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The United States of America is a strong proponent of democracy and a renowned democracy. Democracy in this sense implies periodic free and fair elections as well as participation. Since the attainment of independence in 1776, the country has conducted numerous successful elections for a president. The 1912 presidential elections appear in the history books as the most progressive as the two front-runners Woodrow Wilson and Theodore oosevelt espoused progressive philosophies. This paper endeavors to compare and contrast their principles based on their writings.
The progressive politics era occurred between the 1890s and the 1920s and advocated social and political reforms. From oosevelt's perspective, progressives were people who possessed serious transformational ideologies for the American citizenry (Bowles, 2011). Therefore, liberal politics revolved around the notion of progress, which asserts that advances in technology, science, and economic development can advance the human condition. As such, progressives sought to eliminate corruption…
Roosevelt, T.R. (1910, Aug. 31). The new nationalism. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/tr-nationalism/
Wilson, W. (1913a, March 4). First inaugural address. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/tr-woodrow/
Wilson, W. (1913b). What is progress? In The new freedom: A call for the emancipation of the generous energies of the people (Chapter II). New York: Doubleday, Page & Company.
Transformations in America During the Progressive Era
The Transformation in America during the Progressive Era
Progressivism describes the universal application of distinct responses in the social and economic problems arising from rapid industrialization and the urbanization introduced to America from the 19th Century. Progressivism started through social movements aimed at coping with various social needs that evolved into reform movements and extensive political action. The initial progressives were in rejection of Social Darwinism and corruption. This way, the people believing in social progress addressed poverty, ill health, greed, class warfare, and racism violence. This was best addressed through the provision of good education, safer environment, honest government and efficient workplace. Progressives have lived in various cities and college education which government takes charge of tools of action.
Both Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson faced similar progressive concerns across the 20th Century. ne of the challenges was suffrage. When the country…
On the other hand, Theodore Roosevelt implemented the Anti-Monopoly Reforms. During the 20th Century, most businesses became extensive business performers. The U.S. became a critical marketplace having plenty of potential consumers as well as companies that sought to monopolize various markets through referendum and recall. The limitations and elimination of competition led to the establishment of control profits and prices. Reformers advocated for business practices with fair dealings and broke up monopolies and trusts.
During the period, politicians gave government jobs to individuals as gifts for facilitating them into office. Most of them could not question whether such persons were qualified for the job or not. The legislature passed Civil Service Act that was aimed at streamlining the public service in 1883. This Act permitted different government jobs to be given to people with passed tests or showed ability to deliver outcomes in the job. The amendments allowed Congress to exercise the right of setting up income tax systems that were fair to all. The tax regime made the rich pay higher taxes as compared to poor people. The rich individuals and other big businesses rose against such income tax regimes due to the high costs of doing business and paying more taxes to the government.
Party workers were able to gather groups of people with similar agenda and showed them ways of voting and ensuring that they voted as the parties wished. The leadership of such Progressives was allowed to have laws passed through the required voting elements as done in secret and in polling booths. For instance, the systems required installation of ballots in one color and under government supplies. During this time, the candidates for the political office were established through private meetings with party leaders. The Progressives also sought to have people develop greater voices in the selection of applicants. The focus also allowed people to use direct primaries in decision-making. The method of earlier election was to be the standard practice as head moving forward. Voters from different parties were expected to choose their candidates as they wished to have representation in final elections. Voters were able to have specific names of candidates listed on the ballot where sufficient membership in parties was signed petitions for participatory applicants. The same times had reforms directed towards the movement of saving natural resources. The settlers emphasized America's need to have land rich in aspects like forests, water, and soil. The westward movements ascertained the growth of various resources in the area used.
Theodore oosevelt and His Conservation Efforts
In this paper, I have discussed the presidential efforts of Theodore oosevelt regarding the conservation of natural resources in the United States of America. I have included details of the works done under his presidency concerning the environment preservation. In the last, I have insisted readers to hold this American president in the highest regard for his conservation efforts.
In the American history, Theodore oosevelt is remembered as the first president of United States who made it the central governmental function to conserve the natural resources of the country. For the reason that he had an exceptional scientific understanding from an earlier age and latest knowledge of wildlife and history of nature, oosevelt turned out to be the father of the contemporary conservation movement (Gurney 59).
Immediately after taking the office as President of the United States, Theodore oosevelt made a start to encourage…
Gurney, S. "Theodore Roosevelt (1858 -- 1919)." Forest History Today Fall 2008: 58-61. Forest History. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. .
Leeman, W.P. "The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America." Parameters 42.2 (2012): 137+. Questa. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. < Http://Www.Questia.Com/Read/1G1-307918426/The-Wilderness-Warrior-Theodore-Roosevelt-And-The >.
Powell, J. "Theodore Roosevelt, Big-Government Man." Freeman Mar. 2010: 26+. Questia. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. .
Sheffield, J. "Theodore Roosevelt, "Conservation as a National Duty" (13 May 1908)." Voices of Democracy 5 (2010): 89-108. Voices of Democracy: The U.S. Oratory Project. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. .
Writing Guidelines for History Identifications and Essays
Your essay should have an introductory paragraph that in some way summarizes, encapsulates, suggests, shapes, and/or sets up the ideas, themes, facts, or whatever you are going to discuss in the main body of your essay. In other words, you should set forth your thesis.
Here, in the main body of your essay, you should develop the principal ideas and themes, and support them with the appropriate facts. The main body will inevitably be several paragraphs long, perhaps a page or two or more, depending on what you want to say and the amount of material you include. Basically, the main body consists of as many paragraphs as you need to discuss the question at hand.
Also let me note that individual paragraphs generally begin with a topic sentence for that paragraph, follow that by a couple of sentences of development,…
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era…
Brantlinger, Patrick. "Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" and Its Afterlives." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920 50, no. 2 (2007): 172+.
Burton, David H. The Learned Presidency: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988.
Burton, David H. Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician: An Assessment. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.
Collins, Michael L. That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883-1898. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.
