46+ documents containing “thermodynamics”.
Lack of access to potable water or in places where it is hard to get is a reality that many individuals encounter. Technology is capable of assisting in improving this particular situation. An example of such technology is reverse osmosis; this procedure utilizes membranes to separate salt from seawater. It applies pressure vessels that house three membranes that are frequently spirally wound. Around 35 to 50% of water (potable) can be retrieved from seawater introduced into the desalination plant. Other essential parts of the plant are usually made up of an energy recovery system, pre-treatment system, post-treatment system, and pumps. The operation of these desalination plants invite various costs because of the energy used up. There are several ways of minimizing this like: 1) combining the plant with other systems, 2) creating better membranes, 3) utilizing more efficient pumps, and 4) implementing new or enhanced energy recovery technologies. commercially….
Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics
Photosynthesis is the systematic process used by plants as a means to harness solar energy. A semiconductor-based solar cell harnesses solar energy to convert it to electricity required by and used by humans. As such, the process of photosynthesis is a contributor to both plant and solar cells. There are numerous similarities and differences between plant and solar cells; however, they both ultimately work to produce energy. A plant cell is a structural and functional unit of a plant and characteristically has rigid cell walls lankenship, 2011). With the simplest form of a plant cell, it forms a single cell constituting an entire organism, carrying out all life functions. One of the most conspicuous features of the plant cell is the presence of membrane bound organelles referred to as plastids. A photovoltaic or solar cell is a device that captures energy and transforms solar radiation….
There are several theories in physics that apply probability theory to various problems. Examples of this can be statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. Physicist James Clerk Maxwell came up with a thought experiment in the late nineteenth century that has puzzled people for over a century. The thought experiment deals with how someone might be able to violate the second law of thermodynamics by creating a situation that might decrease entropy in the system. Entropy can be thought of as the tendency for any system to loose energy. Entropy is a function of state, like the internal energy. It measures the relative degree of order (as opposed to disorder) of the system when in this state. An understanding of the meaning of entropy thus requires some appreciation of the way systems can be described microscopically (Sethna).
Maxwell had the insight to think of two systems placed side by side. He….
History Of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
Modern life would not be the same without two important laws of thermodynamics. ithout these two laws we would not have the gasoline engine or electricity in our homes. These two laws made the inventions that we take for granted possible. These two laws are the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It forms the basis of the idea that in order to produce a prescribed amount of work, a certain amount of energy must be put into a system. The second law of thermodynamics is about the active nature of systems. It states that systems will work to achieve a state of balance and equilibrium.
The laws of thermodynamics came about through observation. Early scientists simply made observations about the natural world around them and then tried to….
This is frequently referred to as entropy. In the route of energy transfer, some energy will disperse as heat. Entropy is a measure of disarray. The course of energy sustains order and life. Entropy is successful when organisms stop taking in energy and die (Laws of Thermodynamics, 2010).
Many experts feel that Hydrogen is the ideal fuel known to man at this time. It is a fuel source that has no chance of being depleted until the Sun stops producing it. There isn't much chance of the Sun stopping production either. The only result of hydrogen combustion is water. Because one of the ways hydrogen can be produced is by separating it from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, the process lends itself to recycling within a closed system. There are a few negatives that surround the use of Hydrogen. First, it is a very dangerous explosive. It is….
Hydrogen: The Never Ending Fuel Source. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Laws of Thermodynamics. (2010). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in the society. For instance,….
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Carbon monoxide gas [CO (g)] is a byproduct of this reaction which defeats the intent of alternative fuel sources to eliminate production of greenhouse gases. Following the first and second laws of thermodynamics, this procedure results in a severe energy loss. The first law of thermodynamics says that the energy output from any process can't exceed the energy input, and the second law focusing in part on decay states that each process decays energy.
The production of the methanol from natural gas results in an initial 32% to 44% net energy loss, then the steam treatment process to procure the hydrogen results in a further 35% energy loss.
Several processes are being explored to derive hydrogen from water, as an inexhaustible source. However, this reaction, 2H2O + e = 2H2(g) + O2(g), requires a substantial energy investment per unit of water (286kJ per mole).
