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Therapeutic ecreation relies on the principles that people, mainly children can learn better through recreational environments and activities. In the therapeutic setting therapeutic recreation relates to the use of a recreational activity to allow children the opportunity to learn skills and abilities they might not be able to learn by other means, as in the therapeutic recreational setting learning is done in a natural and low pressure way and in this setting children especially have limited pressures to perform. Unlike more structured forms of therapy the environment and activity offers a sense of freedom that allows learning to come naturally when the individual is in a relaxed state and in theory and practice when they are more able to apply and retain lessons learned as a process of desire to achieve greater skills at the recreational task and possibly to apply them to other environments. Therapeutic recreation can serve as…
Association for Play Therapy of the U.S. Website. (2010) Retrieved December 1, 2010 from: http://www.a4pt.org/ps.playtherapy.cfm.
Bloomquist, M. (2003) Animal Assisted Therapy. Medicinenet.com Feature Article Retrieved December 1, 2010 from: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=51631 .
Chandler, C.K. (2005) Animal assisted therapy in counseling. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group.
Lundberg, A. (1998) The environment and mental health: a guide for clinicians. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum and Associates.
The problem is aggravated by the student's need for physical activity and exercise. This is the gap and the solution filled in by TR programs. They have the knowledge about disabilities and provide alternatives for specific needs not included in the curriculum. ut they have to be as knowledgeable about legal obligations and risks related to their programs as they are about the programs. The failure to recognize such risks or observe pertinent legal obligations not only exposes them to legal threats. It also substantially slows down the progress of the practice in schools. Updated knowledge on legal obligations and risks should then be incorporated into their guidelines so as to reduce exposure to liability suits (Taniguchi et al.).
TR for Older Adults with Dementia and ehavioral Symptoms
Most of health care deals with disturbing behaviors by administering medications, such as Thorazine and Haldol (uettner et al. 2006). These medications…
Asenjo, Bill. Recreation Therapy. Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health: CBS
Interactive, Inc., 2005. Retrieved on March 28, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gGENH/is_20050229/ai_2699003671?tag=content;col1
Bent, Leah M.; Johnson, Kristen; Klaas, Sarah; Rathsam, Shannon; and Schottler,
Jennifer an Upward Slope. Parks & Recreation: National Recreation and Park
Currently, I am working as a surgical technologist in two hospitals in Arkansas - Arkansas Children Hospital and the VA Hospital. I do surgical scrub on various cases of all surgical services, general, orthopedics, vascular, ENT, neurology, urology, and burns. To update and enhance my skills, I attended different medical training courses.
Since my youth, I had been in the scene of medicine. At the age of seventeen I was diagnosed with diabetes. Hence, in y sophomore years in college, I did a presentation on diabetes where I provided information on the symptoms, complications, and how to cope with diabetes. During my Junior year, I had family members that were diagnosed with breast cancer, glaucoma, heart attacks and thyroid problems.
Such experiences are my motivations in becoming a Physician Assistant. The feeling that I get from providing medical services is unfathomable and cannot be measured by anything.
Integrating Children with Autism into a Physical Activity and ecreation Setting
The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of behavior of children who were severely handicapped and autistic as they were integrated into a physical education and exercise program (Schleien, et al., 1987). The desire was to determine whether the social and behavioral skills of these children were improved after they had been exposed to an exercise and physical education program, or whether there was no difference seen. The way that the handicapped children were treated by the other children in the program - who were not handicapped - was also examined, in an effort to draw conclusions about how individuals treat those who are different and whether those differences cause children to shun others or accept them. Only two handicapped children were used for the study, and they were eight and eleven years old (Schleien, et…
Schleien, S., Krotee, M., Mustonen, T., Kelterborn, B., & Schermer, A. (1987). The effect of integrating children with autism into a physical activity and recreation setting. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 21(4): 52-62.
Educators and other professionals in related fields have responded to the increasing prevalence of the condition by developing and implementing appropriate strategies and interventions even without sufficient understanding of the disorder. Teachers, counselors, school psychologists and others who render related services are encouraged to be familiar with the DSMIV-TR. They are also advised to acquire a working knowledge of the school-related characteristics of students with as so that they can deal with these students' learning needs. These children or learners exhibit typical social, behavioral or emotional, intellectual or cognitive, academic, sensory and motor characteristics. Many teachers remain incognizant of the special academic needs of as learners because these learners give the false impression that they comprehend the lesson. Their repetitive learning style and high-level of comprehension cover the deficits, which will otherwise reveal the disorder (Myles and Simpson).
These interventions and strategies are social and behavioral supports, academic planning and…
Atwood, T. (2006). Asperger's Syndrome. 12 pages. Tizard Learning Disability Review: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.
Bower, B. (2006). Outside Looking in: Researchers Open New Windows on Asperger's Syndrome and Related Disorders. 6 pages. Science News: Science Service, Inc.
Frey, R. (2003). Asperger's Syndrome. 2 pages. Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: Gale Group
Huffman, G.B. (2001). Autism: Detection, Evaluation and Interventions. 2 pages. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians
Descibe the effect of execise on blood suga levels. How will this effect you execise ecommendations fo both insulin dependent and non-dependent clients food intake?
Execise cetainly helps to monito and assue healthy blood suga levels. It can help to decease cuent glucose levels in the blood as well as buning stoed blood suga, which is a leading facto in helping individuals lose weight. Moeove, execise can incease muscle mass and cadiovascula enduance. The addition of muscle can futhe help in egulating blood suga levels and glucose usage duing execise sessions.
When making ecommendations fo execise schedules fo clients with diabetes and othe insulin elated disodes, I would cetainly begin with a solid examination of the individual's specific backgound. While I would cetainly be inteested to know about any potential poblems even with non-diabetic clients, I would like to know about the seveity and specificity of the diabetic…
references - Each client has a preferential learning style involving a dominant sensory channel. The trainer should take an active approach to learning style of each participant.