Yet, Theodore oosevelt also found within the American nationalism a powerful civic culture that made the United States of America as a country that welcomed all kinds of people irrespective of where they came from, their racial identity and religious leanings as long as they were prepared to devote themselves to the country and observe the laws of the land. Theodore oosevelt also loved the idea that the United States of America was a melting pot in which a hybrid race of different strains could be created. Theodore oosevelt believed that such a mixing had created and would sustain the racial superiority of the American race. This belief of his was demonstrated by his personal delight in moving across social boundaries and meeting people of diverse groups. (Theodore oosevelt and the Divided Character of American Nationalism)
Thus we see that after President Lincoln for nearly thirty five years the leaders…
Gerstle, Gary. Theodore Roosevelt and the Divided Character of American Nationalism. The Journal of American History. Retrieved at http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/86.3/gerstle.html . Accessed on February 27, 2005
Leonard, Erin Ruth. Theodore Roosevelt's Broad Powers: From Revolution to Reconstruction. Retrieved at http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/teddy/teddyxx.htm. Accessed on February 27, 2005
President of the United States. Retrieved form http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761571294_4/President_of_the_United_States.html#p56Accessed on February 27, 2005
Roosevelt, Theodore. The American President. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0250190-0&templatename=/article/article.html. Accessed on February 27, 2005
assassination of President McKinley, Theodore oosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy.
He took the view that the President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution." I did not usurp power," he wrote, "but I did greatly broaden the use of executive power."
oosevelt's youth differed sharply from that of the log cabin Presidents. He was born in New York City in 1858 into a wealthy family, but he too struggled -- against ill health -- and in his triumph became an advocate of the strenuous life.
In 1884 his first wife, Alice Lee oosevelt, and his mother died on the same day.…
Blum, John Morton. (1954). The Republican Roosevelt. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Brinkley, Douglas (2009). The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America. New York, N.Y: HarperCollins
Fehn, Bruce. (2005) Theodore Roosevelt and American Masculinity. Magazine of History 19(2): 52 -- 59
Theodore Roosevelt Association Quotations from the speeches and other works of Theodore Roosevelt
Elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, heodore Roosevelt, while being one of the most ambiguous political figures in American history, was also extremely influential, both culturally and socially, and reflected the times in which he lived as no other President. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's Presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America and foreign nations were based on the continuing struggle between the poor and the wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" into foreign lands. Domestically, America was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which upset the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic…
TR: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt. TR's Legacy -- The Environment. Internet. 2003. Accessed February 28, 2003. www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tr/environment.
Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Random House, 2001.
Theodore Roosevelt's Influence. Bartleby.com -- Great Books Online. Accessed February 28, 2003.
In the construction of Panama Canal, Roosevelt's primary objective was to curtail his fears that another nation would come up with the idea of building a passageway, wherein trade between the U.S. And other countries would be detrimentally affected, blocking the U.S.'s access to trade goods from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean and back. Through the Roosevelt Corollary, the then president implemented the Monroe Doctrine, which posits that European nations shall not force Venezuela to pay its debts. Roosevelt's assertion that the U.S. shall take action should the doctrine be violated by the concerned parties. As with the Panama Canal construction, the implementation of the Roosevelt Corollary was imposed by Roosevelt for fear that a European nation shall control or overpower a Latin American nation, which may lead to increased European power, and ultimately, decrease the power and control of America over the Latin American region.
26th President was also the nation's youngest; although Teddy oosevelt was not elected to his first term, he was already a popular politician. As the White House puts it, oosevelt "brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy," ("Theodore oosevelt"). However, oosevelt was and is known as much for his environmentalism as for his domestic and foreign policy.
Theodore oosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, amidst a "flurry of activity" that "disturbed the genteel quietness of East Twentieth Street, New York City," (Morris, 1979, p. 3). The oosevelts were no Lincolns; they were urbanites and prominent philanthroposts. They had servants. Theodore oosevelt Senior, Teddy's father, was "one of the most influential men in New York," (Morris, 1979, p. 4). The oosevelts were came from a long line of original Dutch merchants who…
Miller, N. (1992). Theodore Roosevelt. Harper Collins Perennial, 2003.
Morris, E. (1979). The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Random House.
Roosevelt, T. (1913; 2004). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography. Kessinger.
Roosevelt, T. (1899; 2004). The Rough Riders: An Autobiography.
Theodore Roosevelt, elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, was one of the most ambiguous characters in American history. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, influenced and shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America were based on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" in foreign lands. Domestically, the country was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which complicated the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic change in many areas, such as the twelve hour work day, the dangerous conditions in American factories, the exploitation of immigrant laborers, corporate resistance…
American President. Internet. Accessed February 6, 2003.
Ayers Website. Accessed February 5, 2003.
Roosevelt became a boxer, he lifted weights and climbed mountains (he ascended the Matterhorn at the age of 22). His famous charge up Kettle Hill (Battle of San Juan Heights, Rough Riders) during the Spanish-American ar set him apart as an athletically gifted soldier with courage and heart.
And along with his workouts and activism, he "began to collect animal specimens, including fireflies and squirrels"; he filled notebooks with "drawings and life histories of animals and insects"; he read Darwin and Huxley; and, Dalton continues, he loved camping and became an "experienced outdoorsman."
hen the "strain of the job" of president "weighed on him," Dalton explained, "he stepped outside to watch the spring birds migrating"; he "identified the blackpoll warblers perched in the elms outside the Oval Office," and kept notes on his various bird sightings. In the spring of 1903, the president went est "to dramatize his commitment to…
Benedetto, Richard. 2006. No rest for the president. USA Today, 3 August 2006.
Cavendish, Richard. 2001. Assassination of President McKinley. History Today 51 (September).
Dalton, Kathleen. 2006. The Self-Made Man: He was a sickly child. But through sheer will,
Muscular effort - and a lot of time in the great outdoors - he became a powerful, passionate
During the turn of the century, maverick muckraking journalists dug up dirt on unfair labor practices including the use of child labor. Muckrakers also drew attention to unsanitary working conditions and the lack of systematic health regulations in meat and food production. President oosevelt responded by initiating a series of labor-related legislation including the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. However, oosevelt at the same time publicly denounced muckrakers and lent them their derogatory name. oosevelt's passion for environmental conservation reflected his personal interests and beliefs more than it did the results of investigative journalism. Environmental conservation emerged as of the main issues that distinguished the progressivism of oosevelt and that of Wilson.
