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Formation of the Solar System
Many scientists believed that the solar system was formed when in space a cloud of gas and dust was disturbed, by the explosion of a close by star known as a supernova. This explosion made waves in space which compressed the cloud of gas and dust. The cloud starts to collapse after getting pressed, as gravity together pulled the gas and dust, and formed a solar nebula. Thus, the cloud began to spin as it collapsed (UCAR).
Picture of Solar System
Finally, as the cloud grew more hot and dense in the center, surrounded by a disk of gas and dust, which was hot in the center and cooler at the edges. And as the disk became thinner and thinner, particles started to stick together and form clumps, where few clumps got bigger, forming particles while, small clumps stuck to them, ultimately forming…
Solar System. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Publisher:
Columbia University Press. New York. 2004.
Solar System Formation: UCAR. http://www.windows.ucar.edu
N. Booth, Exploring the Solar System (1996);
Copernicus & Galileo
hat did Copernicus discover about the universe?
Copernicus refuted earlier theories that the earth was the center of the universe and became the stepping stone Galileo later used to fine-tune the theory and Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun. These early scientists faced punishment from the Catholic Church but in the secular future they opened the door to truth and knowledge.
Nicolaus Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473, in Poland, but he was fortunate to have traveled to Italy at the young age of 18, to go to university and begin preparing himself for his career, which he thought at that time would be a career in the Roman Catholic Church. He became acquainted with the cosmos when, at the University of Bologna in Italy, he took an astrology class -- trying to read the stars in order to predict events that may…
Hellman, Hal. "Galileo vs. the Pope." Washington Post. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.washingtonpost.com . 1998
Henry, John. "Scientific Revolution." Encyclopedia.com. Encyclopedia of the Early Modern
World. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.encyclopedia.com . 2004.
Kuhn, Thomas. "Scientific Revolution." Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.fact-index.com. 2007
What causes solar storms? Why should people nearly a hundred million miles away on Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms but often they just cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The reason why human beings need to understand and care about solar storms is that they have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth. Those effects include problems that may affect daily life such as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have even built a system to protect the Earth's energy. However, the earth is still vulnerable to solar activity, much of which remains a mystery to science. Scientists are also…
Chivers, Tom (2010). Solar storm hitting Earth causes spectacular aurora displays. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/7926176/Solar-storm-hitting-Earth-causes-spectacular-aurora-displays.html
Johnston, Colin. "Deep Time: Earth's History and Future." Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YypdcDGO_5wJ:www.armaghplanet.com/pdf/AstroTopics/Solar%2520System/Deeptime.pdf+earth+history+sun&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgPEamf05LM8LE4Gs9KC4_SQJcE1wqvom3EwYg3fT6H4MzHhcgTbPBBszBjrWA7LWXwW7neAE-uf3a85n06b81ogO6znQmrUK51bsIMGALP2uQHhYfBZoY6jIT-dnkVLhOM7EHV&sig=AHIEtbSkFAb9K1cTFm9tzvpnhlhV4ZznzQ
O'Neill, Ian. (2010). Zombiesat Attack! Solar Storm Fries Satellite's Brain. Discovery News. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/space/zombiesat-attack-solar-storm-fries-satellites-brain.html
Phillips, T. (2009). Severe space weather: social and economic impacts. NASA. Retrieved online: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/21jan_severespaceweather/
In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.
In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & oecker, 2011, pg 109-124).
Hot water consumption
Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.
The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
Council, E.R. (2004). Renewable Energy in Europe: Building Markets and Capacity. London: James & James.
DeWinter, F. (1990). Solar Collectors, Energy Storage, and Materials. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: MIT Press.
Herring, H., Hardcastle, R., Phillipson, R., & Energy, G.B. (1988). Energy use and energy efficiency in UK commercial and public buildings up to the year 2000. London: HMSO.
solar flares and how they go on to cause global warming. Global warming has been an ongoing phenomenon and there are many reasons it has occurred. Apart from the green house effect, global warming could have been due to the solar flares that have occurred. Different researches and theories regarding this matter are discussed in the paper.
Global warming is a phenomenon that has amazed and frightened everyone ever since it came into being. The consequences and end results of global warming is what goes on to alarm and frighten everyone on earth. If looked at it literally, global warming is basically in increase in the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere. This change and elevation has been occurring ever since the 19th century and is known to increase even more. The change in the global temperature is dangerous because it goes onto increase the sea levels and alterations…
Lu, Jian et al. "Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming." Geophysical Research Letters, 34. 6 (2007): 1-10. Print.
Deforest, Craig. "Solar Storms." The World and I 2004: Print.
Hansen, J et al. "Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies." J. Geophys Res, 107. D18 (2002): 4347. Print.
Herring, David. "ClimateWatch Magazine -- Climate Change: Incoming Sunlight." n.d.. Web. 14 Apr 2013. .
( Manion, 2002). The ethics of sustainable development in the sciences also includes the "precautionary principle." This refers to the view that, "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health and the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically" (Manion, 2002).
In the light of the above brief overview of way that ethics and social responsibility have become part of the ethos of the contemporary scientific world, it becomes clear that a focus on technologies such as solar still production is one way in which engineers can enact their ethical and social responsibilities in this age. This project also takes into account the social and cultural needs and context of the people of the region, especially in areas where there is a lack of resources.
From an ethical perspective, professional engineering organizations have made an important contribution…
'AMREF Canada. Water and Sanitation Lesson Plan -- Science Experiment and Activity', viewed 9 September, 2010, http://canada.amref.org/silo/files/water-science-experiment-grade-11-12.doc.
'ASCE Code of Ethics', viewed 7 September, 2010,
'DEFINING SUSTAINABILITY', viewed 6 September, 2010,
A light insulation causes a reduction of 14.5% in the efficiency obtained with full insulation. The wind effect is much more limited. The increase of wind velocity from zero to 3.6 mph yielded a slight reduction (2%) in the still performance.
Repeated tests have shown that the higher the operating temperature of the still, assuming insulation is equal, correlates with higher efficiency. For example, with each 6 degrees Celsius increase in ambient temperature, a still's output increases 7-8%. The application of this finding means that a still operating in a hot desert climate will produce typically as much as one-third more water than the same unit would produce in a cooler climate.
Production of distilled water is also associated with the thermal efficiency of the still itself. Efficiency may range from 30 to 60%, depending on the construction of the still, the amount and type of insulation used, ambient temperatures,…
Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.
Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.
Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.
Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.
Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or…
Photovoltaic power system is a type of renewable energy that converts solar energy into solar photovoltaic electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) technology converts energy from the sunlight into the electricity. One of the advantages of the PV technology is that it is pollution free, and it is applicable with little maintenance.
(EPIA 2008). Since sunlight is available free of charge, there has been an increase in the research and development (&D) to make the Photovoltaic energy available to all households and industry in the future. With the advantages derived from the PV energy systems, varieties of research have been launched at national and international laboratories focusing on the mass production of solar power at possible lower costs. (Dahl, 2005). In German, there are varieties of efforts in the development of PV technology. There has been an increase in the collaboration of government, university and the industry consortia in the development of Photovoltaic…
Dahl, T ( 2005). Photovoltaic Power Systems. Technology White Paper
El-Beyrouty, K. Meimanaliev, A. Petrosyan, L. et al. (2009). Germany's Photovoltaic Cluster. Competitiveness of Microeconomics: Clusters, Firms and Economic Development.
EPIA (2008). Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from the Su
EPIA, (2011). Who is EPIA? Retrieved 25 October 2011 from http://www.epia.org/about-epia/who-is-epia.html
It is yet to be seen whether alternative energy will eventually replace petroleum products or whether they will simply enhance the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and availability of energy in the future. BP's move into alternative energy will help it to position itself as a leader regardless of which direction the market decides to go. BP's move makes sense from many perspectives. It makes sense for a marketing perspective because it will help to improve BP's image to one that is more environmentally friendly and in line with current public consciousness. It will help it to make better use of natural resources from production to end use of all of its product lines.
One advantage that BP has over many of the other companies entering into the alternative energy field is that it has experience in providing the needs of mass consumers. It understands the technical difficulties of supplying energy to…
BP Solar International Inc. BP Solar has over 30 years experience in the solar industry: a legacy of quality, service, performance and innovation all around the world. 2006. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=3050457&contentId=3050613 .
Accessed October 29, 2006.
open and closed system models in criminal justice. Specifically it will define open and closed system models of organizations and explain why it is important that the criminal justice professional should know the differences between these models. It will also provide a specific organizational example of each type of organization, one for open systems and one for closed systems, and describe how these organizations meet the criteria of either the open or closed system perspective. There are vast differences in management and outcome between open and closed system models in organizations, and these differences are especially important to the criminal justice system. An open system allows for change and growth, while a closed system is less flexible and far more bureaucratic.
The open and closed ideas of system models in organizations were originated by organizational experts obert L. Kahn and Daniel Katz in the 1960s. There are three basic system…
Ciarkowski, Arthur A. "8 Influencing Structure: From Hierarchy to Chaos." How Public Organizations Work: Learning from Experience. Ed. Bellavita, Christopher. New York: Praeger, 1990. 111-122.
Hartmann, Francis and Charles Wellford. "Panel III Changing Nature of Criminal Justice System Responses and Its Professions." U.S. Department of Justice. 1998. 10 June 2005.
Roeckelein, Jon E. Dictionary of Theories, Laws, and Concepts in Psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
The last major x-ray flare occurred in 2003 ("O'Dell). Most of the energy from an x-ray flare is absorbed by the earth's ionosphere ("O'Dell). Thus, a CME can be far more dangerous for human societies than an x-ray flare.
The first and most subtle observable phenomenon signaling an upcoming solar storm are known as coronal loops, which are "kinks in the magnetic flux form" forced to the surface of the sun due to a buildup of magnetic energy (O'Dell). Dark spots on the sun's surface then appear, usually in the "footprint" of the coronal loops ("O'Dell). The dark spots visibly signal the buildup of magnetism. NASA describes the phenomenon of solar flares as occurring in three stages: a precursor stage, an impulsive stage, and a decay stage. During the precursor stage, the release of magnetic energy is only triggered and leads to "soft x-ray emissions," ("What is a Solar Flare?").…
Hadhazy, Adam. "A Scary 13th: 20 Years Ago, Earth Was Blasted with a Massive Plume of Solar Plasma." Scientific American. Mar 13, 2009. Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=geomagnetic-storm-march-13-1989-extreme-space-weather
O'Neill, Ian. "2012: No Killer Solar Flare." Universe Today. June 21, 2008. Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://www.universetoday.com/2008/06/21/2012-no-killer-solar-flare/
What is a Solar Flare?" Retrieved Mar 20, 2009 at http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/sftheory/flare.htm
One of the biggest risks that companies face is advanced persistent threats.
Advanced persistent threats can be very harmful to a company and can come in various forms as hackers have a variety of methods in their tool belt; however, on the receiving end, companies should be prepared for cyber attacks -- and yet they often are not, because of carelessness, neglect, lack of oversight, regulation, accountability, transparency, review, and an ability to conduct proper assessment. APTs are happening all the time and can be traced to origin locations all over the world (Norse, 2016). Cyber security should be therefore a number priority for any and all businesses that utilize information systems software and hardware. As the Norse Map shows, countries in both the East and the West are waging cyber war against one another; cyber security is therefore a real going concern for all (Norse, 2016).
Boyens, J., Paulsen, C., Bartol, N., Moorthy, R., Shankles, S. (2012). Notional Supply
Chain Risk Management Practices for Federal Information Systems. Retrieved from http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/nistir-7622/second-public-draft_nistir-7622.pdf
Earned Value Analysis. (2012). Project Management Guru. Retrieved from http://www.projectmanagementguru.com/eva.html
Fleming, Q., Koppelman, J. (2000). Earned Value Project Management. PA: Project
Metric ystem -- One of the reasons measurement can be complicated is that there is more than one system in use. Based on the Ancient Roman system, the metric system is based on powers of 10; which is called decimalization. The metric system has been the preferred European and scientific method of measuring sine the 18th century, but is not part of the International ystem of Units, which is also standardized. Because the metric system is based on powers of 10, units are easier to align. cientists use the metric system as a way to have a common measurement between countries and over time. cientists use notation that makes it easier to conceptualize distances much easier, particularly when these distances are large. Mathematical examples include:
If Mike needed a desk that was 5 feet by 4 feet wide, how many inches of trim would he need for the whole desk.…
Seeds, M., Backman, D. (2012). Horizons: Exploring the Universe, 12th ed. Boston,
Mounted on the side of the pole are 2 solar panels made by F3 Solar that are capable of generating up to 80 W. Of power.
-No lamp changes -- sealed for life.
-Fully controllable with excellent colour rendition
-Multi combination outputs.