This energy investment is again required by both the….
[i, ii, iv, vi] Joseph J. Romm, the Hype About Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the race to save the Climate (Island Press, NW. Washington DC 2004).
Joseph J. Romm, Andrew a. Frank "Hybrid Vehicles Gain Traction" Scientific American (April 2006).
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Instead, loss of the fuel results in entropy, a concern of the second law of thermodynamics and this helps prove the impracticality of this fuel. Combine this with the size of the fuel tank necessary to power a car for many hundreds of miles, and hydrogen begins to look far worse as a real alternative to fuel conservation and replacing fossil fuels.
Hydrogen seems like a good idea, and there are hydrogen vehicles in production and on the road. However, delivering hydrogen from the production plants to facilities also proves to be expensive, and it is expensive to build new hydrogen fuel centers, as well. Hydrogen can be dangerous, too. Liquid hydrogen can freeze air, and hydrogen can cause explosions, just like gasoline. If enough hydrogen leaks from a faulty valve or tank in a confined space, like a garage, it can explode, as well (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen….
aquatic system • Describe climate affects selected ecosystem. • Explain, based laws thermodynamics, energy flows selected ecosystem. • Examine matter transported selected ecosystem due biogeochemical cycles, carbon, hydrologic, nitrogen, phosphorus.
Aquatic ecosystems are mainly responsible for assisting energy transfers across the planet and for making it possible for all life on earth to exist. Depending on the area where it is located and on the substances that it contains, a body of water can have more or less living beings in it. Climate has a strong impact on water and on the organisms that directly depend on it. Climate change has had a severe effect on bodies of water all around the planet and this is obvious especially when considering melting glaciers and the energy that they release.
Thermohaline circulation is one of the most important circulation systems present on the planet and it is largely in charge of controlling….
Nature of Heat
The nature of heat -- where it comes from, what it is made of, how it moves -- has been a source of fascination to philosophers and scientists since the earliest civilizations. The Ancient Greeks connected heat to their early atomic theory. Natural philosophers and chemists during the Enlightenment in Europe considered heat to be its own substance known as 'caloric.' It was not until the 19th century that physicists connected heat to the emerging theories of energy. In the 1840s, James Joule discovered that the appearance and disappearance of heat was always accompanied by the appearance and disappearance of kinetic energy (Tippler, 1999). It soon was confirmed that heat is not in fact its own substance but is a form of energy.
The study of heat as a form of energy, known as thermodynamics, is closely tied to the kinetic theory of matter. The kinetic theory of matter….
Guha, E. (2000) Basic Thermodynamics. London: Alpha Science International.
Hermans-Killam, L. And Daou, D. (2011) Heat and temperature. Caltech Cosmic Classroom. Retrieved from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu / cosmic_classroom/light_lessons/thermal/index.html
Jha, D.K. (2004). Textbook of Heat. New Dehli: Discovery Publishing House.
Zobel, E.A. (2010) Heat and Temperature. Zona Land Education. Retrieved from http://zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/mechanics/energy/heatAndTemperature/heatAndTemperature.html
How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter?
First, the Kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of numerous small articles known as the atoms and molecules which are in constant motion. There are some assumptions that are made under this theory, one is that matter is made up of particles that are widely spaced and these particles are in constant motion (on Kurtus, 2011).
This theory also states that these molecules have great kinetic energy and move faster when subjected to higher temperatures. The moving of the particles therefore help in transferring of the heat energy by one molecule that moves fast colliding with one that moves slowly hence transferring some of the heat energy to it and in effect starts to move faster. This is how the kinetic theory of matter and the assumption that the particles are constantly in motion is….