Presidents oosevelt and Wilson transformed the role of the federal government in the United States. Both wielded their executive powers to protect the rights of the poor and working class, to abolish some of the powers…
Theodore Roosevelt." AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://www.americanpresident.org/history/theodoreroosevelt/
Theodore Roosevelt." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
Thomas Woodrow Wilson." AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at http://www.americanpresident.org/history/woodrowwilson/
Woodrow Wilson." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson#Presidency_1913-1921
oosevelt and Taft
In the first part of the twentieth century the United States found itself becoming an emerging world power. In response to this new position in the world, two distinct foreign policies developed under two successive presidents: Theodore oosevelt's "big stick" policy and William Taft's "dollar diplomacy." While one was predicated on the development and use of military power to reinforce America's position in the world, the other was based on the development and use of economic resources to accomplish the same goal. oosevelt's position was unashamedly militaristic while Taft's was based on economic incentives, but in the end oosevelt was more successful. This is because, while he promoted military power, his reliance on military power intimidated many nations into acceding to his demands without the actual use of military force while Taft's attempt to downplay military force ultimately required him to use it more often.
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H.. (2009). Out of Many: A
History of the American People, Vol. II. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Compare the presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and ilson. hat made them Progressive presidents? Identify what you believe to be the most important pieces of legislation passed during each administration. hy are these so significant? Finally, be sure to indicate what each president did to expand the meaning of freedom for American
Theodore Roosevelt is often called our nation's first Progressive president. Roosevelt used the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break up heavily consolidated industries that were having a stifling effect upon American commerce and limiting the choices of the American consumer. Roosevelt was also an advocate against child labor and unfair labor practices in general. One of his first noteworthy achievements as president involved negotiating an end to a crippling coal strike. Roosevelt was the first president to pass food and drug safety laws; mandated government supervision of insurance companies; investigated child labor violations and also passed the Hepburn Act,…
Freidel, Frank & Hugh Sidey. "William Howard Taft." White House Historical Association.
2006. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
"Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom." U.S. History. 2014. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
Yarborough, Jean. "Theodore Roosevelt: Progressive Crusader." The Heritage Foundation. Web.
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…
illiam Leuchtenburg's Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal is a text that combines recent American history with a political and sociological analysis of American policy and government, and adds a healthy dose of biography of the president to give the mixture human drama. Leuchtenburg is able to accomplish this literary feat not simply because he is such a skilled historian, but because Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his cabinet exercised a unique degree of power over the American economy of his day. America was in an economic crisis when Roosevelt came to be elected the presidency. To remedy this crisis, Roosevelt essentially had to overhaul the American system of government and the relationship of the federal government to the citizenry. He created the modern social welfare system, the concept of the 'safety net' for the needy, and a sense of government's social obligations as well as a citizen's obligations to…
Leuchtenburg, William. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Perennial, 1963.
The ough iders were trained to fight Spanish troops in Cuba. Because of Cuba's hot climate, the United States government made an effort initially to recruit volunteers from hotter regions of the United States such as the American southwest (Library of Congress). The ough iders ended up being the only volunteer cavalry that was sent to Cuba during the Spanish-American War (Library of Congress). Another thing I learned from reading about the ough iders was that the Spanish-American War was fought on many fronts, including Cuba. The ough iders were an important part of Cuba's history as well as American history. After reading about the ough iders, I have a greater appreciation for how ordinary Americans have fought for their country. Finally, I learned that the history of the ough iders proves that United States is truly governed by the people and for the people.
Library of Congress. "ough…
Library of Congress. "Rough Riders." Retrieved July 14, 2009 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/roughriders.html
Bernard Baruch and his WIB systematically helped increase national industrial production levels more than 20% as well as appling many price controls at the wholesale level. Unfortunately, these controls were key in raising prices and around 1918 nearly double prior to WWI.
One of the reasons our nation was such a force in the early industrial age was because of the appointment of Baruch as the leader of the War Industries Board. The lasting effect of the changes and methodolgies implemented affect us to this day. Therefore, this single appointment may be one of the more influential ties to why hisstorians are smitten with oosevelt.
The National Origins Act
Chinese immigration was a major factor in the late 1800's and the difference in culture and life philosophies changed many immigration treaties that gave Chinese more privileged travel and residence status in the United States but did not legally permit them…
Chew, Kenneth SY, and John M. Liu. (2004). "Hidden in Plain Sight: Global Labor Force Exchange in the Chinese-American Population, 1880-1940." Population and Development Review Vol. 30
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on May 17, 2005, from EdMonroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
Meyer, Ronald Bruce. (n.d.). Clarence Darrow (1857). Retrieved on May 17, 2005, at http://ronaldbrucemeyer.com/rants/0418almanac.htm
Smitha, Frank E. (1998). World War in 1915: The United States and War at Sea. Retrieved on May 16, 2005, at http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch05b.htm
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
4. Theodore Roosevelt
A lion of a president and a bulldog of a man, I see him as courageous, moral, upright, and staunch. Roosevelt is famed for his many achievements, but the oen that I consider most important is his fight against the economic corruption and greedy businessmen of his country. Few presidents dared to oppose powerful capitalists who, in many ways held the country in the palms of their hands. Roosevelt was not afraid to oppose them. His endeavors in this area included busting hugely competitive businesses that were engaging in corruption to further their ends and earnest regulation of businesses.
Roosevelt is also well-known for his leadership of the Progressive Movement and for his founding the conservation movement as well as for imbuing Americans with a love for sports and exercise in the American nation.
Roosevelt was a man of many talents: naturalist, hunter, explorer, author, and soldier…
Carpenter, J.J. Jefferson's Views on Education Implications for Today's Social Studies 95 (2004): 140-141.
Schwartz, B. George Washington and the Whig conception of heroic leadership American Sociological Review, 43, 1983
Neely, ME The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993
Roosevelt, T. Citizenship in a republic Speech delivered at the Sorbonne, April 23, 1910
S. led colonial expansion in the area. One impact of the treaty was that it gave the United States the rights to Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. Both Guam and the Philippines were critical additions because they signaled the beginning of U.S. involvement in the Pacific. It also marked a significant change in how America was viewed in the global arena, because almost all of Europe was sympathetic to Spain, and did not wish to see the decline of a fellow colonial power. However, with the treaty, the U.S. entered into the global arena and poised itself to emerge as a superpower. This status also brought about an atmosphere of economic, population, and technological growth that lasted for more than a century. Furthermore, the Spanish-American War helped repair the rift between the North and the South, and helped establish better relations between blacks and whites during that time…
Industrialization after U.S. Civil War
AMERICAN INDUSTRIALIZATION AFTER THE U.S. CIVIL WAR (1865-1920)
It is a truism that large-scale warfare tends to increase industrial production and innovation, and that societies benefit from this industrialization after the war is over. In America, the Civil War was followed by the economic prosperity of the Gilded Age -- I would like to argue that the chief effect of this prosperity was to cause new conflicts in American society, which had to be settled by reform rather than Civil War. This is in some ways a counterintuitive argument, when in 2014 many have been conditioned to believe that a prosperous economy benefits everyone, when (in the words of the old cliche) a rising tide lifts all boats. But did the booming economy of America between the end of the Civil War and the onset of the First World War actually benefit child laborers or…
Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University (www.gwu.edu). Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe (www.gwu.edu). Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (www.gwu.edu).
Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…
Splendid Little War
John Hay -- "A Splendid War"
Secretary of State John Hay once wrote to Theodore oosevelt that the Spanish-American War had been "a splendid little war" (Fried, 1998). It was an opinion shared by many Americans at the time. The three-month war -- declared in April 1898 and over by August -- had few American casualties and helped open up many foreign territories for the United States.
The war began with the Cuban evolution. Spanish rule in Cuba was fiercely opposed by Cuban rebels who were routinely dehumanized, degraded and mistreated in the country throughout the late 19th Century (Lovett, 1997). Spanish general Valeriano Weyler instituted many concentration camps to contain insurgents and suppress the threat of rebel uprisings. The camps were scenes of indecency and deplorable living conditions where death, starvation and malaria and typhoid epidemics were rampant. The suffering of Cubans was deemed a social…
Fried, R.M. (1998). Spain Examines the 'Splendid Little War.'. Chronicle of Higher Education, 45(7), B9.
Haskell, B. (1998). The 'splendid little war'. Soldiers, 53(7), 20.
Lovett, C.C. (1997). A Splendid Little Centennial: Remembering the Spanish-American War. Teaching History: A Journal of Methods, 22(1), 37-39.
Smith, J. (1995). The 'Splendid Little War' of 1898: A reappraisal. History, 80(258), 22.
Cold War, the president of the United States was often referred to as the "leader of the free world." This connotes an image of someone with an unsurpassed amount of power and responsibility. From 1861 to 1969, the role of President of the United States progressed from being that of the leader of a moderately powerful, factious republic to being one who was almost singularly responsible for the defense of most of the world's population against Communist tyranny. To understand this evolution requires an broader inquiry into the nature of these leaders and the constantly changing polity that they were elected to represent.
Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt bear the distinction of having lead the country into its largest conflicts during this time frame, which makes them among the most intriguing to historians. Although McKinley, Lyndon Johnson and Truman were also 'wartime' Presidents, their respective conflicts were…
Oxford University Press, 1992.
George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy. Ayer, 1975
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past. Harpercollins, 1986
Theodore Roosevelt in this sense tried to tackle the issue by intervening for the miners, for instance. However, an essential idea is related to the desire of the government to increase its power and intervention possibilities in order to better control the corporations that were created as a result of the industrialization process. These were sources of constant impoverishment for the population (Pease, 1962, 163-5).
However, the population reacted in a different way than expected by the political actors. Indeed, from the point-of-view of the labor unions, their number increased and a certain collective mentality was formed, one which allowed them to further fight for the rights of the employee (Pease, 1962). Even so, there were individuals who reacted negatively considering that the Progressive Era was in fact a socialist perception of the economy, rather than a means to create progress for the population in the country.
The forces which…
Browne, Gregory M. The Progressive Era. N.d. 14 May 2008. http://www.yorktownuniversity.com/documents/progressive_era.pdf
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Pease, Otis. The Progressive Years: The Spirit and Achievement of American Reform. George Braziller. New York. 1962.
Warde, William F."The Rise and Fall of Progressivism." International Socialist Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, Summer 1957, pp. 83-88. Available at http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/marxists/archive/novack/works/1957/x01.htm
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
Nature of American Presidency --
The Nature of the American Presidency and how it has changed during the 20th century
The Nature of the American Presidency and how it has changed during the 20th century
The nature of U.S. presidency of the current century is quite different from that developed by the Founding Fathers during the latter part of the eighteenth century. Provisions in the U.S. Constitution limited earlier Presidents. Up to the 1930s, the federal government was dominated by the Congress. For several years, the Congress held sway over the American President. There were, however, exceptions, such as Woodrow Wilson and Theodore oosevelt, who laid the foundation for a turning point with regard to the Presidential role, for future Presidents of the nation ( Independence Hall Association, 2008-2015).
American Presidency; Theodore oosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and George W. Bush
Theodore oosevelt (1901-1909)
Popularly called the first forward-thinking U.S.…
A&E Television Networks. (2015). George W. Bush. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from History.com: www.history.com
Independence Hall Association. (2008-2015). The Evolution of the Presidency. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from U.S. History: www.ushistory.org
Milkis, S. (2015). Theodore Roosevelt: Impact and Legacy. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia: http://millercenter.org
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…
Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..
Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
The founding fathers of the United States were initially opposed to the formation of political parties considering them as "quarreling factions" that would hinder the public from freely judging issues on merit. The complex structure of the U.S. government with its elaborate system of checks and balances and division of power among the state and federal governments, however, makes the formation of permanent political organizations necessary for effective functioning of the system. Over the years, a two-party system has evolved with two major political parties fielding their respective candidates in most state and federal elections. Third parties take part in the elections occasionally albeit with limited impact. It is a common observation that third parties in the U.S. go only as far as their candidate; if a candidate fades out of the spotlight so does the party. In this paper, we will discuss why third parties have traditionally…
Abramson, Paul R., John H. Aldrich et al. "Third-Party and Independent Candidates in American Politics: Wallace, Anderson, and Perot." Political Science Quarterly. 1995: 349+.