-LED Life expectancy -- 25 years +
Prices vary by distributor
Green Column (http://www.wirefreedirect.com / green_column.asp)
The wind and solar powered solution delivers free, renewable energy which is stored in a battery ready to be consumed when darkness falls. Green Columns are already in use all over the UK on footpaths, playgrounds and car parks. (Note: Product's current battery lasts up to 10 days in mild weather, but only 4-5 days in inclement weather conditions.)
Prices vary by distributor
The following questions will be submitted to potential vendors for the solar and wind powered street LED light systems needed for the initiative envisioned herein.
Alsos, G.A., Isaksen, E.P. & Ljunggren, E. (2006). New venture financing and subsequent business growth in men- and women-led businesses. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 30(5), 667-670.
Hildrum, J.M., Finsrud, H.D. & Klethagen, P. (2009). The next generation of national R&D
programmes in Norway: Consequences for action research and regional development.
International Journal of Action Research, 5(3), 255-257.
As noted, the international operations will be controlled locally. The local partner will have significant input. Even when Solar Solutions has controlling interest, it is likely that a Saudi from the joint venture partner will run the subsidiary. The U.S. office is likely only to provide oversight. It is expected, however, that the U.S. will lend control techniques to the Saudi operation. The United States has robust accounting, auditing and control management techniques that can add value to the organization. In particular, managerial accounting techniques such as budgets and variance analysis will be utilized as control mechanisms for the subsidiary in Saudi Arabia.
The company will need to develop a cross-national ethics and social responsibility code. These are values that will transcend borders and be an integral part of the culture of Solar Solutions. Thus, they need to apply to all of the company's operations. There is the risk that…
Al-Mulhim, a. (2013). Saudi youth, the issue of unemployment and work ethic. Arab News. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.arabnews.com/columns/saudi-youth-issue-unemployment-and-work-ethic
Anderlini, J. (2013). Starbucks buys out northern Chinese operator. South China Morning Post. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.scmp.com/node/568949
CIA World Factbook. (2013). Saudi Arabia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html
Einhorn, B. (2013). Worst places to work. Business Week. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://excelle.monster.com/benefits/articles/2982-the-worlds-20-worst-places-to-work?page=4
Batteries are common in individual household systems. Inverters could help, though their technology is not standardized. Automated demand response using smart meters with microclimate forecasting research is well funded (St. John). Building dedicated (express) feeders for larger PV systems with bidirectional voltage regulators is one response. Avoiding fixed capacitator banks and having the PV system absorb volt-ampere reactives are two other possible solutions (Katiraei and Romero Aguero 69-70). On the other hand, PV can be useful to a utility by improving the voltage profile and reducing electrical line losses (Srisaen and Sangswang 855), as well as "relieved transmission and distribution congestion, environmental impact reduction, peak shaving, and enhanced utility system reliability" (Ramakumar and Chiradeja 722-723).
PV has environmental issues. Making solar cells is an energy-intensive process, using significant amounts of water and toxic chemicals. Most good monocrystalline silicon is produced by the highly inefficient (80% waste) trichlorosilane (SiHCl3) distillation and…
BrighterEnergy.org. SunPower offers solar modules boasting 19% efficiency. 3 May 2010. Web. 20 October 2011.
Chen, Hong Wen. "Exposure and Health Risk of Gallium, Indium, and Arsenic from Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry Workers." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2007): 5-9.
Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE). Home. n.d. Web. 20 October 2011.
Edelman, Philip. "Environmental and Workplace Contamination in the Semiconductor Industry: Implications for Future Health of the Workforce and Community." Environmental Health Perspectives 86 (1990): 291-295.
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
But the of the efficiency of the design requires further proof. It is necessary to ensure that the all of the rays "directed to the virtual elliptic receiver at the exit aperture are reflected by the concentrator to some point on this receiver" (Garcia-Botella, et al.). The explanation of the math for this process is explained in a long section of the report from Garcia-Botella, et al.;
"Three properties of one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator geometry are useful: (1)
All meridional sections of a one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator are hyperbolas, (2)
all cross sections of a onesheet hyperbolic concentrator are ellipses and (3) the tangent plane, at any point P. Of a one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator, is defined by the bisector of the angle FPF0, where F. And F0 are the foci of the hyperbola in the meridional plane (Fig. 2), and the tangent line to the elliptic cross section at P. All the…
Ali, Imhamed M. Saleh, Tapas K. Mallick, Peter a. Kew, Tadhg S. O'Donovan, and K.S.
Reddy. "Optical Performance Evaluation of a 2-D and 3-D Novel Hyperboloid
Solar Concentrator." World Renewable Energy Congress, 2010. Print.
Chaves, Julio. Introduction to Non-Imaging Optics. New York: CRC Press, 2008. Print.
After the completion of the design and development of satellites, the systems are normally subjected to waiting periods that span for several years before the identification of an appropriate launch opportunity.
Design and Implementation Cost:
The third major problem in the development and implementation of satellite communication is the software development costs. This includes money spent on all bus systems, ground support equipment, systems engineering, communication payloads, program management, and integration and test. In most cases, the development and implementation costs are difficult to estimate since there are recurring and non-recurring cost drivers in the process. The non-recurring cost drivers include heritage, number of prototypes and engineering models, and technology readiness while the recurring cost-drivers are complexity, project scope, and quantity of production.
The production quantity refers to the number of flight units developed, combined, and tested on similar contract to the development initiatives. hile the development and production initiatives…
Burgess, Erik, and Nathan Menton. "Satellite-Subsystem Development Costs." The Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Cost Analysis Improvement Group, Feb. 2008. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Dawoud, M.M. "Communications Satellite Sub-systems." KFUPM Open Courseware. KFUPM. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Lappas, V., G. Prassinos, a. Baker, and R. Magnuss. "Wireless Sensor Motes for Small Satellite Applications." IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 48.5 (2006): 175-79. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Marz, Justin D. "The Design and Implementation of Various Subsystems for Pico-Satellites." University of Kansas. University of Kansas, 12 Dec. 2004. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Vitousek, et al. Issues
Vitousek says the major sources of land transformation are pastureland, agriculture, and urban industrial activity. Agriculture (fisheries, artificial environments, row-crops) are high on the list of land transformation, urban industrial activity medium, and pure pastureland low, depending on human involvement.
Humans alter the oceans in many ways, although some are not easy to quantify. Population centers are concentrated near coastal areas and coastal wetlands are also altered. Fishing alters the ecology of the oceans by focusing on the top predators and throwing the system out of balance. Pollutants and other man-made activities cause algal blooms that are toxic to the ecology of the oceans as well. It is the relationship between the different parts of the food chain that are most effected by human involvement.
