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Collaborative Communication and Therapeutic Interventions
Collaborative Communication and Therapeutic Interventions Improve care for Health Care Clients and Community
Collaborative communication and therapeutic interventions play a significant role in improving the care for the health care clients and the overall community. This is the reason that these days the health care organizations assess their performances and design high quality improvement initiatives for carrying out collaborative communication.
There is a very strong link between an effective communication and high quality health care. The satisfaction of the patient and his family members can be increased by doing two ways, clear, understandable and respectful communication (Morales et al. 2006, Beach et al. 2005). Gaps between the communication of healthcare professionals and the patients or among the healthcare professionals themselves bring disastrous and unexpected outcomes and the healthcare relationship badly suffers.
There are several ways through which collaborative communication and therapeutic interventions improve…
Beach MC, Sugarman J, Johnson RL, Arbelaez JJ, Duggan PS, Cooper LA. (2005). Do patients treated with dignity report higher satisfaction, adherence, and receipt of preventive care? Ann Fam Med. 2005 Jul Aug; 3(4):331-8.
Kilmann, R.H., & Thomas, K.W. (1975). Interpersonal conflict-handling behavior as reflections of Jungian personality dimensions. Psychological Reports, 37, 971 -- 980.
Kilmann, R.H., & Thomas, K.W. (1977). Developing a forced-choice measure of conflict handling behavior: The
"mode" instrument. Educational and Psychology Measurement, 37, 309 -- 325
Cognitive Behavior Therapy as My Therapeutic Orientation
Overview of my orientation
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) combines two effective psychotherapy interventions. These are behavior therapy and cognitive therapy. Behavior therapy helps a patient weaken the ties between troubling situations and the habitual reactions to these situations (Vaske et al. 2011). Such reactions include self-damaging, self-defeating behavior, rage, depression, and fear. Besides, it teaches the patient how to calm the mind and body so that they can feel better, think clearly, and make informed decisions. CBT teaches the patient on how the thinking trends may cause symptoms of mental illness by creating a distorted image of what is happening in their life. In the end, the person may feel angry, depressed or anxious for no good reason. When integrated into CBT, cognitive and behavior therapies serve a strong tool for stopping these symptoms and getting the patient's life on a normal path…
Moss-Morris, R., Dennison, L., Landau, S., Yardley, L., Silber, E., & Chalder, T. (2013). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Adjusting to Multiple Sclerosis (The Sams Trial): Does CBT Work and for Whom Does It Work? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 2, 251-62.
Vaske, J., Galyean, K., & Cullen, F. T. (2011). Toward A Biosocial Theory of Offender Rehabilitation: Why Does Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Work? Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 1, 90-102.
Utay and Miller (2006) described a study in which researchers observed over 100 individuals with unresolved grief reactions. There were three phases of treatment employed with these individuals. The first stage of treatment involved cognitive structuring for the decision to grieve again and for procedure clarification. The second stage involved guided imagery for reliving, revising, and revisiting the scenes at which the loss occurred. The third and final stage involved future-oriented identity reconstruction. The researchers reported that the reliving of the event through guided imagery effectively changed the client's view of reality, and furthermore helped along their grief resolution (Melges & DeMaso (1980), as cited by Utay & Miller, 2006). Moreover, Guided imagery has been established as a versatile and effective intervention.
The importance in assisting the children's mother with the grief process lies in the fact that bereavement is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and it…
Elliott, K. (2000). Long QT syndrome. Alberta RN, January/February.
Firth, Hurst (2005). Clinical Genetics, New York: Oxford University Press, 378-9.
Gravitz, MA. (2001). Perceptual reconstruction in the treatment of inordinate grief. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44(1), 51-5.
Joffrion, L.P., Douglas, D. (1994). Grief resolution: faciliatating self-transcendence in the bereaved. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 32(3), 13-9.
Realty therapy, which was developed by psychiatrist illiam Glasser during the 1960's, requires those working with a student with emotional disturbance to develop a positive, friendly relationship, especially with those particular students who do not want such a relationship (ong 2004). Realty therapy differs from other psychological models because it urges everyone who works with the student to enter into a counseling relationship with them, not simply the psychologist (ong 2004).
Research on the use of reality therapy for students with emotional disturbance has demonstrated a positive effect on student behavior. According to Glasser, "Counseling is just one human being helping another with a problem. This is not hard to do, if the person with the problem wants to be counseled" (ong 2004). However, students with emotional disturbance may be defensive and resistant to counseling, thus the school psychologist's job is to motivate them to participate in counseling and to…
Harris, Karen M. (2002, June 22). A school, family, and community collaborative program for children who have emotional disturbances. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Retrieved November 11, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Nelson, Ron J. (2003, September 01). Status of and trends in academic intervention research for students with emotional disturbance. Remedial and Special Education. Retrieved November 11, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Sabornie, Edward J. (2004, September 22). Characteristics of emotional disturbance in middle and high school students. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Retrieved November 11, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Sugai, George. (2000, September 22). A Self-Management Functional Assessment-
Different Therapeutic Approaches and a Diversity of Clients
The prolific nature of theory generation makes it difficult for a therapist to choose a single approach with regard to a specific client type. Cave (1999) listed the "broad" categories of theory as somatic (medical interventions), psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic. Under these broad headings are many different subsets of theory that can be used to treat a specific type of malady.
However, this proliferation does offer one benefit to the therapist searching for an approach. Since the diagnostic and statistical manual offers so many choices with regard to disease, the therapist needs just as many avenues for treatment. When the number of possible diagnoses are coupled with the range of different personality types, it can be even more difficult to find an effective therapy. But, at least the choices are there. And if the choice is not available, it…
Baradon, T. (2010). Relational trauma in infancy: Psychoanalytic, attachment and neuropsychological contributions to parent-infant psychotherapy. London: Taylor & Francis.
Cave, S. (1999). Therapeutic approaches in psychology. London: Psychology Press.
Paniagua, F.A. (2005). Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients: A practical guide. Grand rapids, MI: SAGE.
Trepper, T.S., & Barrett, M.J. (1989). Systematic treatment of incest: A therapeutic handbook. London: Psychology Press.
