Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
evolution refers to the changes that occur over time in the heritable traits over consecutive biological populations due to natural selection (Ohno, 2013). Since its inception by Darwin, the theory of evolution has become the overarching and unquestionable scientific explanation for biological diversity on the planet. It has become so accepted by the scientific community that many scientists refer to evolution as a "fact" as opposed to an actual theory (see, Gould, 1983). This type of acceptance towards evolution often leads to surprising intolerance by the scientific community when evolutionary theory is criticized. Nonetheless, there are several aspects of the theory of evolution that call its validity into question. This paper will briefly explore two of these critiques.
First, nearly every conceptualization of evolution begins with the notion that life on the planet earth evolved as a result of a random forces that combined crucial elements/ingredients (Ohno, 2013). While many…
Gould, S.J. (1983). Hen's teeth and horse's toes: Further reflections in natural history. London,
UK: WW Norton & Company.
Morowitz, H.J. (1955). Some order-disorder considerations in living systems. The Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 17(2), 81-86.
Miller, S, Bada, J.L. & Lazeano, A. (2004). The beginning of chemical evolution experiments.
Types of Reasoning
One of the main types of reasoning discussed in the readings is logical reasoning. This type of reasoning features the use of inferences in order to come into knowledge about a certain experience or phenomenon. Essentially, inferences are the way that conclusions are drawn after systematically examining observations and external phenomenon. It is close to the style of scientific inquiry which is also a very logic-oriented methodology. The primary idea behind inferences is that an individual sees or witnesses some stimuli or phenomena. From this event, that individual can then make their own conclusions as to why or how that particular stimuli or phenomena occurred, making an assumption based on external observations combined with prior knowledge of similar events and circumstances.
A second type of reasoning discussed in the reading is the use of deduction. Logical reasoning uses deduction, or the process of concluding an assumption…
725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave ackground radiation (CM) that pervades the observable universe. This is believed to be the remnant that scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for this discovery.
Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" hydrogen and helium found in the observable universe are believed to support the ig ang model of origins (the ig-ang Theory Web site, 2003).
In 2003, Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an alternative to the standard ig ang theory, an alternative that also accounts for the evidences listed above (Eastman and Missler, 1996). Gentry believes that the standard ig ang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm that he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data. Gentry bases his model on Einstein's static-spacetime paradigm that he claims is the "genuine cosmic Rosetta."
Gentry is not alone. Other high-profile dissenters include…
Eastman, Mark. Missler, Chuck. The Creator: Beyond Time and Space, (1996) p. 11.
W. Wayt Gibbs, "Profile: George F.R. Ellis," Scientific American, October 1995, Vol. 273, No.4, p. 55.
Big-Bang-Theory.com. (2002). Big Bang Theory. Retrieved from the Internet at: www. Big-Bang-Theory.com.
Gish, Duane. (June, 1991). The Big Bang Theory Collapses. Institute for Creation Research.
He was endowed with the capacity to think and reason out and choose the right action. In genesis 2:7 there is an account that god created man out of dust and hence clearly rules out any theory which suggests that man is an evolutionary product. "God formed the man from the dust of the ground & breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being." [Dr. Robert D. Luginbill]. Genesis 1:26-27 also states that man is created in the image of god and also the only created being to have the capacity to feel the love, enjoy the kinship and the communion with god.
Nature of Man
Some theologians share a monistic philosophy of man and do not consider the presence of a soul as a separated part of his being. However the dualistic aspect of man is adopted by many Christian followers. The…
Greg Herrick, "Anthropology & Hamartiology: Man and Sin," Accessed on September 27th 2004, http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=728
Jay P. Taylor, "the Doctrine of man: Anthropology," Accessed on September 27th 2004, http://www.agts.edu/faculty/faculty_publications/class%20notes/taylor_jay/taylorj_4doctrine_man_2004.pdf
H.P. Blavatsky, "The Secret Doctrine: ARCHAIC, OR MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY," Accessed on September 26th 2004, http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/sd/sd2-3-01.htm
CARM, "Theistic Evolution," Accessed on September 26th 2004, http://www.carm.org/evolution/evtheistic.htm
The panelists, all of whom are conservative Republicans who have questioned evolution, will report to the school board which is expected to approve new science standards in June (Johnson pp). Defenders of evolution acknowledge that their boycott leaves opponents unchallenged but said that they hoped their absence would help to defuse the "media-saturated argument over science and the Bible" (Johnson pp).
Efforts to require schools to teach the purported errors of evolution are under way in nearly two dozen states, and are led by two groups of activists (Johnson pp). One group consists of religious conservatives who believe the traditional biblical account that God created the world in six days (Johnson pp).
The other group are the advocates of intelligent design and consists of "intellectual thinkers, some of them scientists, who argue that life on the planet is too complex to have come about without some sort of guiding intelligence"…
Johnson, Alex. "The evolution of a fight to the end." MSNBC News. May 7, 2005. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7736155/
In the states: evolution education related legislation surfaces across the country." Georgia Journal of Science; 12/22/2004; pp.
Dutch, Steven. "Aftermath of Evolution." Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay; pp. http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/WestTech/darwin1.htm
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
The Argument- The theory of evolution was developed out of the work of 19th century botanist and explorer, Charles Darwin and his book On the Origin of Species. Essentially, it is a scientific theory that postulates that organisms change over time based on pressures from the environment that cause genetic mutations within the organism. Over time, these changes are more adapted to a specific environment, more of that organism live longer and reproduce more, thus causing those traits to become even more entrenched in the population. Life then, is part of a gigantic tree in which primitive organisms, over millions and millions of years, evolved into higher beings due to the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits (common or rare) and natural selection (which traits aid survival) (Understanding Evolution).
