300/data/Odyssey/odysseus.html (November 6, 2002)
Themes, Motifs and Symbols. Available at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/odyssey/themes.html (November 6, 2002)
Homeric heroes exhibit the fundamental values and qualities that ancient Greek culture esteemed. Doubtlessly, this is true of Achilles in the Iliad, Odysseus in the Odyssey and even Odysseus' son Telemachus. Yet, another pervasive theme in mythology is that the characters rarely exhibit any evolution or are changed very little by their experiences: this is certainly the case with Achilles, Penelope, Poseidon, Athena, and Agamemnon. It is obvious that all of these characters are quiet interesting and complex, but their identities seem to be limited by a set number of unchanging characteristics. From this standpoint, it is clear that Odysseus and Telemachus break this mold. Odysseus takes up the identity he left off with in the Iliad; he is strong, brave, cunning, bold, a decisive leader, and a man looking for glory. Although he certainly possesses these same traits be the end of the poem, he has been humbled by…
1. Homer. The Odyssey. New York: Programmed Classics, 1961.
Illiad and the Odyssey
In what ways do the acts of the warriors on and off the battlefield serve as models of behavior for the Greeks?
One could contend with conviction that The Iliad appears to be celebrating war. Characters in the epic are worshipped, glorified or vilified (or ridiculed) based on their competence level and courage as warriors. Paris, for instance, does not like war, and accordingly begets the ridicule of not only his family, but also his lover. On the contrary, Achilles wins eternal glory as he openly turns down the choice of a long, comfortable, and sedentary life at home. The text appears to encourage this particular aspect of judging character and extends it even to the gods. The classic holds warlike deities like Athena in high esteem and respect, whereas it makes fun of gods that avoid or abhor violence, utilizing Aphrodite's and Artemis' timidity to…
Albersmeier, S. (Ed.). (2010). Heroes: Mortals and Myths in Ancient Greece. Nashville: Walters Art Museum.
Cliff. (2016). Critical Essays Major Themes in The Odyssey. Retrieved Febuary 17, 2016, from Houghton Mifflin Harcourt: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/o/the-odyssey/critical-essays/major-themes-in-the-odyssey
Homer. (1990). The Iliad. (R. Fagles, Trans.) NY: Penguin Books.
Lighthall, A. (n.d.). Ten Things You Should Know About Today's Student Veteran. Retrieved Febuary 18, 2016, from http://www.nea.org/home/53407.htm
Aristotle desired a reversal because of the suddenness of the impact, which heightens the emotional impact of the plot. As a constant element, the juxtaposition of opposites is less emotional and more intellectual in its effect.
There are other details of both tragedies and epics that Aristotle identifies and describes in Poetics that could be used to draw a comparison between Oedipus Rex and the Odyssey, but even more effective for such a comparison are the direct statements Aristotle makes regarding the differences between epics and tragedies. Though Aristotle approves of epics and what they are able to accomplish and convey to their readers/hearers, he considers tragedy to be a higher form of art because it is necessarily more "refined" (Aristotle 62b2. Tragic plots are simpler and their stories shorter than epics, meaning the human emotion has been more finely reduced.
This can be seen very clearly be examining the…
Penelope as Heroine
hile today we primarily read the works of Homer for the eloquence and literary skill of this great Greek poet, we may also examine his texts for the clues that they provide to a deeper understanding of Greek society. For we must recognize that every text is both a product of the time and place in which it was created as well as a portal to that place, a means of transport to a world marked by its particular set of values and visions. The Odyssey was recognized by the Greeks not only as a great epic, marked by a superb literary style, but also as something far more than merely engaging tales. This story of Homer's was also a tale about virtue and heroism: Not only that of Odysseus, or even primarily that of Odysseus. For the story, while celebrating virile virtues, is actually more Penelope's…
Homer. The Odyssey. http://www.bartleby.com/22/ .
For the most part women in the Odyssey are essentially one of three things: sexualized monsters, in the form of Circe, Calypso, the Sirens, and even Scylla; asexual helpers and servants, in the form of Athena and Eurycleia; and finally, seemingly helpless damsels, in the form of Penelope. To this one may add what is essentially the lowest of the low class within the poem, those women who are sexually liberated but who do not even have supernatural power to defend their desire for sexual autonomy, namely, Penelope's maids. Circe and Calypso both express sexual desire, but they are ultimately spared due to their status as goddesses, and thus they merely have to give up Odysseus. Penelope's maids have no such extra status, and thus in the hierarchy of power represent the lowest of the low, and receive punishment in return.
As a result, they are summarily executed for having…
Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Samuel Butler. New York: Plain Label Books, 2009. Print.
Homer's Odyssey is a classic epic poem, demonstrating all the hallmarks of epic poem structure and the epic journey cycle. The narrative of the Odyssey follows the return on Odysseus from Troy, a journey that takes ten years and spans many locations and setbacks, until he finally reaches his home in Ithaca. Even then, Homer must deal with one final setback before being successfully reunited with his family. This paper will focus on three central themes that define the epic poetry genre -- an epic hero
There are several elements of an epic poem. An epic poem should have an epic hero and in this case that is Odysseus. He is the focal point of the action (no author, 2012). His journey is entirely about him, to the point where his actions dictate the fate of all those around him. The key supporting characters are in his and his…
Downes, J. (2005). Epic, epic formula, epic smile. Auburn University. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from http://www.auburn.edu/~downejm/epicbasics.html
No author. (2012). A story of epic proportions: What makes a poem an epic? National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/story-epic-proportions-what-makes-poem-epic
Throughout the text of the Odyssey, Odysseus finds recourse to rely on his inner resource to surmount incredible odds in order to finish his journey home. Indeed, often we think of epic heroes using their enormous physical strength to solve a problem, and certainly, Odysseus does have recourse to physical means on more than one occasion. Nonetheless, it is more often that he uses his cleverness and mental agility to defeat opponents who often have greater or strength or significant enough numbers to overcome whatever strength he has. Indeed, this makes sense in the case of Odysseus, because as we know from the Iliad, it was his suggestion to overcome the Trojans by the use of the Trojan Horse. Here, too, Odysseus proved that he was able to solve a difficult conflict that violence could not solve through the power of his cleverness and vision. Indeed, in The Odyssey,…
Fagles, Robert. The Odyssey. New York: Penguin USA, 1999.