Therapeutic Hypothermia Review
Lucero, Catherine (2010) Therapeutic Hypothermia. Clinical Correlations. Retrieved from: http://www.clinicalcorrelations.org/?p=2032
Lucero (2010) writes of therapeutic hypothermia "resumption of spontaneous circulation after prolonged ischemia due to cardiac arrest carries significant morbidity and mortality and much effort has been directed toward reducing the debilitating consequences." Lucero reviews the studies that demonstrate an association between therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients and improved neurological outcomes.
Tran, Bau P., et al. (2010) Use of Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia to Treat Cardiac Arrest. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. 1 Mar 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.jaapa.com/use-of-mild-therapeutic-hypothermia-to-treat-cardiac-arrest/article/164767/
Tran, et al. (2010) reviews the key findings of research studies on the usefulness of therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest.
3. Lutes, Michael and Larsen, Nathan (2007) Focus on: Therapeutic Hypothermia. Clinical Practice and Management March 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.acep.org/content.aspx?id=26776
Lutes and Larsen (2007) reviews recent studies that examine the use of therapeutic hypothermia,…
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…
1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.
2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.
3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.
4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
The preliminary data suggests that nurses need to adopt a holistic approach toward care as more and more mothers seek out non-pharmacological and natural methods for improving comfort and reducing the pain associated with labor and delivery.
Nurses can also help patients by educating them about their choices during labor, as well as potential unexpected events that occur during labor and delivery. As this study shows, mothers prepared for the unexpected are much more likely to report satisfaction than those who are not.
These findings provide significant insight with regard to nursing education protocols, and open the doors for new approaches to care for patients. Nursing programs of the future should focus on educating staff members regarding alternative therapies that can improve a mother's comfort before, during and after the labor process.
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain:…
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain: A systemic review." Am J. Obstet Gynecol. 191(1): 36-44.
Kannan, S., Jamison, R.N. & Datta, S. (2001, Sep-Oct). "Maternal satisfaction and pain control in women electing natural childbirth." Reg Anesth Pain Med, 26(5): 468-72.
Ketterhagen, D., VandeVusse, L & Berner, M.A. (2002 - Nov, Dec). "Self-hypnosis:
Alternative anesthesia for childbirth." MCN Am J. Matern Child Nurs. 27(6): 335-40.
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems
Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.
Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…
"History of Naturopathic Medicine." (n.d.). North Carolina Association of Naturopathic Physicians. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://ncanp.com/about-ncanp/history-of-naturopathic-medicine/
Kramlich, D. (2014, December). Introduction to Complementary, Alternative, and Traditional Therapies. Critical Care Nurse, 34(6), 50-56.
Pongparadee et. al. (2012, August). Current Considerations for the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Asian Countries: A Special Focus on Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drugs. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases,15(4), 341-347.
Schulenburg, J. (2015). Considerations for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions for Pain. AORN Journal, 101(3), 319-326.
The following multimodal evaluation procedure is recommended for Carlos:
Semi-Structured Clinical Interview
The foremost component of an informal evaluation of traumatized individuals entails semi-structured interviewing, in which the following details of the patient ought to be garnered:
• Demographic facts
• Employment history
• Medical history
• Educational history
• Social history and • Several specific facts.
Such an interview must be closely founded on minor and major trauma disorder facets (James, 2008). Particular questions to be posed to Carlos are linked to:
• Trauma nature and level of exposure
• Definite trauma integral to PTS (post-traumatic stress) symptoms
• Intrusive thoughts, recollections, emotions, imagery, responsiveness/awareness freezing, avoidance response and other similar symptoms
• Related elements of anxiety, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, anger or violent behavior
• Pre-morbid family and social life, and adjustment
• Familial history of psychological ailments. Essentially, therapists must seek comprehensive information on individual PTS symptomatology elements,…
Physically, massage or TT eases muscle tension and improves circulation. In turn, it improves digestion and breathing, enhances mental clarity, and encourages better sleep. TT is particularly useful to terminally ill patients in reducing or mitigating pain to the extent of making prescription painkillers unnecessary. Emotionally, TT or massage is a gentle and compassionate experience for the dying. It reduces the sense of isolation by providing him or her with physical connectedness. It can also re-establish dwindling or lost self-esteem and self-acceptance on account of disease. As a result, it contributes to increased quality of life and a much-needed release of emotions. Medicare as yet does not cover massage therapy for hospice settings but an increasing number of group have been lobbying for its inclusion.
Useful Alternatives to Pain and Discomfort Management
These alternatives have shown to be effective in easing spiritual, emotional and psychological pain that contribute to the…
Aghabati, N et al. (2010). The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and fatigue of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Evidence-based Complementary Alternative
Medicine: PubMed. Retrieved on June 16, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887328
Catlin, A. (2009). Hospice massage: easing the pain of a life-limiting illness (Part 1).
vol 9 # 3, Massage Today: MPA Media Publications. Retrieved on June 19, 2011
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…
Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/
Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.
Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Torticollis is a condition which can be either temporary and of a minor inconvenience or it can be chronic and physically debilitating. The implications of the condition can run the gamut of severity and susceptibility to treatment. Torticollis, or a twisting of the neck, can be extremely common but its causes and impact exist across a wide range of variations. The discussion here will offer a concise overview of the condition with consideration of its various suspected causes, its most salient symptoms, strategies for its treatment and existing technologies or adaptive strategies aimed at helping individuals live with the condition.
Torticollis is not an altogether uncommon presence at the time of birth. hen the condition is present at the time of birth, it is referred to as congenital or inherited torticollis. According to the research provided by the Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (BMAB) (2012) "about…
Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (BCMAB). (2012). Torticollis. Babycenter.com.
Cunha, J.P. (2009). Torticollis Overview. EMedicine Health.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2008). Cervical Dystonia. Mayo Clinic.com.
Medline Plus. (2011). Torticollis. NLM.NIH.gov.