Creation Science is a branch of creationism that has resurfaced in American education after several Supreme Court decisions defined…
The purpose of this work is to explore the "Theory of Evolution" as set forth by Darwin and to further explore what is termed as "natural selection" as well as that of "artificial selection." This paper will further examine Darwin's Theory as to the workings of evolution as well as exploring exactly how natural selection works to produce evolution.
Finally, the role of individual genetic variations in relation to evolution and natural selection will be researched. The evolving of traits in species will also be examined as well as the applicable use of those theories.
Having first traveled throughout the world, on a ship, exploring both land and water, in the role of a "Naturalist," and having observed the wonders of the Andes and witnessed the result of Chilean earthquakes, crossed hundreds of miles, trekking through unknown regions, Charles Darwin, returned to England.
Darwin continued to study and…
Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda " Executive Summary [Online] available at: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/fulldoc.html
Ballyntyne, Paul, Ph.D (nd) "Evolution and Psychology In Darwin, Romanes, Morgan, James, Dewey, and the Chicago Functionalists" [Online] available at: http://www.coment.ca/~pballan/section4(210).htm
Williams James and Functionalism (nd) available [Online] at: http://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/James.html
Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda "
S. government is based upon that belief, while other governments, such as communism and Marxism is based on accidental evolution (Benen 2001).
This belief system appears to be the extreme, however it is a popular one among creationists.
According to the National Academy of Sciences, "The theory of evolution explains how life on earth has changed...In scientific terms, 'theory' does not mean 'guess' or 'hunch'...Scientific theories are explanations of natural phenomena built up logically from testable observations and hypotheses" (Benen 2001). Biological evolution is the best scientific explanation for the vast range of observations about the living world, thus "the occurrence of evolution in this sense is a fact," because scientists no longer question whether descent with modification occurred since there is so much strong evidence to support the idea (Benen 2001).
Since no one knows how long a "day" actually was in the Book of Genesis, it could well…
Benen, Steve. (2001 January 01). Age-Old Controversy. Church & State. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Evolution. (2002-2006). All About Philosophy. Retrieved October 13, 2006 at http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/evolutionism.htm
Redditch, R.G. (2002 April 08). Creationism and evolutionism easily reconciled.
The Birmingham Post (England). Retrieved October 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Ecological-Evolutionary Theory (EET)
Evolution and evolution: Comparative History of Social Change
In understanding the evolution of human societies in the course of history, it is best traced and determined through the different states of economic development that humanity has experienced. Humanity's evolution from being a hunting and gathering to an industrial society can be pointed to numerous variables that served as catalysts that eventually made the conditions suitable for the nature of societies at present, which are mainly industrialized or heading towards industrialization. Tracing the history of social change is tracing the catalysts that led to the following stages of economic development in human societies over time: from hunting and gathering, to simple horticultural, eventually to advanced horticultural, developing to simple agrarian, then to advanced agrarian, and ultimately, to industrial societies.
This transition from different levels of economic development could have been spurred by population growth, wherein the need more…
Nielsen, F. (2003). "The ecological-evolutionary typology of human societies and the evolution of social inequality." Sociological Theory.
Nolan, P. (2003). "Toward an ecological-evolutionary theory of the incidence of warfare in post-industrial societies." Sociological Theory, Vol. 21, No. 1.
Evolution in efore Adam
Jack London was, in keeping with his time, fascinated with the emerging Theory of Evolution. This is evident in a number of his works, but no more so than in efore Adam. In this novella London places evolution in a central role, not simply choosing to highlight it in a passage here and there, as he does in Daughter of the Snows and White Fang, but by using it to supply the central conflict and to propel the narrative forward. As the narrator himself says in the opening chapters, "Evolution was the key. It gave the explanation, gave sanity to the pranks of this atavistic brain of mine that, modern and normal, harked back to a past so remote as to be contemporaneous with the raw beginnings of mankind."
The words 'atavist' and 'atavistic' are used repeatedly throughout the text. These words, nearly foreign to us…
London, Before Adam. New York: Macmillan, 1907.
London, Before Adam, p.11
London, Before Adam, p.9
London, Before Adam, p.10
The general assumption is that the term evolution suggests that change is always progressive and follows a course of going from simple to complex. But actually this is not true. In the broadest sense of the term evolution merely refers to change and so galaxies, societies, customs, languages, etc. all change (Gould, 2002). In effect, it is well-known that the theory of evolution when applied to the changes of a galaxy or of a star such as our sun predicts an increase in the randomness over time and not an increase in complexity (Hansen, Kawaler, & Trimble, 2004). The sun for example will extinguish one day and become a black dwarf or black hole (Hansen, Kawaler, & Trimble, 2004).
In general when people speak of "evolution" they are speaking of biological evolution which can be defined as the change in the properties of populations of living organisms that occur…
Carroll, S.B. (2001). Chance and necessity: The evolution of morphological complexity and diversity. Nature, 409 (6823), 1102 -- 1109.
Futuyma, D.J. (2005). Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Gould, S.J. (2002). The structure of evolutionary theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hansen, C.J., Kawaler, S.D., & Trimble, V. (2004). Stellar interiors: Physical principles, structure, and evolution (2nd ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag.
The book Why Evolution is True by Jerry Coyne presents a cogent case for evolution, a concept that can be controversial for some but accepted fact for others. This paper will work through the book -- the case that Coyne makes -- and offer reflections on my own journey of understanding the concept of evolution and its manifestation in the natural world.