Part 3 -- The earth can be viewed as a system concept, with the forests the lungs, the waters…
discovered solar system and how it works. Using this solar system as an example the writer develops a basis for a believable solar system in another area and describes its functions and actions.
The discovery of the new solar system is very exciting and the world is eager to explore its fundamentals and its possible future use. The world is going to organize a team of scientists that will explore the new solar system using carefully modulated steps with which to discover its workings and elements.
Phase one is going to be an attempt to discover its atmospheric elements. Much like this solar system has atmospheres that contribute to the ability for life to exist on earth, and possibly other planets it is suspected there are similar atmospheres in the newly discovered solar system. We are going to determine what the planets' atmospheres are comprised of and whether or not…
Reference Date: 12:00 UT 1 Jan 2000 (JD 2451545.0)
Julian centuries from reference date
Goddard Space Flight Center O4 Model
Dipole field strength: 4.28 gauss-Rj3
hile hard facts, such as Venus' circumference, diameter, and distance from the sun are relatively easy to determine, historical and future implications of the planet and its study are not as simple to calculate. Two of the most important facts that we don't yet know about the planet Venus are the significance of its historical positioning and its implications for earth's atmospheric problems.
According to Ev Cochrane's study into the ancient solar system, the regularity with which the system now moves around the sun is a "recent development." In the ancient world, instead, Cochrane suggests that observers noted a different type of solar system. The discrepancies between the two solar systems has largely to do with the planet Venus. According to Cochrane, Venus' movement into its current orbit was recent, and this movement created solar side effects that may be important to the current development of the solar system. hile…
Cochrane, Ev. "The Many Faces of Venus: The Planet Venus in Ancient Myth and Religion." n.d. Aeon Journal. 12 August 2008. Aeon Journal. http://www.aeonjournal.com/venus.htm .
Japan Plans 2007 Mission to Venus." 2 May 2001. NASA. 12 August 2008. NASA. http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/news/expandnews.cfm?id=805.
Missions to Venus." 2008. The Planetary Society. 12 August 2008. The Planetary
Society. http://www.planetary.org/explore/topics/venus/missions.html .
The inner core, meanwhile, has greater density, at 13, and temperature, at 6,650°C (or 12,000°F).
Compared against other planets in the solar system, the Earth contains just the appropriate amounts of gases, elements, and other properties that make human and other organism life possible.
Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, has lesser mass and volume than the Earth, at a fraction of only 1/18. However, it is as dense as the Earth, although Mercury's surface is made up of more solid mass, specifically rough, porous, dark-colored rocks. Its atmosphere is made up of sodium and potassium, which accounts for the planet's density and very thin atmosphere. It was hypothesized that the core of Mercury is made up of liquid iron compound, as a result of the presence of magnetic field.
Venus, meanwhile, exhibits a unique characteristic for being the brightest and hottest planet in the sky, with the presence…
Electromagnetic waves are energy waves produced by the oscillation or acceleration of an electric charge. They include radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. Their wavelengths in meters are: radio waves (0.1 to 1000), microwaves (1 x 10-3 ~ 1 x 10-1); infrared (7 x 10-7 ~1 x 10-3); visible light (4 x 10-7 ~ 7 x 10-7); ultraviolet rays (1 x 10-8 ~ 4 x 10-7); x-rays (1 x 10-11 ~ 1 x 10-8) and gamma rays (< 1 x 10-11).
Scientists have inferred that such great amounts of energy as produced by the Sun (4x1026 watts per second) can only be the result of nuclear fusion
If such energy were produced through the most efficient chemical reaction, the Sun would not last for more than a few thousand years. Evidence suggests that the lifespan of the Sun is in billions of years;…
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
BRE (2002), BREDEM-8 Model Description: 2001 Update, BRE, UK ? BSI (1989), BS5918:
British Standard Code of Practice for Solar Heating Systems for Domestic Hot Water,
Bradford, J. & Bean, F. (2011). 'Here comes the sun: a field trial of solar water heating systems.' The Energy Saving Trust. [PDF]
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…
Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.
Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.
In other industrialized countries, however, like Germany, Italy and Japan, the main concern of governments today is that not enough children are being born to even reach the level of the replacement rate. This is almost certainly a mistake since reduction of population should be the main goal in order to save the planet, and additional middle-class consumers in Western nations are the greatest burden on the environment.
Encouragement of voluntary euthanasia will be another method of reducing the excess population. Today many billions of dollars are spent on the last thirty days of life and 65% of physicians and nurses in one survey admitted that had provided unnecessary treatments for the terminally ill. That statistic was mentioned frequently in the debates over health care reform, with the implication that those dollars would be better spent on medical care for younger and healthier people at the start of their productive…
Summary of work completed
To help ensure that affected personnel had an opportunity to communicate their needs for the solution, a telephonic interview with a work coordinator at Ames Central Travel Office was conducted recently; in addition, this telephonic interview was followed by a personal visit to the Ames esearch Center in order gain a clearer understanding of the current workflow process. The end users of the solution provided very insightful suggestion as to what features they would like incorporated in the system. This meeting was highly productive and helped illuminate the numerous steps that were involved in travel request processing and administration that were unclear or unknown prior to the visit.
Because the software development team for this project is currently working on other initiatives, a meeting has been scheduled with them to discuss the scope and duration of the entire project. Preparatory to this meeting, hard copies of…
Ames fact sheet. (2010). NASA. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/pdf/
Center overview. (2010). NASA. Retrieved from
"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. During this period of time, like the other eight planets, Pluto's atmosphere undergoes a fundamental change in character, briefly developing an atmosphere. As methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground" (Dejoie & Truelove 2008).
These eccentricities further suggested that Pluto was really much more "like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system," called dwarf planets and not worthy of the status of the other eight (Inman, 2008, p.2). Still, many astronomers argued in favor of a more inclusive definition that would still retain Pluto's status as a planet. In fact, one radical proposal: "would have made…
That question doesn't affect the classification of planets in our Solar System, but will be relevant to some others" ("Pluto no longer a Planet," orld Science Homepage, 2006).