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
(McGannon, Carey and Dimmitt, 2005)
To address this need in the field of school counseling, the CSCOR has developed the National Panel for School Counseling Evidence-ased Practice, which is composed of school counseling educators and practitioners who have been identified as experts in the field. Panel members are currently evaluating existing methods of evidence-based practice by reviewing the research literature so that they may establish rules of evidence to determine whether a practice can be identified as evidence-based. The panel is identifying rules for judging strong evidence, identifying needed research, and communicating their findings to other practitioners and researchers. (McGannon, Carey, and Dimmitt, 2005)
The work of Jeremy M. Linton entitled: "Perceived Therapeutic Qualities of Counselor Trainees with Disabilities" states that a learning disability (LD) is present when the person's achievement in a specific academic area is significantly below the level expected for age, schooling, and level of intelligence. In…
Carey, John; Dimmitt, Carey McGannon, and Carey, Wendy (2005) the Current Status of School Counseling Outcome Research. School of Education - University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Research Monograph, Number 2, May 2005.
Problem Solving and RTI: New Roles for School Psychologists by Andrea Canter, 2006, February, Communique, 34(5). Available from www.nasponline.org
Linton, Jeremy M. (1999) Perceived Therapeutic Qualities of Counselor Trainees with Disabilities. Journal of Instructional Psychology March 1999.
Elbaum, Batya; and Vaughn, Sharon (2008) Can School-Based Interventions Enhance the Self-Concept of Students with Learning Disabilities? National Center for Learning Disabilities. 2008. online available at http://www.ncld.org/content/view/518/
Attendance will be required for all group members to optimize the effect of the sessions. Group members will be allowed to leave the group as long as the intention to leave is provided in writing. No reasons will be required.
Because of the nature of the group, a mutual confidentiality agreement will be signed by all group members, including leaders, at the first meeting of the group. There will generally not be homework, apart from the requirement to apply what has been learned to the work and home environment. Group members may report on results if they feel they want to.
There is no need for a formalized institution to determine the ground rules and structure of the meetings. This will be a collaborative process between me and the group members.
IX. Group essions
Group dynamics generally consist of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Group Dynamics, Unit 10).…
Adams, B.D. And Webb, R.D.G. Trust in Small Military Teams. Retrieved from http://www.dodccrp.org/events/7th_ICCRTS/Tracks/pdf/006.PDF
Armstrong, R. (2005) Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004
Borchers, T. (1999). Small Group Communication. Retrieved from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/groups/leader.html
Castano, E. Leidner B, and Slawuta, P. (2008, Jun). Social identification processes, group dynamics and the behaviour of combatants. International Review of the Red Cross, Vol 90, No. 870. Retrieved from http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/review-870-p259/$File/irrc-870_Castano.pdf
In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).
Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…
Ahrams, P., Cardozo, L., & Fall, M. (2002). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society [Electronic version]. Neurourology & • Urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.
Astroza Eulufi, C, Velasco, P.A., Watson, A., & Guzman, K.S. (2008). Enterocistoplastia por cystitis intersticial: Resultados diferidos [Enterocystoplasty for interstitial cystits: Deferred results] (Electronic version]. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, .32(10), 1019-1023.
Elizawahri, A., Bissada, N.K., Herchorn, S., Aboul-Enein. H., Ghoneim, M., Bissada, M.A.Glazer. A.A. (2004). Urinary conduit formation using urinary diversion of intestinal augmentations: II. Does it have a role in patients with interstitial cystitis? The Journal of Urology, 171, 1559- 1562.
Fall, M., Oberpenning, F.. & Pecker, R. (2008). Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: Can we make evidence-based decisions? European Urology, 54, 65-78.
Group treatment of a scapegoat himself or herself, as Clark further suggests, will function distinctly, at different stages of group counseling. In general, however, Clark notes, "scapegoating," at whatever stage of group process, provokes particular "defense mechanisms," within group counseling processes, that necessitate counselor intervention, in order to re-establish group equilibrium.
Clark also points out the importance, for counselors of groups that are exhibiting the behavior of having chosen a scapegoat, of "adopting a progressive stage model of group development" (Scapegoating [sic]: Dynamics and intervention in group counseling (Journal of counseling and development, July 1, 2002) so that intervention methods and strategies may be effectively based on the group's stage of counseling within which the "scapegoating" [sic] is taking place.
In this way, Clark further suggests, the group counselor will be able to best process and react constructively to group interactions in which a scapegoat is being targeted. Otherwise, the…
Clark, A.C. (July 1, 2002). Dynamics and intervention in group counseling. Journal of counseling and development. E library. Retrieved November 2, 2005, at http://europa.ccsn.nevada.edu:2263/libweb/elib/do/document?set=search&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standard&resultid=3&edition=&ts=71165D4EA97AD6B12093A4047DA61A19_1131052872018&urn=urn%3Abigchalk%3AUS%3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B55792732.html
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…
Barth, J., Critchley, J., & Benget, J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessations in patients with coronary heart disease, Cochrane Heart Review.
Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass;290:86 -- 97.
Frothingham, S. et al., (2006). How much does smoking cessation cut CHD risk? Clinical Inquiries, 57, 10, 675-679
Huey-Ling W., Harrell, J & Funk, S (2008). Factors Associated With Smoking Cessation
social and psychological interventions are important in youth mental health
The most productive and creative generation of any nation are the youth, Australia included. Nations largely depend on the youth for almost everything hence the need to be in the best shape physically and more importantly psychologically. The mental health of the youth has been widely viewed as a subject of concern among the medical fraternity and one that needs constant and continuous intervention in order to have a sound mental health. This paper will delve into the prevalent mental disorder and the different ways in which they manifest themselves and the relevant social and psychological interventions that are appropriate in the intervention especially among the youth. Through understanding of these mental health conditions or disorders and the available interventions, one is able to evaluate whether the interventions have been sufficient and if not, interrogate the inefficiencies and the possible…
Lee R.S.C., et.al, (2012). Cognitive Remediation Improves Memory and Psychosocial Functioning in First-episode Psychiatric Out-patients. Psychological Medicine. Cambridge University Press.