29) Give an example of each rule of professional conduct for teachers of older adults.
1. Professionalism -- Trainers should do their best to maintain the utmost levels of professionalism during sessions. An example of a commonly made mistake would be perhaps taking a cell phone call during a session.
2. Punctuality -- Knowing that many older adults are chronically early, it is critical for trainers to be on time and ready to begin their sessions.
3. Appropriate Language and Terminology -- Being that many older clients will not likely recognize most modern fitness terminology, it is important for trainers to convey their messages in a clear and understandable way. Failure to do so could potentially result in injury.
healthcare services, many people could encounter some form of discrimination on the basis of their race, gender, or even sexual orientation. Discrimination in healthcare may seem like it is not something that is a major issue. However, it absolutely does come up in many situations, states and environments. hether based on gender, religion, race or sexuality, discrimination happens at overt or implied levels all of the time. In other situations, there are huge disparities in healthcare outcomes from one group to another and many experts say that this can only come from systemic or sporadic instance of racism from the healthcare sphere, from society in general or a combination of the two. hile most people get very good care, there are situations where the healthcare and/or government sectors fall short. It is important to note that although people are not always aware of this; there are various laws that seek…
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 11 U.S. Code Section 507 - Priorities. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/11/507
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 18 U.S. Code Section 152 - Concealment of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/152
lawschoolcasebriefs.net. (2002). Access Now, Inc. v. Southwest Airlines Co. Retrieved from www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net: http://www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net/2013/12/access-now-inc-v-southwest-airlines-co.html
State of California. (n.d.). California Corporations Code. Retrieved from www.leginfo.ca.gov: http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/.html/corp_table_of_contents.html
Sledge Hockey is a terrific sport that individuals with physical disabilities can participate in. This sport was developed in the 1960s at a Swedish rehabilitation center. By modifying a metal sled (aka sledge) to fit two ice hockey skate blades under the sledge (so that a hockey puck could pass under it, the Swedes allowed themselves to be able to slide around the ice without inhibiting the movement of the hockey puck. They used round poles that had bicycle handles as sticks with which the propelled themselves across the ice—much like skiers use sticks when they are skiing long distance. Their game required no goaltenders, but other than that it was very similar in spirit to regular ice hockey: the goal was to get the puck into the goal—and instead of skating, the players sledged or sledded across the ice in the customized sledges that allowed the puck to…
The study will also be important to those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is relatively large, simply because there has been a great deal written about chronic illness and injuries from the perspective of the physician and from the perspective of the patient. Both sides are important, although the focus here will remain largely on the patient perspective. Because there are so many people today that suffer from a chronic illness or traumatic injury, much study has been done about these individuals. Despite these studies, however, not a lot…
Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.
Brannon, L., & Fiest, J. (2004). Health Psychology: Vol.. An Introduction to Behavior and Health (Fifth ed.) Belmont CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.
DiMatteo, M. (2004). Social Support and Patient Adherence to Medical treatment: A Meta- analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207-218.
Eitel, P., Hatchett, L., Friend, R., Griffin, K.W., & Wadhwa, N.K. (1995). Burden of Self-Care in Seriously Ill Patients Impact on Adjustment. Health Psychology, 14(5), 457-463.
Teaching in the Self-Contained Classroom
Music, Art and Phys. Ed. In Self-contained classroom
In 1996, the United States Department of Education mandated laws that required school districts to create inclusive programs to integrate students with various disabilities into the general school population.
However, a study conducted by the National Council on disabilities in 2000 showed that most school districts have not transitioned into full mainstream classes. Instead, an estimated 20% of children with disabilities continue to spend their schooldays in self-contained classrooms, apart from the general school population (right and right).
Proponents of the self-contained classroom, however, believe that such settings can be advantageous, particularly for students with hearing impairments, mental retardation and those with physical or learning disabilities.
This paper examines how students in total or semi-self-contained classrooms can benefit from instruction in art, music and physical education. It looks at the challenges of teaching such classes and how…
Boyer, Lynn and Christine Lee. "Converting Challenge to Success: Supporting a New Teacher of Students with Autism." The Journal of Special Education, 35(2). Summer 2001. Wilson Database.
MacDonald, Victoria and Deborah L. Speece. "Making Time: A teacher's Report on Her First Year of Teaching Children with Emotional Disabilities." The Journal of Special Education, 35(2). Summer 2001. ProQuest Database.
Shapiro, Deborah R. And L. Kristi Sayers. "Who Does What on the Interdisciplinary Team: Regarding Physical Education for Students With Disabilities?" Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(6). July/August 2003. Wilson Database.
Wexler, Alice. "Painting their Way Out: Profiles of Adolescent Art Practice at the Harlem Hospital Art Studio." Studies in Art Education, 43(4). Summer 2002. ProQuest Databse.
Love and non-judgmental acceptance may be the most important things. Yes, money can help a person find a niche in life, but money is insufficient to get a person off the street. Following up later with some of the residents, I discovered that many would have returned to the streets a long time ago, despite their opportunity of free accommodation and food, were it not for the friends and care that they felt in these homes. Many of them, over and again, reiterated the bonds that they had formed one with another and, sometimes, with the staff members themselves. Some, through the staff members, had found support in the external community.
This presence of support was particularly evident in the foster home. There the 'foster parents' seemed to have a reputation for providing unconditional love, and I was greatly struck with the way that some of the residents, particularly the…
All these professionals work together in order to establish a
rehabilitation plan that works best for each individual. The component
members of the team are subject to change in accordance with each
individual's needs and requirements. Also, the center holds
The Palm Gardens Center does not use volunteers in its activity. The
reason behind this choice relies on the fact that this center is a for
profit organization. All the individuals employed here are paid. Most of
them work full time, but there are also part time employees.