Evolution is not "fact," so much as a theory that is supported by a wealth of evidence. Just this alone lies at the heart of a lot of the misunderstanding about evolution. First proposed by Charles Darwin as a theory based on his observations of the natural world, evolution reflects the processes of adaptation that species go through, over time and successive generations. In adapting to their environments, species undergo changes that will, given enough time and dramatically different environments, result in the development of…
Coyne, J. (2010) Why Evolution is True. Penguin Books.
Evolution of the Feather and the Origin of irds
THE EVOLUTION OF THE FEATHER AND THE ORIGIN OF THE IRD
This is a paper that explains about the origin of birds and the actual evolution of the feathers. The paper details about the way the feathers had first evolved and the way these birds had their origin. The common belief that the dinosaurs are the ancestors of these birds has been analyzed and the paper also deals with as to how the feathers of these birds would have developed.
The origin of feathers is unknown. Scientists have researched on this topic but none of the theories have even come close to being proved. In the past five years there have been efforts to answer as to the real evolution of these feathers. The mystery of the evolution of feathers is closely linked with the origin of birds themselves. The origin…
Martin, Larry D. And Czerkas, Stephan A. (September 2000) "The Fossil Record of Feather Evolution in the Mesozoic" American Zoologist, volume 40, issue 4,-page 687
Prum, Richard O. (January 23, 2003) "Paleontology: Dinosaurs take to the air" Nature, volume 421, pp.323-324
Sues, Hans-Dieter. (April 26, 2001) "Paleontology: Ruffling Feathers" Nature, volume 410, pp. 1036-1037
Hou, Lianhai; Martin, Larry D; Zhou, Zhonghe and Feduccia, Alan. (November 15, 1996) "Early Adaptive Radiation of Birds: Evidence from Fossils from Northeastern China" Science, volume 274
Other specific branches of management study have been developed for multinational enterprises (MNEs) and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).
Strategic management incorporates much of the work of previous management theorists, in particular including elements of organizational structure, motivation, organizational behavior and the definition of roles. In some respects, strategic management's focus on the human side derives most substantially from the Drucker tradition. Production management, conversely, remains focused on task. Systems such as Six Sigma and TPS follow on Taylor's theories about task specificity and optimization. There remains at this point in management theory there is a disconnect between these two types of management theory. Perhaps the future direction of management theory is to bring the two concepts -- production management and people management together to form a holistic view of the organization.
Most of today's management theories derive from the influence of Taylor, Drucker and other management thinkers of…
Cliff Notes. (2010). Classical schools of management. Cliff Notes. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Classical-Schools-of-Management.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8851.html
NetMBA.com (2007). Frederick Taylor and scientific management. NetMBA.com. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/scientific/
McNamara, C. (no date). Brief overview of contemporary theories in management. Free Management Library. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/cntmpory.htm
In actual fact, because of STCP's option of multiplicative amplify, STCP have to in stable state persuade congestion actions approximately all 13.4 round trip times, in spite of the connection speed. HSTCP encourages packet losses at a slower speed than STCP, but still much quicker than CP-eno.
3. Problems of the Existing Delay-based TCP Versions
In contrast, TCP Vegas, Enhanced TCP Vegas and FAST TCP are delay-based protocols. By relying upon changes in queuing delay measurements to detect changes in available bandwidth, these delay-based protocols achieve higher average throughout with good intra-protocol TT fairness (Cajon, 2004). However, they have more than a few deficiencies. For instance, both Vegas and FAST suffer from the overturn path congestion difficulty, in which simultaneous onward and overturn path traffic on a simple bidirectional blockage connection cannot attain full link operation. In addition, both Vegas and Enhanced Vegas employ a conservative window increase strategy of…
B. Melander, M. Bjorkman, and P.Gunningberg, 2000. A new end-to-end probing and analysis method for estimating bandwidth bottlenecks. In IEEE GLOBECOM '00, volume 1, pages 415 -- 420.
C. Dovrolis, P. Ramanathan, and D. Moore, 2001. What do packet dispersion techniques measure? In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM '01, volume 2, pages 905 -- 914.
Cisco Systems Inc. NetFlow Introduction. 2008. http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./tech/tk812/tsd_technology_support_protocol_home.html (Accessed August 10, 2011)
C-S. Chang, R.L. Cruz, J-Y, Le Boudec, and P.THiran, 2002. "A min-+ system theory for constrained traffic regulation and dynamic service guarantees," IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking, vol.10, no. 6, pp. 805-817.
Evolution of Criminal Justice Policy:
The evolution of the criminal justice system can be traced to as early as 1969 when the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice presented a report on the growing challenge of crime in the society. In addition to providing a detailed approach on the prevention and fight against crime, the report also provided means of improving the collaboration among policing, courts, and corrections. This is because of the significance of these three parts in the criminal justice system and their ultimate impact on the implementation of the criminal justice policy.