Mario A.J., (2011). Preventing the Second Episode: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Psychosocial and Pharmacological Trials in First-Episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol.37. Oxford University Press.
Mathew S. et.al., (2008). Recent Advances in the Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: Implications for Novel Therapeutics. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Wiley-Liss Inc.
Peters A.T & Nierenberg A.A., (2011). Stepping Back to Step Forward: Lessons From the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Corner.
Psychological Interventions Chronic Pain
Medical science is increasingly aligning with a biopsychosocial treatment perspective that understands pain and symptoms as coming from multifaceted experience characterized by the complexity that is inherently human (oditi & obinson, 2011). Many vectors come together in this biopsychosocial perspective: the physicological and emotional state of the individual tend to dominate, garnering most of the medical attention these variables align with conventional medical and behavioral training (oditi & obinson, 2011). In addition, the influence of culture, ethnicity, and society on the interpretation of health and disease are important considerations (oditi & obinson, 2011). The literature on mind-body connection provides strong evidence of the impact that an individual's emotions can have on their behavior and, interestingly, provides findings that the reverse can also be true (oditi & obinson, 2011).
Chronic pain is considered to be an illness from a biopsychosocial perspective, and not a disease (oditi &…
Bishop, S.R. (2002). What Do We Really Know About Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64:71-84.Bishop, (2002).
Elkins, G., Jensen, M.P., & Patterson, D.R. (2007). Hypnotherapy for the Management of Chronic Pain. Int J. Clin Exp Hypn, 55(3):275-287.
Guzman, J., Esmail, R., Karjalainen, K., Malmivaara, A., Irvin, E. & Bombardier, C. (2007). Multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2.
Goossens, M.E.J.B., Vlaeyen, J.W.S., Hidding, A., Kole-Snijders, A. & Evers, S.M.A.A. (2005). Treatment Expectancy Affects the Outcome of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Chronic Pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 21(1): 18-26.Kjellgren, A., Bood, S.A., Axelsson, K., Norlander, T. & Saatcioglu, F. (2007). Wellness through a comprehensive yogic breathing program -- a controlled pilot trial. BMC Complimentary and Alternative Medicine, 19, 7: 43.
This approach can take the focus off of the child, and instead treats the child's environment as a way of holistically treating his or her condition. Also, if time and the nurse's relationship allows for the use of such an open-ended tool, a great deal of information can be yielded about the family system that cannot by other models.
Chen, J.L, C.H. Yeh, & C. Kennedy. (2007, Jun 22). eight status, self-competence, and coping strategies in Chinese children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 22.3:176-85.
Cochran, Jill. (2008). Empowerment in adolescent obesity: State of the science. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care. 8. 1. Retrieved 19 Mar, 2009 at http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/159/190
Cox, Cheryl L., Julia M. Cowell, Lucy N. Marion, & Elaine H. Miller. (2007, January 19). The Health Self-Determinism Index for Children. Research in Nursing and Health.
13. 4: 237-246. Retrieved March 18, 2009 at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/114079089/abstract
Chen, J.L, C.H. Yeh, & C. Kennedy. (2007, Jun 22). Weight status, self-competence, and coping strategies in Chinese children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 22.3:176-85.
Cochran, Jill. (2008). Empowerment in adolescent obesity: State of the science. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care. 8. 1. Retrieved 19 Mar, 2009 at http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/159/190
Cox, Cheryl L., Julia M. Cowell, Lucy N. Marion, & Elaine H. Miller. (2007, January 19). The Health Self-Determinism Index for Children. Research in Nursing and Health.
13. 4: 237-246. Retrieved March 18, 2009 at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/114079089/abstract
PECS VS. iPAD FO AUTISM
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has come to be known as one of the more afflicting and damaging mental disorders that affect people around the world, particularly when it comes to the youth. As the understanding of the disorder increases, so do the types and forms of therapies and tools that can be used to combat and treat the disorder. While more traditional interventions like pharmacological and traditional therapy methods are still quite common and pervasive when it comes to the normal treatment courses, there has been the emergence of solutions in particular as a means to assist or create a therapeutic environment for children with autism. A technology-based solution for autism treatment and assistance is the iPad, a product of Apple Corporation. A non-technology solution that is prolifically and commonly used is known as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). What follows in this report…
Boyd, T., Barnett, J., & More, C. (2015). Evaluating iPad technology for enhancing communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. SAGE, 1-9.
Cumming, T., Strnadova', I., & Singh, S. (2014). iPads as instructional tools to enhance learning opportunities for students with developmental disabilities: An action research project. SAGE journals, 12(2), 151-176.
Developmental Audit (DA) provides an alternative assessment beyond traditional standardized tests and psychiatric diagnosis. It explores a young person's motivations, beliefs, and behaviors within the ecological context of family, school, peer group, and community (Bronfenbrenner, 1986). This paper seeks to determine the intricacies as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the DA and how to effectively employ the DA regarding vulnerable youth. The keys to discerning the perceptions and experiences of the young person and those who know this individual best include a number of variables provided from a number and variety of resources. The DA is used in a number of different settings and according to Brendtro et al. (2012) those settings can include schools, treatment centers and juvenile outreach programs, and of course, in the courts. Brendtro surmises that the DA is not just an information gathering tool, but that it can also be used to develop…
Brendtro, L.K.; Mitchell, M.L.; Freado, M.D.; du Toit, L.; (2012) The Developmental Audit: from deficits to strengths, Reclaiming Children & Youth, 21(1) 7-13
Bronfenbrenner, U., (1986) Alienation and the four worlds of childhood, Phi Delta Kappan, 6(6), 430-436
Freado, M.D. & Bath, H.I.; (2014) Standing alone in judgment, Reclaiming Children & Youth, 22(4) 21-26
The article can be read at this link http://web.b.ebscohost.com.oh0144.oplin.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9bffc6f4-88f7-42c1-bdf9-4cabae79a033%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=118
Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment.
Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…
Family Systems institute Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique
Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…
Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.
Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
Basic Concepts of Human Interaction
Conformity & Obedience
Human interaction is the phenomenon which takes place when two humans have a tendency to have an effect over one another. Individuals are mainly unaware of the fact that they are responding to the external factors and are adapting to the surroundings. Every situation requires the humans to react differently and thus demands a different mannerism altogether. A simple example of such behavior is individual's behavior which shows professionalism in the work-related settings whereas the same individual will exhibit different behavior when found with friends or family. Hence, every situation requires individual to consider the external factors requiring thorough analysis of what to say and how to respond. The two fundamental examples of such behavior are conformity and obedience. These two terms may sound the same however individuals exhibit these two sets of behavior differently in different situations.
Burke, T., Kassin, S. & Fein, S. Braham, S.S. (1999). Social psychology. 6th ed. Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Fiske, S.T. Social Beings. (2004). Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Freud, A. (1936). The ego and the mechanisms of defense. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
Jatten, J. & Postmes, T. (2006). Individuality and the group: Advances in social identity. Sage Publications.
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-
analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.
Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),
Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
Teenage Girls Involved in Abusive Dating elationships
Aggression in teenage dating leading to physical, emotional and psychological damage is a social problem not only because of its effects on the teenagers but also because of its prevalence.
Howard and Qi Wang (2003) report figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showing that overall the prevalence of non-sexual courtship violence ranges from 9% to 65%, depending on the definitions and research methods used. Howard and Qi Wang's study reported "almost one in ten of the 9th- through 12th-grade females who participated in the 1999 Youth isk Behavior Survey reported being a victim of physical dating violence (i.e., had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose) within the past year." Further studies and figures report that about one in five of adolescent girls has experienced dating violence. Some of the physically abusive behaviors perpetrated in dating include being scratched,…
Bush, Vanessa. (2002). A thin line between love and hate: dating violence strikes one in every five teenage girls. Essence November 2002. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1264/7_33/96384286/print.jhtml.
Gillies-Bradley & Wagner Tammy L. (2003). When love hurts. Briarpatch, 32(2), 18-19.
Howard, Donna E. & Qi Wang, Min. (2003). Risk profiles of adolescent girls who were victims of dating violence. Adolescence Spring 2003. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/149_38/103381757/print.jhtml.
James, William H., West, Carolyn, Deters, Karla Ezrre, Amigo, Eduardo. (2000). Youth dating violence. Adolescence Fall 2000. Retrieved November 7th, 2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/139_35/68535843/print.jhtml
She attends Catholic church service with her family and friends on special occasions like Easter and Christmas as this seems to please her mother.
Her favorite hobby is reading novels.
The act of cutting her wrist frightens her. She has no transportation problem; therefore her Initial Diagnostic Interview with Dr. Philips is scheduled for 12/1/11.
The 28-year-old female demonstrates a high level of depression as well as anxiety as indicated by the symptoms of flashbacks, repetitive nightmares, insomnia, poor appetite as well as a general feeling of emptiness. Her behavior of self-harm (cutting) has also increased. She has a physical and sexual abuse history all of which affect her current mood.
The client was diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and migraines.
Master problem list
Client: Grace Manchester
Date of Identification
Date of esolution
The client has a chronic medical problem…
Nemade, R., Reiss, NS and Dombeck, M (2007)Psychotherapy - Evidence-Based Treatments for Major Depression.
Whitfield, G and Williams, C (2003)The evidence base for cognitive -- behavioral therapy in depression: delivery in busy clinical settings. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2003) 9: 21-30 doi: 10.1192/apt.9.1.21
Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.
Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…
Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.
Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.
Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…
Hall, J., Whalley, H.C., Marwick, K., McKirdy, J., Sussmann, J., Romaniuk, L., (2010). Hippocampal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 761-761-70. doi:10.1017/S0033291709991000
Kinsella, Caroline and Kinsella, Connor Introducing Mental Health: A Practical Guide (London: Jessica Kingsley, (2006)
Kutscher M., Attwood M.L., Wolff R.R. Kids in the Syndrome Mix of ADHD, LD, Asperger's, Tourette's, Bipolar, and More!: The one stop guide for parents, teachers, and other professionals. Philadelphia Kingsley Publishing (2005)
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Reinares, M., Goikolea, J.M., . . . . (2005). Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(5), 295-295-302. Retrieved from
(Walsh & Meyersohn, 2001, p. 188)
Therapeutic interventions, as has been mentioned are frequently multifaceted. Nursing interventions can be associated with the disease treatment or can be in support of other diseases the individual has that need treatment, i.e. when and individual is hospitalized for illness or injury the diagnosis and therapeutic evidence of PS is absolutely essential to support and understand as incompliance can be global and "new" therapeutic relationships can be met with extreme distrust. Education is essential as PS patients still have some (greater or lesser) cognitive impairment and may not give appropriate clues as to how well he or she understands or intends to comply with treatment interventions. Nurses in a psych or medical setting must be careful how they word everything and how they educate patents about their treatment. Expected outcomes are dependant on severity but many people with PS can and do…
Bond, G.R., & Meyer, P.S. (1999). The Role of Medications in the Employment of People with Schizophrenia. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 65(4), 9.
Higgins, P.B. (1995). Clozapine and the Treatment of Schizophrenia. Health and Social Work, 20(2), 124.
Hilsenroth, M.J., Fowler, J.C., & Padawer, J.R. (1998). The Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI): an Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 70(3), 514-534.
Mayo Clinic "Paranoid Schizophrenia Definition" http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/paranoid-schizophrenia/DS00862
treatment modalities for conduct disordered adolescent males has primarily been focused on comorbidity. Adolescent males with conduct disorder typically receive individual and family therapy, but when overt behaviors are extreme, pharmacotherapy may supplant insight-based therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and social skills training are complementary approaches to intervention. Using an experimental approach, this study examines the impact of combined intervention approaches on perceived and observed improvement in the expression of problem behavior and life change strategies of adolescent males with conduct disorder.