In management's opinion, it is not a good idea to use volunteers,
because people that are not financially motivated tend to not perform their
tasks as good as they are supposed to. Basically, if one wants something
done properly, the activity in cause must be remunerated in accordance.
The Palm Gardens Center is very involved in the life of the…
1. Mission (2005). The Palm Gardens Center. Retrieved March 25,
2009 from http://www.palmgardenscenter.com/ .
2. Staffing Information (2009). UCompareHealthCare. Retrieved
March 25, 2009 from
3. Palm Gardens Nursing Home, Brooklyn, NY (2009). Hospital Data,
Hospitals and Nursing Homes Profiles. Retrieved March 25, 2009
, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.
The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…
Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.
Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website: http://www.reclaimingfutures.org/blog/node/1028
County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved
Cognitive Disorder in Elderly
Cognitive Disorders in Elderly
Cognitive Assessment & Lab
Kris Thomas, PhD
The research of this study is related to cognitive, dementia, Alzheimer disease, and depression issues with the elderly populations of the United States and in the world in general. Societies with a large number of elderly people such as the U.S.A. are increasingly focusing their efforts on improving the life standards of these people based on the types of services given to them. The well-being of those on palliative and hospice care is as important as the well-being of the family members of these patients. Although many health issues present themselves during the elder years of any patient, there is a lot of attention paid to cognitive and mood issues in this age group. The disorders and maladies that are relevant to this population include, among others, depression, dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI)…
American Psycholgical Association (APA) (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychologists Association.
Abby C. (2010). Physical Activity for an Aging Population. Public Health Reviews, Vol. 32. Retrieved from: http://www.publichealthreviews.eu/upload/pdf_files/8/PHR_32_2_King.pdf
Aklin, W. M., & Turner, S. M. (2006). Toward understanding ethnic and cultural factors in the interviewing process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(1), 50-64.
National corporations own many chains, even though several others are independently owned but affiliated with a chain through a franchise agreement.
Types of Hotels
The U.S. Department of Labour (2004) denotes five basic types of hotels:
Commercial - These hotels operate year round and are primarily located in cities or suburban places. The larger properties offer an assortment of services for their guests, such as coffee shops, restaurants, cocktail lounges, gift shops, newsstands, theatre, health spas, swimming pools, etc.. Even larger hotels offer banquet rooms, ballrooms to accommodate wedding receptions; business meetings. Convention and business meetings provide major sources of revenue for larger hotels
esort - These hotels are primarily located in vacation destinations near mountains, the seashore, or other attractions. Nowadays, some resorts provide additional convention and conference facilities to stimulate their customers to combine business with pleasure. (U.S. Department of Labour, 2004)
esidential - These establishments provide a…
Anderson, K. (2003, March). Time Out: Getting the Best Deal on a Vacation Time-Share. Black Enterprise, 33, 115.
Anderson, A. (1996). Timesharing- enviable growth lures major hospitality companies into industry. Hotel online. (Online). Available from URL: http://www.hotel-online.com/Trends/Andersen/Timesharing_EnviableGrowth.html ,(accessed 30 October 2005).q www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012473252
Brit Couple Killed as Timeshare Turf War Erupts in Tenerife; HUSBAND AND WIFE WORKED FOR MIDLAND CONMAN. (2006, January 15). Sunday Mercury (Birmingham, England), p. 3.
Crimes of Persuasion (2000). Deceptive Timeshare, Campground and Travel Club Sales. (Online). Available from URL: http://www.crimes-of-persuasion.com/Crimes/InPerson/MajorPerson/time_shares.htm ,(accessed 3 November 2005).
while the parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). This helped the researchers obtain information regarding the behavioral abnormalities, hyperactivity, inattention, ADHD, etc.
Statistical analysis of the gathered information clearly revealed an increase in inattentive behavior (p ? 0.001 for both Internet and console video games) and ADHD (p = 0.018 and 0.020 for console and Internet games, respectively). The researchers also concluded that students who engaged in video gaming for more than an hour showed significantly lower academic performance with (Grade point average (GPA), p = 0.019 and 0.009 for console and Internet games, respectively). The association between the time spent on playing video games and the YIAS (p < 0.001), was clearly evident indicating the development of video game addiction among the subjects who played for more than one hour daily [Philip and Terry, (2006)]. This study shows that children playing video games may…
1) Online Education, 'Video game Statistics' Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.onlineeducation.net/videogame/
2) NIMF, 'Effects of Video game playing on Children', Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_effect.shtml
3) Jerald J. Block, M.D., 'Issues for DSM-V: Internet Addiction', Am J. Psychiatry
165:306-307, Mar 2008, Available online at, http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/165/3/306
John in Chorio.
Symi is home to more than 465 chapels and churches. The town of Symi houses 13 churches and dozens of chapels, some of which date back to Symi's Byzantine eraf. One of the most frequented attractions on Symi is the monastery located at Panormitis. This monastery draws thousands of tourists to the island each year. Popular monasteries on Symi include Roukeuniotis, Megalos Sotiris, St. Michael, and the Church of the Virgin. Churches usually remain locked unless there is a name day celebration or other festivity in progress. One of the oldest churches on Symi is the paleo-Christian Church, Aghia Irini.
Nisyros, also part of the Docadanese Islands in Greece, is situated between the islands of Kos and Tilos, is comparatively smaller than Symi and has an approximate population of 1000 inhabitants. The two main villages located on Nisyros are Mandraki and Nikea; these two villages are…
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
nature of pathological gambling and the behavior associated with it. The article begins by focusing on the necessity and relevance of behavior-analytic explorations of pathological gambling, which has not, according to the report, drawn widespread research attention up to the time of writing. One might therefore surmise that the article addresses an important component of behavior studies, since it can provide not only a deeper understanding of the compulsion being discussed, but also potential solutions for those who struggle with a gambling addiction. The study might even provide some grounds for further research into other types of addiction as well as other focus points within the gambling addiction paradigm. It therefore provides rich grounds for discussion around the focus of investigation itself as well as a wider branch of potential exploration.