As the first contact between a criminal and the criminal justice system, policing or law enforcement has evolved in three distinct areas i.e. politically, progressively and through reforms. Both the political era and progressive period of the evolution of policing was during the pre-colonial period with the political era emanating from…
Hartmann, F.X. (1988, November). Debating the Evolution of American Policing. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/114214.pdf
"History of Criminal Justice, Punishment and Corrections." (n.d.). Intelicus. Retrieved August
23, 2011, from http://intelicus.com/history-of-criminal-justice-punishment-corrections/
he answer to the prayers of sport fans seemed to have come in 1982, with the implementation of the Action Sport program. It stood as the first official proposal related to sports development in the country. he program brought significant improvements to the sports scene in England and in several other countries neighboring it, considering that it made it possible for numerous people to get jobs and for more professionals to get actively involved in promoting sports.
he Sports Development Continuum plan came as a method to elaborate the concept of sports development. Derek Casey introduced theories relating to Foundation, Participation, Performance, and Excellence, influencing individuals engaged in sports to gain a better understanding of what sport development meant. he plan was later modified so as for people to comprehend the level to which they could participate and assist the domain. It became obvious that none of the principles put…
The answer to the prayers of sport fans seemed to have come in 1982, with the implementation of the Action Sport program. It stood as the first official proposal related to sports development in the country. The program brought significant improvements to the sports scene in England and in several other countries neighboring it, considering that it made it possible for numerous people to get jobs and for more professionals to get actively involved in promoting sports.
The Sports Development Continuum plan came as a method to elaborate the concept of sports development. Derek Casey introduced theories relating to Foundation, Participation, Performance, and Excellence, influencing individuals engaged in sports to gain a better understanding of what sport development meant. The plan was later modified so as for people to comprehend the level to which they could participate and assist the domain. It became obvious that none of the principles put across by Casey would have any effectiveness if it were not for the others.
The establishment of the National Lottery program in 1994 would practically revolutionize sports as they were perceived by Englishmen. Whereas the program was initially believed to have little effects on the sports development, it brought some of the most important improvements in the domain. The New Laborers plan worked brilliantly and made it possible for sports development to become what it is today -- a booming domain that provides numerous benefits for the people of England.
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…
Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4
Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4
Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.
Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.
While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…
Consciousness: Section PS13D
Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology
Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.
Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.
Jerry Coyne's hy Evolution is True
I understand it contradicts the account in the Bible and other holy texts, if one takes a literalist interpretive stance, but given that most texts have more significant internal conflicts, I did not see why this particular theory would cause people to have such visceral emotional responses. I understand, intellectually, that evolution is not the first scientific advance to be met with tremendous hostility; there was also significant opposition to the notion of a heliocentric universe and to the idea that the earth was not flat. However, because people understand that other scientific ideas that were intertwined with biblical teachings have been proven incorrect before without damaging religious belief, I imagine that I assumed that people would be more open-minded about "modern" scientific theories. On the contrary, because of the strong scientific support for the idea of evolution, the choice not to believe evolution…
Coyne, Jerry. Why Evolution is True. New York: Penguin Group, 2009.
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.
Chapter 6: The orld That Knew e ere Coming
Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in…
Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).
Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.
ut science is about stepping stones: the creation of theories and hypothesis, and the testing of these hypotheses with empiricism. If these theories fail, then additional hypotheses have to be proposed. During the process of the testing these hypothesis, experimentalists will find evidence based that will enable to fine tuning of the hypothesis, and the process carries on. Indeed, most of quantum theory is hinged on the Uncertainty principle put forward by Werner Heisenberg. What apt that it be named the Uncertainty principle.
Eventually, one hopes that some consensus will come between those that support graduated equilibrium vs. phyletic gradualism in terms of evolution of species. Or a new theory will develop and come to the fore, if new fossil evidence comes to light. ut that does not mean that we subscribe to the watchmaker theory. William Paley, an eighteenth century moral theorist, philosopher and religious conservative, was perhaps the…
Asimov, Isaac. The Roving Mind. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1983.
Behe, Michael J., and T.D. Singh. God, Intelligent Design & Fine-Tuning. Kolkata: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005.
Brennan, S. Edwards, Governor of Louisiana, Et Al. V. Aguillard Et Al. 1987. UMKC. Available:
http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/edwards.html. April19 2008.
New Theory -- the Black Queen Hypothesis
In modern science, evolution is one of the basic templates to help understand the biology and ecology of an organism. The theory was put forth in the late 19th century by Charles Darwin and others. It describes the change in inherited traits of a population through a process called natural selection. This process allows only the strongest, most robust and useful traits to perpetuate because they are the most adapted to the organism's environment. Evolution, then, is the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits and mutation. Thus, most of evolutionary theory surrounds the notion that living organisms evolve by adding genes (adaptations to the environment) rather than discarding them (Futuyma, 2005).
Evolution was a dramatic, and controversial, theory. It convinces most of the scientific community that the world was continually evolving, not static, and most certainly not just a few thousand…
Radical New Theory of Evolution; Could Turn Current Thinking on Its Head. (April 4, 2012).
The Daily Galaxy. Retrieved from: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2012/04 / radical-new-theory-could-turn-evolutionary-theory-on-its-head.html
Dennett, D. (2005). Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and Me. New York: Touchstone Press.
Futuyma, D. (2005). Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinnaure Associates.
Pearl Jam's "Do the Evolution" is a modern take on the evolution of mankind. ritten from a social perspective, the song critiques the conceit that humans are somehow "superior" because they are the most highly evolved, or complex organism on Earth. The complete lyrics for Do the Evolution are listed at the end of this essay.
Pearl Jam's frontman, Eddie Venter, has quickly become the musical voice of Generation X His lyrics are almost always insightful and provocative, and often address important social issues. Do the Evolution is no exception to the rule, as Venter delivers a topical and pointed commentary on current status of what is arguably the most highly evolved animal on the planet: human beings.
From a purely scientific perspective, the process of evolution is simply change over time. Darwin sought to explain the process of evolution by putting forward the theory of evolution by natural selection.…
The Pearl Jam Network. 13 May 2002. http://pearljamnetwork.com/archive/lyrichuffer.cgi-yield/dotheevolution
Darwin, Charles On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or, The preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London; Toronto: H. Frowde, Oxford University Press, 1907.