For Aristotle, true freedom and liberty consists in ruling and being ruled in turn and not always insisting on fulfilling one's own personal desires at the cost of others. Thus, for dysseus, true freedom can only come about when one is allowed to contribute to society for the betterment of everyone involved, a sure sign of moral correctness and rational thinking.
In addition, Aristotle stressed the importance of justice and goodness, for he believed that people possess a sort of inborn knowledge concerning what is right and what is wrong; however, irrational desires often overrule such knowledge and leads people to commit wrong acts or behave inappropriately. This conflict of desires in human beings could be overcome by achieving self-control via training the mind to win out over primitive instincts and passions. Thus, intelligence is the finest human quality and the mind is the true self, the god-like aspect of…
One special dramatic festival was devoted to Dionysus, the Greek god of wine, and featured what were known as satyr plays, so-called because the actors portrayed half-human, half-animal roles, often in the form of a goat. The term tragedy is derived from the words "goat" and "song" and refers to plays with plots involving fierce conflicts and characters which symbolized powerful human and divine forces. Certainly, Homer's Odyssey could be viewed as one of these types of plays, due to the conflicts encountered by Odysseus on his way home to Ithaca and the will of the gods who often attempted to complicate his journeys through sorcery and magic, such as Odysseus and his troubles with Circe, the beautiful female witch that turned his men into pigs as a form of punishment.
A the ultimate example of a democratic social system with freedom, personal responsibilities and moral direction. However, although Odysseus the man was not without his faults and failures, he does symbolize the true Greek hero and citizen elite, due to his unfaltering goal to return home to his wife Penelope and to bring peace and tranquillity to Ithaca.
Connolly, Peter. The Ancient Greece of Odysseus. UK: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Eumaeus heard the discussion and said: "Don't listen to this girl, she has gone mad after having lost her father, the queen is not ready to pick a suitor yet!" I couldn't tell Eumaeus about my arrangement as he could have ruined it all.
After all the suitors had gathered in the great hall, I've locked all of the doors so that none could escape my father's revenge. My father appeared, and, as if he knew what my plan had been, he asked me for his armor and for his weapons. Soon enough, the great hall boiled as my father murdered every single one of my mother's suitors.
The story of Aeneis pretty much resembles that of Odysseus and like the Greek hero, the Trojan goes through great efforts until reaching his destination. Homer's influence on the Aeneis is seen clearly across the epic.
However, in an attempt to give…
1. Homer. "The Odyssey."
2. Virgil. "The Aeneis."
Much of Homer's epic poem The Odyssey deals with the trouble the titular character finds himself in, and the suffering he and men must endure as he makes his way home over the course of ten years. Upon cursory examination, one might think that suffering in the Odyssey has some actual value, in that Odysseus is ultimately rewarded for his long-suffering efforts by being able to go home and murder everyone who wanted to marry his wife. However, this does not take into account the majority of the play, in which Odysseus' men suffer with no reward, being brutally killed and tortured for no reason other than to fulfill Poseidon's curse against Odysseus. This is most clear when Odysseus and his men visit the island of the lotus eaters, and by examining this scene in conjunction with the conclusion of the story, it becomes clear that the suffering in…
Homer. The Essential Odyssey. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing
"The Odyssey" also demands that guests show similar kindness in return to their hosts. hile Odysseus is not blameless and morally upright in his actions towards others and he has an occasionally violent temper, he usually only strikes back at a host when he is threatened, as in the case of the Cyclops. For this demonstration of his need for kindness when he is wandering, he is rewarded, finally, with the restoration of his homeland.
hether Odysseus will return is a question that arises over the course of Book 14. Although Eumaeus does not believe his master is returning, he makes a sacrifice to the gods in the hopes that Odysseus will return, and even though Odysseus has arrived, he has not fully 'returned' to his old position even by this part of the book, because his ability to regain his palace remains in doubt. He still needs to be…
Homer. "Book 14." The Odyssey. Translated by Ian Johnston. October 23, 2008. http://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/homer/odyssey14.htm
In that case, Odysseus' motives are clear: to slip back stealthily into his house and to sabotage the stupid suitors. However, like any sailor Odysseus weaves yarns throughout the epic. Interestingly, Athena probably lies about her identity more so than Odysseus, suggesting that white lies are not necessarily morally wrong if they are done to accomplish a good goal. Therefore, many of the stories Odysseus tells are a means to an end. Others are ways to impress people: he builds himself up in their eyes so that he seems like a more formidable character. Moreover, Odysseus also likes listening to stories, as he does at Alcinous's palace.
5. Odysseus also makes up clever names as integral parts of his disguises. His propensity points to the hero's astute mind, his cleverness, and his ability to manipulate situations with a touch of humor and mischief too.
6. Odysseus needs to outsmart Polyphemus.…
Nestor seems saddened by the fact that some of the best Greek warriors were killed in Troy, including Ajax, Achilles, and Patroclus as well as Nestor's own son. The fact that Nestor's own son died may make him particularly sympathetic, of course, to Telemachus' need to hear news of what happened to his father, and how the Greeks became separated at the end of the Trojan War.