Adolescents, across the board, experience a range of emotions. Negative impacts of these emotions include struggling with acceptance, self-esteem, isolation, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which can also be a result of instability at home (earight, et al., 2001). In addition to these social effects, many adolescents experience a distorted perception of reality (earight, et al., 2001). On occasion, this distortion may cause them to make poor choices, which demonstrates…
Subjects were adolescent males previously diagnosed as having conduct disorder (CD) and new to the family therapy milieu. The subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The treatment and control groups were as follows: (A) CBT in family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) plus a placebo (B) Administration of Fluoxetine; (C) CBT in family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) (Control Group). A total of 9 subjects were included in the study. All treatment took place in clinical settings and was configured to be individual or family therapy rather than peer-group treatment.
The unit of analysis is the behavioral and cognitive processing performance changes in individual subjects (patients). Changes in the expression of problem behavior are noted by clinicians. Self-perception scores of the changes in cognitive processing were recorded on the surveys and two CBT instruments. The level of measurement is ordinal as dictated by the scales used in the formal CBT tools, and on the Likert scale used for the structured surveys. The Cognitive Therapy Awareness Scale (CTAS) and the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Supervision Checklist (CBTSC) will be used to measure the effectiveness of the treatment groups (Sudak, et al., 2001; Sudak,
Textbook chapters most relevant to this particular component on the relevancy of cost utility and cost effectiveness as it relates to non-pharmacological or supplement treatment effectiveness in comparison to Prozac, will highlight in a balanced manner, the cost benefit of both interventions as evidenced by empirical study. Moreover, the side effects of flouxetine such as nausea, anxiety, insomnia, drowsiness, headaches, and loss of appetite should be taken into consideration when discussing the cost benefit to the client. In addition, any balanced discussion on the subject should include discourse with regard to the propensity for antidepressants to cause increased risk of suicidal ideations as compared to intervention via therapy such as rational emotive or cognitive behavioral therapy (Prigatano & Plinskin, 2003).
Flouxetine, or Prozac continues to be one of the most prescribed antidepressants for those clinically diagnosed with depression. Since its introduction some 20 years ago, Prozac has…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). APA practice guidelines for major depressive disorder (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Antonuccio, D., Danton, W., & DeNelsky, G. (1995). Psychotherapy vs. medication for Depression: Challenging the conventional wisdom with data. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 6, 574-585.
Barrett, B., Byford, S., & Knapp, M. (2005). Evidence of cost-effective treatments for depression: The McSad utility measure for depression health states. Journal of Affective disordersI, 84, 1-13.
Chambless, D., & Hollon, S. (1988). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
eason for eferral:
The client is a 15-year-old male who has issues with anger management. The client is also a gang member and given his age and background he is considered to be at risk for a number of antisocial behaviors.
Clinical concerns: Anger management/acting out.
Clinical concerns: Interpersonal isolation/relationship issues.
Clinical concerns: Underage cigarette smoking.
Client is a high potential risk for substance abuse.
Clinical concerns: Client is at a high potential risk for depressive symptoms.
The client has been in counseling with another counselor for four months before being transferred to this counselor's caseload. According to the reports from his previous counselor this client had made very little progress and was uncooperative.
He was uncooperative during the initial assessments and did not wish to discuss his feelings or acknowledge that he has difficulties with managing his anger. He tends to…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, R., & Fernandez, E. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of anger: A meta-
analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 63 -- 74.
Boxer, P. & Goldstein, S.E. (2012). Treating juvenile offenders: Best practices and emerging critical issues. In Grigorenko, E.L. (Ed.), Handbook of juvenile forensic psychology and psychiatry (pp. 323-340). New Haven, CT: Springer.
According to Robertson "Traditional counseling requires men to set aside much of their masculine socialization simply to get through the door and ask for help" (Robertson in McCarthy & Holliday, 2004). In a male counselor - male client arrangement, the male client may feel more comfortable and open to someone who he perceives as empathic, who understands, to a certain extent, where he is coming from.
For female clients in the later stages of change, that is the preparation, action, and maintenance stages, where action-oriented therapies like stimulus control, counter conditioning, etc. are more effective, may be more open to having a male counselor. The gender of a counselor may not play that big of a role, at least not as much as the client's perception on who is the credible counselor. In a study by Robertson, the results showed that females are more open to seeking counseling (Robertson in…
Giovazolias, T. And Davis, P. (2005). Matching Therapeutic Interventions to Drug and Alcohol Abusers' Stage of Motivation: The Clients' Perspective. Counselling Pyschology Quarterly. Vol. 18 Issue 3: 171-182
Hall, J., Guterman, D.K., Lee, H., and Little, S. (2002). Counselor-Client Matching on Ethnicity, Gender, and Language: Implications for Counseling School-aged Children. North American Journal of Psychology. Vol. 4 Issue
Harwood, I. (2003). Creative Use of Gender While Addressing Early Attachment, Trauma, and Cross-Cultural Issues in a Cotherapy Group. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. Vol. 23 Issue 5: 697-712
McCarthy, J., and Holliday, E. (2004). Help-Seeking and Counseling Within a Traditional Male Gender Role: An Examination From a Multicultural Perspective. Journal of Counseling & Development. Vol. 82 Issue 1: 25-30.
Norton, B. et al. (2011) "Somatic Expressions of rauma in Experiential Play herapy" in International Journal of Play herapy, Vol. 20, No. 3, 138 -- 152.
Researchers have found connections between animal and human responses to trauma that are important in understanding somatic (non-verbal) cues and conditioning. Some research has been done that shows parallels between animal behaviors and child behaviors in cases of abuse and neglect, although the literature remains scant. Children act out trauma in play therapy, resulting in a building of "trauma energy," expressed through movement in the discharge, or surge, phase. Following is the "soothe phase," in which the child becomes calm as part of trauma processing. As the authors point out, some severely traumatized children must undergo the process several times during treatment.
hompson, E.H. et al. (2012) "School-Based Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Domestic Violence" in Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 27,…
The researchers videotaped twenty-three children, aged four to eight years, in individual 40 minute play sessions. Each of the children had been exposed to violent attacks. The children's play patterns were characterized in one of three ways: re-enactment with soothing, re-enactment without soothing, and overwhelming re-enactment. Further analysis of play was used to identify the contributions of play activity to healing and the factors that contribute to resilience in a child. The authors concluded that PTP is both complex and multilayered. A common factor in all three categories of PTP was the child's response to comfort. The authors call for further research into the human relationship factors that help provide the emotional balance children need as they move toward recovery.