Jeff Haby, (2012). The Difference Between
Temperature and Heat. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://www.theweatherprediction.com/habyhints/39/
Michael Fowler, (2008). Early Attempts to Understand the Nature of Heat. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/152.mf1i.spring02/What%20is%20Heat.htm
M.J. Farabee, (2010). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookener1.html
It is not only purely mechanical transfers of energy that follow this law of the conservation of energy, but all biological organisms must abide by this universal law as well. Take, for instance, the process of photosynthesis, which is considered the primary provider energy to almost all of life on Earth. Very simply put, "photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar" (Carter 1996). The process itself is actually quite complex, but basically several different pigments in plants (most essentially chlorophyll) absorb different wavelengths of light, which excites their electrons and causes chemical reactions to take place within specific molecules in the plant. These reactions ultimately result in the recombination of atoms into sugars, whose bonds can be broken to release energy when the plant needs it.
Plants are then eaten by other organisms, and te energy stored in….
Carter, J. (1996). "Photosynthesis." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/photosyn.htm
Kyrk, J. (2008). "Krebs cycle." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://www.johnkyrk.com/krebs.html
Nave, C. (2005). "Hyperphysics: Heat and thermodynamics." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe.html
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.
One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.
Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting materials. The….
" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html
STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html
J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.
Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.
The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)
Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of the universe remains….
Atkins, P.W., and Julio De Paula. Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2002.
Clymer, Jeffrey. Arrhenius Calculation. 2002. Nuvox.net. Available:
http://members.nuvox.net/~on.jwclymer/arr.html. July 1, 2004.
EntropyLaw. The Law of Maximum Entropy Production or Why the World Is in the Order Production Business. 2004. 2004. Available:
An object's heat capacity is the product of its precise heat capacity, which is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of the material one degree, and it's mass in kg. Heat capacity is a widespread property of a matter. In other words its worth varies depending on how much matter is present (Jorgensen, 2011).
What are the various sources of heat?
The sun is an element of the solar system. Therefore, it is a natural source of heat energy. Sunlight is significant for the survival of all living things. This type of heat energy is also known as solar energy.
The heat energy that is obtained from the Earth is known as geothermal energy. Sustainable and unsoiled geothermal energy can be obtained from the hot water and rocks that are located in the shallow ground. It is also located in the molten rocks obtainable in the farthest deepness of….
Charmaine, Mike. (2010). What Are the Sources of Heat Energy? Retrieved January 27, 2011,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/list_6038161_sources-heat-energy_.html
Heat. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2011, from Web site: http://hyperphysics.phy-
Thermodynamics esearch Lack of access to potable water or in places where it is hard to get is a reality that many individuals encounter. Technology is capable of assisting in…Read Full Paper ❯
Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis is the systematic process used by plants as a means to harness solar energy. A semiconductor-based solar cell harnesses solar energy to convert…Read Full Paper ❯
Demons There are several theories in physics that apply probability theory to various problems. Examples of this can be statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. Physicist James Clerk Maxwell came…Read Full Paper ❯
History Of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics Modern life would not be the same without two important laws of thermodynamics. ithout these two laws we would not have…Read Full Paper ❯
This is frequently referred to as entropy. In the route of energy transfer, some energy will disperse as heat. Entropy is a measure of disarray. The course of…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
Social Ecology of Health Promotion Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems Various measures have been put in order to modify…Read Full Paper ❯
Carbon monoxide gas [CO (g)] is a byproduct of this reaction which defeats the intent of alternative fuel sources to eliminate production of greenhouse gases. Following the first and…Read Full Paper ❯
Instead, loss of the fuel results in entropy, a concern of the second law of thermodynamics and this helps prove the impracticality of this fuel. Combine this with…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
aquatic system • Describe climate affects selected ecosystem. • Explain, based laws thermodynamics, energy flows selected ecosystem. • Examine matter transported selected ecosystem due biogeochemical cycles, carbon, hydrologic,…Read Full Paper ❯
Nature of Heat Heat The nature of heat -- where it comes from, what it is made of, how it moves -- has been a source of fascination to philosophers and…Read Full Paper ❯
Heat How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter? First, the Kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of numerous small articles known…Read Full Paper ❯
It is not only purely mechanical transfers of energy that follow this law of the conservation of energy, but all biological organisms must abide by this universal law as…Read Full Paper ❯
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and…Read Full Paper ❯
Entropy Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature.…Read Full Paper ❯
An object's heat capacity is the product of its precise heat capacity, which is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of the material one degree,…Read Full Paper ❯