Nestor explains to Telemachus that his father acquitted himself bravely during the siege of Troy, and thus he should be proud of his father's conduct as a warrior. He also says that his father was a wise and noble counselor, and the two were often in agreement during the frequent arguments within the Greek camp. But because Zeus sided with the Trojans, the god was angry with the actions of the Greeks during Troy's sacking, and tried to upset the Greek's homeward journey,…
Clearly, both Odysseus and Penelope are representing a conflict that most people will go through during the course of their lives. As, there will be times that: they will be away from one another and how they must not lose faith in themselves along with their partner. What the novel is illustrating is that, despite these issues there is a possibility that this kind of faith can be able to overcome the various challenges in every person's life.
As, both characters faced their own amounts of: uncertainty and adversity in understanding what was happening to the other. Where, their beliefs in these ideas are what helped them to overcome the issues they were dealing with. While at the same time, the two characters are illustrating how you should not succumb to the pitfalls of temptation. This is because those who do, will often pay a heavy price that will…
Homer. The Essential Odyssey. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2007. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Odyssey and Everyman.
People living in contemporary Georgia have to deal with a series of difficulties in their struggle to comply with some of the most respected values in society, as most of them want to reach a certain phase in their lives where they can consider themselves truly satisfied with who they are. One can take on legends such as "The Odyssey" and "Everyman" with the purpose of understanding what needs to be done in order for people to have success in their endeavor. Odysseus and Everyman have both gone through a lot of suffering and they had to accept their flaws with the purpose of reaching the final stage in their journey.
It is particularly challenging for people in Georgia to stay away from some of the main attractions in the area, especially considering that one can easily get himself or herself lost in trying to discover their…
I believe both "great" mean got what they deserved in the afterlife.
Journal Part Two
In the Greek world, heroism, valor, and bravery were the greatest of all characteristics, so it is fitting that the Greeks' idea of hell is people walking around without unmotivated, unable to be brave. Americans' version of hell would be a different one, filled with all of the little frustrations of life. Some people would be caught in endless lines in department stores. Others, would be forever in a traffic jam. Still others would he stuck on the line with an infuriating member of customer service forever. Maybe some would get the mail each day, constantly finding letters about matters that they had resolved, and they would have to spend every day talking to the same companies and telling the same stories over and over again. These seem to be the little things that bother…
Odyssey and O' Brother
In the course of human history, one of the interesting things about past literature is the way the heroic appears again and again. In fact, this appearance becomes an archetype in that we see very similar themes in literature, religion, mythology, and culture. This is perhaps because as humans we have the need to explain and explore the unknown, but also because we tend to psychologically need a guide through the complexities of life. The idea of the hero as a role model for behavior, in fact, is so tied to human culture that one need only look at popular culture -- television and motion pictures for certain, to epitomize the need for particular story themes to remain popular. Whatever the genre -- science fiction, fantasy, western, war, even politics -- the classic nature of human values become clear when one continues to see the character…
Cline, J. (2008). American Myth Today. University of Virginia. Retrieved from:
Homer. (n.d.) The Odyssey. Persesus Project. Retrieved from:
Even though Odysseus's family holds high opinions of his character as a family man, his actions with Calypso are the true measures of his character. In book five of the epic poem, Minerva, who goes to rescue Calypso, finds the father and husband "sitting upon the beach with his eyes ever filled with tears of sheer home sickness" (Book V). The poem goes on to explain that while Odysseus is forced to sleep in Calypso's cave each night, he does not do this of his own volition, and would much rather be home. Thus, while Calypso, a goddess, attempts to seduce Odysseus, he does not betray his home and his family, but rather remains homesick for them, while being tired of the goddess. Though Calypso is a goddess of extreme beauty, Odysseus is more enticed with his own wife and son. In fact, Odysseus loves his family enough to cry…
Homer. The Odyssey. 10th ed. trans. Samuel Butler. Gutenberg, 1999. 24 October 2008. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext99/dyssy10.txt.
However, when the Greeks reach their boats, Odysseus cannot help but once again proving his devotion to achieve glory wherever he goes, informing Polyphemus in regard to his true identity and thus infuriating the gods. This is Odysseus' biggest mistake, since it is because of this act that Poseidon is reluctant to let the Greek hero live, with the god of sea constantly stressing Odysseus and making his journey even longer.
3. Poseidon is obviously Odysseus's biggest enemy, given that he is in control of the waters and that Odysseus has no choice but to travel by water in order to reach his homeland. As Polyphemus' father, Poseidon is determined to punish Odysseus and struggles to prevent the Greek hero from achieving his goal. Poseidon's wrath could have been avoided if Odysseus had not insisted in revealing his identity to the Cyclops, who was thus enabled to inform his father…
Homer, "The Odyssey of Homer," Ingram, Cooke, 1853.
Odysseus and Athena as Liars
The world of the Odyssey is full of legendary heroes, exploitive gods, crude monsters, and devious men. Homer weaves three separate tales, those of Penelope, Athena, and Odysseus, into an epic tale, suitable for the aftermath of the Iliad, his previous book. Homer moves his characters through difficult situations, usually by leveraging a particular strength or weakness at hand, and these characteristics often include, on the part of the characters, personal traits such as cunningness or the ability to lie in order to achieve a wanted result. In the Odyssey, Homer delves into many different aspects of lies and cunning in particular. For instance, Odysseus the hero uses his cunning mind to defeat his enemies and exact revenge, whereas Athena uses lies to push Odysseus along on his journey, as the attributes he exhibits are favored by the goddess. This paper will examine these…
" (Book XXIV)
C. Throughout the story, Odysseus uses his wits rather than sheer physical strength to accomplish his goals. At the end of the story, he disguised himself so that he could do this once again. He patiently waited for his opportunity to reveal his true identity to the suitors.