The literature review is not extensive, and forms part of the introduction. General sources are consulted to explain the…
Tis is not to say owever, tat all classical music is sooting and terapeutic. In fact, te majority of traditional classical music are not terapeutic because tis is not te intent of te original masters. Concertos by Beetoven, Bac and Brams for example all focus on arousing strong emotion rater tan arnessing te power of strong terapy, terefore te pysical presence and rytmic are not necessarily terapeutic. Mozart's no. 23 owever, is an ideal example of terapeutic music. Tis is because te affects of entrainment is easily observed troug studies on te affect of tis music on oters. Wile listening to te music, people say tat it "relaxed and sooted," upon monitoring wit medical equipment it is observed tat te music lowered bot teir blood pressure and eart rates. Te reason is tat Mozart's concerto affects individuals in bot a psycological and pysical sense. Wile te classical music made people…
Vanasco, Jennifer. American classical music: Exploring roots, reflections. Jan.
1998. Chicago Chronicle. 3 Feb. 2007 http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/980108/musymp.shtml .
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Community Analysis: Columbus, Ohio - Hilltop Area/Franklinton
Identification and History
The Franklinton/Hilltop area of Columbus, Ohio is located on the west side of the greater metropolitan area. Franklinton is in a river valley next to the Scioto iver and the Hilltop area is just west of that on a rise. The Hilltop area is defined as the area between I-70 on the north, the B & O. railway to the east and south, and the I-270 outerbelt to the south and west (Greater Hilltop Area Commission, 2011). Its main street is West Broadstreet, otherwise known as U.S. route 40. There are welcome signs to the area near Mound Street and Hague Avenue. Franklinton is bordered by the Scioto iver on the north and east, Hague Avenue on the east, Stimmel oad and Greenlawn Avenue on the South, and I-70 on the West. The main street in this area is also…
Bush, Bill (2011). Census shows Columbus' growth was uneven. February 11, 2011. The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved from http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2011/03/11/census-shows-columbus-growth-was-uneven.html
City-data.com (2011a). Franklinton neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Franklinton-Columbus-OH.html
City-data.com (2011b). Greater Hilltop neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Greater-Hilltop-Columbus-OH.html
City of Columbus (2003, July). The Franklinton Plan. Department of Development, Planning Division. Retrieved from http://development.columbus.gov/UploadedFiles/Development/Planning_Division/Document_Library/Plans_and_Overlays_Imported_Content/franklinton.pdf
human service professional in the helping process has many dimensions. One of the most important of these, according to Murphy and Dillon (2012) is the ethical aspect, because "ethical codes stress the primacy of the service obligation to the client, confidentiality, integrity, and follow-through." The needs of the client should be the primary concern of the human service professional, which is why years of training and practice are required before they are truly qualified and fully prepared to take on the responsibility of helping other individuals who are in crisis.
Adherence to strong ethical codes is of crucial importance in this profession. Having a clear and specific set of ethical guidelines is essential because human service professionals are human beings with their own personal values. They have sets of beliefs which may be deeply engrained, including prejudices formed from their cultural, social, and educational backgrounds. These are sometimes so deeply…
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th
Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Murphy, E., & Dillon, C. (2012). Interviewing in action in a multicultural world (4th Ed.).
Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.
Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…
Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.
Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
Children With Conduct Disorder
It has been suggested that the following three treatments are the most conducive for helping children who have behavior related problems:
This treatment is focused towards the changes that have to be made in the family system, such as improving family interaction with the child. Peer group therapy?
In this therapy we will work to develop the social and interpersonal skills of the child. Cognitive therapy?
This therapy will help the child in improving his communication skills, and problem solving skills. Along with that it provides anger management training to the child, along with impulsive control training. I would like o conduct an experimental study that will evaluate differences in each of these groups and see whether one intervention is preferable to the other.
I would randomly select children and randomly divide them amongst three groups. The children would all come from the…
Lahey, B.B., Moffitt, T.E., & Caspi, A. (2003). Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. New York: Guilford Press. Pro.ed CDS: Conduct Disorder Scale (10355)?
What statistical analysis should I use? http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/whatstat/whatstat.htm ?
Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties
When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…
Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
There is a clear divide between the real care nurses must give -- and do give, every day -- and the layperson's perceptions of nursing (Scher 2003).
Scher, Betty. (2003). Second opinion. Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing Journal.
1(1). Retrieved http://www.son.jhmi.edu/JHNmagazine/archive/spring2003/pages/second_opinion.htm
In my work as a nurse on the med/surg floor of an urban hospital, I encountered many individuals with lifestyle-related issues. Heart disease, diabetes, and strokes may present themselves as acute situations, but often the real precipitating cause is related to choices about diet and exercise the individual has made over the course of a lifetime. A recent sociological theory that can help address this issue is the concept of 'social contagion:' individuals tend to norm their health behaviors to the lifestyle choices of their friends. If their friends make good choices regarding food, exercise, and preventative care, they are likely to do so as…
Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L. & Cassie L. Cunningham, Cassie L. (2008). Geographical
clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41 (3): 209-214.
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…
1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.
2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.
3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.
4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
Cannabis contains more than one hundred and twenty distinct chemical compounds known collectively as cannabinoids. One of those canabinoids is cannabidol, commonly abbreviated and referred to as CBD. While CBD has no psychoactive properties, it may be beneficial for treating specific medical conditions including chronic pain. CBD can be used orally or topically. In its topical form, CBD is typically added to a carrier oil. Topical applications of CBD oils include the management of pain due to arthritis and inflammation. Research continues to mount suggesting the additional benefits of oral administration of CBD to treat epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and anxiety. Because CBD does not produce known side effects, euphoric or otherwise, it has also garnered attention for its relative safety especially vis-a-vis its sister compounds found in cannabis. CBD also presents tremendous opportunities for market-related growth in the budding international cannabis industry.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one…
Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada
The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in ashington State.
hat are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.
Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to…
Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.
Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.
Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
To that end, throughout the course of his life "he remained convinced that the drug had the potential to counter the psychological problems induced by 'materialism, alienation from nature through industrialisation and increasing urbanisation, lack of satisfaction in professional employment in a mechanised, lifeless working world, ennui and purposelessness in wealthy, saturated society, and lack of a religious, nurturing, and meaningful philosophical foundation of life'." (Telegraph, 1) To Hofmann's view, many of the psychological problems associated with the detachment imposed by modernity could be addressed by guided use of a substance that caused reflection, insight and self-awareness otherwise largely inaccessible.
It was through what was for Hofmann an unwanted combination of premature commercialization and the proliferation which this allowed into the underground market that would cause LSD to earn its dubious reputation and its relationship to recreational rather than psychiatric users. Accordingly, Sandoz would immediately jump on the opportunity to…
Hofmann, A. (1979). LSD-My Problem Child. MAPS.
Hofmann, A.; Wasson, R.G.; Ruck, C.A.P.; Smith, H. & Webster, P. (2008). The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secrete of the Mysteries: 30th Anniversary. North Atlantic Books.
Hofmann Foundation (HF). (1999). The Albert Hofmann Foundation. Hofmann.org.
Nosowitz, D. (2009). LSD Creator Albert Hofmann to Steve Jobs: 'How Was LSD Useful To You?" Gizmodo. Online at http://gizmodo.com/5310549/lsd-creator-albert-hofmann-to-steve-jobs-how-was-lsd-useful-to-you
The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by ethical and medical viewpoints. The use of marijuana is linked with health risks, but it is also associated with beneficial medical and therapeutic uses. Opponents of legalization also raise concerns about marijuana abuse, dependency, and its stance as a "gateway" drug which could lead a user to try "harder" drugs. Tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol give concerns for abuse, dependency, and have been linked with the use of "harder" drugs, however these substances remain legal.
A total of 14 states have allowed for the use of marijuana for medical purposes, and some studies have indicated the benefits of decriminalization of marijuana as law enforcement efforts and resources can be used for more significant crimes. There is a concern that the legalization…
Drewe, M, F Drewe, and A Riecher. "Cannabis and risk of psychosis." Swiss Medical Weekly. 134. (2004): 659-663. Print.
Grossman, M, F Chaloupka, and K. Shim. "Illegal Drug Use and Public Policy." Health Affairs. 21.2 (2002): 134-145. Print.
Joffe, A, and W. Yancy. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics. 113. (2004): e632-e638. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
Leung, Lawrence. "Cannabis and its Derivatives: Review of Medical Use." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24.4 (2011): 452-462. Print.
S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:
faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.
Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.
A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.
The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.
These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…
Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.
Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .
Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
This particular aspect is what most medical trainers miss when dealing with interns or newly appointed nurses. They found that oxygen use, if below the necessary requirement can be damaging, so can its overuse. In another study, it has been found that using oxygen below the prescribed level can instigate damage in the organs, respiratory structures and can be especially damaging for patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Danchin et al., 2009). Hence, the training and instructions that are given must follow be thorough enough to let the health caretakers realize that the monitoring is not merely a game of reading and recording, but it can have serious repercussions if handled carelessly.
Some of the common mistakes, which can be avoided through proper and accurate transference of instructions and training, occur in different medical circumstances. Sometimes nurses tend to miss the monitoring deadline. For instance, if a patient is…
.." And talking "with a walker or holding someone's hands." (Scott, 2006) the benefits to the child were not only physical but were also related to cognitive development as following the second session the child while sitting on his shower stool upon beginning to sway grabbed hold of the shower seat and informed his mother "I hold on." (Scott, 2006)
This is important because as explained by Scott (2006) during the therapy session the child is given reins to hold and while the child is not actually controlling the horse, the child believes that they are in control of the horse and the theoretical framework upon which the use of Hippotherapy as a therapeutic tool is that "making a huge magnificent animal do his bidding gives the rider a feeling of control which may be lacking in other aspects of his life." (Scott, 2006)
II. INDICATIONS & IMPLICATIONS
Gonzalez, Patricia (nd) Hippotherapy Offers Tremendous Benefits to Kids with Special Needs. American Hippotherapy Association. Online available at http://www.steppingstonestocommunication.com/docs/CPM.pdf
McGraw, Eliza (2007) More Than Just Horseplay. Washington Post, 17 July 2007. Online available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/13/AR2007071301839.html
Denton, Scott N. (2006) Special Needs, Special Horses: A Guide to the Benefits of Therapeutic Riding. University of Texas Press. in: Review of Books, Software and Multimedia. Physical Therapy Journal Vol. 86, No. 4.
Scott, Naomi (2005) Special Needs, Special Horses: A Guide to the Benefits of Therapeutic Riding. University of North Texas Press 2005.
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…
Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.
Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall
Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.
Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
Future of Marijuana in America:
Marijuana or cannabis was first identified by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE and has since been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. The introduction or arrival of medicinal cannabis in America was characterized with an amazingly colorful and checkered history. Medicinal cannabis was characterized with initial robust use in the United States, which faded after the development of aspirin and opioids. The decreased used culminated in the criminalization of cannabis in America in 1937 despite of the contradictory advice of the American Medical Association, which was submitted on record to Congress. However, the use of marijuana has emerged as a major issue in the past few decades because of the renewed interest in medicinal cannabis. Actually, several stakeholders in the health care sector including the American College of Physicians, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Institutes of Health have supported further research and…
Aggarwal et. al. (2009, June). Medicinal Use of Cannabis in the United States: Historical
Perspectives, Current Trends, and Future Directions. Journal of Opioid Management, 5(3), 153-68.
Cardinale, A. (2014, January 14). A Brief History of How Marijuana Became Illegal in the U.S.