Goodman, Carey. "Three Is Definitely a Crowd: Part I. The System Evolves." Suite101.com. July 23, 2001. April 9, 2004. http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/9425/75312
Grenier, Richard. "Why We Don't Need Third Parties." The Washington Times. July 19, 1996: 23
Perot, H (enry) Ross." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003
Meat Inspection: Theory and Reality
Gabriel Kolko's revealing article, Meat Inspection: Theory and Reality, attempts to debunk the myth that President Theodore Roosevelt was a champion of progressive reforms meant to benefit the working class -- particularly the major meat and food regulation laws passed during his presidency. It wasn't that meat and food regulation didn't have benefits for the common man, but that the driving force behind their passage was never the welfare of the lower classes. Instead, while these reforms were trumpeted and won approval as boons for the common man, in reality they were promoted by and intended to help big business. During the struggles for reform, it was not the people and Roosevelt against big business, but rather big business trying to persuade Roosevelt to take a stand. In general, despite the image he projected, Roosevelt preferred to remain conservative with respect to any reforms benefitting…
nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well. The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery
Walter Lippmann wrote Drift and Mastery in 1914, at a time when party politics in the United States were in a distinct state of flux. The 1912 election of Woodrow Wilson was the first time since the Civil War that a Democrat was elected President -- if we recall that Grover Cleveland (the only other Democrat elected in this half-century) was only elected by the support of the renegade "Mugwump" Republicans, who were dissatisfied with corruption within their own party. The split between traditionalism and reform among the Republicans, however, that permitted Cleveland's election had widened into an actual party split -- Theodore Roosevelt ran as a "ull Moose" Progressive against Taft, while Eugene V. Debs ran to Wilson's left as a Socialist. In some sense, Lippmann's Drift and Mastery is a response to the strange condition of partisan politics at this moment in American…
Lippmann, Walter. Drift and Mastery: An Attempt to Diagnose the Current Unrest. New York: Mitchell Kennerley, 1914.
QUESTION 2: In rebutting the word of the hitorian in Quetion 1, an equally perceptive cholar argued, "The mot damning force in America, 1900-1940, wa the rie of buine. Corporation produced little but hardhip and depair, and gave u nothing. Indeed, thi period wa marked by the rie of large corporation, but it wa the growth of the large corporation intead that doomed American ociety and detroyed democracy."
In the year prior to Theodore Rooevelt' preidency, two of the greatet ocial/political problem facing America were baed on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy clae and the expanion of "Manifet Detiny" in foreign land. Dometically, the country wa burdened by a financial panic in the 1890' which complicated the live of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more properou. In the citie, people demanded democratic change in many area, uch a the twelve hour work day,…
statement which virtually guaranteed that American capitalism, supported by the huge corporations, would endure well into the twentieth century.
With the demise of the Wilson Administration and the opening years of the Coolidge Presidency, America experienced tremendous growth in what has been called the "roaring twenties." Yet during this time, not all Americans were given an equal share in the prosperity. In 1929, the richest Americans controlled the vast majority of savings, while the remainder had no savings at all. A prime example of this disparity was the automobile mogul Henry Ford, who earned $14 million as compared to the average income of $7500 a year. As usual, the major reason for this disparity was due to the increased manufacturing output of the big corporations which saw immense gains in their profit margins while those of the common working man increased nominally. One other factor was the Revenue Act of 1926 which favored big business and the wealthy by reducing the federal income tax and inheritance taxes.
But the major event, beginning in 1929, which financially catapulted American corporations and the wealthy was the Great Depression, the worst economic catastrophe in U.S. history that affected every American citizen. Although many factors contributed to the Depression, the main cause centered around the unequal distribution of wealth and the speculations in the stock market. Once again, American corporations came out on top, due to the disparities between the rich and the middle classes. The stock market crash, a result of excessive stock speculations in the late 1920's, created a very unstable economy yet at the same time helped to foster the growing monopolies in American industries.
The Great Depression continued well into the 1930's, but with the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1931, the economy began to turn upwards and the working man, for the first time in more than half a century, experienced some financial gains. Roosevelt's "New Deal," designed to stabilize the economy and create a more equal society, included among others the Agricultural Adjustment Act and the Wagner National Labor Relations Act. In essence, Roosevelt's "New Deal" took power away from the wealthy business owners and gave more power to the growing labor unions which represented the working man. Yet with the onset of World War II in 1941, American corporations found themselves in another advantageous position which increased their power and wealth and helped to form the current system of corporate "Manifest Destiny" in American society.
Teapot Dome Scandal was one of many scandals that rocked the hite House during the 1920s. At the center of the scandal was Senator Albert B. Fall of New Mexico, who had been appointed to the position of Secretary of the Interior by President arren G. Harding in March 1921 ("Cabinet member guilty in Teapot Dome scandal"). Fall used his position to illegally lease government-controlled oil fields to private oil companies.
The Teapot Dome Scandal occurred when naval petroleum reserves in yoming and California -- specifically at Elk Hills and Buena Vista, California and Teapot Dome, yoming -- were illegally leased to private oil companies at low, non-competitive rates (Zecks). These oil reserves in California and yoming were public lands that had been set aside by previous presidents and were intended to provide emergency oil to the U.S. Navy if and when regular oil reserves had been depleted (Zecks). Many…
"Cabinet member guilty in Teapot Dome scandal." 25 October 1929. History.com. Web. 26
Rawlings, Nate. "Albert Fall's Teapot Dome." Time Lists. 17 May 2011. Web. 24 February
Aldo Leopold and Environmental History
In answering the question of whether the United States has improved on environmental policy since the 1930s, the cyclical nature of the political system must be considered. A generational reform cycle occurs every 30-40 years, such as the Progressive Era of 1900-20, the New Deal of the 1930s and the New Frontier and Great Society of the 1960s and early-1970s. All of the progress that the United States has made in conservation, wilderness preservation and other environmental issues has happened in these reform eras. Barack Obama represents yet another reform cycle and his environmental record is better by far than any other president over the last forty years, although much of what he attempted to accomplish has been blocked by the Republicans and the corporate interests that fund them. In conservative eras like the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s and 1990s, almost nothing worthwhile happens with…
United States make English its Official Language?
The calls for English to be adopted as United States' official language have been prevalent since 1919 when President Theodore Roosevelt stated that the country has room for only one language i.e. The English language. The advocacy for English-only in the United States has been fueled by attempts to develop a unique American nationality. Actually, President Roosevelt advocated for English to be adopted as the official language of the United States because of the explicit and unqualified link between language and citizenship. However, since the beginning of this advocacy the issue on whether the United States should make English its official language has attracted various arguments and counter-arguments between supporters and opponents. The determination of a suitable position regarding the issue requires an evaluation of arguments by both sides.
Advocacy for English as America's Official Language
In contrast to popular belief, the United…
Brice, Brandon. "Why English Should Be the Official Language of the United States." Washington Times Communities. The Washington Times, LLC., 13 Apr. 2013. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. .
Fabian, Jordan. "No, It's Not Necessary to Make English the Official Language." Online Posting. ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 June 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. .
Jackson, Raynard. "Should English Be Our America's Official Language or Not?" Online Posting. Charisma News - Informing Believers with News from a Spirit-filled Perspective. Charisma Media, 7 July 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. .