IV. Penelope and some of the servants were faithful to Odysseus, even though he did not return home immediately after the war and was presumed dead.
A, It was not only Penelope who was faithful to Odysseus. Euryclea, sometimes called the nurse and sometimes called the housekeeper, was also faithful.
B. "Nurse, draw me off some of the best wine you have, after what you are keeping for my father's own drinking, in case, poor man, he should escape death, and find his way home again after all." (Book II)
C. Telemachus has little hope that his father is…
According to Griffin, the Odyssey is a didactic poem that delights precisely in its own lesson about human fate and its own rhetoric. Thus, as Griffin emphasizes, the Odyssey teaches its reader that the end of human life and of all the disasters, misfortune and happiness that accompanies it is to provide a theme for a beautiful song like that of Ulysses: "From the narration of suffering we are to draw serenity: the gods devise disasters, Odysseus is told, that there may be song among men (8.579), and to listen to that sad song gives delight. Listen and learn, Penelope was told: the gods bring unhappiness on many others besides you (1.353-5). In the end Odysseus and Penelope have learned that hard lesson. Life is full of unhappiness, but that is what is transmuted into song. They achieve harmony with that process and learn, as we are to learn, the…
Griffin, Jasper. Homer: The Odyssey. Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp 47-98
Halkin, Hillel. "Sailing to Ithaca." Commentary 120.4 (Nov 2005): 69(8).
Homer. The Odyssey. New York: Oxford Classics, 1973
Jones, Peter V. "Introduction," in the Odyssey, by Homer, translated by EV Rieu, Penguin Classics, 1991
The supernatural element is also often present in the Arthurian legends, such as the appearance of the Green Knight in Sir Gawain, and it is an important part of the mystical experiences described in the legends. In a sense, the knights, just like the epic heroes, are confronted with the supernatural so as to prove their worthiness, but the difference is that the knights, such as Lancelot, Percival or King Arthur himself engage in a mystical experience rather than in a mere confrontation with their own destiny, as Ulysses does. The romance is thus more concerned with the inner qualities of the knights. Courtly love also plays a very important part in the romances, as the knights are usually devoted to God, to their king or liege and to a beautiful and virtuous lady.
The Odyssey and the Arthurian Legend
There are many similarities, as well as significant differences between…
In no way could Brode be considered a justifier of or apologist for slavery, but neither is he willing to condemn the judges who, as he indicates, stood up for the law the way it was written and they way they had sworn to do. As distasteful as it was in the public mouth, Brode contends that extraditing Anderson on the murder charge was the only legally justifiable choice, and that the British court should not have had -- and perhaps did not have -- the authority to reverse the decision of the Anderson when it was made by the Canadian panel.
hroughout the book, Brode's argument is well-reasoned, if a little overloaded with technical details. He is fair in presenting the strong moral case that fueled people's desire to see Anderson remain in Canada, but he is more fair in determining that the law must apply to everyone. Had…
Throughout the book, Brode's argument is well-reasoned, if a little overloaded with technical details. He is fair in presenting the strong moral case that fueled people's desire to see Anderson remain in Canada, but he is more fair in determining that the law must apply to everyone. Had Anderson actually been extradited and stood trial, it might have served to further the cause of the abolitionists even more, and exposed the true injustices of slavery once and for all. Of course, from a vantage point nearly one-and-a-half centuries in the future, we know that the slavery issue was soon to be decided regardless, but Canada at the time had know way of knowing that, and moral justifications cannot lead to a fair execution of the law. This case would still prove to be a sensitive subject today; returning someone to slavery for any reason is certainly abhorrent and something to be avoided. However, Canada's law being what it was at the time, Brode's repeated assertion that extradition was the correct legal choice for Anderson is completely true. A moral system can only work if each moral instance is applied universally; obviously, the system of slavery is immoral by this definition, but if a system of law is to approach morality, it must remain consistent. In the end, a technicality allowed the legal system to behave morally and quasi-consistently, but Brode's tome lets us know it was a close call.
Brode, Patrick. The Odyssey of John Anderson. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989.
Patrick Brode, the Odyssey of John Anderson. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989, xi.
Nevertheless, I want to get home, and can think of nothing else" (Homer, 2000). Thus, Penelope serves as the catalyst for bringing Odysseus home, and shows that beauty is not all a man looks for in a wise and loving mate. A literary critic writes of her, "Penelope is famous in myth as the waiting wife, faithful -- or otherwise. Odysseus' return will end that phase of her existence and her fame rivaling that of famous women of the past" (Ahl & oisman, 1996, p. 31). However, that does not stop her from longing for Odysseus' return and their reuniting. She is a good, decent woman, who raises a good son alone, makes a living, and never gives up hope. In that, she is an engaging heroine and a fine match for Odysseus, who deserves a woman who respects and trusts him, as well as loves and cherishes him.
Ahl, F., & Roisman, H.M. (1996). The Odyssey re-formed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Homer. (2000). The Odyssey. Retrieved from the University of Oregon Website: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~joelja/odyssey.html6 Oct. 2006.