Retrieved July 16, 2014, from http://mic.com/articles/78685/a-brief-history-of-how-marijuana-became-illegal-in-the-u-s
law was the States' Medical Marijuana Patient Protection Act. This was a part of the 113th Congress which ran from 2013 to 2014. The law itself will be analyzed. The stakeholders of the law will be looked at based on the points-of-view that they possess. The factors contributing to the creation of the law will be looked at. The types of data that the author of this report gathered to analyze the healthcare and the gaps in the data will be assessed. The cost, quality, access of healthcare on diverse populations and ethical principles will be assessed as it relates to the law. A total of four the following, those being Saint Thomas Aquinas, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, John awls, Aristotle, Thomas Buber, Lawrence Kohlberg and Viktor Frankl, will be selected and this law will be assessed from their perspectives. The analysis will end up with a personal viewpoint…
Austin, M. (2015). Marijuana and Virtue. Psychology Today. Retrieved 9 May 2015, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ethics-everyone/201304/marijuana-and-virtue
Congress. (2015). H.R.689-113th Congress (2013-2014): States' Medical Marijuana Patient Protection Act | Congress.gov | Library of Congress. Congress.gov. Retrieved 9 May 2015, from https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/689
Ferner, M. (2015). Here's How Much It Costs To Buy Weed In Colorado Now. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 May 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/02/marijuana-prices-colorado_n_4532463.html
Pop Vox. (2015). HR 689 THE STATES' MEDICAL MARIJUANA PATIENT PROTECTION ACT. Pop Vox. Retrieved 9 May 2015, from https://www.popvox.com/bills/us/113/hr689
Ritalin: The Case History of a Drug
One of the most noticeable and prevalent disorders occurring in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is commonly diagnosed when the child begins to attend school or kindergarten, and occurs in 3 to 5% of the population. A chronic condition, it normally carries over into adolescence and perhaps into maturity as well. ADHD children can be hyperactive, inattentive, distractible, aggressive and impulsive, and as a result tend to do poorly in school and present behavioral problems both in academic, social and familial settings. ADHD adolescents, in addition to the above-mentioned difficulties, may be disposed toward delinquency and involvement in car accidents and substance abuse. Co-occurring disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety and depression tend to exacerbate both the symptoms and the difficulty of treating ADHD. (Hyman, 2000)
Unfortunately there is no single diagnostic test to establish ADHD, and the etiology of…
American Chemical Society press release, March 22, 1999. "Improved Ritalin offers smaller doses and fewer side effects." [Online]. Retrieved January 11, 2003 at http://www.hypsos.ch/presse/improvedmph.htm
Attention Deficit Disorder Help Center. "Ritalin effects and ADD ADHD medicine side effects." [Online]. Retrieved January 4, 2003 at http://www.add-adhd-help-center.com/ritalin_side_effects.htm
Cantwell, D.P. "ADHD through the life span: the role of buproprion in treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59 Suppl 4: 92-4.
Colacot, T.J. "An overview on the applications of Doyle catalysts in asymmetric cyclopropanation and CH insertion reactions," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) June 2000. Vol. 112, No. 3: 197-207.
Treating Alcoholism presents therapists with multi-dimensional issues -- multicultural understanding and contextual setting of the client (profession, family, history, work conditions and exposure to extraordinary conditions, in the case of those serving in the military), dominates these settings within which psychotherapists are required to work. Lack of adequate and healthy outlet for feelings; absence of recreation, often lead to excessive, and harmful drinking. Yet, each case is an independent experience requiring the therapist to be flexible, yet focused on creating value at all times. As such, a therapist's work with each client may be termed aptly as a 'discovery'.
A psychologist deals with interpersonal exchanges using a worldview (i.e., group of attitudes) that aids in shaping their opinion of other people. Their worldview is partly governed by cultural experiences. In fact, multicultural and cross-cultural literature constantly highlight the following facts (Duncan, 2010):
1) Man is a multicultural being (Duncan, 2010);…
American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402
Ames, G., & Cunradi, C. (2012). Alcohol Use and Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Among Young Adults in the Military. NIAAA.
Duncan, B. (2010). On becoming a better therapist. American Psychological Society. American Psychological Association, 152.
Furuya, S., (2015). ASAP Triage (brief screen case note) for Confidential treatment program.
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA
A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.
It is not necessarily never appropriate to…
Breslau, N., Lucia, V., and Alvarado, G. "Intelligence and Other Predisposing Factors in Exposure to Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Follow-up Study at Age 17 Years."Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 63; (2006):1238-1245.
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
As Earleywine points out, "By 850 a.D., the Vikings had dragged the ropes with them to Iceland. In 1000, hemp ropes helped the Italian navy dominate the seas. The hemp crop was so important that British farmers were commanded to grow cannabis or pay fines. Kings ordered the American colonies to export the crop, but they used it to make rope and fabric of their own" (p. 25).
The newly founded American colonies found hemp to be an ideal source for rope and fabric as well, and Earleywine attributes it use by the emerging republic as being a fundamental factor in its ultimate success in achieving independence from Great Britain. It would also appear reasonable to suggest that these valuable aspects of hemp are not being lost on manufacturers of all types in the 21st century either. For example, Earleywine suggests that even though synthetic alternatives have been developed over…
Bock, a.W. (2000). Waiting to inhale: The politics of medical marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.
Bowles, T.P. (2004, August 22). The pleasures of flesh. The Mail on Sunday (London, England), 51.
Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Small, E. & Marcus, D. (2002. Hemp: A new crop with new uses for North America. p. 284- 326. in: J. Janick and a. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
Empathy in Nursing
three personal concerns as to how the injury will affect your life: a) I have just begun what I hoped would be the perfect career for me, nursing. I am not sure I can even finish my education now; b) if I do get through my nursing training, I have fears that my ability to serve as a nurse will be limited; and c) I am an active recreationalist and love to play volleyball and soccer, but now those activities may be out of the question. ONE: physical issues: all my life I've been in perfect health now the thought of being on crutches depresses me; will I have to take pain medication to get through the day? ONE: emotional issues: I don't want pity, but some will see my disability and may pity me; knowing I am no longer the same person I was will hinder…
Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. (2006). Establishing Therapeutic Relationships.