Even some scientists who disliked the definition, however, felt that it was fair to demote Pluto. "According to the new definition, a full-fledged planet is an object that orbits the sun and is large enough to have become round due to the force of its own gravity. In addition, a planet has to dominate the neighborhood around its orbit," and Pluto is not simply small, and Pluto also does not dominate its neighborhood but its moon Charon, is very large in proportion to the former planet, as is about half the size of Pluto, "while all the true planets are far larger than their moons" (Inman, 2006) "In addition, bodies that dominate their neighborhoods, sweep up asteroids, comets, and other debris, clearing…
Britt, Robert Roy. "Scientists decide Pluto's no longer a planet: Planet definition approved, but dissenters plan a counteroffensive." MSNBC. 26 Aug 2006. 11 Mar 2007. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14489259/
Britt, Robert Roy. "Controversial New Definition." Space.com. 16 Aug 2006. 11 Mar 2007.
g. volcanoes, etc.), but not on schedule; 3) Just because something is plausible does not make it true. The events on popular television series like Star Trek or Star Wars are not only plausible, but have scientific merit. That does not make them true, only possible (Kraus, 2007; Cavelos, 2000); 4) Conspiracy theories abound in numerous genres and surrounding numerous events. Examination of Marshalls' prose and "science," while seemingly credible does try to sell a product and only hints and speculates at facts without peer-reviewed data sources (Yowcrooks, 2009). While positive in tone, it also appears that if one believes conspiracy theories, most of us have only 133 weeks to live; or simply turn the calendar to a new page?
Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.
"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Yowcrooks.blogspot.com. Cited in:
Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth."…
Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.
"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Yowcrooks.blogspot.com. Cited in:
Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth." Cited in: http://www.climatecrisis.net .
brown dwarf with a satellite planet was recently discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope; the implications of the discovery are discussed in a recent NASA-published article entitled "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System," online at < http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/spitzer-020705.html>. Also known as "failed stars," brown dwarfs are dim and rarely host solar systems. Because of their relatively small mass they cannot ignite and produce star light. However, brown dwarfs are also known as "super planets" because they often exist alone in space and are larger than most known planets.
The content of the article relates to many interrelated areas of cosmology and astronomy. First, the news clarifies the definition of brown dwarfs, of which relatively little is known because they are rare and dim. Also, if a brown dwarf can host a satellite planet then miniature solar systems could exist throughout space. The discovery also teaches fundamental concepts of astronomy such…
Clavin Whitney. "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System." NASA.gov. 7 Feb 2005. .
The materials that are collected in them are solids from the various gases (which cooled inside these clouds). The gravity from the sun pulled them closer towards each other. This contributed to the formation of the planets and asteroids. ("Summary," 2007) (Williams, 2010)
Once a star is finished developing, is when solar winds will blow rock and debris away from the sun. This forms the Kuiper Belt and Oort Clouds, which is where the smaller debris is collected near the orbit of the outer body planets. These are the remains of the rubble that was used to create the solar system billions of years ago.
However, there is an exception to this pattern. In research that was conducted on distant galaxies, scientists discovered that there are not large outer planets with asteroid belts (i.e. Jupiter). This led to theories that much warmer Jupiter like bodies could exist closer to these…
Quick Mars Facts. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/allaboutmars/extreme/quickfacts/
The Milky Way. (2011). Daily Galaxy. Retrieved from: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2011/12/the-milky-ways-two-billion-earthlike-planets-an-update.html
The Moons of Saturn. (2010). UTK. Retrieved from: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/saturn/moons.html
Saturn Overview. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Saturn
Chemical Properties of the Universe
Astronomers hypothesize that about 5 million years ago, the Solar System was filled with a plethora of hot gases and dust, swirling around a hot core. They think that once the core approached about 1 million degrees, the physics and chemical properties caused the gases to coalesce, forming the sun. During this time, there were millions and millions of asteroids. As these asteroids collided with one other, some combined and as their mass increased, gravity pulled more and more particles and debris in, and the planetoids became larger and larger until the planets of the solar system were formed. This was a process known as accreation, and over hundreds of millions of years, the solar system formed -- the continual bombarding of asteroids changing the planets, forming the rings of Saturn, and the landscapes of others, including the moons -- which were just smaller planetoids…
Gagnon, S. "Hydrogen." March 2006. Jefferson Labs. Web. May 2013. .
Hubble Space Telescope Project. "Coposition of the Universe." May 2009. spacetelescop.org. Web. May 2013. .
Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "The Planets and Their Composition." March 2011. Nasa.gov. Web. May 2013. .
Jones, L. Stars and Galaxies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing, 2010. Print.
Objects in Space
Many objects move around in space that proves to be a threat to the planet earth and its components. There is a chance of collision in relation to the number of objects in the space thus the need to adopt and implement preventive or tracking measures towards minimization of the effects. One of the effects of the collision of the numerous objects moving in the space is death of the humanities in extreme circumstances. Luckily, for the development of human beings, space is empty. It is also essential to note there is critical information or knowledge on the locations of the large objects in the space. This makes the chances of DS1 hitting any object accidentally to be very slim. Despite this essence, there are small objects in the space that eludes the knowledge the humanity in relation to the exact location. This makes DS1 to be…
"Asteroid Detectives." New Scientist 217.2906 (2013): 5. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8
Simonov A., et al. "Asteroid Hazard, Real Problems and Practical Actions." Solar System
Research 45.7 (2011): 577-583.
Third Grade Science Instruction Plan
The Florida state standards for science education and knowledge achievements in the third grade essentially consist of background knowledge in all of the major branches of scientist inquiry and knowledge -- earth science, physical sciences, and life sciences (FDE 2010). This includes fundamental knowledge regarding the nature of matter and an introduction of types of matter, an understanding of energy and a knowledge of different objects that emit energy in the forms of heat and light and the basics of the energy life cycle amongst organisms on earth (FDE 2010). There are also numerous specific learning objectives identified in each of these and other areas of scientific knowledge that are defined by the state as necessary; the following lesson description touches on several of these areas (FDE 2010).
Earth in Space and Time
One popular way of introducing earth as it exists in space is…
DOE. (2010). Third grade sciance standards. Department of Education. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://doe.sd.gov/contentstandards/documents/PhyScience_3-5.pdf
FDE. (2010). Grade level expectations. Florida Department of Education. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://www.fldoe.org/bii/curriculum/sss/pdf/sci3.pdf
SSS. (1996). Sunshine State standards. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspStandardCorrelation&id=139
TC. (2010). Solar system. Teacher's corner. Accessed 30 November 2010. v
Metamorphic, Igneous, And Sedimentary Rocks and Their Application to Planets in the Solar System
The objective of this study is to examine metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks and their application to planets in the solar system.