Coman writes, in the July 2001 issue of Quadrant, that what gives Homer's "The Odyssey" such an eternal relevance is that it defies definitive analysis, thus it retains a sense of mystery that draws readers in by posing more questions that it give answers (Coman pp). This is what both moves and delights readers, for nothing so quickly creates boredom than the recapitulation of solved mysteries (Coman pp). For example, there was a time when the very sight of the moon moved humans in extraordinary ways because it was both totally familiar but totally alien and beyond knowledge (Coman pp). However, today, its sight brings visions of space junk strewn across the stony plain, and "one expects to see empty Coke bottles and McDonald's wrappers" (Coman pp). Coman notes that the transference of mystery to fact is a sort of solidification or petrification of the imagination, and is exactly…
Coman, B.J. "Reading the Odyssey." Quadrant. July 01, 2001. Retrieved
October 15, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Marks, Tracy. Informal Reflections and Questions. Retrieved October 15, 2005
That argument - to die young as a hero or to live a long, uneventful life - is at the core of the Iliad. By Book XI, Homer has firmly established Odysseus as a hero for all time, but one whose failings made him distinctly human. Heroes such as Achilles, who had previously been accorded godlike status, are also brought to this level. In particular, the point in the interaction between Odysseus and Achilles where the latter declares "I'd rather live working as a wage-laborer for hire by some other man...than lord it over all the wasted dead." (480-500) reveals much about this concept of human nature. Achilles, having previously chosen to die a hero, now as a shade regrets that choice.
Book XXII illustrates the slaughter of the suitors. This chapter reveals not only the superiority of Odysseus in the ease with which he and his men conduct the…
Comparing the divine world in the Iliad and the Odyssey, olfgang Kullmann emphasizes that unlike in the Iliad, in the latter, "men themselves, not the gods, are responsible for their sufferings beyond their destined share. Gods, on the contrary, guarantee "poetic justice" when they warn men against doing evil."
As Kullmann points out, the mortals in the Odyssey are less likely to act as mere objects of higher powers that manipulate them as they wish, but their actions, although still coordinated by gods at times, are more inclined to be the result of their own actions. Kullmann places Zeus' introductory discourse that reveals the basic principle he is using when leading the world at the origin of the whole development of the epic. Injustice, in this case, is not tolerated in the human world and the repercussions are pointed out by Zeus as merciless towards those who dare to disobey…
Homer, The Odyssey, Houghton Mifflin, 1921. Original from the University of Virginia, available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=ezJJAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Rutherford, R.B. The Philosophy of the Odyssey. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 106 (1986), pp. 145-162. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/629649
Kullmann, W. Gods and Men in the Iliad and the Odyssey. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 89 (1985), pp. 1-23. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/311265
Clay, J.S. The Wrath of Athena: gods and men in the Odyssey. Rowman & Littlefield, 1997
Women in the Odyssey
The roles women take in The Odyssey are as varied as society itself. There are good women, weak women, caretakers and even monsters. This paper will discuss three chief aspects women's roles in The Odyssey. The first is the role that mortal women play in the epic. The second is the role immortal women (goddesses) play on Mount Olympus and third the departments of life where women are the most powerful.
The Role of Mortal Women
The women of Homeric society are an integral part of The Odyssey and many of the female characters are held in high esteem. A passage that illustrates this the description of Arete, the wife of Alkinoos:
He "gave her such pride of place as no to her woman on earth is given of such women as are now alive and keep house for husbands. So she was held high in…
Religion in the Odyssey of Homer
Homer has the reputation of having "given the Greeks their gods." In so doing Homer has created a type of religion that does not have one god, but one that has many. Each god governs over one or more aspect of the world. This type of religion is known as polytheism, more than one god, as opposed to monotheism, one supreme God. Because there are many gods, no one god is omnipotent, having power over everything, as is God in the Christian, Jewish and Muslim religions. This paper will explore the roles of Homer's gods and how they fit into the religion that Homer has created. The paper also explores the idea that the sort of religion that Homer created does exist today.
The gods in The Odyssey do not create the men that they preside over. The gods are not overpowering, but work…
Earthy Odyssey: A Review
If anyone would know about the state of our environment, it would be Mark Hertsgaard. As a respected journalist, he's traveled the world for over six years getting a first-hand view of the environmental destruction of our world and people's attitudes toward it. Earth Odyssey offers weighted insight into complex issues such as humanity's addiction to the automobile, the spread of nuclear technology, and the unavoidable tension between unbounded capitalism and the health of the planet. Mark Hertsgaard's contention is that global environmental problems should be given a higher profile and I agree. ut first, he says, it must begin with us.
In his few first pages, Hertsgaard, says it that human beings appear to be at war with their environment. In fact, he wonders is we'll even survive this century before us. For some, it is merely a struggle for survival which drives them to…
Hertsgaard, Mark. Earth Odyssey: Around the Earth in Search of our Environmental Future. Broadway Books, 1999.
Richard III and the Odyssey
The focus of both, Shakespeare's "Richard III" and Homer's "The Odyssey," is the struggle between good and evil. Each work shows the consequences of following temptations and how in the end good triumphs over evil.
Richard is evil personified. Due to his lack of any compassion or humanity there is no other conclusion to draw except that Richard is psychopathic. He is basically a serial killer with a self-promoting plan (Shakespeare 1996). His every intention is to be in complete control at any cost, nothing and no one is going to stand in his way. Although in the beginning Richard might easily be taken as simply a jealous cripple out to take revenge on his older brother, by the end of the play, he has become a monster, the epitome of evil, feeding on power and death in a mad frenzy to obtain his goal…
Homer. The Odyssey. Noonday Press. November 1998.
Shakespeare, William. Richard III. Washington Square Press. 1996.