Green, E.J. et al. (2010) "Counseling Children with Preverbal Trauma" in International Journal of Play Therapy, Vol. 19, No. 2, 95 -- 105.
According to researchers, unresolved early childhood trauma can have long-term psychological consequences manifest in problems with a child's social, emotional and academic development. Successful resolution of early trauma can help a child deal with anxieties associated with annihilation, abandonment and disintegration. For pre-verbal children, such successful resolution can be particularly problematic when their primary caretakers are the perpetrators of the trauma and do not acknowledge or recognize the link between trauma and later behavior problems. Literature on therapeutic intervention with preverbal trauma is scant. The authors briefly discuss the effects of early trauma on brain development. The positive effects of play therapy are explored. Children cannot usually use words to describe a preverbal experience, but memories can be re-enacted. Exploration of memories of positive attachment experiences in the preverbal period, when used in play therapy, can play an important part in repairmen.
care in the situation of Mr. and Mrs. P would be holistic in nature, grounded in a philosophy of caring. There are serious existential issues at stake, as Mr. P has wondered why God has not "taken him" already, while Mrs. P may be suffering from depression given her inability to leave the house or handle the life affairs like paying the bills. Therefore, a recommended treatment plan would focus more attention on the mental and spiritual health of the couple without taking attention away from Mr. P's physical needs. It would also look after the physical health of Mrs. P as well as her psychological needs. As holistic nursing takes a "whole person" approach, it is the ideal philosophical framework for working with this small family unit.
As the AHNA (2016) puts it, holistic nursing aims "to integrate self-care, self-responsibility, spirituality, and reflection." From the holistic nursing framework, the…
AHNA (2016). What is holistic nursing? Retrieved online: http://www.ahna.org/About-Us/What-is-Holistic-Nursing
Cameron, R. (2016). Look again at psychedelic drugs. Nursing Standard. Retrieved online: http://journals.rcni.com/doi/abs/10.7748/ns.30.44.29.s28
Shumate, T. (2013). The Benefits of Psychedelic Drug Application for Clinical Treatment of Mental Illness. Journal of Undergraduate Nursing Writing 6(1). Retrieved online: http://archie.kumc.edu/bitstream/handle/2271/1175/STTJUNW-2013-Shumate.pdf?sequence=1
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
Where Will Counseling Take Place?
oundaries for Safety and Security
God's Riches at Christ's Expense
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
This is an overview of the counseling position that I will take when working with clients/parishioners. I realize that this cannot encompass every eventuality that may occur during a counseling session, but it should be comprehensive enough to account for most of the possibilities that present themselves. I acknowledge that this is also the treatise of someone who is going to be practicing as a pastor first and a counselor second, therefore the relationship of a shepherd to his assigned sheep is the most important consideration in all of this. Also, the counseling relationship that a pastor enjoys with a parishioner is not as extensive as that between a patient…
Carlson, Dwight L. 2000. Overcoming hurts and anger. Eugene: Harvest House. ISBN: 0736901965
This book is a real help when dealing with anger. The author gives you steps on how to prevent your anger and deal with past anger in a Christian manner. He gives examples of mishandled anger, biblical principles about anger, and how to handle anger in a Christ-like way.
LaHaye, Tim and Bob Phillips. 2002. Anger is a choice. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN: 0310242835
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).
Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret
The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…
Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.
Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.
Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.
Integrated Social Work Process and Assessment
Assessment within the social work domain an its helping procedurals are recognized by Milner and O'Byrne (2002) as aspects that happen to be ill-researched. Additionally they assert that it has a tendency to happen to be focused an excessive amount of individual's intra-psychic and social issues, instead of on structural or larger social settings of the individuals', families', or society's conditions. It has frequently brought to light the apolitical and at times baseless examinations and checks of social work structures that are either archaic or minimally used currently. In the United Kingdom, for instance, the parliamentary structure predominantly draws social work assessment like a detached phenomenon from the necessary intervention tactics implemented in social work practice. Many social work institutes and companies also follow this structure, in which a precise intake and assessment procedure happens centrally and the most urgent cases are then distributed…
Carrington, L. (2000) 'When push comes to shove', Community Care, 13 -- 19 April, pp. 26 -- 27.
Cleaver, H. And Freeman, P. (1995) Parental Perspectives in Cases of Suspected Child Abuse, London, HMSO.
Cleaver, H. And Walker, S. (2004) 'From policy to practice: the implementation of a new framework for social work assessments of children and families', Child and Family Social Work, 9(1), pp. 81 -- 90.
Corby, B., Millar, M. And Pope, A. (2002a) 'Assessing children in need assessments -- a parental perspective', Practice, 14(4), pp. 5 -- 15.
Art therapy is particularly useful with younger children. With children under the age of eight it can be difficult for them to grasp the concept of death, it can be equally as difficult for them to express the things they are feeling about the loss of a loved one (Shaw, 2000). Through the medium of drawing or painting a counselor may gain a better understanding of their patient's subjective experience of the loss as well as any unresolved emotions or unanswered questions remaining after the fact. Art therapy is also an effective means of determining the relative normality of a child's cognitive function following a traumatic event (Shaw, 2000).
Older children respond more effectively to client centered interviews (Shaw, 2000). A client centered interview is a psychoanalytic approach which encourages the patient to talk extensively guided minimally by questions or suggestions from the therapist. This approach might allow through the…
1. Tomita, T., & Kitamura, T. (2002). Clinical and research measures of grief: A reconstruction. Comprehensive psychiatry, 43, 95- 102.
2. Larson, D., & Hoyt, W. (2007). What has become of grief counseling? An evaluation of the empirical foundations of the new pessimism. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 347- 355.
3. Currier, J., Holland, J., & Neimeyer, R. (2007). The effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children: A meta- analytic review of controlled outcome research. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, 36, 253- 259.
4. Forte, a., Hill, M., Pazder, R., & Feudtner, C. (2004). Bereavement care interventions: A systematic review. BMC Palliative Care, 1-14.