Retrieved February 7, 2016, from http://www.rano.ca.
Rieger, P. T. (2003). Role of the Oncology Nurse. National Institutes of Health / National
Library of Medicine / NCBI Bookshelf. Retrieved February 7, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.hih.gov.
Arrhythmias cause irregular hearts beats in ways that can be life-threatening but there are a number of different types of arrhythmias that require different interventions. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide the etiology and pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic pathways and optimal therapeutic approaches for paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and Brady arrhythmias, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these three disease states in the conclusion.
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia
Etiology & Pathogenesis. This type of arrhythmia can occur in individuals who have normal hearts as well as in people who have structurally abnormal hearts including those with congenital heart disease, especially following surgical repair of valvular or congenital heart disease (Budzikowski & ottman 2015).
Common causes of the arrhythmia, risk factors, definition of rhythm via EKG findings. Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia (PAT) is caused by irregular firing of…
Brady arrhythmias. Boston Medical Center. [cited 2016]. Available: https://www.boston cardiovascular.org/handler.cfm?event=practice, template&cpid=50108.
Budzikowski, AS, Rottman, JN. Atrial Tachycardia. Medscape: News and Perspectives. [cited 2016]. Available: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/151456-overview .
Burke, MM, Laramie, JA. Primary Care of the Older Adult: A Multidisciplinary Approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2009.
Gialama, F, Prezerakos, P. The Cost Effectiveness of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, February 2104, 12(1), 41-45.
Women in Prison
Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates
Problems in corrections:
Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system
The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…
Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.
Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,
D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.
Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
Mental Health in America
Mental health: Population-based study
Given the intractability of treating drug addiction, it is troubling that the rates of addiction of young people to illegal drugs and alcohol continues to persist. Despite a decrease in cigarette smoking, "daily marijuana use among high school seniors has increased to its highest point in 30 years" and "nearly two thirds (65%) of high school seniors and nearly one third (29%) of eighth graders have used alcohol in the past month" (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst 2011). Treatment rates are not comparable with the demonstrated need for addressing addiction in young people: "about 1.5 million teenagers meet criteria for an SUD [substance abuse dependence]. Of those adolescents, only 111,000 (7%) receive treatment for the disorder" (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst 2011). The article "Advances in adolescent substance abuse treatment" offers a summary of the major therapeutic approaches to treating adolescent addicts vs. their…
Winters, K, Botzet, A. & Fahnhorst, T. (2011). Advances in adolescent substance abuse treatment. Current Psychiatry Rep, 13(5): 416 -- 421.
Cohesive Narrative Using a Fictional or eal Character to Build Story
Nineteen-year-old obert was a perfectly 'normal' child for the majority of his life; he anticipated zoo outings with his mother and he was a part of his school's swim team. With three older siblings, obert was the youngest in the family, and was good friends with his high school classmates. He enjoyed French and art classes. He never faced any problems with alcohol or drugs; he neither drank nor smoked pot, or anything of that sort. But his girlfriend was a different case entirely. Addicted to heroin, obert's girlfriend tempted him to have a go at it; unfortunately however, obert didn't resist. She injected him with heroin in 2009. obert later began to find himself craving the drug, and before long, he became a quasi-addict as well, consuming the drug once every two weeks.
It is said that 'peer…
Adventist Healthcare. (n.d.). Partial Hospital Program. Retrieved April 24, 2015, from http://www.adventisthealthcare.com/locations/adventist-behavioral-health/services/partial-hospital-program/
Donovan, J.E. (2004). Adolescent Alcohol Initiation: A Review of Psychosocial Risk Factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(6), 529.
Louise. (n.d.). Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved April 24, 2015, from http://recovergateway.org/drug-treatment/substance-abuse-treatment/outpatient/
National Crime Prevention Centre (2009). School-based Drug Abuse Prevention: Promising and Successful Programs
The detailed account of my intuitive experiences encouraged me to learn from my experiences, and that includes mistakes as well as the positive enlightenments. In this paper I reflect upon my experiences during my career as a recreation counselor at Deveruex Foundation, which I started two years prior to completion of my degree. In addition to that, I started working at the oldest psychiatric hospital in the United States after completing my graduate degree where I was promoted several times. The know-how helped me in understanding my own intuition and how that can enhance my qualities of the intuitive information.
Firstly, when I started my career at Deveruex Foundation as a recreation counselor, I was very excited since I had the opportunity of working in a real-life practical field that was related to my degree, which was a graduate degree in Psychology. Very few students gain this chance…
Burton, N. (2012, May 17). The 7 reasons why depression is more common in women. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and- seek/201205/the-7-reasons-why-depression-is-more-common-in-women
Gupta, A. (2005). Group therapy for psychiatric disorders: An introduction. Mental Health Reviews. Retrieved from http://www.psyplexus.com/mhr/group_therapy.html
Larson, M.K., Walker, E.F., & Compton, M.T. (2010). Early signs, diagnosis and therapeutics of the prodromal phase of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10 (8), 1347-1359. DOI:10.1586/ern.10.93.
Smith, M. & Segal, J. (2016, May). Schizophrenia. Help Guide. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/schizophrenia/schizophrenia-signs-types-and - causes.htm
Medical Benefits of Psychedelics
Presently, anxiety is pharmaceutically treated with Xanax, Lorazepam, Diazepam, etc., all of which are Schedule IV drugs, and they don't seem to work as well as psilocybin. What is the U.S. government's ethical argument against using Schedule I drugs for medical purposes? Develop it in detail. Be sure to include any other references you have found in your research.