Quiet Odyssey: A Pioneer Korean Woman in America." y Mary Paik Lee, and "Coming of Age in Mississippi," by Anne Moody. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the hardships that Mary and Anne had to overcome. How were their struggles similar and different? These two women at first seem quite divergent from each other in experience and culture, but after reading these two books, it is clear these women have much in common, from their experience of prejudice and hate, to their ability to create meaningful lives for themselves while sharing their experiences with others. These are two women from different cultures and generations, who, if they had ever had the chance to meet, would probably have become fast friends.
TWO WOMEN'S EXPERIENCES
At first glance, Asian Mary Paik Lee and lack Anne Moody could not be more different. One was an Asian immigrant who came to the country in…
Lee, Mary Paik. Quiet Odyssey: A Pioneer Korean Woman in America. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990.
Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dell Publishing, 1968.
O rother, Where Art Thou?
Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?
Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…
Peter Biskind, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock'N'Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Print.
Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: the Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. Print.
Connors, Catherine. Petronius the Poet: Verse and Literary Tradition in the Satyricon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
Doom, Ryan P. The Brothers Coen: Unique Characters of Violence. Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford: Praeger / ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Stanley Kubrick’s 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey is a masterpiece in the science fiction genre. Based on a story by Arthur C. Clarke, the film epitomizes the features of science fiction, including an overarching theme questioning the role of humanity in the universe. The film could just as well be classified as an epic, given its length and breath, as it begins with the origin of human beings through a depiction of evolution from primates, through the story of a space mission occurring millions of years later. Plot practically takes a back seat to cinematography and design in 2001: A Space Odyssey, in which Kubrick employs multiple cinematographic tools including music, mise-en-scene, editing, lighting, design, and script elements.
The mise-en-scene in 2001: A Space Odyssey is simply extraordinary, because each image captures the tension and existential angst that pervades the movie. Because the bulk of the film takes place…
The roles, ideals, views of men in the ancient civilization have been explored extensively in literature from the famous Kings of Israel to the mathematicians and philosophers of Greece. In contrast, the history entails limited literature of women in the ancient civilization. However, several masterpieces such as the Homeric poem, the Odyssey and the Iliad provides a glimpse of ideals, position, and role of women in the ancient civilization. Women play a fundamental role in life by taking multiple responsibilities as portrayed in the epic poem Odyssey. The epic poem presents the role of women in the facet of power, sexuality, and interaction with men.
An analysis of the women in the poem demonstrates a challenge of the space of women as traditionally defined by the patriarchal Greek society. The Homeric poem has a distinct feminist message of the struggle women endure as they try to extricate themselves from…
In her different stages of love and grief, Virgil uses direct parallels from the female characters in the Odyssey -- Calypso, Circe, Nausicaa, and Arete especially -- to make Dido the most well-rounded and fully realized woman of classical literature. She does not embody merely one motive and does not represent only one thing to Aeneas, nor is she entirely defined through her association with Aeneas, but rather in paralleling aspects of Odysseus' women by different turns she becomes wholly her own. The fullness of her character also portends the depth of the enmity that would develop between Rome and Carthage, and makes the division between she and Aeneas as powerful as any declaration made by the gods. In short, Virgil's crafting of Dido in the Aeneid makes her both human and symbol, with a consistency of meaning across her personal and her political import that makes her the perfect…
Ulysses: An Odyssey of Errors
Critics of James Joyce call his work cryptic and rambling, not easily followed by most readers. They proclaim that it lacks plot and classical elements of modern literature. However, Joyce did not intentionally write a bad novel, rather he was experimenting with a new literary style, one which broke almost all of the rules of modern literature. None the less, there have been those in society who have attempted to "correct" and "improve" upon Joyce's works. These attempts at "improvement" are to be the subject of this research. This research will approach the controversy surrounding Ulysses in reference to its place as a piece of art. In such a context, it is doubtful whether later versions of Ulysses have succeeded in clearing up the obscurities in the original novel, but rather have served to further confuse the issue.
Joyce was the first to use the…
Davies, John. "Kidd's craft in editing." The Times Higher Education
Supplement.February 12, p. 19. 1993.
Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce.New York: Oxford University Press. 1977.
Gabler, Hans Walter. Ulysses: A Critical And Synoptic Edition. Garland: New York.
The Odyssey, which was written by Homer, and the Libation Bearers, which was written Aeschylus are some of the ancient Greek writings that act as classic literature. These writings depict events and tragedies that happened in the traditional Greek society and provide important lessons for modern literature given their classical nature. One of the pertinent passages from the Odyssey by Homer and the Libation Bearers from the Greek tragedies is the story of Agamemnon. The Odyssey by Homer provides a detailed account of the life and times of Agamemnon who was a Greek king and the brother of Menelaos. On the other hand, the Libation Bearers was written after Agamemnon's death and acts as one of the major components of the trilogy by Aeschylus, an ancient Greek playwright. The passages have certain similarities and differences based on a specific theme that underpinned and/or inspired the writers.
Hughes, C. (n.d.). Prelude to the Odyssey. Retrieved from Washington State University website: http://public.wsu.edu/~hughesc/Prelude_to_the_Odyssey.html
Suksi, A. (n.d.). The Story of the Death of Agamemnon. Retrieved from University of Western Ontario website: http://publish.uwo.ca/~asuksi/in-class%20essay.htm
Webster, M. (n.d.). Summary of The Libation Bearers. Retrieved from Grand Valley State University website: http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/libation.htm
Depression in Adolescence
Depression in Adolescents
The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.
In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.