Miller, Eric C. "Should English Be the U.S. Official Language? -- Eric C. Miller -- Aeon." Aeon Magazine. Aeon Media Ltd., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. .
Turning Points in American History
Two Turning Points and Current Impact on Cultural, Social, Economic and Political Life
Two historical turning points are the Social Security Act and the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Social Security Act, passed in 1935, was intended to provide a "safety net" for people who could not support themselves (Schultz, 2010, p. 399). This "social welfare" was a significant departure from the federal government's prior tendency to let citizens fend for themselves financially. The strength of the Social Security Act's impact on our history is at least partially proven by the fact that it expanded significantly and endures to this day. The Social Security Act currently influences several facets of American life: society and culture, in that the responsibility of the federal government for the welfare of its citizens is now a commonly accepted idea; economy, in that Social Security is now a…
A&E Television Networks. LLC. (2013). Wyoming grants women the vote. Retrieved from www.history.com Web site: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/wyoming-grants-women-the-vote
Federal Reserve. (2011, August 24). FRB: The Federal Reserve System Purposes and Functions. Retrieved from www.federalreserve.gov Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pf/pf.htm
Federal Reserve. (n.d.). History of the Federal Reserve - Federal Reserve Education. Retrieved from www.federalreserveeducation.org Web site: http://www.federalreserveeducation.org/about-the-fed/history/
League of Women Voters. (2011). Our Work | League of Women Voters. Retrieved from www.lwv.org Web site: http://www.lwv.org/our-work
Two diametrically opposed notions of conservation, that of Gifford Pinchot and John Muir are presented in the documentary film "The Wilderness Idea." Although the two men started off as friends and both eventually developed close personal and professional ties to President Theodore Roosevelt, and although both men were instrumental forces in the creation of the United States national parks, forests, and wilderness preserves, Pinchot's and Muir's notions of the role of nature differed drastically. For Pinchot, nature was to be used judiciously and in harmony with the needs of humanity. Gifford Pinchot, who became the first chief of the United States Forest Service, believed that development and industry could coexist with preservation and conservation. Muir, on the other hand, held a radical and reverential view of the wilderness, believing that human interests conflicted with nature. For Muir, any industrial development equaled desecration of God's creation. In spite of…
2005). Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.
Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation." Rather than seeing other nations as means to promote American interests, FDR believed that American well-being depended heavily on the well-being of its satellite countries as well. This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism.
As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. Thus, by World War II, many Western nations threw their support behind the Allies.…
rhetoric in modern day proceedings, the topic will reflect the modern day influence that rhetoric has on governmental processes from decision making to laws that are passed in Congress.
The paper shall deal with the importance of rhetoric in modern day proceedings, with its influence on governmental processes from decision making by Presidents to that of the Congress, The paper shall argue that rhetoric is far moved away from reality.
The terminology 'rhetoric' traces its origin in different periods of time in its different interpretations. Its different interpretations at different times led people to seek its origin in many ways and in varied histories. At times it is used disparagingly as oral out bursting of radicals; at other times it is generalized as a public speech. Traditionally, it is also seen to be used to indicate a branch of study relating to speech. People are also seen to use the…
Short and Highly Idiosyncratic History of Rhetoric. Retrieved at http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~robertsmiller/histrhet.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Bennett, Drake; Pauken, Heidi. All the President's Lies. The American Prospect Volume. 14 no. 5, May 1, 2003 Retrieved from www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/bennett-d.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Bostdorff, Denise; Goldzwig, Steven. Idealism and pragmatism in American foreign policy rhetoric: The case of John F. Kennedy and Vietnam. Presidential Studies Quarterly; New York; Summer 1994; Volume: 24, Issue: 3, p.515
Friedlin, Jennifer.Scorecard on Bush Finds Rhetoric Gap. March, 08, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/1740Accessed on 15 July, 2004
courage means words cross threshold. 2. Identify historical figure courage. Explain embodies definition courage. Use specific examples details illustrate point.
The hero: Crossing the threshold
According to the historian of mythology Joseph Campbell, a true hero is a man or woman who 'crosses the threshold' by undertaking a courageous action that enables him or her to be reborn into a new identity. A hero might not seem to be an extraordinary person initially, but through the willingness to reinvent him or herself, he or she is revealed to be a heroic person. This was the case with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born to privilege. He lived a luxurious existence of wealth few Americans could dream of experiencing in Hyde Park, New York. He was descended from a line of prominent figures, the most famous of who was Theodore Roosevelt, the former Republican president. Franklin was educated by…
"Franklin Delano Roosevelt." Biography.com. 2012 [14 Apr 2012]
To intimidate striking workers or escort strike breakers, workers who would replace the individuals striking, across picket lines some employers contracted private companies like the Pinkerton Detective Agency.
The United States Department of Labor reports that the Coal Strike of 1902 proved to be a turning point in U.S. policy. On October 3, 1902, to address the strike in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields that he perceived to threaten a coal famine, President Theodore oosevelt resolved to end the strike by setting a precedent for the Federal Government's interventions. After a bitter battle, with President oosevelt's intervention, both sides of the coal labor dispute agreed to the findings of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission. As a result, labor and industry accepted that the public possessed overriding rights as well as vital interests. President oosevelt's voice and negotiation skills returned peace to the coalfields (the Coal Strike of 1902…, 2010).
A Brief History of the Labor Movement. (2006). NPR. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5758863
Florida State Union. (2009). Unions.org. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.unions.org/home/umap9-.htm
Greenhouse, S. (2010). Most U.S. union members are working for the government, new datashows. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/23/business/23labor.html
History at the Department of Labor. (2010). United States Department of Labor.
Obama's health care reform will make health care more accessible and more affordable and make insurers more accountable, as well as expand health care coverage to every American and make the health care system sustainable by stabilizing family budgets, the economy and the Federal budget.
The cost of Obama's overall health care bill will cost approximately $940 billion over 10 years, according to the Congressional udget Office. The bill will include that by the year 2014 there will be significant health access reforms. Insurers will be prohibited from denying coverage to people with medical problems of charging them more money (CS 2010).