Dawkins, Richard. The Blind watchmaker. New York: Norton, 1986.
Rather, he advances a notion, equally integral to his theology as his understanding of evolution that the creation of humankind in God's own image is unique, and created a new level of complexity on the earth when it was interjected into the world. Human thought and thus human existence is parallel but somehow more complex than the evolution of the biological, material world.
What about his thought may be most helpful?
Tielhard's reconciliation of evolution and theology is valuable to Catholics who seek to balance their understanding of their place in the world with the hard, scientific evidence that suggests humans have evolved from other organism. It also imbues the idea of evolution with a moral responsibility that Darwin's theory lacks -- as more complex organisms, capable of higher consciousness, we have an added obligation to understand the world, spiritually as well as scientifically, to understand that world and to…
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html
Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm
Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.
Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
Evolution Is True
What Is Evolution?
This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…
Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin
Neuner, K. (2012). Why Evolution Is True - Notes & Review. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from https://vialogue.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/why-evolution-is-true-notes-review/
Vecchi, D. (2009). Review - Why Evolution is True. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=4953
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…
Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.
Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.
As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable of becoming equal to whites. Therefore, when Jim Crow segregation was first challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court determined that separate facilities were not inherently unequal, despite overwhelming evidence that the facilities provided for African-Americans were factually inferior to those provided for whites. While this meme has been challenged by newer ideas and has, generally, not stood up to scientific, moral, and religious challenges, vestiges of it remain in almost every American person. As a result, many Americans, of…
Corrales, J. (1999) the politics of education reform: bolstering the supply and demand; overcoming institutional blocks. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World Bank
Web site: http://www1.worldbank.org/education/globaleducationreform/pdf/corrales.pdf
Catalano, J. (1996) Review: Richard Dawkins: books: the selfish gene. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World of Richard Dawkins
Web site: http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Books/selfish.shtml
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…
A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory, n.d., Available at:
Bridle, S. And Edelstein, a., 2009, Was ist "das Ich"?, Available at:
Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.
The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.
A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.
BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml
Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm
Theory Evaluation. 2008. http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html
Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007. http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
Thomas Hardy's The Woodlanders was published in 1887, a few years after the death of Charles Darwin. However, the novel was set in the middle of the 19th century, in about the same year that Darwin published On the Origin of the Species. Hardy may not have selected his setting arbitrarily. The Woodlanders has often been read within the context of Darwinian influences in society and literature. However, literary critics tend to emphasize the fusion between Romantic and Darwinian depictions of nature in The Woodlanders to show how Hardy drew from Darwin to develop his characters and themes. Irvine, for example, claims Hardy was an "evolutionary pessimist," and this is certainly apparent in The Woodlanders, which provides an overtly pessimistic view of human nature but especially of patriarchy (625). In fact, Hardy's The Woodlanders shows that while Darwinian principles of evolution sometimes favor members of the species with no moral…
The industrialist 19th-century Europeans frequently put this to the difference between private and state-sponsored religion. In 1837, an Austrian visitor to the United States observed:
In America, every clergyman may be said to do business on his own account, and under his own firm. He alone is responsible for any deficiency in the discharge of his office, as he is alone entitled to all the credit due to his exertions. He always acts as principal, and is therefore more anxious, and will make greater efforts to obtain popularity, than one who serves for wages (Powell 1967).
This should be no surprise to those who have seen populations stick to their religions despite sanctions from the state, such as in Poland. At the time of the fall of the erlin Wall, Polish participation in Catholic ceremonies was quite high; after independence and the establishment of an official relationship with the state,…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Bazillon, R.J. The Zollverein 1834-1870. Historical Report, Leiden: Leiden University, 2007.
Clout, H.C. "An Historical Geography of Europe 1800-1914." Geographical Review, 1987: 115-117.
Diderot, J. Encyclopedie. Paris: Andre le Breton, 1743.
Low Self -Control Theory
This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Thus, just an article strictly on the newest thoughts regarding complex design by Zimmer would be seen as support of his beliefs.
Why, then, the added zing against ntelligent Design? s because the continued dispute between the scientists and Creationists has disturbed Zimmer so much that he had to add these comments? Or, was it a National Geographic editor who read Zimmer's piece and said, "Let's make this article juicier by setting the ntelligent Design people against the scientists."
No one will ever know for sure if either of these scenarios or another one is the truth. However, it does seem odd that the three paragraphs noted above after the introduction can easily be removed without any changes needed to the flow of the article. The first two paragraph introduction moves very smoothly into "Some have emerged..." There is nothing lost by removing these middle three paragraphs than some heat.…
It just would have been more effective if there were two separate articles: The overall article on the complexity and then a side bar on the evolution vs. Creationism controversy. In the latter article, additional comments could have come from scientists both pro and con Intelligent Design, for, in fact, there are a number of scientists (even biologists and zoologists) who do believe that these marvels of nature are the result of some overall plan or design.
In his book Why Darwin Matters, Author Michael Shermer, founding editor of the Skeptic and Scientific American columnist, writes why religion and science need not be in conflict. Science and religion are two different realms, he stresses: respectively the natural and supernatural. He cites Pope John Paul II in support of their possible coexistence. Zimmer and other scientists do not need to discount their opponents to demonstrate the fascination of evolution. All the examples in nature do it all by themselves.
Zimmer, Carl (2006). "A Fin, is a Limb is a Wing." National Geographic Magazine.