The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…
Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/
Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf
Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential
Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at: http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
Odyssey: Daily Life for Women
When it comes to the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey is recognized as a piece of literature that was not just about gods, men, and creatures, this historical read served as a cultural example about the women and their place in society. This book, provides a wide-ranging view of the Achean's peacetime people. Throughout Odyssey, a person is able to pick up some understanding of what is appropriate or inappropriate in relationships among servant and master, father and son, guest and host, god and mortal, and--notably -- woman and ma. It is clear that the women are the ones that perform an important role in Odyssey. With that said, this essay will explore the daily life of women from the literature Odyssey.
Social customs, marriage, rights and freedoms
While Odysseus is looked at as being an interesting figure, the women persons in the Odyssey are just as…
Austin, Norman. Helen of Troy and Her Shameless Phantom. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,, 2009.
Cahill, Jane. Her Kind: Stories of Women from Greek Mythology. Peterborough, Ont: Broadview Press, 2005.
Cohen, Beth. The Distaff Side: Representing the Female in Homer's Odyssey. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
DeBois, Page. Centaurs and Amazons: Women and the Pre-history of the Great Chain of Being. Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.
Is it a sign of inconsistency in Athena that at the end of the Odyssey she echoes the sentiment of Zeus and sues for peace whereas in Book 4 of the Iliad she is all too eager to ignore the sentiment of her father and manipulate the warriors into shedding more blood? Again -- not necessarily. hile, were it up to Zeus he would gladly see men work out their problems in a peaceful way, and, if he can help it, only sends strife and war when men need to be punished. The relationship between war and peace is complicated by the fact that he is not the only god (even if he is king of the gods). The gods seem to have just as many quarrels and disagreements among themselves as men do on Earth -- a point Zeus knows quite well. That is the reason he presides over…
Homer. The Iliad. (Trans. By Richmond Lattimore). IL: University of Chicago Press,
Homer. The Odyssey. (Trans. By Robert Fitzgerald). NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux,
In addition to the diplomatic relationships established between the Greek poleis, in the frame of the political arena, there were also the alliances made between persons, usually high raking members of the ruling classes: "there was a fine-meshed network of personal relationships between prominent persons in the different cities based on 'guest friendship' (xenia): two friends (xenoi) from different poleis could promise to house and help each other when they were in the polis of wither of them" (Hansen, 127). This was the case of Telemachos receiving in Pylos. After he had exposed his intensions and the goals of his trip, Nestor offered him his advice and material support as a manifestation of the friendship and reciprocal aid the leaders of different Greek cities often used to give each other as a result of reciprocity.
From an unwritten law, xenia progressed into becoming an institution, like, for example, in the…
Hansen, M.H. Polis: an introduction to the ancient Greek city-state. Oxford University Press, 2006
Gill, C.Postlethwaite, N. Seaford, R. Reciprocity in Ancient Greece. Oxford University Press, 1998
Homer, tr. By Lattimore, R. Odyssey
Mary Paik Lee's Quiet Odyssey is the story of the silent struggles of many immigrant Americans, who have had to endure pain, poverty, and prejudice in order to form a sense of community and identity. Lee's book in particular comprises the memoirs of one first-generation Korean-American woman, whose country's struggle with independence and national identity mirrored her own. Reflecting on her eighty-five years of life, Lee notes, "I am free of cares and worry and am just trying to relax and enjoy what little time is left. I attend a church regularly where most of the members are black, because it is there I feel most comfortable," (130). Lee's encounter with cultures other than her own: from the dominant European cultures in America to other immigrant and minority groups underscore her triumphs retaining selfhood and cultural identity. Moreover, having moved from state to state and town to town…
Lee, Mary Paik. Quiet Odyssey. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990.
By taking part in his destiny, she somewhat disproves Zeus' claim that humans are wrong to suggest that the gods are to blame -- for without her interference, the many suitors would not have been slaughtered by Odysseus.
Athena's speech here, which will fuel the eventual release of Odysseus and his long ride home, continues at this point to describe the situation in which (at the story's beginning) he is imprisoned. She described how he is suffering torments "on a wave-washed island rising at the centre of the seas," where he is held captive by "a daughter of Atlas, wicked Titan." This daughter, Calypso, is herself an immortal, and contemporary of the oldest gods. The Titans were those deific forces which proceeded Zeus and the other Olympic Gods. Cronos, king of the Titans, had been the father of Zeus and over thrown by them. In this overthrow, the old titans…
digital age include worlds that are highly imaginative (eg. Harry Potter films). Films are sometimes conceived in a literary form and then turned into a script and a film. Films since the 1920s and into the 21st century have used physical models and stage properties of some kind (eg. Metropolis, Blade Runner, 2001: A Space Odyssey and Harry Potter). In the digital age, visual effects are created by composite images and ongoing production techniques, practices and narratives. Discuss.
What this question primarily conveys is the feasibility associated with the growing trend of using digital techniques in filmmaking. The importance of digitalization, computer generated imagery and visual effects, has grown tremendously and that can be proven with the help of various relevant examples. In the essay, the technological value added by digitalization along with the advantages and disadvantages of digitalization have been discussed. Finally the future of digital filmmaking…
However, when Achilles touches Priam as token that he should have no fear; both gods and mortals are said to be asleep. There is a sense of will in Achilles' gentleness towards the man, and his willingness to touch Priam's sleeve that night. In other words, human and divine reconciliation and pity is not simply a law, humans must accept the will of the gods, but they are also capable of choosing to add or subtract the misery of the world by showing pity to their fellow humans. Odysseus' cleverness, although aided by the gods, is also partly drawn from his own resourcefulness and character, as well as merely because Athena helps him.
Achilles makes what is said to be the greatest gift to Priam, that of Hector's body. In Greek custom, gifts were customary to give to visitors. ith such a gift, Achilles gives up his determination to mourn…
Homer. "The Iliad." Trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin, 1990.