While these numbers do sound manageable, Congress has not responded kindly to Obama's health care reform ideas. When Obama has even mentioned the idea of health care for illegal immigrants, the president was rudely interrupted by a heckler yelling, "you lie" ( ). Under Obama's proposal of health…
CBS News. "What's in a health care bill? Take a dose." Retrieved on June 1, 2010, from the Web site:
CNN.com. (2010) "Obama calls for congress to face health care challenge." Retrieved on June 5, 2010, from the Web site:
S., become attracted to the U.S. And flee the country. Cuba certainly needs to prevent a brain drain at all costs. It could do so by encouraging the U.S. To invest in its infrastructure and for U.S. doctors to train and learn at Cuban facilities, which, by all accounts, have some of the highest standards of excellence in the world (Schoultz, 2010, 8). By helping to build up the Cuban infrastructure, further economic trade could be encouraged. This could also help both the U.S. And Cuba exploit its other natural resources by providing the necessary framework for extraction and export of its huge nickel and sugar stockpiles.
ith the coming economic recovery, the world will certainly need raw materials like nickel and steel as well as sugar to fuel the building and population boom that will more than likely follow a recovery. The political ties that bind the current U.S.…
Coll, Alberto R. (2007). "Harming Human Rights in the Name of Promoting Them: The Case of the Cuban Embargo." Foreign Affairs. Vol. 3, No. 88. Pp. 199-209.
Griswold, Daniel. (2005). "Four Decades of Failure: The U.S. Embargo against Cuba." CATO
Institute Homepage. Published 12 October, 2005 .
Hanson, Stephanie. (2009). "U.S.-Cuba Relations." Council on Foreign Relations. Report delivered 14 April, 2009.
Consequentialist and Deontological Ethical Issues.
Consequentialism states that the morality of an action is determined by the specific results of that action. Deontology, on the other hand, states that the morality of an action is determined by duty or adherence to given rules. (Theodore oosevelt)
Consequentialism is based on the consequences of actions. According to consequentialism, actions are right or wrong depending on whether their consequences further the goal. The goal or "the good," can be something like the happiness of all people or the spreading of peace and safety. Anything which contributes to that goal is right and anything which does not is wrong. Actions are thought to have no moral value in themselves, but only get moral value from whether or not they lead to the goal.
Deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. According to this theory, it is your duty to do actions which…
Gibney, Alex. "Ask Why: Enron, "the diffusion of responsibility," and the Atlantic Yards parallels (will anyone look at the Development Agreement?)" [Online] Available: http://atlanticyardsreport.blogspot.com/2010/06/ask-why-enron-diffusion-of.html
Hoagland-Smith, Leanne. "Car Dealerships Still Are Still Clueless in How to Increase Car Sales & Develop Customer Loyalty. [Online] Available at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/perform/perform.html
Murdarasi, Karen. "Deontology and Consequentialism: Two Opposing Ethical Theories and Their Main Criticisms" [Online] Available at: http://www.suite101.com/content/deontology-and-consquentialism-a91650
Roosevelt, Theodore. Den of Hydralisks. [Online] Available at: http://hydralisk.wordpress.com/2007/04/29/deontology-vs.-consequentialism-part-1/
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.
The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.
Baron, J.N., Jennings, P.D. & Dobbin, F.R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in us industry. American Sociological Review, pp. 497 -- 514.
Bronfenbrenner, K. (1996). Role of union strategies in nlrb certification elections, the. Indus. & Lab. Rel. Rev., 50 p. 195.
Democratizing the Global Economy: Empowering Workers, Building Democracy, Achieving Shared Prosperity. (2005). [e-book] Available through: AFL-CIO http://www.aflcio.org/content/download/6904/74567/file/res_6.pdf [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].
Lindsey, A. (1964). The pullman strike. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
Foundations Book) And Chapter 3 (Myths Book) Of the Two Books Below:
Samway, K and McKeon D. (2007). Myths and ealities: Best Practices for Language Minority Students. Heinemann. ISBN 13: 9780325009896
DeJong, E. (2011). Foundations for Multilingualism in Education: from Principle to Practices. Caslon Publishing ISBN: 978-1-9340000-06-9
According to the latest research, dual language (DL) instructions are more expensive than transitional bilingual education program. By comparing the DL instruction with transitional bilingual education, it is worth noticing that despite being expensive, the DL programs play a significant role in creating a national resource, which is inevitable for a successful and progressive world economy, usually embryonic in the United Sates -- a culturally vibrant and bilingual population. Despite the fact that providing bilingual education is expensive, if not provided, the effect can be more damaging on both the economy and humans. When it comes to dropout rate, it is proven that…
Best Instructional Videos: Immigration. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2016, from http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/best-instructional-videos/immigration.shtml
DeJong, E. (2011). Foundations for Multilingualism in Education: from Principle to Practices. Caslon Publishing ISBN: 978-1-9340000-06-9
De Jong, E. (n.d.). Early Years: Tolerance and Repression. Retrieved February 03, 2016, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/early-years-tolerance-and-repression
Samway, K and McKeon D. (2007). Myths and Realities: Best Practices for Language Minority Students. Heinemann. ISBN 13: 9780325009896
Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it seemed, the more of a synergistic effect upon their funding and use (Jensen and Guthrie, 2006).
By the Johnson Administration in the 1960s, coupled with more media attention, there was increased public awareness of America's natural treasures. This was now that "Parks for People" Campaign. During this period there was also a fairly significant new awareness about ecology and the natural environment. The mission of the National Parks Service was called into question. eacting to this, Congress passed the General Authorities Acts of 1970, which became known as the "edwood Amendment," since a large part of the Act was devoted to conserving edwood National Park. Based on political pressure from citizens, Congress was also forced to provide a rather significant funding increase…
The National Park Service. (2002, March). Retrieved October 2010, from U.S. History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1605.html
National Park Services Almanac. (2008). Washington, DC: National Parks Service, GPO.
Blackburn, S. (2007). Plato's Republic. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Brown and Pozner. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Develpment, 68(2), 274-80.
Woodrow Wilson used the radio to appeal to the American public directly to support the nation's entry into the then-unpopular World War I. Franklin Roosevelt, of course, was the master of the fireside chat, and even after his demise, the rapid rise of the Soviet power and the Cold War enabled Harry Truman to "scare hell" out of the country by using the media.
Popular, collective fear of the Soviets tipped the balance even farther in favor of the powers of the chief executive. The Johnson Administration refused to spend the funds allocated to crucial agricultural programs, to bully Congress into accepting its deficit spending for the Great Society and the Vietnam War (87). These examples, along with the escalation of the Vietnam War, show how Democratic presidents were often just as guilty as Republican presidents of abusing the office's authority. In recent memory, the Clinton Administration went to court…
The Democratic Party did not win another presidential election until 1913 when Woodwork Wilson was elected due to a split vote between Republican conservative candidate, William Howard Taft and Republican progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt.
