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The goals are what the client hopes will happen because of the care needed -- and the bond the specifics that need to be met in order to meet those goals (iddowson, 2010, 83).
The Transference/Countertransference Section -- ithin this section of the therapeutic relationship, transference and countertransference are phenomenons in which feelings between the client and caregiver are directed and redirected to one another. This has been part of clinical psychology since Jung, and may be both harmful or positive. ithin the caregiver model, it is usually heightened empathy for the patient, with the client, a feeling of greater emotional bonding to the caregiver than that of a professional relationship (iener, 2009).
The Real Relationship -- This is the ideal outcome, the real or personal relationship between client and caregiver. It may, of course, include deception on the part of the caregiver or therapist depending on the actuality of…
Watson, J. (1997). The Theory of Human Caring: Retrospective and Prospective. Nursring Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52.
Widdowson, M. (2010). Transactional Analysis: 100 Key Points and Techniques. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Wiener, J. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship: Tranference, Countertranference. Austin, TX: Texas a&M Univeristy.
Often the client is unable to take steps to avoid the undesirable emotional attachment. The therapist must take the initiative in maintaining proper distance and personal space. However, it is important to be aware that a positive therapeutic relationship could become too much of a good thing. When it does, a positive relationship can become toxic to the therapeutic outcome.
Comparing and Contrasting the Therapeutic elationship and Client-Therapist Attachment
The therapeutic relationship and client-therapist attachment have many common elements, but the are major differences as well. Both the therapeutic relationship and the client-therapist attachment develop from the relationship between a therapist and their client. esearch cited earlier, tells us that the development of a relationship is necessary for the success of the treatment plan. The more intimate the relationship becomes, the more likely it is to result in the type of shared secrets that result in positive therapeutic outcomes. However,…
Barrett-Lennard, G. (1962) Dimensions of therapist response as causal factors in therapeutic change. Psychological Monographs, 76 (43): 1-36.
Butler Center for Research (BCR) (2006): Therapeutic Alliance: Improving Treatment Outcome. Butler Center for Research. October 2006. Retrieved September 22, 2008 at http://www.hazelden.org/web/public/document/bcrup_1006.pdf
Cruz, M. & Pincus, a. (2002). Research on the Influence That Communication in Psychiatric Encounters Has on Treatment. Psychiatric Services. 53: 1253-1265.
DeWeert-Van, O., Dejong, C., Jorg, F. & Schrijver, G. (1999). The Helping Alliance Questionnaire: Psychometric properties in patients with substance dependence. Substance Use and misuse. 34 (11): 1549-1569.
The therapist does not attempt to change, control, or influence the client in any way (Tursi & Cochran, 2006).
A positive therapist-client relationship has been positively correlated to achievement of treatment outcomes (Cramer, 1990). A client who perceives their therapist as exhibiting unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy is more likely to regard the experience as positive and to be motivated to make change (Cramer, 1990). The fact that the therapist does not attempt to influence the client allows the client to learn to change their thought patterns and behaviors in a manner that is conducive to their needs and current situation (Tursi & Cochram, 2006). Clients are in charge of the therapeutic intervention and determine the direction that they want therapy to take. The core conditions make this possible by assisting clients in recognizing what issues they would like to focus on and making them feel comfortable enough to…
Cramer, D. (1990). Towards assessing the therapeutic value of Roger's core conditions.
Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 3(1), 57-61.
Gallagher, M.D., & Hargie, O.D. (1992). The relationship between counselor interpersonal skills and the core conditions of client-centered counseling. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 5(1), 3-17.
Tursi, MM., & Cochran, J.L. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral tasks accomplished in a person-
An Analysis of the Potential Detrimental Effects of Interference with the Therapeutic elationship
Virtually any type of treatment setting requires an effective therapeutic relationship to succeed. Therefore, this research paper will examine the potential detrimental effects on the client and the therapeutic relationship when an outside person interferes with the therapy in general, and the following two scenarios in particular: 1) the patient's family, friend, or significant other(s) do not refrain from intervening in the therapeutic relationship once it has begun; and, 2) once the patient develops an affectionate relationship with the therapist, the family member, friend, or significant other develops jealousy and attempts to destroy or undermine the therapeutic relationship. To this end, a discussion of what steps practitioners can take when these events interfere with the therapeutic relationship is followed by a summary of the research and recommendations for clinicians in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion…
Adam, E., Egeland, B., Korfmacher, J., & Ogawa, J. (1997). Adult attachment: Implications for the therapeutic process in a home visitation intervention. Personality and Social
Psychology Review, 1(1), 43.
Andolphi M., & Angelo C. (1988). Towards constructing the therapeutic system. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 14(3), 237-47.
Carroll, K.M., Connors, G.J., Dermen, K.H., Diclemente, C.C., Frone, M.R., & Kadden, R.
Issues of difference and equality can have a major impact upon a therapeutic relationship. The relationship between therapist and client should be strictly professional. It is not uncommon for clients to project certain ideas and perceptions onto the counselor. It is the counselor's role, in such cases, to shift the focus back to the client and the issues s/he needs to address. Because the job of the therapist is to help individuals, some people may feel the relationship is one between a superior and a subordinate. The counselor may have more education than the client, or in some cases less. The counselor's education was designed to provide the foundation from which therapy can be offered. This professional preparation does not make the counselor superior to clients in the absolute, but it does mean the counselor is trained to share insights and develop treatment plans. Some clients may transfer…
Flaskerud, J.H. (2007). Cultural dissonance: Therapist and client. Issues in Mental Health
Nursing 28(9), pp. 1081-1083.
Norton, C.L. (2011). Developing empathy: A case study exploring transference and countertransference with adolescent females who self-injure. Journal of Social Work
Practice 25(1), pp. 95-107.
Therapeutic Relationships in Mental Health
Journal Summary Assignment
Complete this m andatory assignment.
SAVE it as docx
it to your instructor from BLACKBOARD.
Review your journal entries with the aim of analyzing your learning.
Assess your development of therapeutic communication skills.
a) Analyze your own knowledge base: what areas are clear for you and which are fuzzy and need more work?
Type or paste your analysis below. You can add more space to each simply by continuing to type. You can remove unneeded white space by deleting it if you wish.
These areas of the knowledge base/these communication skills are clear to me: Listening skills, nonverbal messaging, empathetic understanding, understandable language, caring helper, genuineness.
I want to work more on these areas of the knowledge base or these skills:
Self-Reflection / self-analysis.
b) Determine how your understanding of the knowledge base guides your use of communication skills.
relationships among variables and setting limits or boundaries for the proposed study" (Writing the theoretical framework, 2013, BOLD Educational Software). In some instances, a theoretical framework may be derived from the existing literature in the form of a pre-existing theory such as feminism, functionalism, or conflict management. Or, in the case of a grounded theory approach, the theory may be derived after the research is conducted. In contrast, with the case of conceptual frameworks, there is no formal theory and the research is used to examine possible courses of action; to clarify observations, or to provide a prospective rather than a completely-formatted framework (Nalzaro 2012).
The qualitative research article by Clarkson (1996) entitled "Researching the 'therapeutic relationship' in psychoanalysis" offers a 'meta-analysis' of the discipline of psychology itself. Psychology is an arena which unites both theory and practice. Clarkson asks: "Why are there so many distinct and very different approaches…
Ascertaining the theoretical or conceptual frameworks of a study seems to get convoluted with semantics. Patton (2002) maintains "…reducing any complex and multifaceted disciplines to a singular burning question oversimplifies" (p. 80). If I did not know better, Ludwig Wittgenstein had his hand in defining these concepts. This discussion will attempt to make a distinction between theoretical and conceptual frameworks and ascertain which framework best fits the assigned article authored by Clarkson (1996).
Knight (2010) provides a clue when she asserts if a lot is known, there is often a theoretical base (para 1) & #8230; where little is known, it is a bit more conceptual (para 2). Creswell (2013) mentions "the philosophical assumptions are embedded within interpretive frameworks that qualitative researchers use when they conduct a study" (p. 22).
In the article under scrutiny, Clarkson (1996) states the conceptual framework is broadly drawn from the disciplines of psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, psychology and counseling (para. 11). Moreover, and emergence of a theory is discussed (para.11) and uncover "new knowledge" (para 7). Finally, from the beginning of the article it is asserted that no one theory is correct based on prima facie (para 1). Based on my understanding of
elationship Problems Support Group
Support groups are usually created to bring together individuals facing similar problems or issues such as relationship problems. The concept behind the formulation of a support group is that members can get help for their issues through talking with others in a similar situation. In this case, relationship problems support group exist so that people facing relationship issues can share their experiences and advice each other on how to handle them. Support groups help individuals deal with their problems through providing better ways of coping and making members feel less isolated as they make important connections with others in the same situation. While relationship problems support groups are not group therapy sessions, they help members to deal with relational issues through providing emotional support and shared experiences.
A support group is basically defined as a gathering of individuals who share similar interests or concerns…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Support Groups: Make Connections, Get Help. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/support-groups/art-20044655
Peretti, A.G., Martins, P.P.S. & Guanaes-Lorenzi, C. (2013). The Management of Social Problems Talk in a Support Group. Psicologia & Sociedade, 25. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-71822013000500012
"Relationship Support Group."(n.d.). Divorce Dialogue. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.divorcedialogue.com/relationship-support-group-home.php
Sroufe et al. (2000). 5 Relationships, Development, and Psychopathology. In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed). Arnold J. Sameroff, Michael Lewis, and Suzanne M. Miller (Eds). Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/sroufe_rel_pathology.pdf
Counselor as a Therapeutic Person:
As an intimate form of learning, counseling profession requires the practitioner to shed off stereotyped roles and be real in the therapeutic relationship. This is largely because the therapeutic relationship is the platform with which the client experiences growth. In cases where counselors hide behind the safety of the professional role, the clients tend to hide themselves from the counselor. On the other hand, sterile counseling is likely to occur in situations where these practitioners simply become technical experts who leave their reactions, self, and values out of their work. Consequently, there is need for counselors to be real people in the relationship through personal qualities and characteristics that are important in mobilizing change in the client or other individual.
Becoming a Therapist:
The effectiveness of the counseling relationship is dependent on the ability of counselors to become therapists in the process. Through being therapists,…
"Chapter 2 -- The Counselor: Person and Professional." (n.d.). People Server at UNCW.
Retrieved from University of North Carolina Wilmington website: http://people.uncw.edu/myersjg/451/Counseling.pdf
Corey, G. (2010, March 21). Keynote Address for the American Counseling Association
Pittsburg Conference. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from http://www.counseling.org/handouts/2010/Keynote-Speaker-Gerald-Corey.pdf
The relationship between a service provider and their client is particularly sensitive because the circumstances that bring the two individuals into contact are usually necessitated by a state of mental unrest in the client. Accordingly, the issue of whether or not to engage in a dual relationship (when the doctor has a relationship with their patient distinct from the clinical context) with the client must be treated in a very sensitive manner; the therapist has a responsibility to not only operate in their own best interest but also that of the patient they are hired to assist. This paper examines the relationship between a therapist and an unhappily married Latin American female client, determining whether or not the therapist should advocate divorce and pursue a romantic relationship with his client. Although the therapist has decided that they will pursue the relationship and advocate divorce, this is not recommended.…
Dewane, C.J. (2010). Respecting boundaries -- the don'ts of dual relationships. Social Work Today, 10, 1, 18.
Freud, S., & Kreug, S. (2002a). Beyond the code of ethics, part II: Dual relationships revisited. Families in Society, 83(5), 483-492.
One of the most important ethical standards for psychologists (as well as others in similar therapeutic relationships) is the avoidance of dual relationships. Put simply, a dual relationship is one in which the psychologist has any other relationship with a client. In the scenario that we are presented with, the nature of the potential dual relationship is fairly straightforward. The psychologist and the student have an established relationship with each other with clearly defined roles as student and instructor. Because this is an established, ongoing relationship, it would not be ethical for the psychologist to engage in a therapeutic relationship with the student.
If we consider the possible future direction of such a hypothetical relationship, we can see why it would be so problematic. For example, if the psychologist began to see the student as a client and the student/client then did not pay for a session, this…
Meyer, J. (n.d.). Fresh legal perspectives: Psychologists in dual relationships. http://www.apa.org/divisions/div12/legalper.pdf .
" (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
According to Giovachinni research into the psychodynamics of individuals in their experience of current adjustments and symptom formation is "much more interesting and fulfilling than monitoring surface behavior. processes are innately fascinating and their study creates dimensions and viewpoints that expand our appreciation of the versatility of the psyche as our in-depth understanding is increased, in itself, an aesthetic experience." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2) Unconscious motivation is the "essence of the intrapsychic focus..." which serves to transform patients into "interesting human beings rather than the passive recipients of pharmacological ministrations. How the treatment procedures fits into the therapeutic relationship is taken into account, enabling patients to pursue autonomy and mastery of their emotions." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
The work of Halil entitled: "Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situation and Dispositional Coping" (2004) states that coping is defined "as a constantly changing cognitive and…
Intrapsychic (2008) Definition - Biology Online available at http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Intrapsychic
Intrapsychic (2008) Definition - the Free Library. Online available at http://www.thefreedictionary.com/intrapsychic
Giovachinni, Peter L. (1996) Intrapsychic Focus Can Have Lasting Benefits for Patients. 1996, December 1, Psychiatric Times, Vol. 13, No. 12. Online available at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/display/article/10168/49006?pageNumber=2
Halil, EKSI (2004) Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situational and Dispositional Coping. 2004 Egitim Danishmanligi ve Arastirmalari Iletisim Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Sti. (EDAM)
Ensuring proper professional behavior
The nurse-client relationship is novel. No formula exists for judging the crossing of boundaries as good / bad, in the absence of considering the features of therapeutic relationship for every scenario. The suitable behavior must be measured with respect to professional's intent, respecting confidentiality, patient-client advocacy and corroborating the CAN Code of Ethics for egistered Nurses (Corey anad Callanan, 2007).
Violations of professional boundary
The crossings of boundaries are deemed as insignificant, but with the increase in frequency of such incidents of professional boundary violations, it could be serious. The nurse works on the patient-nurse relationship and fulfils the therapeutic needs of a patient and neglects his own. The professional boundary violation is not acceptable as it can spark other occurrences. The professional boundaries occur when conflict arises between client's needs and professional's needs. ationalization can be used to justify this behavior. The violation of…
Bond T, 1997, 'Standards and Ethics for Counselling in Action', pgs Sage Publications Ltd., London
Brammer LM & MacDonald G, 2003, 'The Helping Relationship, Process and Skills', pgs Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, United States of America
Corey G & MS & Callanan P, 2007, 'Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions', pgs Thomson Brookes/Cole, a part of The Thomson Corporation, United States of America
Egan G, 2007,'The Skilled Helper', pgs * Thomson Brookes/Cole, a part of The Thomson Corporation, United States of America
Empathy is increasingly viewed as more that an essential aspect of effective person-centered counseling. It is arguably the key humanizing aspect of the effective type of relationship through which a true and honest exchange of understanding can take place to facilitate healing or psychological improvement (Hakansson, 2003).
Carl ogers, one of the recognized founders of this conceptualization, attached an increasing significance to this reality as he reconsidered the issue of the role of empathy over the course of his professional life. Initially, in his earlier writings (1959), he focused on the "state" of meaning wherein a therapist could "perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy" as if he or she were in alignment with what it was that the client experienced. Not losing this "as if" condition would allow the therapist to stay honest and genuine while still being objective and nonjudgmental about the conditions…
Counseling Psychology Model (2009). Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity. The Counseling Psychologist. Vol. 37. No. 5. DOI: 10.1177/0011000009331930.
Hakansson, J. (2003). Exploring the phenomenon of empathy. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Stockholm. Viewable at http://www.emotionalcompetency.com/papers/empathydissertation.pdf .
Mulhouser, G. (2011). An introduction to person-centered counseling. Counseling Resources. Viewable at http://counsellingresource.com/lib/therapy/types/person-centred/ .
Patterson, C.H. (1985). Empathic understanding. The Therapeutic Relationship. Viewable at http://www.sageofasheville.com/pub_downloads/EMPATHIC_UNDERSTANDING.pdf .
As per Dr. Sacks, Alzheimer patients take advantage from listening to the familiar music. The music entails them memory stimulus, restoring the accessibility to personal history. It is said to have motivated the powers of speech and the thought process. However, his entire emotional as well as intellectual configuration, his life history, his identity, is greatly influenced by the music. The study of psycho-neuroimmunology narrates the influence of neuropeptides on human emotions. The beta-endorphins appear to be released and the body is permitted to perform its own healing work on physiological level, while the person is in a relaxed condition. The music therapy attempts to bring such state which is revealed to be 'audio analgesisa'. (Music Heals: Music for Healing and Transition)
5. What facilities practice this form of therapy and where and is it becoming more and more popular?
The Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center in Los Angeles was regarded to…
Alzheimer's and Other Dementias: Understanding the Differences. Retrieved at http://www.helpguide.org/elder/alzheimers_dementias_types.htm . Accessed 6 June, 2006
Forgeron, Nicole. The Impact of Music Therapy on Alzheimer's Disease Patients. March, 1999. Retrieved at http://faculty.uccb.ns.ca/gcarre/courses/health/music.htm. Accessed 6 June, 2006
Gerosa, Cristina. M; Bonanomi, Claudio. Observation of the Alzheimer Patient and Music
Therapy. Retrieved from www.musictherapyworld.de/modules/mmmagazine/issues/20020801160643/20020801170306/Bonamifinal.htm. Accessed 6 June, 2006
relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients
The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on oger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)
Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy…
Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet; Trautmann, Rebecca. (1999) "Beyond Empathy - A Therapy of Contact-In Relationship" Brunner/Mazel. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/book-empathy.html Accessed on May 12, 2005
Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet. (1998) "Integrative Psychotherapy in Action" Gestalt Journal Press. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/book-integrative.html Accessed on May 12, 2005
Erskine, Richard G. "Introjection, Psychic Presence and Parent Ego States: Considerations for Psychotherapy" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/article-introjection.html Accessed on May 12, 2005
Erskine, Richard G; Trautmann, Rebecca. "Resolving Intra-psychic Conflict: Psychotherapy of Parent Ego States" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/article-resolving.html
Physically, massage or TT eases muscle tension and improves circulation. In turn, it improves digestion and breathing, enhances mental clarity, and encourages better sleep. TT is particularly useful to terminally ill patients in reducing or mitigating pain to the extent of making prescription painkillers unnecessary. Emotionally, TT or massage is a gentle and compassionate experience for the dying. It reduces the sense of isolation by providing him or her with physical connectedness. It can also re-establish dwindling or lost self-esteem and self-acceptance on account of disease. As a result, it contributes to increased quality of life and a much-needed release of emotions. Medicare as yet does not cover massage therapy for hospice settings but an increasing number of group have been lobbying for its inclusion.
Useful Alternatives to Pain and Discomfort Management
These alternatives have shown to be effective in easing spiritual, emotional and psychological pain that contribute to the…
Aghabati, N et al. (2010). The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and fatigue of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Evidence-based Complementary Alternative
Medicine: PubMed. Retrieved on June 16, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887328
Catlin, A. (2009). Hospice massage: easing the pain of a life-limiting illness (Part 1).
vol 9 # 3, Massage Today: MPA Media Publications. Retrieved on June 19, 2011
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…
Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/
Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.
Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Australia: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Lock, A., & Strong, T. (2012). Discursive perspectives in therapeutic practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, G.W., Steinmetz, S.K., & Sussman, M.B. (2009). Handbook of marriage and the family. New York: Plenum Press.
Petridis, N., Pichorides, S.K., & Varopoulos, N. (2010). Harmonic analysis, Iraklion 1978: Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Crete. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
This was a clear gap in the research that was examined. The proposed research study will attempt to fill this gap by examining the importance of the adult child and parent relationship and its affect on the physical body.
A number of different study methods were found amongst the studies in the literature review. Many of the studies that examined the use of psychotherapy with the treatment of a condition used a comparative study method. Clinical trials used a comparative study method in most cases. However, studies that were found to be theoretical in nature tended to use either a qualitative interview method or quantitative study methods.
No single method of study was found to be more prevalent in the group studied during the literature review. The method selected was highly dependant on the subject matter and the research question being asked in the study. no single method…
Baranek, G. (2002). Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 32 (5): 397-422).
Birditt, K., Miller, L., Fingerman, K., and Lefkowitz, E. (2009). Tensions in the parent and adult child relationship: Links to solidarity and ambivalence. Psychol Aging. 24(2):287-95.
Burkhardt a, Rudorf S, Brand C, Rockstroh B, Studer K, Lettke F, & Luscher K. (2007). When
nursing client relationships and how the study is a valid research for practitioners. It has 26 sources in Harvard Style.
esearch titles must be limited to fifteen words. In this case the author has exceeded the limitation by one count which is negligible. The importance of relevance of the title to the body of the research is that it must collaborate with the core study area. In the first line the author has already specified the relationship of the nurse-client at the beginning and categorizes it as a "partnership" whereas the title of the study must not reveal the results or even the anticipated results.
Authors and Abstracts
The authors T. Hostick and F. McClelland both the authors indicate in their abstract that the article aim in establishing nursing behavior when they are engaged in a nurse-client relationship. The abstract though is limited in expressing the content of the study…
Hostick, T. & McClelland, F. 2002, Partnership: a co-operative inquiry between Community Mental Health Nurses and their clients. 2. The nurse-client relationship. Journal of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing 9, 111-117.
Beyea, S.C. 1997, Research utilization begins with learning to read research reports, Research Corner, AORN, February. Accessed on 29-9-2003 at http://www.aorn.org/journal/research/rc297.htm
Author not available, 2003, Reading Nursing Research to Critique a Study and to Summarize Findings for Use in Practice, Available at http://classes.kumc.edu/son/NURS460smith/460critiquingreseach.html
Forchuk, C. 1989, Establishing a Nurse-Client Relationship. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing vol.27,no.2. Available at http://willmar.ridgewater.mnscu.edu/library/338271.htm
Although the Affordable Health Care Act represents a step in the right direction towards encouraging all Americans to avail themselves of medical services, the bill fails to address the root causes of problems in the system. The American health care system is flawed because it is a for-profit model that places profits far ahead of patients. When profits come ahead of patients, the result is an inability to fulfill the ethical duties of being a health care worker. A progressive transformation of the American health care system would systematically undo the nefarious link between corporate interests and the interests of health care.
The relationship between doctors and drug companies has been well established and well documented. Major news media resources like The Atlantic, as well as professional peer-reviewed journals like the New England Journal of Medicine cover stories addressing the potential ethical conundrums inherent in a cozy connection…
Campbell, E.G. (2007). Doctors and drug companies -- Scrutinizing influential relationships. New England Journal of Medicine 2007;357: 1796-1797.
Carollo, K. (2010). Pay dirt: hundreds of doctors earned big money from drug companies. ABC News. 25 October, 2010. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Wellness/drug-companies-payments-doctors-revealed-database/story?id=11929217
"Let the Sunshine In," (2013). The Economist. Mar 2, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.economist.com/news/business/21572784-new-efforts-reveal-ties-between-doctors-and-drug-firms-let-sunshine
Moynihan, R. (2003). Who pays for the pizza? BMJ 2003; 326:1189.
Marketing in the biotechnology industry is critically important. The basic path to market involves receiving regulatory approval for products. From there, marketing is conducted to physicians directly, necessitating a relatively large sales force. The presence of competing treatments necessitates significant investment marketing, compounded by the impact of the need to recoup the sunk costs associated with product development. In addition, marketing in the biotechnology industry is strictly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA exerts tight control over marketing -- a firm is only allowed to promote products for approved uses. Off-label marketing -- defined as marketing a product for uses not approved by the FDA -- is prohibited and firms found guilty can be subject to significant fines.
An example, of the strong regulatory influence on marketing can be found in the approval that United received in July for Tyvaso. The product, already delayed multiple…
MSN Moneycentral: UTHR. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/companyreport?Symbol=U.S.%3aUTHR
2008 United Therapeutics Annual Report (includes Form 10-K).
United Therapeutics website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://www.unither.com/
Press Release: United Therapeutics. (2009). FDA approves Tyvaso (treprostinil) inhalation solution for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://ir.unither.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=400062
Teenage Girls Involved in Abusive Dating elationships
Aggression in teenage dating leading to physical, emotional and psychological damage is a social problem not only because of its effects on the teenagers but also because of its prevalence.
Howard and Qi Wang (2003) report figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showing that overall the prevalence of non-sexual courtship violence ranges from 9% to 65%, depending on the definitions and research methods used. Howard and Qi Wang's study reported "almost one in ten of the 9th- through 12th-grade females who participated in the 1999 Youth isk Behavior Survey reported being a victim of physical dating violence (i.e., had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose) within the past year." Further studies and figures report that about one in five of adolescent girls has experienced dating violence. Some of the physically abusive behaviors perpetrated in dating include being scratched,…
Bush, Vanessa. (2002). A thin line between love and hate: dating violence strikes one in every five teenage girls. Essence November 2002. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1264/7_33/96384286/print.jhtml.
Gillies-Bradley & Wagner Tammy L. (2003). When love hurts. Briarpatch, 32(2), 18-19.
Howard, Donna E. & Qi Wang, Min. (2003). Risk profiles of adolescent girls who were victims of dating violence. Adolescence Spring 2003. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/149_38/103381757/print.jhtml.
James, William H., West, Carolyn, Deters, Karla Ezrre, Amigo, Eduardo. (2000). Youth dating violence. Adolescence Fall 2000. Retrieved November 7th, 2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/139_35/68535843/print.jhtml
An E (emergency room) job is both prestigious and requires hard work; it affords individuals a chance to save fellow human beings' lives and build a fruitful career. Of all nursing jobs, the most challenging and interesting is, perhaps, a job as an E nurse. In the fast-paced E environment, nurses need to know how patients belonging to different age groups, right from just-born babies to aged individuals, are to be assessed and treated. Time management skills are an important requirement for emergency room personnel. E staff -- whether nurses or physicians -- must be genuine, confident, and experienced professionals. A job at pharmaceutical firms guarantees a healthcare worker a promising career and grants him/her indispensable experience. There are some doctors who join these companies for practicing medicine and caring for staff safety and health. These physicians receive training in public health, rehabilitative medicine or occupational safety and…
Euro Med Info. (n.d.). Interdisciplinary collaboration, patient education. Retrieved from Euro Med Info: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/interdisciplinary-collaboration-patient-education.html/#wrap
Gardner, D. B. (2005). Ten Lessons in Collaboration. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 10(1).
Leggat, S. G. (2007). Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies. BMC Health Serv Res, 7(17).
Norman, G. V. (2008, April 11). Interdisciplinary Team Issues. Retrieved from University of Washington: https://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/team.html
The results show that even though in the short-term, successive stress level decreased for both the control party as well as the actual test group, overall in the long-term, the test group showed significant long-term solvency. In general the research shows that nursing intervention does have an impact on parenting stress and thus gives light into a method to solve the problem of chronic parenting stress from infantile colic. The actual impact on nursing practice however may be very minor, this is because treatment as outlined by this study would be extremely hard to impose in a non-controlled environment. Not only would the personal costs to the parents be significant, but also actual assistance and training of nurses to apply these theories would be hard to implement. In general this study is important because it will be the first in a series of examinations on how nursing practice can shed…
women come out of an abusive relationship, the negative psychological traumas they feel continue. This study makes a comparison between forgiveness therapy (FT) and alternative therapy (AT)-assertiveness, anger validation and interpersonal skill building for women who have been abused emotionally and had been separated permanently from their romantic partner or spouse for up to two years or more. A total of 20 women in Midwest city who were abused psychologically made up the participants. Psychological abuse from one's spouse characterizes a very agonizing infidelity, which often leads to very serious depressing psychological results for the partner who has been abused. There are reports of both standard deviations and mean scores for every measure at pretest, posttest, as well as follow-up for everyone in the forgiveness therapy group and both pretest and posttest for everyone in the alternative therapy group. This represents the first research for the demonstration of the efficacy…
Reed, G.L., & Engright, R.D. (2006). The effect of forgiveness therapy on depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress for women after spousal emotional abuse. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 74(5), 920.
Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Perspectives on the Person Conflicting, Co-Existing or Complementary
Psychoanalytic And Humanistic Perspectives On A Person
Humanistic and psychoanalytic perspectives have played an active role in influencing how we think of ourselves for a long time. Both humanistic and psychoanalytic psychology are perspectives that are conflicting, commentary and co-existing. According to scholars, the psychoanalytic perspective and revolves around an outsider's viewpoint and an insider's viewpoint of a psychoanalyst. Conversely, the humanistic standpoint privileges the insider viewpoint making an individual believe his or her own accounts to be unproblematic. This report endeavors to explain about the extent at which humanistic and psychoanalytic perspectives on an individual co-exist, complement, or conflict.
Extent at which they are conflicting
Both the humanistic and psychoanalytic psychology tend to have different models of what an individual entails. Both psychologies have different stands on fixity and the possibility of change. They also tend to produce…
Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)
Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.
Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…
Pavlov, Ivan. (2003) Lectures and translations. http://www.ivanpavlov.com last modified: April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.ivanpavlov.com/
Ross, Kelly R. (2002) Karl Jung. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.friesian.com/jung.htm
Thorton, Steven P. (2001) "Sigmund Freud." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/freud.htm#Backdropto his Thought
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Healing Touch Annotated Bib
Bardia, A., et.al. (2006). Efficacy of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies in elieving Cancer Pain: A Systematic eview. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (34): 457-64.
Anecdotal evidence abounds regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies when dealing with issues of pain. One of the clear issues is that there is a lack of rigorous and well-developed scholarly literature on the subject. In this study, 18 trials were reviewed totaling 1,499 patients. Seven trials reported significant benefits using CAM, seven reported intermediate or short-term benefits, and four studies reported no benefits. The researchers conclude that there are a number of variables and a number of types of CAM, all which require more methodologically sound studies in order to determine actual efficacy of individual interventions.
Jones, T., Glover, L. (2012). Exploring the Psychological Processes Underlying Touch:
Lessons From the Alexander Technique. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. EPub:…
Bardia, A., et.al. (2006). Efficacy of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies in Relieving Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (34): 457-64.
Jones, T., Glover, L. (2012). Exploring the Psychological Processes Underlying Touch:
Lessons From the Alexander Technique. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. EPub: doi 10.1002/cpp.1824.
Kelly, A., et.al. (2004). Therapeutic Touch, Quiet Time, and Dialogue: Perceptions of Women With Breast Cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 31 (3): 625-31.
Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory
Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.
The nature of people
People are diverse, not…
Beck, J., & Tompkins, M. (2007). Cognitive therapy. In Handbook of Homework Assignments in Psychotherapy. (pp. 51-63). New York: Springer Science.
Brown, J. (1999). Bowen family systems therapy and practice: Illustration and critique. A.N.J.Z. Family Therapy, 20(2), 94-103.
Lay, K.R., & King, L.J. (2007) Counseling strategies. In Drug Courts: A New Approach to Treatment and Rehabilitation. (pp. 166-182). New York: Springer Science.
Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65(2), 98-109.
(Walsh & Meyersohn, 2001, p. 188)
Therapeutic interventions, as has been mentioned are frequently multifaceted. Nursing interventions can be associated with the disease treatment or can be in support of other diseases the individual has that need treatment, i.e. when and individual is hospitalized for illness or injury the diagnosis and therapeutic evidence of PS is absolutely essential to support and understand as incompliance can be global and "new" therapeutic relationships can be met with extreme distrust. Education is essential as PS patients still have some (greater or lesser) cognitive impairment and may not give appropriate clues as to how well he or she understands or intends to comply with treatment interventions. Nurses in a psych or medical setting must be careful how they word everything and how they educate patents about their treatment. Expected outcomes are dependant on severity but many people with PS can and do…
Bond, G.R., & Meyer, P.S. (1999). The Role of Medications in the Employment of People with Schizophrenia. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 65(4), 9.
Higgins, P.B. (1995). Clozapine and the Treatment of Schizophrenia. Health and Social Work, 20(2), 124.
Hilsenroth, M.J., Fowler, J.C., & Padawer, J.R. (1998). The Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI): an Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 70(3), 514-534.
Mayo Clinic "Paranoid Schizophrenia Definition" http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/paranoid-schizophrenia/DS00862
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bohme, C. (2000). The Wages of Seeking Help: Sexual Exploitation by Pofessionals. Westpot, CT: Paege Publishes. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27277229 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94803861
Baaten, E.B., & Handelsman, M.M. (1997). Client Pefeences fo Infomed Consent Infomation. Ethics & Behavio, 7(4), 311-328. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94803861 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547
Holmes, C.A. (1998). Thee Is No Such Thing as a Theapist: An Intoduction to the Theapeutic Pocess. London: Kanac Books. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078
Redleaf, a., & Baid, S.A. (1998). Behind Closed Doos: Gende, Sexuality, and Touch in the Docto/Patient Relationship. Westpot, CT: Aubun House. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
Thon, B.E., Rubin, N.J., Holdeby, a.J., & Shealy, R.C. (1996). Client -- Theapist Intimacy: Responses of Psychotheapy Clients to a Consume-Oiented Bochue. Ethics & Behavio, 6(1), 17-28. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
references for Informed Consent Information. Ethics & Behavior, 7(4), 311-328. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94803861 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547
Holmes, C.A. (1998). There Is No Such Thing as a Therapist: An Introduction to the Therapeutic Process. London: Karnac Books. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078
Redleaf, a., & Baird, S.A. (1998). Behind Closed Doors: Gender, Sexuality, and Touch in the Doctor/Patient Relationship. Westport, CT: Auburn House. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
Thorn, B.E., Rubin, N.J., Holderby, a.J., & Shealy, R.C. (1996). Client -- Therapist Intimacy: Responses of Psychotherapy Clients to a Consumer-Oriented Brochure. Ethics & Behavior, 6(1), 17-28. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…
Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.
Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
" This type of skill or behavior is also closely linked to self-disclosure, genuineness and immediacy.
Central to this skill is the ability to communicate one's thoughts and feelings in a way that is respectful of the other person's feelings and does not denigrate or overtly criticize them in any way.
While there are many skills that can be interpreted as confrontational, it is also possible to present both verbal and non-verbal types of behavior that are confrontational but in a way that promotes and conveys sincere and genuine feelings of interest and openness in the therapeutic relationship. In the use of language this means to convey to the other individual that the apparent attitude of confrontation is really an effort to sincerely and genuinely help and assist. The key words here are assertive, calm and concerned.
One uses language in a way that is serious and calm but also…
ut if they can manage to terminate the temporary relationship, they will become more emotionally balanced and mature persons (Young).
Why Choose the Peplau Model
oth its interpersonal theory and nursing process have a concrete sequence of use and focus on the therapeutic relationship (Current Nursing, 2012). oth utilize appropriate problem-solving techniques, which aim in common at filling the client's needs. oth use observation and communication as well as recording as basic tools, which are already used in nursing care. The four phases inter-relate and inter-weave the varying components of each phase. The Theory or model is applicable to endeavors, which follow the concepts of client, health, environment and nursing. It proceeds in a logical and systematic manner in viewing and processing nursing situations. Its generalizability rests in its simplicity in the logical progression of the partnership. It has produced testable hypotheses. It can be used in psychiatric patients. It…
Current Nursing (2012). Theory of interpersonal relation. Current: Current Nursing.
Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory.html
Landry, a, (2009). Hildegard Peplau: interpersonal relations theorist. Suite 101:
Suite 101.net. Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.alicelandry.suite101.com/hildegard-peplau
I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).
In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Requirements for licensure for psychologists under the American Psychologist Association (APA) set certain educational and ethical standards that govern the profession. Now clinical psychology is, much like medicine and law, a discipline accorded respect in society, and an individual who seeks counseling can feel confident being open and trusting of a licensed therapist. A therapist cannot claim to be a professionally licensed therapist under the law, unless he or she possesses specific qualifications. Licensing is vital to maintaining trust in the profession, as ethical questions grow more contentious regarding psychotherapy, such as the question therapists that do research funded by drug companies on psychoactive drugs, or who testify to the competency of a defendant or witness to stand trial or make decisions about his or her health. Licensing and standardization of qualifications increases confidence that the individual is giving acceptable advice based in evidence and professional ethics.
Certain aspects of…
Competency. (2009). Ascension Health. Retrieved March 2, 2009 at http://www.ascensionhealth.org/ethics/public/issues/competency.asp
Lloyd, Raymond. (2009). A Guide to Psychology and its Practice.
Retrieved March 2, 2009 at www.GuideToPsychology.com
Rosenfeld, Barry. (2002). The psychology of competence and informed consent: Understanding decision-making with regard to clinical research. Fordham Urban Law Journal. 30.
Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology
All psychologists are required to follow the ethical guidelines found in the 2002 Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), commonly known as the Ethics Code. Other important ethical guidelines are found in the 2007 Competing Development Achievement Levels (DALs) of the National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP) and the Assessment of Competing Benchmarks Work Group of the APA. These ethics codes cover compliance, privacy and confidentiality, assessment, therapy, research and publications, and there are also special guidelines for dealing with children, minorities, culturally diverse populations, forensic psychology and gay and lesbian clients. Both the Ethics Code and state laws require psychologists to maintain the confidentiality of clients and their records, apart from legal requirements to report verified or suspected child abuse or clients who are a danger to others. Psychologists can only provide…
Arnaut, G.L.Y. And D.A. Hill (2010), "Ethical and Legal Issues," in J.C. Thomas and M. Hersen (eds). Handbook of Clinical Psychology Competencies. Springer, pp. 73-94.
Corey, G. et al. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning.
Wulach, James S. And David L. Shapiro (2005), "Ethical and Legal Considerations in Child Custody Evaluations," in Gunsberg and Hymowitz (Eds.), A Handbook of Divorce and Custody Forensic Development and Clinical Perspectives. New Jersey: The Analytic Press pp. 45-56.
Procedures. All patients, regardless of whether they were participating in the study or not, received treatment as usual (TAU) for the first six months of the study. Measurement for this initial six-month period followed this sequence: A standard suite of measurements was administered at session one, session 6 and session 12; OS and SS assessments occurred at every treatment session for identified patients (IP) only. During this initial six-month period, counselors only received training in the use of the OS and SS as instruments to be added to the standard suite of outcome measures.
In the second six-month period, training in the client-directed outcome-informed approach to therapy was provided to all the counselors. The training components included the following: (1) 16 hours of formal introduction to theory of change according to the Duncan and Miller framework; (2) in-depth training on the use of OS and SS for obtaining client feedback…
Ardelt, M. And Eccles, J.S. (2001, November). Effects of mothers' parental efficacy beliefs and promotive parenting strategies on inner-city youth. Journal of Family Issues, 22(8), 944-972.
Boeree, C.G. (2006) Carl Rogers: 1902-1987. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
Brann, P., Coleman, G., & Luk, E. (2001). Routine outcome in a child and adolescent mental health service: an evaluation of HoNOSCA. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 370-376.
Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
MacPherson, Thorpe, and Thomas (2006) reported an interesting qualitative study on the use of acupuncture in the treatment of low back pain. They report the results of a qualitative study nested within a large quantitative study (there were actually tow qualitative studies performed but the current study only addresses one of them). The quantitative study design was one of a large randomized controlled trial that compared acupuncture against typical general practitioner care. The study was carried out York between the years 1999 and 2003. The acupuncture treatment for the study was founded on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using six acupuncturists who all had a minimum of three years of post-qualification clinical experience. The acupuncturists were encouraged by the researchers to provide their typical treatment so that the study would evaluate the effect of routine care for lower back pain, each acupuncturist making meticulous notes of the aspects…
Campbell, A. (2006). Point specificity of acupuncture in the light of recent myofascial pain.
Acupuncture Medicine, 24(3), 118-122.
MacPherson, H., Thorpe, L., & Thomas, K. (2006). Beyond needling therapeutic processes in acupuncture care: A qualitative study nested within a low-back pain trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12, 873-880.
The Margarita Case Study: An Application of Adlerian Theory and Therapeutic Techniques
Margarita is a twenty-six-year-old Puerto ican woman who has lived in the United States since she was a teenager and is married to a thirty-six-year-old African-American male. The couple has two children, a three-year-old boy and a one-year-old girl, and Margarita has also recently been accepted into law school following earning her MBA. Both members of the couple hold prominent positions in their community. ecently, Margarita has been prone to bouts of depression and fits of inexplicable rage against her husband, including one incident in which she threatened her husband with a knife. No actual violence has occurred, according to Margarita, and she herself cannot explain why she has these outbursts against her husband -- she only knows that she feels a sense of relief after they occur.
The relationship between Margarita and her husband is…
Adler Graduate School. (2011). The theory and application of Adlerian psychology. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.alfredadler.edu/overview/adlerian.htm
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Eischens, A. (1998). The dilemma of the only child. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/eischens2.html
Hazan, Y. (2001). About the psychotherapy of Adler. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.centroadleriano.org/publicaciones/ABOUT%20THE%20PSYCHOTHERAPY%20OF%20ADLER.pdf
Defense mechanisms, the unconscious, coping mechanisms, self-actualization and archetypes are other examples. The ultimate and most useless example is the "little person," that resides in everyone and explains his behavior. These include ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self and personality. Skinner, instead, suggests that psychologists should put their energies on what is observable, such as the environment and human behavior occurring in the environment (oeree).
This therapy states three core conditions under which growth may occur (Mulhauser,
2011). These core conditions proceed from the assumption that a person naturally possesses the inner resources for growth. He is the best authority on his own experience. He also believes in his capability to realize his own potential for growth. The therapy, however, recognizes that the realization depends on favorable conditions. Under adverse conditions, a person is often denied unconditional acceptance and positive regard. He then fails to apprehend the…
Boeree, C.G. (2006). BF Skinner. Personality Theories C.G. Boeree. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Dodd, G. (2011). Counseling techniques and skills -- an introduction. Ezine Articles:
EzineArticles.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Conseling-Techniqes-and-Skills -- an-Introduction&id-2748802
Grant, S. (2011). Person-centered therapy. California State University Northridge.
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
Linguistic analyses of conversational patterns indicate that most pauses can be predicted by linguistic structures, such as clause or sentence breaks" (Levitt, 334) by eliminating some of the non-verbal factors that may tend to undermine these silences, I would find that the interviewee was far more comfortable with the nature of the interview and its opportunity for a free and informal discussion relating to treatment experience, personal history and current disposition.
The helping model, according the research which was conducted in preparation for and in light of Mr. Smith's situation, would be further illuminated by the interview. Here, firsthand interaction illustrated that individuals who have undergone such institutional experiences are sometimes eager to share details and feelings directly related thereto. The way that Mr. Smith opted to open up would be especially revealing in verifying the value of allowing one's self to fully accept and understanding the nature…
Levitt, H.M. (2002). The Unsaid in the Psychotherapy Narrative: Voicing the Unvoiced. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 15(4): 333-350.
Myers, S. (2003). Relational healing: To be understood and to understand. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 43(1): 86-104.
Myers, S. (2000). Empathetic listening: Reports on the experience of being heard. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 40(2): 148-173.
Rogers, C.R. (1995). What understanding and acceptance mean to me. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 35(4): 7-22.
The Rogerian Model
This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).
This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…
Bozarth, G.O. 2011, 'How to use person-centered therapy for mental health,' eHow:
[Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_2092776_use-person-centred-therapy-mental.html
Lee, L.W. 2011, 'What is the Rogerian model?, ' eHow [Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/facts_7264316_rogerian-model.html
Lussier, Marie Therese 2007, 'The motivational interview in practice,' 53 (12) Canadian
Complexities and Potential in Cross-Cultural Counseling
In 1897 the French sociologist Emile Durkheim wrote about the influence of culture on suicide rates among different groups. He found that while suicide seems to be the most private and most individualistic choice that a person can make (what could be more private than the dialogue that an individual has with eternity, after all) cultural values still hold sway. His research has been criticized over the decades, but its central point remains valid. Culture seeps into every level of both our conscious and unconscious behaviors, and therefore must be attended to in every aspect of the therapeutic process. However, while at least most therapists as well as most of those individuals studying to become therapists are certainly aware of this fact, this awareness does not necessarily translate into sufficient care taken to minimize the harm that cross-cultural misunderstandings or blindnesses that…
Bimrose, J. (1996). Multiculturalism, in Bayne, R., Horton, I. & Bimrose, J. (Eds.) New directions in counseling. London: Routledge.
Fouad, N. et al. (2012). Qualitative study of the dislocated working class. Journal of career development 39, 287-310.
LaFromboise, T., Trimble, J., & Mohatt, G. (1990). Counseling intervention and American Indian tradition: An integrative approach.The counseling psychologist 18(4), 628-654.
Jones, A.C. (1985). Psychological functioning in black Americans: A conceptual guide for use in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy 22 (2), 363-369.
The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.
The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…
Annunziata, Jane. (n.d.). "Play Therapy With A 6-Year-old With Jane Annunziata, PsyD." Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.apa.org
College of Agricultural Sciences (1999). Cognitive Development/Play-Overview. College of Agricultural Sciences, Penn State University. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.penpages.psu.edu/penpages_reference/28507/2850764.htmL
Ferguson, E.D. (1989). "Adlerian Therapy: An Introduction." Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Adlerian Psychology Association of British Columbia.
Wikopedia. (n.d.). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-traumatic_stress_disorder
The following multimodal evaluation procedure is recommended for Carlos:
Semi-Structured Clinical Interview
The foremost component of an informal evaluation of traumatized individuals entails semi-structured interviewing, in which the following details of the patient ought to be garnered:
• Demographic facts
• Employment history
• Medical history
• Educational history
• Social history and • Several specific facts.
Such an interview must be closely founded on minor and major trauma disorder facets (James, 2008). Particular questions to be posed to Carlos are linked to:
• Trauma nature and level of exposure
• Definite trauma integral to PTS (post-traumatic stress) symptoms
• Intrusive thoughts, recollections, emotions, imagery, responsiveness/awareness freezing, avoidance response and other similar symptoms
• Related elements of anxiety, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, anger or violent behavior
• Pre-morbid family and social life, and adjustment
• Familial history of psychological ailments. Essentially, therapists must seek comprehensive information on individual PTS symptomatology elements,…
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…
Adlerian Psychology, Psyweb.com 2006, http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Corey, Gerald (1991) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Carlson, Neil R. (1995) Foundations of Physiological Psychology
CTA: Cognitive Therapy Associates, http://www.cognitive-therapy-associates.com/therapy/adlerian-therapy.php
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.
Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.
Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…
Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.
"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.
Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.
Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT as commonly referred to encompasses several techniques. One is behavioral experiments whereby the psychologist helps the client to do behavioral experiments to test their thoughts and help them change their behavior through self-criticism and self-kindness. Second is thought records whereby the psychologist helps the client to change their beliefs through recording thoughts and their consequences. Another technique is imagery exposure which helps to provoke memories and positive emotions in the client. In vivo exposure is also another technique whereby the patient is exposed to the feared stimulus gradually in order to help them resole an issue Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2010()
The case of the fat lady
Intervention strategy for making and maintaining relationships
In order to help Betty explore and reduce her inner conflict and be able to make and maintain relationships, a cognitive…
Holmes, J. (2002). All You Need Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 324(7332), 288-290. doi: 10.2307/25227348
Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Pub
Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271 -- 286. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271
Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama Hall, G.C., & Berger, L.K. (2009). The Case for Cultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 525-548. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651
CCT attempts to discern what are the core, motivating 'wants' behind a patient's behavior. By exposing the hidden reasons for his or her negative behaviors, the client can become more mindful and hopefully change them. CCT defines the 'wish' (W); the response from others (O) and the response from the self (S). In the case of Ms. A, her 'wish' seems to be for self-validation. Ms. A is a very insecure client, based upon her past experience of being sexually abused. Although she says that she wants to have an intimate relationship, her actual behavior in the therapeutic setting suggested that she had great fears of intimacy. Her unexpressed and subconscious 'want' may actually be 'not to be hurt,' rather than to have a relationship. As a result, when she has sexual intimacy with a man, taking the relationship to the next level (O), her response from the self (S)…
Kassaw, K. & Gabbard, G. (2002). Creating a psychodynamic formulation from a clinical evaluation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159:5: 721-726.
Sunil's willingness to return indicates that this approach was effective. As a therapist, I would not judge Sunil and would allow him to direct the initial phases of the process. ather than immediately delving into the loss he had experienced after his wife's demise, for example, I would allow Sunil to talk about what might seem like rather petty grievances attached to his immediate living situation. Sometimes talking about external, mundane circumstances are a conduit to exploring to deeper issues; moreover, it is not my place as a therapist to judge what is 'most significant' or insignificant.
ESSAY 4: Bronfenbrenner's (1976, 1988) description
On the microsystem of Sunil's immediate psychological conflict, through talk therapy and perhaps the use in the future of some antidepressants (depending on Sunil's feelings about the use of medication), Sunil's mood disorder may be treated. The mesosystem of dealing with family conflicts may require equipping Sunil…
Brief explanation of Axis V diagnosis. Retrieved:
Sunil: Episode 1. (2010). In Treatment.
Afraid to Talk
The case study examined for this paper involved a seven-year-old girl who had been a witness to her 18-month-old sister dying after her stroller was struck by a car. The seven-year-old, Kathy, was also present at the hospital and saw her sister, Kim, when she died. The bulk of the case study involves Bruce St. Thomas, the psychiatrist, working with Kathy over a long series of sessions to resolve her emotional issues. The diagnosis for Kathy was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the doctor used play therapy and other techniques geared toward the counseling of young children to allow the child to work through her emotional issues. This paper looks at the diagnosis and its accuracy, the method of therapy and its true effect, and whether there were any personal disagreements with the case.
For many years it was believed that PTSD, and other mental health disorders,…