Homer. "The Odyssey." Trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin, 1996
arrior Hero: A Stranger in a Strange Land
The figure of the hero is set apart from the common herd of ordinary men by virtue of his special qualities and abilities; in some works, this separateness is literal - he is in a strange land apart from his own kin. To see how this alienation enhances the tale of the hero's conflict, The Odyssey, Beowulf and The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice will be considered.
Odysseus, Beowulf and Othello are all warrior heroes. Odysseus, in The Odyssey, has been instrumental in the victory at Troy, and now fights to return to Ithaca and bring his men safely home; more struggles await him there. Beowulf, a great fighter who has proven his mettle in many conflicts, hears about the depredations of Grendel on Heorot Hall and journeys there to rescue Hrothgar's people. His role in the conflicts against the…
Alexander, Michael, trans. Beowulf, Penguin Classics. New York: Viking Penguin, 1973.
Cook, Albert, trans. Homer: The Odyssey. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1967.
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Othello, The Moor of Venice, The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. London: Abbey Library.
Either as mothers, sisters, wives, daughters, mistresses, lovers or supernatural creatures, women populate the world of the Odyssey and bring thus an important source of information when it comes to finding parallels between their representations in real life as drawn from the representations they get in the Homeric epic.
Based on the same starting point as the Odyssey, another ancient author, the Roman irgil wrote the epic Aeneid. He lived in the most flourishing times of the Roman empire, in the first century BC, almost seven centuries after the Odyssey and the Iliad had probably been written. The heroes in irgil's epic are still men, but the women gain a new role: that of sounders and rulers. Analyzing the whole range of epics and poems written by ancient Greek and Latin writers, A.M. Keith points out that "classical Greek and Latin epic poetry was composed by men, consumed largely by…
Virgil. Aeneid. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2005.
Avery, Dorothy. Women in the Iliad. Copyright: D. Avery 2004. Retrieved: May 7, 2009. Available at: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/arts/tradition/tradavery1.html
Keith, A.M. Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
e. The Law of Hospitality, which stressed over the utilization of the expertise and support services towards an individual or community, which has experienced critical and crucial time, similarly, the services and obligations between the master and servant towards each other has been the focused of his teachings and practices (Steven, 2006).
The Odyssey attempted several times to return to his kingdom in Ithaca, whereas the exiled ama never planned any political or military outrage against the ruling authority to ensure his return. The major difference in both the epics has been the deep involvement and influence of the ama's family in his life. Sita, the wife of ama, contributed deeply towards the spiritual objectives of her spouse, their children were equally involved in the quest marked by their parents. The Sita was forcibly victimized by the associates of the ama, and she was alleged for malpractices which eventually resulted…
Catherine Clement. Theo's Odyssey. 1999. pp. 32-34. Arcade Publishing.
Arthur Charles Clarke, Gentry Lee. Rama Revealed. 1994. pp. 154-167. Bantam Books.
Steven J. Rosen. Essential Hinduism. 2006. pp. 54-67. Greenwood Press.
George William Cox. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations. 2004. pp. 213-222. Adamant Media Corporation.
Universal Themes in Homer's The Odyssey
Homer's The Odyssey is an ancient work that has managed to survive up to the present time. Virginia Woolf argues that the themes and situations presented in The Odyssey are universal themes that all humans can relate to, despite the passing of time. A consideration of the themes and situations presented in The Odyssey will show that this is true. While The Odyssey is set in a different time and culture, the basic situations and struggles are ones that apply equally to all people. These themes and events include the struggle of being adolescent, the changing relationship between a mother and son, the process of a boy becoming a man and the changing relationship between family members as time passes. Each of these are universal themes and this is what makes The Odyssey as applicable to modern life as it was to ancient life.…
Weaving Power of Athena and Penelope
omer's tale of the Odyssey is populated by many female characters, ranging in nature from the silent and submissive to the ferociously lethal. If one were to pick out two women who are most influential in the shaping of the story, however, the choice would certainly linger on the strange dyad of Athena and Penelope. Athena serves as the direct initiator of much of the action, and it is her force of will that drives the return of Odysseus and the death of the suitors. Penelope, on the other hand, is the inspiration which motivates the principle actors -- for herself, she takes precious little action and is deeply passive, even paralyzed, yet her very existence is enough to spur Odysseus from the side of his goddess-lover and to inspire the blind devotion of her suitors. There are certain ways in which Penelope and…
Homer. The Odyssey. trans. Samuel Butler. Available from The Internet Classics Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/odyssey.mb.txt . 11 January 2005.
Homer. The Odyssey. trans. Samuel Butler. Available from The Internet Classics Archive.
There it is called the underworld and truly reminds one of the subconscious in many ways. For the Greeks, this is just one aspects of life after death.. In some sense it seems more closely associated with the Christian idea of limbo. Heaven has its counterpart in the Elysian fields. In the Inferno hell is again representing the subconscious, but in it's more visceral and active and judgmental aspect. In general the "nature" of man to be violent, deceiving, etc. is found in hell in varying degrees. Yet one has some pity for many of its inhabitants, the same as in the Odyssey.
But why these visions of gods and hell by these authors? Jung points out that the introversion necessary to look within is the common factor:
The visionary phenomena, produced in the first stages of introversion, are grouped among the well-known phenomena of hypnagogic vision. They form, as…
Alighieri, Dante. Dante's Inferno. Trans. Henry Francis Cary. New York: Cassell, Petter, Galpin,
Dougherty, Carol. The Raft of Odysseus: The Ethnographic Imagination of Homer's Odyssey.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Dulles, Avery Cardinal. "The Population of Hell." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2003: 36