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
theory discussed attempt explain a real criminal crimes. Gary Ridgeway America's notorious serial killers. Your assignment analyze Ridgeway's criminal life Hans Eysenck's theory Personality.
hen considering Gary Leon Ridgway's (The Green River Killer) criminal case in the context of Hans J. Eysenck's theory on personality and crime, one is likely to observe a series of parallels between the murderer's personality and behavior and a series of events that occurred throughout his life up to the moment when he became a serial killer. Eyseneck considered that genetics plays an important role in shaping one's personality and this thus points toward the belief that Ridgway was probably influenced by biological factors when he put across criminal thinking. According to Eyseneck, individuals like Ridgway have a neurophysiologic structure that influences them to express certain attitudes when they come across particular circumstances.
hile someone might be inclined to think otherwise consequent to consulting the…
Hadden, B, & Luce, H.R. (2002). Time, Volume 159.
Putwain, D., & Sammons, A. (2013). Psychology and Crime. Routledge.
Marsh, I. (2006). Theories of Crime. Routledge.
Morehead, P. (2012). The Green River Serial Killer. eBookIt.com.
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Evolution of International Trade From Static to Dynamic Theories
Evolution of International Trade
Generally, the principles governing the gains from trade can apply in both foreign and domestic trade. Although there is a tendency by states to view the two elements as different, economists on the other hand, suggest that the consequences of international trade were an extension of the laws governing domestic trade. Some of these principles were established very early, but a number of economists, for instance, John Stuart satisfactorily showed that it was possible to use similar principles to explain international and domestic trade. Therefore, economists are now confident that questions pertaining trade are similar, for instance, what is the advantage of trade between two parties? etween regions or countries? If individuals were self-sufficient, and can produce food, cloth or shelter, the living standards would be very low (Appleyard, Field and Cobb, 2005).
On the other hand,…
Appleyard, D., Field, A. & Cobb, S. 2005. International Economics, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Appleyard, D. And Field, A. 2005. International Economics, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Aitken, B., & Harrison, A. (1999). Do domestic firms benefit from direct foreign investment?
Evidence from Venezuela. American Economic Review, 89 (3), pp. 605-618.
Evolution of the Concept of Intelligence
The concept of IQ is relatively recent, despite the widespread cultural tendency to regard intelligence as a discrete and measurable category that has existed since time began. Intelligence tests were initially constructed with a relatively straightforward purpose -- to discern which children could flourish in the rigid French school system. After the French government passed a law requiring all French children attend school, it commissioned Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon to identify which children exhibited cognitive deficits. Binet focused upon skills that were not necessarily 'taught' to children, such as "attention, memory and problem-solving skills," to ensure that children from more privileged backgrounds did not have an advantage on the test (Cherry 2010). Binet also created a distinction between children able to answer more advanced questions only older children were capable of solving and average children. "Based on this observation, Binet suggested…
Bensen, Etienne. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing. APA Monitor, 34(2): 48.
Retrieved July 9, 2011 at http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb03/intelligent.aspx
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). History of intelligence testing. Retrieved July 9, 2011 at http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/int-history.htm
Gardner's multiple intelligences. (2006). Personality and Individual Differences.
evolution and natural selection is the addition of information. The process of evolution requires massive amounts of new information be added to an existing gene pool. What most people refer to as evolution is, in fact, natural selection. Natural selection occurs when genes that already exist in an animals' DNA, or sometimes on defective genes that have lost information (called mutation) are somehow altered. Neither process adds information to the gene pool so cannot be considered to be evolution. The evolutionary process is a slow and meticulous one and is preceded by numerous incidents of natural selection. True evolution is truly rare and takes place over the span of many years. Natural selection occurs far more frequently and can occur in the space of several generations.
Natural field experiments are efforts by the scientific community to apply the scientific method to real life situations. This process allows scientists to test…
Evolution of Management
A Brief History of the Evolution of Management Principles and Models
The evolution of management theories and principles in modern management thought began in the late nineteenth century and advanced rapidly all through the twentieth century up until the present day. The need to define management and the role of managers became a vital part of production as well as the need to effectively complete many business functions. This led to the foundation of various management theories that were aimed at orchestrating different business functions in an environment where the separation of labor demand some level of coordination. Classical management theories focused on the best methods for assigning the labor of various individuals and there related tasks. This line of thinking was not only necessary, but evolved into a robust field of academic study as well as professional practitioners that specialize in management. This paper…
Deming, W. (2011, September 22). The Deming System of Profound Knowledge. Retrieved from The W. Edwards Deming Institute: http://deming.org/index.cfm?content=66
Mind Tools. (N.d.). Henri Fayol's Principles of Management. Retrieved from Mind Tools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henri-fayol.htm
Origin of Eukaryotes
Theory of Endosymbiosis
The evolution of eukaryotes has no fossil record. However, from the study of modern organisms, biologists deduced their theory that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes through the endosymbiosis process. The state of one species living inside another species, known as the host, is called endosymbiosis.
Eukaryotes evolved from the Archaea domain of prokaryotes, whereby prokaryotic cell have engulfed aerobic bacteria instead of engulfing other prokaryotes. Membrane infolding is the first process that occurs in the development of eukaryotic cell. Around the nucleus, nuclear envelope is formed due to the inward folding of the plasma membrane. Later, attached to the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum is produced. The development process of mitochondria and chloroplasts completes the formation of eukaryotic cell.
Some of the researched evidences of biologists on the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes are as follows. (Origin of Eukaryotes. (http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/acteria/symbiosis.html)
oth use RNA and DNA are…
Origin of Eukaryotes.
2003. George Washington University. 23 April 2003. http://www.gwu.edu/~darwin/BiSc151/Eukaryotes/Eukaryotes.html
Endosymbiosis in Evolution.
2000. Sidwell Friends School. 23 April 2003. http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Bacteria/symbiosis.html
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
Management as a discipline is generally concerned with the art and science of getting a group of people to achieve a defined goal or objective (Griffin, 2008). The discipline has evolved significantly over the last one century or so (Roth, 1998). In the first half of the 20th century, emphasis was largely placed on structure, authority, and production; with little or no attention to employees (Adetule, 2011). There has, however, been a tremendous shift of management focus from structure and authority to people (employees) over the years (Griffin, 2008). The evolution of management theory over time depicts the ever changing role of managers or leaders in organizations. Each management orientation or school of thought, however, presents its own merits and demerits. With reference to Galaxy Toys, Inc., an American toy manufacturing company, this case study provides an analysis of how the style of management in the organization has evolved from…
In Plato's mind, the body is an anchor which holds the soul from enlightenment. That which we know (as we will discuss later) we knew before we had the body and it is only recollection of this knowledge that allows us to know anything while we are in the body.
We will now discuss the application of this idea of Forms and the separation of the same from sensible particulars by discussing Plato's idea of "Two Worlds," or being and partaking. eing does not mean the same thing as partaking is not explained by and does not explain its essence. In fact, Plato postulated that is X lacks essence, it can fail to be. An example given is that of beauty. eauty is beautiful, and other things become beautiful by partaking in what is beautiful. The question then comes whether the partaking is then dependent on the being. In what…
Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. McGraw Hill.
Vlastos, G., Platonic Studies (2nd ed., Princeton, 1981
Allen, R.E., 'Participation and Predication in Plato's Middle Dialogues,' in id. (ed.), Studies in Plato's Metaphysics: 43-60
Drede, D. 'The Final Proof of the Immortality of the Soul,' Phronesis, 23(1978): 24-41
Evolution of ape
One of the most controversial theories in evolutionary psychology is the idea that men have evolved a rape adaptation. This is considered a controversial notion because when this theory was introduced many people felt as if it was an attempt to provide excuse or justification for rape. For many years, sexual assault advocates focused on the idea that rape was about violence, not about sex, and it seemed as if the evolutionary idea might challenge that notion. However, that rape might be an evolutionary adaptation does not make it a moral or justifiable act, after all, there are undeniably evolutionary adaptations for situationally-dependent murder, but murder is universally considered immoral. Instead of viewing it as a reason to excuse rape, approaching rape as if there is a possibility that men have evolved a rape adaptation may actually help social scientist develop ways to decrease the frequency of…
Buss, D. (2007). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind, 4th Edition. City:
Gettleman, J. (2010, October 3). Mass rapes in Congo reveals U.N. weakness. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/04/world/africa/04congo.html?pagewanted=all
Kristof, N. (2012). In Sudan, seeing echoes of Darfur. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from New
theories presented by Elman Service and Timothy Earle on the evolution of chiefdoms.
There were many different things that Franz Boas did to help improve the field of anthropology at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A number of the advancements he made were in the field of physical anthropology. Even more advancements pertained to improvements in this science as a whole which helped it to become much more rigorous and, on the whole, trustworthy. Many of these improvements that Boas made in this field helped to repudiate the notions of Western superiority that had previously occupied a central role in anthropology.
In terms of his contributions to physical anthropology, Boas effectively challenged and disproved the idea of scientific racism. By examining the skeletons of a number of different people of varying socio-economic backgrounds, the anthropologist was able to disprove the notion that…
What is the Theory of Constraints?
There has been a continuous development of management from the time it was realized that it can be studied carefully to form a branch of knowledge and the individuals who had studied it generally performed better as managers than others who never spent time on the matter. The Theory of Constraints or TOC is basically a philosophy of management and improvement. The first person to draw the attention of the world to this was Eliyahu M. Goldratt and he brought it to the notice of others through his famous book, The Goal. The guiding principle behind this theory is that in any organization there exists a weak link, and this acts somewhat like a chain with a weak link. This tops the organization from performing even better than it is performing at any period of time. In short, it is important to remove…
Chaleff, Ira. (October, 1995) "Process Improvement for Knowledge Workers" AFSM International. Vol: 20; No: 3. Retrieved from http://www.ibt-pep.com/default.asp?ObjectID=257 Accessed on 29 May, 2005
'Constraint Management & Supplier Relations" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/supp1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
"Constraint Management & the Market" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/mktg1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
'Critical Chain & Project Management the TOC Way" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/projects.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Until recently, schools had steered away from those types of teachings and focused primarily on standardized testing and basic skills. While these things are still a major part of modern education, they now tend to be supplemented by character education as well (Prestwich, 2004).
The modern juvenile court system has headed in a more caring and facilitative in modern times as well. Not only are juveniles afforded more rights since the Kent and Gault cases discussed above, but they are constantly being tested for improved rehabilitation structures such as boot camps, work release programs and a variety of alternative sentencing methods.
It is interesting that as both our educational system and our juvenile justice system are becoming more interested in 'fixing' the emotional problems that accompany youth development, there has not really been any marked improvement in delinquent behavior. Then again, the retributive approach was not very successful at producing…
Ghershi, a. (2007) From the one-room schoolhouse to virtual education: a perspective of what to do while the transition takes place, Distance Learning, 4(3) 64-76
Hopson, R.K. & Obidah, J.E. (2002) When getting tough means getting tougher: Historical and conceptual understandings of juveniles of color sentenced as adults in the United States. Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 158- 174.
Oestreicher, Jr., S.E. (2001) Toward fundamental fairness in the Kangaroo Courtroom: The due process case against statutes presumptively closing juvenile proceedings. Vanderbilt Law Review. 54(4),1751-1804.
Prestwich, D.L. (2004) Character education in America's Schools. Journal of Teacher Education, 47(2),139-146
The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the…
Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]
There are significant distinctions that are available to compare and contrast the definition of nursing provided in the 2010 Social Policy Statement (SPS) with the definition of nursing provided by Florence Nightingale in Notes on Nursing. Nightingale is one of the founders of nursing theory and wrote her work in the late 19th century. She was one of the first nurses to take an analytical approach to some of the insights about the field that she garnered. Her definition of nursing states:
"hat nursing has to do ... is to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him" (Nursing Theories, N.d.)
Nightingale believed deeply that a nurse could put their patient in a position of balance relative to their environment and crafted many techniques to this end. By contrast, the American Nursing Association (ANA) and their SPS has the advantage of accessing the culmination…
Nursing Theories. (N.d.). Nursing: Notes on Nursing. Retrieved from Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/florence-nightingale.html
federal practitioners' goals have evolved somewhat, particularly subsequent to high-profile cases like those of Al Capone and Whitey Bulger. At the same time, a punitive mentality has prevailed in terms of charging decisions and sentencing punishments. Some sentencing decisions are largely symbolic, like those affecting Whitey Bulger. Bulger was ordered to pay more than $19 million to victim families and another $25.2 million to the government, even though the Bulger estate has nothing near that amount in it. Interestingly, Bulger not only helped to corrupt government officials by luring them with the promise of large amounts of cash, but he also participated later with the FBI as an informant (Valencia, Murphy & Finucane, 2013). The government continues to rely on people like Bulger, who can provide valuable information related to other crimes and other criminals. Therefore, in terms of decisions made during investigations, state and federal law enforcement officials have…
"Al Capone," (n.d.). History. Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics/al-capone
Mulhausen, D.B. (2010). Theories of punishment and mandatory minimum sentences. Retrieved online: http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/theories-of-punishment-and-mandatory-minimum-sentences
Valencia, M.J., Murphy, S. & Finucane, M. (2013). Whitey Bulger, Boston gangster found responsible for 11 murders, gets life in prison. Boston.com. Retrieved online: http://www.boston.com/metrodesk/2013/11/14/james-whitey-bulger-sentenced-today/EPqdUhXjjlvh4WXyJadj7N/story.html
Crime is a normative aspect of any social construct. That however does not in any way imply that a criminal is a set of or his psychological and biological endowments, if that may be called so. These are actually two very different queries on altogether different premises. The differentiation is better captured when sociological pursuits (fraud, slander, calumny, insults, etc.) are ingrained into the discussion about criminality. It also discount the fact that criminality should be looked down upon, though crimes are an accepted social construct. In ways similar to an individual avoiding pain, so does the society abhor crime. As an extension, similarly as pain cannot be wished away and does form a feature of life, so does criminality about a social structure. That is however not at all to defend crime. Such a posit would be against the moral obligations that has tangible outcomes and become…
Emile Durkheim, (2008). The normal and the pathological, Oxford University Press.
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
Evolution -- Great American Interchange
The natural Panamanian bridge adjoining early North America with early South America is believed to have occurred 3 -- 4 million years ago. By studying evolutionary changes in animal species in North America, Central America and South America, experts formed the theory of the Great American Interchange, a mutual migration of Northern species to South America and of Southern species to North America. The evolutionary changes that came from these migrations are at least partially attributed to a Great American Biotic exchange. Experts traditionally believe that Northern species that migrated to South America were more successful in surviving and evolving because of prior migrations from greater land masses and easier adaptation to the climate of South America. However, as experts make more and more discoveries in the field, there are questions and controversies about the number of migrations from each continent and migrations from sources…
Davies, T Jonathan and Lauren B. Buckley. "Phylogenetic Diversity as a Window into the Evolutionary and Biogeographic Histories of Present-Day Richness Gradients for Mammals." Phiosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1576) (August 2011): 2414-2425. Print.
Forasiepi, Analia M, et al. "Carnivorans at the Great American Biotic Interchange: New Discoveries from the Northern Neotropics." 17 July 2014. www.academia.edu Web site. Web. 18 October 2014.
Jablonski, David and j John, Jr. Sepkoski. "Paleobiology, Community Ecology, and Scales of Ecological Pattern." Ecology, 77(5) (July 1996): 1367. Print.
Jimenez, F Agustin, et al. "Four Events of Host Switching in Aspidoderidae (Nematoda) Involve Convergent Lineages of Mammals." Journal of Parasitology, 98(6) (Dec 2012): 1166-75. Print.
In the book The Greatest Shown on Earth: the Evidence for Evolution author Richard Dawkins (2009) attempts to explain how it is impossible for evolution to be logically denied if people look at the scientific evidence behind the theory. In the book, he in fact states that evolution should not still be considered as just a scientific theory. Rather, he believes that evolution should be considered an established fact regardless of people's religious teachings and subsequent beliefs. His attitude is one of an expert in the field who is talking down to those who do not agree with him, a perspective that makes his book believable but unlikely to convince people who do not agree with him on the subject.
In Dawkins' book, he uses many specific examples to further prove his assertion that evolution is far more than a theory, but proven fact. Among the many things that…
Dawkins, R. (2009). The Greatest Show on Earth: the Evidence for Evolution. Free Press: New