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
Dorothea E. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory focuses on the need for all patients to develop self-reliance, particularly after traumatic injuries or in cases of disability. A self-care deficit exists when patients lack the ability to care for themselves, such as by feeding the self, performing personal hygiene, or by behaviors that might be harmful to self or others. Nurses are defined as self-care "agents" within the Orem theoretical construct, as nurses are uniquely trained to provide evidence-based interventions that can help the patient achieve the goal of self-caring. To help patients achieve their goals, the nurse will need to understand the health assessment process within the Self-Care Deficit Theory.
The Self-Care Deficit Theory (also referred to more simply as the Self-Care Theory) conforms to the fundamental tenets of healthcare assessment including the design of a plan of care. Data is to be collected on the patient's health history and…
"Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory," (n.d.). Nursing Theories. Retrieved online: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
Kourkouta, L. & Papathanasiou, I.V. (2014). Communication in nursing practice. Materia Sociomedica 26(1): 65-67.
"Therapeutic Communication in Psychiatric Nursing," (n.d.). Nursing Planet. Retrieved online: http://nursingplanet.com/pn/therapeutic_communication.html
Wayne, G. (n.d.). Dorothea Orem's self-care theory. Nurse Labs. Retrieved online: http://nurseslabs.com/dorothea-orems-self-care-theory/
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…
Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.
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Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis
Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.
No substantive cure for memory loss.
Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.
Different types of memory loss:
The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.
Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.
There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness
Daily behavioral changes
The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness
Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis
Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory
F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.
G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities
Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].
Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9
Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].
My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.
While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.
On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…
ADHD Information Library (2008). ADHD Treatment Options: many Good Choices. Newideas.Net. Retrieved from: http://newideas.net/adhd/treatment
Martin, B. (2011). Treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/treatment-for-attention-deficit-disorder-adhd/
Personal Health Lifestyles, Inc. (2001). Attention Deficit Disorder: Facts, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Retrieved from: http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/add-adhd.html#A1
The nursing professional must be adept at dealing ith these kinds of conversations, and ithout increasing the guilt that the family member or patient might be experiencing, and keeping in mind the patient's probable depression; it is the responsibility of the nursing professional to take the conversation back to the treatment and therapies that ithin the realm of the legal and ethical practices in delivering medical nursing care.
Jacquie Peden, Darlene Grantham, and Marie-Josee Paquin (2005) say that nursing standards in palliative care are based on the values of the nursing profession, and are developed by provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada to guide the professional practice of nursing professionals (p. 2). The hospice palliative nurse, they rite:
Believes in the intrinsic orth of others, the value of life, and that death is a natural process.
Establishes a therapeutic connection (relationship) ith the person and family through making, sustaining,…
works cited here support the need for continued and expanded research involving the different specialties in nursing and oncology to better serve patients and their families. Also, there is little nursing information that is found in the professional peer reviewed journals that speak directly to the issue of pancreatic patients and depression. There is much more literature on the subject from the physician and researcher perspectives, but there is a void in nursing literature. At this point in time, the depression of pancreatic patients as it concerns nursing, has received little attention. Both the nursing profession and pancreatic patients would benefit from further research in this area.
The conclusion from the study of the literature available is that not only is pancreatic patient depression not well understood, it is also lacking in research that would help professionals to address depression in these patients. Also, because it is directly linked to pancreatic cancer, and because the research does support the fact that patients suffering depression and pancreatic cancer do not enjoy the quality of life as those patients who do not suffer from depression, then pancreatic cancer patients and depression should be a distinct and separate therapeutic intervention from other groups of depression.
Adali, E., Merkouris a., Manoussou, E., and Priami, M. (2004). The Attitudes of General and Oncological Hospital Personnel toward Euthanasia, ICUS and Nursing Web Journal, 17:1-9, found online at http://www.nursing.gr/index1.html , retrieved 7 October 2009.
Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Position Statement: Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life, Canadian Nurses Association.
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…
Behaviorism focuses almost exclusively on the outward manifestations of mental illnesses. Underlying emotions, childhood memories, and dreams are trivialized in order to focus on bad habits or dysfunctional behaviors. Behavioral therapy employs methods based on classical and operant conditioning including systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning. Talking therapy is not an integral part of behavioral interventions.
Cognitive therapies may, however, combine both talking therapy with behavioral techniques. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a specific subset of cognitive psychology and includes interventions like rational-emotive therapy. The methods used by cognitive-behavioral therapists encourage the client to address and change faulty thoughts, irrational beliefs, and other underlying cognitions. The ultimate goal is to change behavior as well. Cognitive psychologists may focus more exclusively on altering negative thought patterns such as guilt and self-hatred. The therapeutic intervention acknowledges the role that childhood upbringing and repressed anxiety plays in the creation of mental illness. However, cognitive psychologists are…
Lazarus, a.A. & Coleman, a.M. (1995). Abnormal Psychology., London and New York: Longman.
"Psychological Therapies." Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http://web.mst.edu/~pfyc212b/Therapy.htm
"Psychology Schools of Thought in the United States" (nd). Psychological Health Care. Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http://atwitsendbook.com/psychological-schools-of-thoughts-in-the-united-states.php
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
Axelrod, S. D. (2012). "Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340–357.
In “Executive Development and Psychoanalytic Therapy,” Axelrod (2012) focuses on the singular concept of self-awareness, from a psychoanalytic point of view. Self-awareness, or self-knowledge, is a traditional and established goal of the psychoanalytic therapeutic process. Through psychoanalysis, the client gains insight into his or her own psyche, thereby initiating a self-driven change that has the potential to transform lives. Related concepts include self-monitoring, which can be used outside of the therapeutic relationship, as well as in therapy. Self-monitoring requires the invocation of an executive self, an aspect of the ego. Self-reflection is presented as a process that promotes self-awareness, but which is ideally promoted, guided, and enhanced by the therapist.
Axelrod (2012) focuses on emotional awareness, which can be connected to emotional intelligence. The author takes the research a step…
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…
Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.
____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.
Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484
Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.
Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.