There are reported to be three primary classes of rocks, which are classified according to their origination. The three rock types are metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when bodies of magma cool. As time passes and the rocks undergo process due to various weather cycles the igneous rocks erode and the particles and chemicals, which settle into beds, become compressed or cemented forming into what are known as sedimentary rocks. In the event igneous rocks are buried and then undergo a high state of heating and compression they form into what are known as metamorphic rocks. Eventually, the rocks undergo heat and compression and then melt with the molten rock…
Basic Rock Types (2012) Zooinverse. Geology Basics. Retrieved from: http://www.moonzoo.org/Geology_Basics
Major Rock Types (2012) Rocks & Other Mineral Sources. Retrieved from: http://www.galleries.com/rocks/default.htm
Nelson, SA (2012) Earth Structure, Materials, Systems, and Cycles. Tulane University. Retrieved from: http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/Natural_Disasters/struct%26materials.htm
The Mars exploration program announced by President Bush in 2004 relies on first establishing a prolonged human presence on the Moon, in conjunction with completion of the International Space Station by 2015. The President envisions returning to the Moon by 2020 at the latest, for the purpose of being able to launch robotic missions to Mars (Whitehouse, 2004). According to the American Physical Society and many independent scientists, the President's goal overvalues the symbolic significance of landing on Mars at the expense of research that is more immediately beneficial to human society, and a more prudent financial expenditure (APS, 2004). This is a view with which I am inclined to agree.
Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.
Smithsonian Institution Press: London
American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04
The Moon-Mars Program.
Engelbert, P., Dupuis, D. (1998) the Handy Space Answer Book.…
Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.
Smithsonian Institution Press: London
American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04
The Moon-Mars Program.
This allowed the Catholic Church to present the idea that Earth was special because it was God's greatest creation. Thus, the sun, stars, and planets worked for the Earth and not the other way around. The Earth stayed completely still at the center of the universe and was surrounded by less important celestial bodies that did not receive as much of God's grace. Since Aristotelian philosophy fit so nicely within Christian doctrine, it was adopted and held as truth for hundreds of years, until late into the Middle Ages.
However, there was a drastic and radical change in the concept of the formation of the Universe at the dawn of the enaissance. As more and more of the Church's truths were challenged during the Scientific evolution of the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe, it was only a matter of time before Aristotelian philosophy was placed under question. The first…
Dear, Paul. Revolutionizing the Sciences. Princeton University Press. 2001.
Oster, Malcom. Science in Europe 1500-1800. Palgrave Macmillan. 2002.
Scientists accept that Jupiter is mainly composed of large quantities of hydrogen and helium. There is some consideration as to whether there is the presence of a solid rocky core that contains elements that are much heavier. The quick rotation of Jupiter pulls the planet into an oblate spheroid. This means that there is a bulging appearance about the planets equator. The outer atmosphere is divided into multiple bands at variant latitudes. Due to the movement of the planet and the location of these bands storms are produced where the bands converge with each other. As the boundaries of one band intersect with the boundaries of another closer band, the resulting interaction produces a hostile climate. The energy produced by the interaction is translated into storm like conditions. The most visible of these storms is the Great ed Spot. This storm was identified as early as the 17th century by…
Jupiter (2011). Retrieved from http://www.solstation.com/stars/jupiter.htm
Jupiter largest planet in the solar system. (2011). Retrieved from
teaching space science. There are various complexities that affect the way that astronomy is taught, not the least of which is the enormity of scale that space science involves.
One of the basic requirements for understanding astronomy is coming to terms with the vastness of the universe. For example, a basic unit of astronomical measurement is the light year. Merriam-ebster defines the light year as "a unit of length in astronomy equal to the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum or about 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers" (2011). hile this definition conveys factual data, it does little to make the concept real, that is, accessible to the average student.
Moreover, trying to convey the reality of light traveling at the unimaginably fast speed of 299,792 kilometers per second (186,282 miles per second) is indeed mind-boggling. Even at such amazing speeds, light takes years to…
Bennett, J. (2011). Teaching resources -- strategies for teaching astronomy. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.jeffreybennett.com/astronomy.html
Discovery Education. (2011). Astronomical scales. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free-lesson-plans/astronomical-scales.cfm
Koppes, S. (2011). Award-winning teachers find the unexpected. University of Chicago website. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.uchicago.edu/features/20110527_quantrell/olinto.shtml
Merriam-Webster. (2011). Light-year. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/light-year?show=0&t=1313215675
Search for Extraterrestrial Life: The Existence of Non-Human Intelligent Beings in Our Galaxy
The possibility of extraterrestrial life has always intrigued philosophers, scientists, theologians and even lay people for centuries. The fascinating question of whether there are other intelligent creatures in space, however, remains unsolved despite technological advancements in science particularly because thus far, there still lacks conclusive evidence. Motivations for the search for non-human life range from scientific and philosophical levels, technical and practical levels, to even the need to eliminate the loneliness of the human race in time and space. Scientists and astronomers remain committed to the search because the answer to this question has profound consequences: it will explain the nature and destiny of intelligent life on the universe, the culmination of evolution in different galaxies and provide more insight on the role of human beings on the universe, as well as what they are capable of…
Aczel, A. D (1998). Probability 1. Florida: Harcount, Inc.
Drake, F. (1988). The Search for Extraterrestrial Life. Los Alamos Science Fellows Colloquium. Retrieved 3 June 2015 from http://permalink.lanl.gov/object/tr?what=info:lanl-repo/lareport/LA-UR-88-1000-04
Hawkin, S. (n.d). Life in the Universe. Retrieved 3 June from http://www.hawking.org.uk/life-in-the-universe.html
Kelly, M. (2012). Expectation of Extraterrestrial Life Built More on Optimism than Evidence, Study Finds. Princeton University Library. Retrieved 3 June 2015 from http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S33/52/89I01/
In its most basic sense, this treaty abolished the age-old practice of electing a king of the Romans, a reference to the Holy Roman Empire; it gave France the geographical areas of Verdun, Alsace, Metz and a portion of Strasburg; Sweden was given West Pomerania, Stettin, Wismar and Bremen, known as bishoprics but now part of northern Germany; Bavaria retained the Upper Palatinate and all electoral titles, and Saxony retained Lusatia. Also, Spain was forced to fully recognize the United Provinces as a sovereign nation-state. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia turned Europe into a conglomerate of separate political and economic nation-states that were only partially dependent on each other; the treaty also made it possible for mercantilism to spread throughout Europe, thus creating the foundation for many more years of conflict and war. In addition, this treaty also brought an end to the Eighty Years War between Spain and the…
There lies question on whether scientific knowledge is able to answer all the questions that relate to physical reality. For many years, people have wondered what the earth is composed of, leaving them wondering if the nature's secrets will one day be revealed (Grant 64). However, it is notable that since Galileo discovered the moon in 1608, there has been a remarkable move by his fellow scientists.