Drugs, substances, and certain chemicals used to make drugs are classified into five (5) distinct categories or schedules depending upon the drug's acceptable medical use and the drug's abuse or dependency potential; schedule I drugs are considered to have a high potential of abuse, coupled with a high rate of abuse for either physical or psychological dependence developing with their use (DEA, N.d.). The government argues that these drugs cannot be used ethically because they have little or no medical uses and the risks associated with these…
Andrews, H., & Roy, C. (1991). The Adaptive Model. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange.
DEA. (N.d.). Drug Scheduling. Retrieved from U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration: http://www.dea.gov/druginfo/ds.shtml
Morris, K. (2008). Research on psychedelics moves into the mainstream. The Lancet, 1491-1492.
Pollan, M. (2015, February 9). The Trip Treatment. Retrieved from The New Yorker: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/02/09/trip-treatment
She did not have the benefit of a bedroom door for the last two years of high school.
Without the bedroom door, the client changed her clothes in the bathroom and was often unable to sleep at night because of her father's snoring. The first time her mother confronted her for being wide awake (and reading) in her room in the middle of the night, the client admitted that her father's snoring kept her awake. A few minutes later, her father entered her room and whipped her with the belt for "being disrespectful."
After discovering that alcohol allowed her to fall asleep and sleep through the night, she began drinking vodka at bedtime, which she chose because it was odorless and easy to hide in alternative containers in her room and among the cleaning supplies in the bathroom cabinet.
The client has always recalled the details of her childhood physical…
Butler, K. (1997). The Anatomy of Resilience; the Family Therapy Networker, 21(2):22-31
DeJong, P., Miller, S. (1995). How to Interview for Clients Strengths;
Social Work, 40(6).
Goldstein, E. (1995). Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice. (2nd
It is also possibly one of the most significant motivational factors among young people. Zuckerman refer to disinhibition as follows. "These who choose to follow a conventional lifestyle might periodically escape by engaging in social drinking..." (Franken, 2001, p. 343). This is an important factor as the desire or need for disinhibition may lead to an addictive patterns of behavior, where the drugs or alcohol supply the required escape from routine and inhibitory factors.
Disinhibition is also strongly related to the conventions of society where the individual may feel hemmed in and confined by the routine and patterns of ordinary life. This can lead to addictive behavior as the use of drugs or substances are motivated by the desire to free one's self and sense of identity and fulfill experiential needs.
The central concept that links al of these motivational theories is that they all can be seen to contribute…
Ammerman, R.T., Ott, P.J., & Tarter, R.E. (Eds.). (1999). Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved December 6, 2007, from Questia database:
69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.
Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).
Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).
A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…
Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.
Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/
Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…
references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.
Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.
Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
My visit to this location was extremely educational as I had a chance to witness firsthand how mental illness can be treated in this type of environment. I spoke to many people while there, including doctors, nurses, counselors and patients. The experience was informational but I am not convinced that this place is operating at its fullest potential.
My experience sitting in on a group therapy session was very enlightening. I heard many troubled stories and immediately became grateful for my personal upbringing and development. Hearing stories of abuse and reckless behavior had a profound impact on the way I see mental illness and can now appreciate the many complexities that accompany treating these wayward youths. The lead counselor for these sessions, was a bit overwhelmed and often lost control of the session while some of the boys demonstrated rude and unstable behavior. Perhaps this is normal for this type…
Holocaust affected Israeli society and culture and how Jews memorialize/emember it today
There exists no doubt regarding the massacre of the Jews during the phase of World War II and its impact on the lives of the Jewish people and the people who were near and dear to them. A dissention is required against those who assert that the tragedy never occurred, irrespective of whether they hold an opposite perspective to the Holocaust theory or just outright vehemence against Jews. The Holocaust stands for the lowest extreme of Jewish impotence. The affected Jews of the Holocaust were distraught due to it, both by direct means and indirectly, and as a continuance their kith and kin, near and dear ones, were separated by space. The holocaust has been termed rightly as a "Tragic legacy." It has also been looked upon as an unauthentic episode.
Just due to the fact they…
Anderson, Frank. "Holocaust Atrocity and Suffering." Vol.47. Middle East Studies, Vol.30, 1991, 164-177
Ben-Amos, Avner; Bet-El; Ilana. "Holocaust Day and Memorial Day in Israeli Schools: Ceremonies, Education and History" Israel Studies, Vol. 4, 1999, 258-284
Davison, Todd. "The Holocaust experience." International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol, 24, 1994, 153-165
Najarian, James. "Experiences of Holocaust Survivors." Mid East Quarterly, Vol.56, 1993, 114-128
Bune's constuctivist theoy and the conceptual paadigms of Kolb's Expeiential Leaning theoy dawing on the associated theoies ae Kinesthetic and Embodied Leaning. As also noted in the intoductoy chapte, the guiding eseach question fo this study was, "What ae the caee paths fo teaching atists seeking to deploy into the field of community at and development?" To develop timely and infomed answes to this eseach question, this chapte povides a eview of the elevant pee-eviewed and scholaly liteatue concening these theoetical famewoks to investigate the diffeent caee paths teaching atists seek to deploy into the field of community at and development, including ceative community building and adult community centes such as woking with Alzheime's Disease and stoke victims.
Adult Leaning Theoies
Kolb's Expeiential Leaning Theoy. Thee ae a wide aay of theoetical models that can be used to identify and bette undestand teaching and leaning pefeences by educatos and students,…
references to improve coaching and athletic performance: Are your players or students kinesthetic learners? The Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(3), 30-34.
Fowler, J. (2013, March). Art rescue in a troubled world. Arts & Activities, 153(2), 36-39.
Kerka, S. (2002). Somatic/embodied learning and adult education: Trends and issues alert. ERIC
Kessler, R. (2000). The soul of education: Helping students find connection, compassion, and character at school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum