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Lack of access to potable water or in places where it is hard to get is a reality that many individuals encounter. Technology is capable of assisting in improving this particular situation. An example of such technology is reverse osmosis; this procedure utilizes membranes to separate salt from seawater. It applies pressure vessels that house three membranes that are frequently spirally wound. Around 35 to 50% of water (potable) can be retrieved from seawater introduced into the desalination plant. Other essential parts of the plant are usually made up of an energy recovery system, pre-treatment system, post-treatment system, and pumps. The operation of these desalination plants invite various costs because of the energy used up. There are several ways of minimizing this like: 1) combining the plant with other systems, 2) creating better membranes, 3) utilizing more efficient pumps, and 4) implementing new or enhanced energy recovery technologies.…
Qureshi, B. A., & Zubair, S. M. (2016). Energy-exergy analysis of seawater reverse osmosis plants. Desalination, 385, 138-147.
Schneider, B. (n.d.). Turbines Recover 90% Energy in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plants. Water World, 7(5). Retrieved from Water world.
Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics
Photosynthesis is the systematic process used by plants as a means to harness solar energy. A semiconductor-based solar cell harnesses solar energy to convert it to electricity required by and used by humans. As such, the process of photosynthesis is a contributor to both plant and solar cells. There are numerous similarities and differences between plant and solar cells; however, they both ultimately work to produce energy. A plant cell is a structural and functional unit of a plant and characteristically has rigid cell walls lankenship, 2011). With the simplest form of a plant cell, it forms a single cell constituting an entire organism, carrying out all life functions. One of the most conspicuous features of the plant cell is the presence of membrane bound organelles referred to as plastids. A photovoltaic or solar cell is a device that captures energy and transforms solar…
Blankenship, R. (2011). Comparing photosynthetic and photovoltaic efficiencies and recognizing the potential for improvement. Science, 332 (6031), 805-809.
There are several theories in physics that apply probability theory to various problems. Examples of this can be statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. Physicist James Clerk Maxwell came up with a thought experiment in the late nineteenth century that has puzzled people for over a century. The thought experiment deals with how someone might be able to violate the second law of thermodynamics by creating a situation that might decrease entropy in the system. Entropy can be thought of as the tendency for any system to loose energy. Entropy is a function of state, like the internal energy. It measures the relative degree of order (as opposed to disorder) of the system when in this state. An understanding of the meaning of entropy thus requires some appreciation of the way systems can be described microscopically (Sethna).
Maxwell had the insight to think of two systems placed side by side.…
Callender, C. "Who's Afraid of Maxwell's Demon - and Which One?" N.d. UCDS. Online. 3 March 2014.
Sethna, J. "Statistical Mechanics." 2006. Cornell University. .
Universe Review. "Maxwell's Demon." N.d. Universe Review. Online. 3 March 2014.
History Of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
Modern life would not be the same without two important laws of thermodynamics. ithout these two laws we would not have the gasoline engine or electricity in our homes. These two laws made the inventions that we take for granted possible. These two laws are the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It forms the basis of the idea that in order to produce a prescribed amount of work, a certain amount of energy must be put into a system. The second law of thermodynamics is about the active nature of systems. It states that systems will work to achieve a state of balance and equilibrium.
The laws of thermodynamics came about through observation. Early scientists simply made observations about the natural world around them and then…
Crowe, M.J.,(1998) Heat and Thermodynamics from Newton to the Kinetic Theory. Notre Dame, Indiana: Poverty Publishing Co. Chapters 5,6,7.
Nye, Mary Jo, (1997) Before Big Science: The Pursuit of Modern Chemistry and Physics, 1800-1940. New York: Twayne Publishers.
This is frequently referred to as entropy. In the route of energy transfer, some energy will disperse as heat. Entropy is a measure of disarray. The course of energy sustains order and life. Entropy is successful when organisms stop taking in energy and die (Laws of Thermodynamics, 2010).
Many experts feel that Hydrogen is the ideal fuel known to man at this time. It is a fuel source that has no chance of being depleted until the Sun stops producing it. There isn't much chance of the Sun stopping production either. The only result of hydrogen combustion is water. Because one of the ways hydrogen can be produced is by separating it from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, the process lends itself to recycling within a closed system. There are a few negatives that surround the use of Hydrogen. First, it is a very dangerous explosive. It is…
Hydrogen: The Never Ending Fuel Source. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Laws of Thermodynamics. (2010). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Carbon monoxide gas [CO (g)] is a byproduct of this reaction which defeats the intent of alternative fuel sources to eliminate production of greenhouse gases. Following the first and second laws of thermodynamics, this procedure results in a severe energy loss. The first law of thermodynamics says that the energy output from any process can't exceed the energy input, and the second law focusing in part on decay states that each process decays energy.
The production of the methanol from natural gas results in an initial 32% to 44% net energy loss, then the steam treatment process to procure the hydrogen results in a further 35% energy loss.
Several processes are being explored to derive hydrogen from water, as an inexhaustible source. However, this reaction, 2H2O + e = 2H2(g) + O2(g), requires a substantial energy investment per unit of water (286kJ per mole).
This energy investment is again required…
[i, ii, iv, vi] Joseph J. Romm, the Hype About Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the race to save the Climate (Island Press, NW. Washington DC 2004).
Joseph J. Romm, Andrew a. Frank "Hybrid Vehicles Gain Traction" Scientific American (April 2006).
Business Wire "?
Instead, loss of the fuel results in entropy, a concern of the second law of thermodynamics and this helps prove the impracticality of this fuel. Combine this with the size of the fuel tank necessary to power a car for many hundreds of miles, and hydrogen begins to look far worse as a real alternative to fuel conservation and replacing fossil fuels.
Hydrogen seems like a good idea, and there are hydrogen vehicles in production and on the road. However, delivering hydrogen from the production plants to facilities also proves to be expensive, and it is expensive to build new hydrogen fuel centers, as well. Hydrogen can be dangerous, too. Liquid hydrogen can freeze air, and hydrogen can cause explosions, just like gasoline. If enough hydrogen leaks from a faulty valve or tank in a confined space, like a garage, it can explode, as well (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen…
McCarthy, John. "Hydrogen." Stanford University. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/hydrogen.html
Rocheleau, Richard E. "Hydrogen." Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/hydrogen.asp
aquatic system • Describe climate affects selected ecosystem. • Explain, based laws thermodynamics, energy flows selected ecosystem. • Examine matter transported selected ecosystem due biogeochemical cycles, carbon, hydrologic, nitrogen, phosphorus.
Aquatic ecosystems are mainly responsible for assisting energy transfers across the planet and for making it possible for all life on earth to exist. Depending on the area where it is located and on the substances that it contains, a body of water can have more or less living beings in it. Climate has a strong impact on water and on the organisms that directly depend on it. Climate change has had a severe effect on bodies of water all around the planet and this is obvious especially when considering melting glaciers and the energy that they release.
Thermohaline circulation is one of the most important circulation systems present on the planet and it is largely in charge…
Franks, Felix, "Water: A Matrix of Life," (Royal Society of Chemistry, 19.07.2000)
Juuti, Petri, "Environmental History of Water: Global Views on Community Water Supply and Sanitation," (IWA Publishing, 30.01.2007)
Nature of Heat
The nature of heat -- where it comes from, what it is made of, how it moves -- has been a source of fascination to philosophers and scientists since the earliest civilizations. The Ancient Greeks connected heat to their early atomic theory. Natural philosophers and chemists during the Enlightenment in Europe considered heat to be its own substance known as 'caloric.' It was not until the 19th century that physicists connected heat to the emerging theories of energy. In the 1840s, James Joule discovered that the appearance and disappearance of heat was always accompanied by the appearance and disappearance of kinetic energy (Tippler, 1999). It soon was confirmed that heat is not in fact its own substance but is a form of energy.
The study of heat as a form of energy, known as thermodynamics, is closely tied to the kinetic theory of matter. The kinetic…
Guha, E. (2000) Basic Thermodynamics. London: Alpha Science International.
Hermans-Killam, L. And Daou, D. (2011) Heat and temperature. Caltech Cosmic Classroom. Retrieved from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu / cosmic_classroom/light_lessons/thermal/index.html
Jha, D.K. (2004). Textbook of Heat. New Dehli: Discovery Publishing House.
Zobel, E.A. (2010) Heat and Temperature. Zona Land Education. Retrieved from http://zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/mechanics/energy/heatAndTemperature/heatAndTemperature.html
How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter?
First, the Kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of numerous small articles known as the atoms and molecules which are in constant motion. There are some assumptions that are made under this theory, one is that matter is made up of particles that are widely spaced and these particles are in constant motion (on Kurtus, 2011).
This theory also states that these molecules have great kinetic energy and move faster when subjected to higher temperatures. The moving of the particles therefore help in transferring of the heat energy by one molecule that moves fast colliding with one that moves slowly hence transferring some of the heat energy to it and in effect starts to move faster. This is how the kinetic theory of matter and the assumption that the particles are constantly…
Jeff Haby, (2012). The Difference Between
Temperature and Heat. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://www.theweatherprediction.com/habyhints/39/
Michael Fowler, (2008). Early Attempts to Understand the Nature of Heat. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/152.mf1i.spring02/What%20is%20Heat.htm
M.J. Farabee, (2010). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookener1.html
It is not only purely mechanical transfers of energy that follow this law of the conservation of energy, but all biological organisms must abide by this universal law as well. Take, for instance, the process of photosynthesis, which is considered the primary provider energy to almost all of life on Earth. Very simply put, "photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar" (Carter 1996). The process itself is actually quite complex, but basically several different pigments in plants (most essentially chlorophyll) absorb different wavelengths of light, which excites their electrons and causes chemical reactions to take place within specific molecules in the plant. These reactions ultimately result in the recombination of atoms into sugars, whose bonds can be broken to release energy when the plant needs it.
Plants are then eaten by other organisms, and te energy stored…
Carter, J. (1996). "Photosynthesis." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/photosyn.htm
Kyrk, J. (2008). "Krebs cycle." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://www.johnkyrk.com/krebs.html
Nave, C. (2005). "Hyperphysics: Heat and thermodynamics." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe.html
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.
One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.
Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting…
" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html
STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html
J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.
Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.
The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)
Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of…
Atkins, P.W., and Julio De Paula. Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2002.
Clymer, Jeffrey. Arrhenius Calculation. 2002. Nuvox.net. Available:
http://members.nuvox.net/~on.jwclymer/arr.html. July 1, 2004.
EntropyLaw. The Law of Maximum Entropy Production or Why the World Is in the Order Production Business. 2004. 2004. Available:
An object's heat capacity is the product of its precise heat capacity, which is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of the material one degree, and it's mass in kg. Heat capacity is a widespread property of a matter. In other words its worth varies depending on how much matter is present (Jorgensen, 2011).
What are the various sources of heat?
The sun is an element of the solar system. Therefore, it is a natural source of heat energy. Sunlight is significant for the survival of all living things. This type of heat energy is also known as solar energy.
The heat energy that is obtained from the Earth is known as geothermal energy. Sustainable and unsoiled geothermal energy can be obtained from the hot water and rocks that are located in the shallow ground. It is also located in the molten rocks obtainable in the farthest…
Charmaine, Mike. (2010). What Are the Sources of Heat Energy? Retrieved January 27, 2011,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/list_6038161_sources-heat-energy_.html
Heat. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2011, from Web site: http://hyperphysics.phy-
Heat Capacity is defined by obinson and Haas (1983) as the quantity of heat that is required to raise the temperature of a unit quantity of a given substance by one degree Kelvin at a constant pressure.
A brief history of the concept
Prior to the development of the modern theories of thermodynamics, it was widely thought that heat was some form of a fluid called calorific (Cengel, 2007).Different bodies were capable of effectively holding a certain quantity of this fluid and their ability to hold such a fluid was referred to as heat capacity as was initially investigated by one Joseph Black in 1750s (Laider,1993).In this age and time, we discuss the concept of the internal energy system. This comprises of microscopic kinetic as well as potential energy. Heat too is never considered as a fluid but is regarded as a transfer of energy which is disordered at a…
Cengel, Y.A (2007). Introduction To Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer.MacGraw Hill
Laider, K.J. (1993). The World of Physical Chemistry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-855919-4.
Roninson, G, R and Hass, J.L (1983)Heat capacity, relative enthalpy, and calorimetric entropy of silicate minerals: an empirical method of prediction. American Mineralogist, Volume 68, pages 541-553, 1983
Give the overall general reaction for cellular respiration. State what eukaryotic cell organelle is involved.
Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In general, sugar is burned off, or oxidized, into CO2 and H2O. The overall formula is C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP (heat). Mitochondria are the eukaryotic cell organelle involved in this process. It is considered the power center of the cell.
Define homoeothermic and endothermic.
Simply stated, homoeothermic refers to a warm-blooded animal. Homoeothermic animals are capable of regulating their own body temperatures internally and independent of their surroundings. Endotherms are similar in that they are also capable of maintaining a sufficient internal core body temperature, regardless of external conditions. Most (not all) homoeothermic animals are also endotherms and use metabolic heat production to keep warm.
What effect did lowering the…
"Molecular Biology." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2011): 1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
Physiological Effects of Endurance Training
Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.
Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).
Duration and Intensity of Different…
1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998
2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.
3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.
4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
Surprisingly, many of the great discoveries in chemistry did not arise from a highly disciplined, approach -- Laidler describes Newton's early experiments as almost alchemical in nature, and highly influenced by his religious beliefs, and while some scientists like Linus Pauling were quite methodical, others such as Ronald Norrish were not (Laidler 7-9). The book is also a study of how chemistry and the sciences have been viewed over time. While science was greatly respected during the classical era, the early Church regarded it with great suspicion and for a long time classical learning and the humanities was held superior to the technical and scientific disciplines. Today, often the reverse is the case regarding the relationship between the sciences and liberal arts, but Laidler's book fuses the two -- it is a well-written account of the history of science that is accessible for the layperson as well as the expert…
or, to put it another way, "chemistry carried out with the primary object of investigating the workings of nature is what we now call physical chemistry" (Laidler, 5). This has made the distinction between physics and chemistry at this frontier very difficult to define. This fuzzy distinction is also one of the things that makes the discipline of physical chemistry so interesting -- it cannot deny the complete interweaving of scientific disciplines.
Physics and chemistry lay out the foundation and explain the mechanisms of all other sciences, and the field of physical chemistry is the closest unification of these two sciences. All biological and astronomical processes only occur because of reactions and interactions at the molecular and atomic level, and physical chemistry attempts to explain these underlying principles (Laidler, 9). Though the nature of energy and matter is still not fully understood, physical chemistry is approaching better and better explanations…
Laidler, Keith James. The World of Physical Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
MolData. "Physical Chemistry." Pomona University Official Website. Accessed 9 March 2009. http://pages.pomona.edu/~wes04747/PChem.htm
Science Daily. "Nanotube Structures Could Improve Electric Motors." March 10, 2009. Accessed 9 March 2009. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090310124855.htm
This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."
Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…
Blackwell, Richard J. 1999. Science, Religion and Authority: Lessons from the Galileo Affair. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29306390.Internet . Accessed 3 November 2008.
Dembski, William and Charles Colson. 2004. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions about Intelligent Design. Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, Il.
Dembski, William and McDowell, Sean. 2008. Understanding Intelligent Design: Everything You Need to Know in Plain Langauge. Harvest House Publishers. Eugene, Oregon. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103534752
However, would deductivism be true from a normative perspective?
This is a question that relates with the fundamental question that a principle would be justifiable from a deductivist perspective: if H - hypothesis is the best explanation for the fact or facts that are to be explained, is it reasonable to accept H. As being valid? We will not go into a discussion on what reasonable might mean and what can actually be considered being reasonable. However, in my opinion the answer to such a question could be 'no'. We can accept H. As being reasonable, but I don't think we can accept H. As being valid. On the other hand, deductivism in scientific methodology does not necessarily propose 100% valid statements and hypothesis, but hypothesis that can be worked with.
Is this enough for a scientific hypothesis? Again, this is a difficult question to answer. On a highly likely…
1. Govier (1987). From Godden, David M. Deductivism as an interpretive strategy: a reply to Groarke's recent defense of reconstructive deductivism.
2. Ratzsch, Del the Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side is Winning the Creation- Evolution Debate. InterVarsity Press. 1996.
3. The Scientific Method. January 2007. On the Internet at http://barefootbum.blogspot.com/2007/01/scientific-method.html.Last retrieved on July 17, 2008
4. Peter Godfrey-Smith. Theory and Reality. 2003
"(Fitzgerald, 2) the image of personality, the "self as process" (Bloom, 189), parallels that of reality as process. Gatsby's own character is for its most part invented, dreamed up into reality, according to a plan he had made when he was nineteen. Fitzgerald's novel is thus an extremely subjective vision of the world, in which the author has a very important voice. As in all modernist novels, reality is obliterated by the artistic and scientific constructions. Fitzgerald tells the story of the American Dream, and the blind belief in idealism. As Breitwieser explains, Fitzgerald's intention is to define the modernist tendency of disconnecting from the real and dissolving into the artistic and the relativist view, just like in the jazz piece Nick listens to at Gatsby's party: "terminating expression, dissevering the conduit that makes things really real" (Breitwieser, 370)
Barrett, Laura. "Material without Being Real: Photography and the…
Barrett, Laura. "Material without Being Real: Photography and the End of Reality in 'The Great Gatsby.'"
Studies in the Novel. Vol. 30(4) 1998, p. 540-555.
Breitwieser, Mitchell. "Jazz Fractures: F. Scott Fitzgerald and Epochal Representation." American Literary History. 3 (2000): 359-81
Bloom, Harold, ed. Gatsby. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991.
These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.
imply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that…
Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable source of energy that will never wane in force, the dream of "perpetual motion."
Serway, Raymond a.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole
Walding, Richard, Rapkins, Greg, Rossiter, Glenn (1999-11-01). New Century Senior Physics. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…
Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.
"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.
Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.
Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
DIT and Healthcare delivery - Modern healthcare is quite complex, as are the relationships etween various stakeholders within the system -- patients, family, specialists, staff, administration, medical personnel, regulatory odies, insurance, pulic and private health personnel and even the political sphere. DIT heals measure the readth and numer of organizational units affected, the amount of communication across organizational lines, and the manner in which individual groups interact proactively. Innovation theory in health organizations often induces two cycles: 1) poorly performing organizations that respond with rule ound ehaviors and indeed perpetuates poor performance and; 2) eneficent responses in which etter performing organizations have autonomy which reinforces their stronger performance (Lundlad, 2003). For organizations to remain competitive, they must adopt the more proactive stance from DIT and find ways to oth streamline and self-critique.
DIT and Current Nursing Practice -- Because of the complex nature of nursing practice, comined with new expectations…
bibliography and focus upon how Von Berthalanffy strove to take complex situations in the natural world and help to simplify them theoretically.
But ultimately the plays suggests no one can reject science, nor poetry altogether. Even the mathematics scholar Valentine whose worldview is seen as incommensurate with the literature scholars, finds a connection in the past between the 19th century young woman's Thomasina's work and his own, when he discovers her notebook. The laws of thermodynamics and its relation to poetic creation, the 'correct' way of seeing Byron, as opposed to "Bernard's Byron," as Chloe calls him (Act II, Scene 7) are all connected in the physical presence of the house. Ultimately Byron provides the connective, emotional thread between both science and math. And later in the play when Bernard returns after his appearance on "The Breakfast Hour," Hannah discovers a note that proves that Chater died in Martinique in 1810. The note destroys Bernard's argument completely and Hannah sees it as just revenge for his bad review of her last book,…
The above equation can also be utilized to calculate conduction loss from a human body to ambient air. For example, for a 1.5 tall man wearing dry, insulating clothing, the rate of conductive heat loss on a cold day (ambient temperature at 0oC, normal skin temperature at 37oC) can be calculated as 178W. For the same person wearing wet clothing, however, the equivalent rate is 2,565W. This significant difference in heat losses explains the onset of hypothermia when someone is exposed to ice-cold water or rain (Forinash, 2010). Conduction takes place on a microscopic level as particles of kinetic energy are transferred between two different systems (Abbott, et al., 2005). When atoms and/or molecules heat up, vibrate, or move rapidly, some of their energy gets transferred to other atoms and molecules that are in close proximity. In other words, heat is transferred to the surrounding particles and away from the…
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…
O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
New Theories -- Current theories relating to the study of environment and behavior are inadequate to answer the major questions of the study. One cannot separate the environment from humanity -- ecological and systems theories are holistic.
ystems theory - This theory is an interdisciplinary practice that describes systems that have numerous spokes, or interacting components. The basic laws of thermodynamics (i.e. temperature, energy and entropy) work better for closed systems. Open systems, like living things, show different patterns and tendencies.
Diffusion of innovation theory - . The theory holds that diffusion is a process in which innovation is communicated through certain levels or channels over time and mitigated by whether the decision is made freely and who makes the decision.
Human impact on the environment then -- changes the system -- it is an artifact and thus in design and technology operates on a different set of laws than…
Lawton, M., et.al., (1982). Aging and the Environment- Theoretical Approaches. New York:
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
Futurism brashly and boldly embraced new technology, celebrating even the bellicose. In Marinetti's "Manifesto of Futurism," he states, "We will glorify war -- the world's only hygiene -- militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for women," (p. 148). This peculiar statement reveals the nature of futurism as it was manifest at early twentieth century. Futurism was all embracing, rejecting nothing based on immorality because futurism shunned morality. For this reason, Futurism emerged as a staunchly progressive and open-minded genre in the visual arts. The movement not just embraced new technology but celebrated it. Even the uglier side of technology, such as heavy industries and the pollution they create, was something futurists admired and incorporated into their visual art schema. Within the futurist framework, it is certainly possible to imagine works of art that represent something genuinely new.
One reason it is…
Boccioni, Umberto. "Futurist Painting: Technical Manifesto."
Marinette, Filippo Tommaso. "The Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism."
The cosmological disagreement can take many forms, but it works with the basis since the cosmos (universe) exists, there must be a God. How can the information that the universe exist point to any other conclusion than that the universe exists? The first argues that God must exist because He is "The Temporal First Cause" of the universe. The second argues that God must exist because He is "The Ontological First Cause" of the universe.
It is by no means clear that the logical relations between sense experiences and physical objects are significantly different from the logical relations between mystical or numinous experiences and an object like God. It is thus not clear that some sort of special justification is needed in the one case, which is not needed in the other. If a special justification is not needed in the case of sense experience, and it…
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), German meteorologist, Arctic explorer and a brilliant interdisciplinary scientist, is best known as for his theory of "continental displacement" (that became famous, later, as the theory of continental drift). Since the technological means for proving the theory had not yet been developed and the idea was a radical departure from the scientific thinking of the time, Wegener's theory was widely rejected during his lifetime. After gradual accumulation of evidence in support of the idea, the theory finally gained acceptance in the early sixties. This paper gives a brief biography of Alfred Wegener, his theory of continental drift and other contributions to the world of science.
Early Life & Education
Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin. His father was a minister and ran an orphanage. Even as a young boy Wegener was interested in walking, skating and hiking that he put to use…
Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bowege.html
Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html
Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/wegener.html
Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
oppression the movie The Matrix is the theme of consciousness. In the movie's most dramatic plot twist it turns out that Neo, the movie's protagonist, has not been living inside the real world, but a computer-programmed simulation of one. He has been held in this state so that artificially intelligent machines may harness his body heat for energy (and, of course, we as viewers suspend our belief regarding this conceit even though it completely ignores the laws of thermodynamics and the conservation of energy). In freeing himself from the matrix, however, Neo-had to make a choice to free himself, to become his own person. In this way, he resembles the sort of man that Freire describes in his Pedagogy of the Oppressed:
The truth is, however, that the oppressed are not "marginals," are not men living "outside" society. They have always been "inside" -- inside the structure which made them…
Antonio Gramsci." May 19, 2003. http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-gram.htm#role
Baudrillard, Jean. The Vital Illusion. May 19, 2003. http://www.techdirections.com/html/vi.html
Buddhism and Gnosticism in The Matrix." May 19, 2003. http://terje.bergersen.net/mt/archives/000021.html
Ford, James L. "Buddhism, Christianity, and The Matrix: The Dialectic of Myth-Making in Contemporary Cinema." The Journal of Religion and Film. May 19, 2003. http://www.unomaha.edu/~wwwjrf/thematrix.htm
The purpose of the paper is to develop a concept of the connection between mathematics and society from a historical perspective. Specifically, it will discuss the subject, what George Cantor accomplished for mathematics and what that did for society. George Cantor's set theory changed the way mathematicians of the time looked at their science, and he revolutionized the way the world looks at numbers.
George Cantor was a brilliant mathematician and philosopher who developed the modern mathematical idea of infinity, along with the idea of an infinite set of real numbers, called transfinite sets, or the "set theory." In addition, Cantor found that real numbers were not countable, while algebraic numbers were countable (Breen). Cantor's views were quite controversial when he first developed them in the late 1800s, and some mathematicians today question some of his hypothesis ("Transfinite Number"), however, his work is recognized as some of…
Author not Available. "Georg Cantor." Fact-Index.com. 2004. 13 April 2004. http://www.fact-index.com/g/ge/georg_cantor.html
Breen, Craig. "Georg Cantor Page." Personal Web Page. 2004. 13 April 2004. http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Union/3461/cantor.htm
Everdell, William R. The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-Century Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
O'Connor, J.J. And Robertson, E.F. "Georg Cantor." University of St. Andrews. 1998. 13 April 2004. http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Cantor.html
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…
Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
Total ork of Art: Charles Renee Mackintosh
Born on June 7, 1868, in Glasgow, Mackintosh, worked as an apprentice under one of the local architects named John Hutchison, however, he changed to the more stable and established Honeyman and Keppie city practice in 1889. As a way of complementing his architectural apprenticeship, Mackintosh got enrolled into evening classes at the school of art in Glasgow, where he partook in a number of drawing programs. hile in the art school, Mackintosh in the company of Herbert MacNair, his friend and colleague, ran into the famous artist sisters, Frances and Margaret Macdonald. These four talented artists formed a group and specialized in furniture designs, illustration and metalwork, and developed several weird-looking images, which were very distinctive. Such images included abstracted female images and certain metamorphic lines that reminded one of Aubrey Beardsley. They got to be known as the spook school, a…
Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society, Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Web. 10 March 2016. http://www.crmsociety.com/crmackintosh.aspx
Current, Karen. Greene & Greene: Architects in the Residential Style, Fort Worth, Texas: Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, 1974. Print.
Finger, Anke and Danielle Follett (eds.) The Aesthetics of the Total Artwork: On Borders and Fragments, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011. Print
Harris, Nathaniel. The Life and Works of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Bath: Lomond Books, 2000. Print.
Ferguson's Argument and Evidence
In Eugene Ferguson Engineering and the Mind's Eye, he makes the case that the existing privileging of science and math over the nonverbal and visual in engineering education is mutually a dangerous practice and a historical abnormality. y applying a well-demonstrated chronicle of engineering strategy, Ferguson claims that not all engineering complications can be resolved by analysis in mathematical; short of the ability to envisage machines, environment, and the structures. He goes on to explain the fact that engineers, a lot of the time, make poor judgment calls. These weak calls lead to crushing disappointments in nuclear power plants, bridges, refrigerators, and other machinery. The book holds a generous variety of old drawings and sketches and presents well-chosen themes, as well as a foretaste into the history of engineering, from its earlier stages to its status, scattered with the essential part played by the mind's eye.…
Brown, John K. 1999. "When Machines Became Gray and Drawings Black and White: William Sellers and the Rationalization of Mechanical Engineering." IA. The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology 25 (2): 29-54.
Buchanan, R. A. 1986. "The Diaspora of British Engineering." Technology and Culture 27 (3): 501-524.
Burke, John G. 1966. "Bursting Boilers and the Federal Power." Technology and Culture 7 (1): 1-23.
Hounshell, David A. 1980. "Edison and the Pure Science Ideal in 19th-Century America." Science 207 (4431): 612-617.
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…
Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search
Premier database December 29, 2010.
Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.
DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
According to Dr. David Thompson, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Memorial, long-term goal is to make fuel from sunlight, a field known artificial photosynthesis. The larger question revolves around whether a system can be designed to take captured solar energy and create molecules that can be utilized as fuels (Hester, 2007).
The general idea, of course, is that the Petroleum Era will be replaced by the Hydrogen Era. Because hydrogen is so prevalent in the universe, it will require only the technological acumen to harness this most abundant element in order to produce a clean, unlimited, reliable, and endless supply of power. Enough scientists believe in this technology that in January 2003, President G.W. Bush announced a $720 million commitment towards the development of hydrogen fuel (www.hydrogenassociation.com). Modern society has the technology to change behaviors, or at least the vision to develop this alternate paradigm, but perhaps…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Alternative Energy Institute 2006, "Powering Our Future: An Energy Sourcebook for
Sustainable Living." Cited in:
Gibilisco, S. (2006), Alternative Energy Demystified, McGraw
There are certain algae that produce hydrogen as a waste byproduct, and the cultivation of such algae and collection of their hydrogen emissions has so far proven somewhat successful (AE 2009). Continued refinement of this process and a bolstering of its efficiency could lead to commercially and industrially viable production levels. There are also methods for extracting hydrogen from waste materials that makes use at least partially of the natural breakdown of these materials; though energy is used in this decomposition, it is not energy transformed and applied at human expense, eliminating its strain on the system (AE 2009). Complex new storage mechanisms are also making the concept of hydrogen fuel cells in cars more viable (U.S. Dept. Of Energy 2009). There have been several major test projects involving hydrogen-powered vehicles in land, air, and sea, including the use of drone spy planes by the U.S. military, municipality waste removal…
AE. (2009). "Hydrogen Fuel." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/hydrogen-fuel/
EPA (2009). "Fuel Cells and Vehicles." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/fuelcell/
US. Dept. Of Energy. (2009). "Hydrogen." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/Feg/hydrogen.shtml