A lot of studies in science including the origin of the solar system, sonata of the stars, how matter changes to energy, and detailed works of an atom, among others has not fully exposed the science knowledge. However, the human culture seems to change with science. orldview patterns prove that complex systems studies by working from their smallest constituents meaning from bottom up. These paradigms also confirm that the laws of nature pounce from deep symmetry writs in to the basics…
Berlin, I. Concepts and Categories New York: Viking Press, 2006
Davis, P. Cosmin Jackpot: Why Our Universe is Just Right for Life California: Houghton Mifflin 2007
Grant, EA History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. London: Cambridge University Press, 2007 pp. 62 -- 67
Gleiser, M. The dancing Universe: Creation Myths to the Big Bang New York: Continuum 2001
hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…
Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004 http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm
History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2
Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History
My presence in seawater, on the other hand, is enormous -- approximately 230 billion tones at a constant concentration of 0.1 to 0.2ppm.
I am also a part of the crust of your earth: a smaller part in igneous rocks, preferring the granites fro my habitation. You can also find me in clay. I am said to be the earth's 25th most abundant element -- and proud of that fact I am!
It was Arfwedson who found me in Sweden in 1817 and his boss, the pharmacist Berzelisu who christened me. You don't know where to find me most often? Go to South America; the Andes chain -- Chile is the best, followed by Argentina. You might find some of me in Afghanistan, but I am not too sure about that. In the United States, you can track me down in Nevada, otherwise I live in Bolivia and China.
Greenwood, N.N. & Earnshaw. A. Chemistry of the Elements, Oxford: Pergamon, 1984.
Krebs, R.E. The History and Use of our Earth's Chemical Elements. Conn: Greenwood Press, 2006.
Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.), Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, 2005.
The temperatures on Saturn, which average in the range of -99 F. To -290 F, or -73 C. To -179 C, mean that ethynyl's highly reactive status is necessary to perform the chemical process that results in the creation of triacetylene and the polyynes that serve as ultraviolet radiation shields and appear as haze from a distance (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Saturn is otherwise too cold to have the heat to propel chemical reactions, in the absence of reactive molecules like ethynyl.
The modeling techniques used by the scientists to reproduce this process involved crossed molecular beam machines to "collide supersonic gaseous beams of ethynyl and diacetylene molecules," and a mass spectrometer measurement of the reaction (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Analysis confirmed that the results of the collision yielded triacetylene, plus a single hydrogen atom. Later computations also confirmed the spectrometer's analysis of the distribution of electrons in…
About that triacetylene in Titan's atmosphere. (2009, September 27). Scientific Blogging
Retrieved October 6, 2009
Chemistry of Titan's hazy atmosphere unraveled. (2009, October 4). Science Daily. Retrieved October 6, 2009
The third exhibit was another highlight from "Mission to the Planets," which was the Cassini-Huygens Probe. This highlight is related to the educational standard 4(e) from the earth sciences unit for grade 8. It states that "students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids." This exhibit relates to the standard by revealing how scientists are still discovering new information about planets like Saturn and their moons like Titan within the solar system through unmanned spacecrafts like this one.
Cassini-Huygens is responsible for finding out about Saturn's gravitational and magnetic fields, mapping Titan's surface, and studying Saturn's and its moons' atmospheres and ionospheres among other things. The exhibit conveys the standard by displaying full-scale models of Cassini-Huygens that are covered by insulating blankets; the blankets can be pulled back to reveal the spacecraft underneath.…
Global warming has been an issue of debate for decades, however, today there seems to be more evidence pointing to its reality. Type in "global warming" on Google search engine and access to more than fifteen million web sites will appear. One such web site is "Natural Resource Defense Council" at http://www.nrdc.org/globalarming/default.asp, which contains a wealth of information concerning global warming (Global pp). Those who believe in global warming assert that higher temperatures will produce dangerous consequences such as drought, disease, floods, and lost ecosystems (Global pp). According to the theory, carbon dioxide and other air pollution from sources such as coal-burning power plants and automobiles, collects in the atmosphere and creates a "thickening blanket" that traps the sun's heat and causes the planet's temperature to increase (Global pp). Over the past fifty years the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history and scientists predict…
Life on Mars.
Science and Nature: Space.
Eternal Circle of Time
Electrons circle the nucleus of an atom. Untold trillions of atoms collide together and explode. The universe expands. Electrons race down the copper wires of an electric cable. The sun shines. Leaves digest the sunlight, produce nutrients, live, grow, die, and fall to the ground. The wind bears aloft the leaves, scatters them over earth and sea. The tide moves them, pushes them up into rivers where at last they settle into the mud. Salmon swim upstream; lay their eggs on the muddy bottoms of lakes and rivers. A powerful grizzly bear nuzzles the icy water of a mountain brook. His great paw sweeps into the water and catches a darting salmon. Men come; establish a city on the banks of the stream. They drive the bear off. Their boats coast upon the surface of the sparkling water. Nets plumb the frigid depths, resurface filled with…
Bleier, Ronald, Ed. From Thomas Malthus, (1798) "Essay on the Principle of Population." The International Society of Thomas Malthus. http://www.igc.org/desip/malthus/
Pasachoff, Jay M. (2001) Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Russell, Steven. (2001) "The Evolution of Gods." Your Own World USA. http://www.yowusa.com/index.html
Schaefer, Dr. Henry III. (Jan. 1994). "Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God." The Real Issue. Leadership University. http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9404/bigbang.html
The Ptolemaic model was accepted by most philosophers of note until it was radically challenged by the Polish astronomer Copernicus in 1530. The Catholic church condemned the Copernican System in 1616 and forbade holding, defending, or even teaching alternatives to the Ptolemaic conception of the universe endorsed by the Church (Fowler 2008:10). But both theories were mere conjecture until the development of the Galilean telescope. Galileo's telescope was a modification of the currently existing lenses used for reading by the long -- and short-sighted. Galileo did not invent corrective lenses or even the telescope, but he did substantially improve them. By making use of both convex and concave lenses, Galileo was able to expand the magnification power and distance vision of ordinary gazers, enabling to look wide into the heavens (Fowler 2008:10).
"Galileo's belief that his discoveries with the telescope strongly favored the Copernican world view meant he was headed…
Fowler, Michael. (2008, August 23). Galileo & Einstein. University of Virginia Physics.
Retrieved February 11, 2011 at http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/lecturelist.html
Galileo: The telescope and laws of dynamics. (2010). Astronomy 161.
Retrieved February 11, 2011 at http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/galileo.html
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…
Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/mappingbook.pdf
Choi, CQ (2012) Jupiter's Moon's Ocean May Be Too Acidic for Life. Space. Retrieved from:
NASA and Integrated Financial Management Project
Like most government organizations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) passed through several stages of development and bureaucracy. Upon its creation in 1958, the agency was run with a combination of research freedom and tight management. This combination helped foster a strong, integrated organizational culture within NASA.
Since then, however, NASA has grown into ten separate research agencies situated around the country. Each agency was run as an autonomous unit, with its own vision, research tasks, staff and organizational culture.
The last few years have seen another shift in NASA's organizational culture, as the organization implements "ONE NASA," a plan to move towards a more implemented space organization.
This first part of this paper examines the current structure of NASA, and the problems that are spawned by its fragmented structure. The paper then looks at the goals, obstacles and potential benefits of the…
Bell, Mary F. (2002). NASA's Organization: Introducing NASA Personnel, Programs, and Facilities. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters Department of Public Affairs.
Bromberg, Joan Lisa (1999). NASA and the Space Industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Integrated Financial Management Program (2003). IFMP Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 10 February 2003 at http://ifmp.nasa.gov/faq/faq.html.
McCurdy, Howard E. (1993). Inside NASA: High Technology and Organizational Change in the U.S. Space Program. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
computers in space science. Specifically, it will look at the roles computers have in current space technology and how they have effected the lives of everyone in the world. Without computer technology, space science would be confined to the ground, and man's imagination. efore large-scale computing was developed, the technologies necessary to design, build, and maintain a space program simply did not exist. Computers have made it possible to explore the moon, stars, and beyond.
Computers in Space Science
Computers play an integral role in the science of space, and without them most of modern space exploration would not be possible. As the NASA report, "Computers at NASA" states, "Since the 1950's, the computer has been the main tool that has enabled scientists and engineers to visualize the next frontier and then make it a reality" (NASA). NASA employs literally thousands of computers throughout the world to monitor, design, and…
Author not Available. "Computers at NASA." NASA. 1994. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/news/factsheets/computers.pdf
Barber, Jennifer Lauren. "Close Encounters on Your Desktop." Bright Magazine. 2001. 29 Oct. 2003. http://journalism.medill.northwestern.edu/journalism/magazine/bright/brightlite/peer4.html.
Dubinski, John. "Cosmology." Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. 26 June 1997. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/webpages/CITA/annrep96/node20.html
Editors. "Hubble's Computers and Automation." HubbleSite. 2003. 29 Oct. 2003. http://hubble.stsci.edu/sci.d.tech/nuts_.and._bolts/spacecraft_systems/#comp
There are few Carl Sagans in the world today. Sagan was a dynamic scientist whose discussions about the universe were conveyed an excitement about the unknown and the opportunities for exploration that was contagious. There is a weighty apathy that permeates the American collective that needs to be reinvigorated with the excitement, hope, pride and enthusiasm of yesterday. It is perhaps time to move beyond the shuttle and space station programs, and time for more in depth exploration and colonization of the moon with an eye towards that as a jumping off point for a manned mission to Mars. It is time for NASA to be innovative, and to think of tomorrow by encouraging and attracting the youth of today - perhaps with video games that incorporate the science of space exploration and development. One never knows what untapped young genius might become the next great space explorer.
Apollo 11 Remembered." The Washington Times 20 July 1999: 20. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001794564 .
Ruffo, C. Christine. "Before This Decade Is out.": Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program." The Oral History Review 28.2 (2001): 149+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001045457 .
NASA (2003), Voyager the Intestellar Mission, found online at http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/goldenrec.html , retrieved 2 December 2007.
Supernova refers to a stellar explosion which produces more energy than a nova (Parker 12-23). It is extremely luminous, and it usually causes a burst of radiation which significantly outshines the entire galaxy. It then fades from viewing after several weeks or even months. During this interval, a supernova is a capable of producing as much energy as that the sun can produce on its expected life span (Parker 12-23). In addition, the explosion usually expels much or even all of the materials of the star at a velocity of 300000 kilometers per second. During this explosion, it drives a shock wave into the interstellar medium surrounding it. The shock wave then sweeps up the expanding gas shell as well as dust referred to as supernova remnant (Marschal 2-4).
A supernova explosion releases a substantial amount of radio waves as well as X-rays. In addition, it also releases cosmic rays…
Chevillard, E-ric, Jordan Stump, and Eleanor Hardin. The Crab Nebula =: La Ne-buleuse Du Crabe. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007. Print.
Marschall, Laurence A. The Supernova Story. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2006. Print
Parker, CL. Supernova. Waxahachie, Tex: Writer's Coffee Shop Publishing House, 2011. Print.
This monument is intended to commemorate the brilliance and courage and integrity of Giordano Bruno. It consists of a life-size bronze figure tied to a vertical wooden stake behind him. His face is angry but focused as though he is staring into the eyes of those who murdered him for being right. Bronze flames surround him and reach almost up to his neck. At his feet is a flat stone bearing the inscription of what Bruno was said to have responded to the judges after they pronounced him guilty of heresy and sentenced him to death: Maiori forsan cum timore sententiam in me fertis quam ego accipiam along with the English translation "Perhaps you pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it."
Behind Bruno is a representation of the Milky Way galaxy depicted against a background of many similar galaxies that are smaller because they are…
Feynman, R.P. (1999). The Pleasure of Finding Things Out. Cambridge, MA: Perseus
Hawking, S. (1990). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes.: New
Star-Gazing: The Story of the Earth in a Moment, as Reflected in the Five Senses
The sight or image of the earth is reflected in miniature. It is an orb like the fire of the pinpoints of light before the arm like reaching of the trees spreading out against the graying sky of dusk. These only seemingly small stars gaze cold, gold and twinkling in comparison to the true, great, and life-giving texture of the grass.
The grass is soft and slightly warm, smelling of mulch and living things, breathing like the living things that make up the earth's ever-growing green web and texture of flora and fauna. These textures are soft to the pressing human hand but are also scratchy if one reaches too far and fingers thorns, as one is apt to, if one strokes too hard. A scar born of a moment's carelessness, a birth of blood,…