The New Freedom "was the slogan of Woodrow Wilson who came into presidential office on the platform of promising reform on a liberal basis. Specifically, through an extension of Federal regulations of banking and industry. Further reform through setting up the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Trade Commission as well as strengthening antitrust statutes on the part of Wilson. Much needed reforms to legislation of welfare was attended by Wilson. Wilson's first Administration demonstrated breaking of connections to the old tradition of Democratic laissez faire.
The Republican Party:
The Republican Party united once again nominated Rutherford . Hayes in 1876. Although the Democratic candidate, Samuel Tilden, was said to have won by popular votes, the…
Historical Eras [Online] available at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/eras.html#reform
The United States Encyclopedia of History (1967) Vol. 6 Curtis Publishing Company Philadelphia - New York
Democratic and Republic Parties
By 1935, during the Presidency of Franklin oosevelt, the Social Security Act, "one of the great landmarks in the history of healthcare legislation in the United States" (Couchman, 2001, p. 245), prompted the government to accept some responsibility for the future security of the aged, the handicapped and the unemployed as it relates to healthcare needs. In 1939, the oosevelt Administration also introduced the Wagner National Health Act which "gave general support for a national health program to be funded by federal grants to states and administered by states and localities" ("A
Brief History," 2009, Internet); however, due to a rapid decline in progressivism and the costs linked to World War I, this act failed to create a national healthcare agenda.
In 1943, the federal government finally came to acknowledge that healthcare was a major national priority which soon led to the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill which called for "compulsory national health…
"A Brief History: Universal Healthcare Efforts in the U.S." (2009). PNHP. Internet.
Accessed June 15, 2009 from http://www.pnhp.org/facts/a_brief_history_universal_health_care_efforts_in_the_us.php .
Anderson, William H. (2006). The U.S. Healthcare Dilemma: Mirrors and Chains.
New York: Auburn House.
Incredibly, it was "The Wind and the Lion" that started me realizing this.
There is a scene in this film in which President Theodore Roosevelt (played by Brian Keith) is at a shooting range with his children and the Secretary of State. Between firing rounds, Roosevelt takes time to clean his gun and have a conversation with his daughter about respecting one's enemies. It is a very quiet and strong moment...a powerful one.
Elsewhere, the Raisuli (Mulay Achmed Mohammed el-Raisuli the Magnificent, played by Sean Connery), is telling a story around a campfire about his imprisonment by his kinsman. The firelight plays on everyone's faces as they sit enraptured around the Raisuli. They are eating lamb or goat under the stars, and it is just a perfect moment.
The Wind and the Lion" is absolutely full of perfect moments. Roosevelt hunting bear in Yosemite, the Raisuli's conversation with Mrs. Pedecaris…
I thought that the authors made it exceedingly clear in the book that having been deprived of slave labor, the British then turned to an equally disturbing practice of indentured labor. This new abomination of humanity gave an sudden threat to European wages and an enduring threat to colonial white rule (Reynolds). I thought that the book showed the thought-provoking process of how when colonial lawmaking organizations hit back by struggling to prevent immigrants, or by rejecting to publicize the rights of residency on the grounds of race, they stumbled upon objection from the British imposing interests.
I learned that in response to all of that, British colonists hired a strategy fostered in the American South. The authors did an in-depth job depicting this policy by first showing us that the Cape and then Natal accepted the Mississippi Literacy Test as a means of prohibiting, and it was this test…
Reynolds, Marilyn Lake and Henry. Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men's Countries and the Question of Racial Equality. Sydney: University Press, 2008.
City Police Department
Police departments are professional organizations comprised of men and women who are empowered by society to serve as the guardians of society's well being. Organizations of professionals are characterized by extensive and continuing professional training, shared and understanding of and commitment to the values of the profession, and the desire to improve their communities. This paper discusses a city police department that has demonstrated great success over the years -- the New York City Police Department (NYPD).
Founded in 1845, the NYPD is the biggest municipal police force in the world, the oldest in the United States, and the model on which the other city departments have patterned themselves (Larder and Reppetto, 2000). From a population of about 33,000 in 1790, New York City rapidly became a city of nearly 400,000 by 1845. The old constable system, which had policed New York since the days of the…
Kelling, G. (Autumn, 1995). How to Run a Police Department. City Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4.
Lardner, James and Thomas Reppetto. (2000). NYPD: A City and Its Police. New York: Henry Holt.
Livingston, Debra. 1997. "Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing." Columbia Law Review. 97-3, p. 551-672. April.
New York City Police Department (NYPD). (2004). Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/home.html.
Meatpacking Industry: Progressive Reforms and the Shaping of National Policy
In 1906 the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed in the United States. This was the culmination of a furor that had reached tipping point with the success of Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle, a story based in the meat packing industry published in 1905. The novel explored the lives of a group of immigrant workers as they struggled to survive in the "jungle" of early 20th century.
The story was, however, merely the straw that broke the camel's back. The Pure Foods Movement had actually begun thirty years earlier in the post-Civil War years when Industrialization was already underway and the landscape of America was rapidly changing. It was the Pure Foods Movement that was really the driving force behind the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906.[footnoteRef:1] [1: Wallace Janssen, "The Story of the Laws behind the…
Blackwell, Jon. "1906: Rumble over 'The Jungle'." Capital Century. Web. 12 Nov
Janssen, Wallace. "The Story of the Laws behind the Labels." The Food and Drug
Administration. Hauppauge: Nova Science, 2003.
Progressive Republican Theodore Roosevelt resurrected many Populist planks and re-cast them in new forms as he tentatively expanded federal regulations of business corporations. . . Other Populist planks -- particularly those calling for aid to farmers and employment on public works in time of depression -- became reality during the 1930s, under the New Deal administrations of Democrat Franklin Roosevelt." (Edwards, 1)
In spite of these glimpses at relevance, the populist party and its call for populist government together demonstrated a misapprehension of America's structure and fundamental nature. Though the criticisms which it levied against the economic system were not totally unfounded, its uncompromising nature and expectation of the cure would be unrealistic. This idea that the population could be made to govern itself and to conduct its own business echoes the charming but ungrounded naivete found in Hightower's discussion. Here, we are shown a side of populism that springs…
Edwards, R. (2000). The Populist Party. Vassar College. Online at http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/populists.html
Hightower, J. (?). Daddy's Philosophy. The Seagull Reader: Essays, 2nd edition.