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Ensured the Success of the Third Reich
Hitler's Nazi economic plan was, until the loss of the war intervened, such a success that foreign economists went so far as to call it a miracle. The Nazi economic framework, which emphasized total employment, total commitment, and the supremacy of big business, relied on a series of radical measures to propel the resurgent nation into a state of military readiness. Several factors contributed to Nazi Germany's economic success, and ultimately to the potential endurance of the Third Reich.
An essential building block of the Nazi state was a satisfied, even energized, working class. That this had to be obtained despite a reduction in luxuries and civil liberties made it a challenging task.
The first step in satisfying the working class was the elimination of one of the worst demons of the Weimar Republic, unemployment. The Third Reich implemented stimulus programs that created…
Brady, Robert A. The Spirit and Structure of German Fascism. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1937.
Childs, David. Germany Since 1918. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980.
Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring, The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age: Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989.
Frei, Norbert. National Socialist Rule in Germany. Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1993.
Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
Birth of the Third Reich
In this chapter, Shirer set the mood of the book towards his discussion of the future of Adolf Hitler as the leader of the Third Reich. The book portrayed Hitler as far from the powerful individual who had orchestrated orld ar II: as a young boy, Hitler was considered as already ambitious, yet seemed to not have extraordinary talent and ability to fully become remarkable in his chosen career as an artist. hat Shirer made clear was that during his teen years, Hitler had already developed political ideas and ambitions that shaped his staunch belief that Germans were the superior race and the Jews, "the cold-hearted, shameless and calculating director of this revolting vice traffic in the scum of the big city."
Birth of the Nazi Party
ith an already developed hatred for the Jews and belief that…
Shirer, W. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. NY: Simon and Schuster.
First World War were felt far and wide. These effects were difficult on everyone as both the victors and losers of the war both suffered. Germany, who mady blamed for initiating the War, may have felt the most acute effects. Germany lost a large percentage of its available workforce as the result of the work and, as a result, they were hard pressed to rebuild their struggling economy.
Hard economic times are an advantageous time for new and radical political ideologies to emerge. Therefore, Germany, suffering from deprivation and devastation following the First World War, was fertile ground for political change. Hitler and his Nazi party, founded on the philosophy of fascism, used the situation to advance their political agenda and in the form of the German people they found vulnerable victims.
The philosophy underlying Fascism is based upon the ideas of one of Germany's most famous philosophers Nietzsche. Fascism…
Thirdly, health care costs were rising. "The number of people without any health insurance climbed to 15.9% in 2005 from 14.2% in 2000, and the share of people with employer-provided health insurance dropped to 59.5% from 63.6% over the same period, according to the Census ureau data released in 2006. The number of uninsured Americans is now the highest since 1998" (Middle Class in Turmoil).
Finally, the debts were rapidly increasing. "The increase of debt relative to income averaged 1.3 percentage points per quarter from March 2001 through March 2006, compared to an average increase of 0.4 percentage points from December 1995 through March 2001.[...]Middle class families' financial wealth declined in inflation-adjusted dollars by 9.2% from 2001 to 2004, and the share of households with positive financial wealth declined by 6.1 percentage points from 52.0% in 2001 to 45.9% in 2004, the smallest share ever recorded" (Middle Class in Turmoil).…
R. Reich. America's Anxious Class. New Perspectives Quarterly (Winter, 1995)
Halpin, John and Weller, Christian. "The $871,000 Job Subsidy." Nov. 2006.Center for American Progress. 11th Dec. 2006 http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2006/11/job_subsidy.html
Weller, Christian. "Continuing the Slump." Nov. 2006. Center for American Progress. 11th Dec. 2006. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2006/11/slump.html
Weller, Christian and Staub, Eli. "Middle Class in Turmoil- Economic Risks Up Sharply for most Families Since 2001." Sept. 2006. Center for American Progress. 11th Dec. 2006 http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2006/09/midclassreport.html
The Role of Christianity in Politics and Ethics
Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a German Lutheran arrested and imprisoned by the Third Reich and eventually executed for being found guilty of having taken part in an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. Bonhoeffer’s writings have since become influential in the modern world for their focus on the role that Christians can play in politics. Since the separation of church and state that America set the stage for with its own secular foundations, many have been conflicted or confused about the role that Christians should have in modern politics. For hundreds of years, the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church influenced the politics of Christendom and vice versa. With the Protestant Reformation there was a push towards secularism, and the Peace of Westphalia in the 17th century, which was forged without participation from the Pope, showed that states could handle their own affairs.…
Brock, B. “Bonhoeffer and the Bible in Christian Ethics: Psalm 119, The Mandates, and Ethics as a ‘Way’.” Studies in Christian Ethics, 18, no. 3 (2005).
Bonhoeffer, D. Ethics. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, Press. 2009.
Iyabo, O.A. “Christianity and Politics – Any Parallel Line? Christian Ethical Moral Point of View.”International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science, 2, no. 7 (2014).
Nissen, U.B. “Letting Reality Become Real: On Mystery and Reality in Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s Ethics.” Journal of Religious Ethics, 39, no. 2 (2011).
Olson, R.E. The Journey of Modern Theology: From Reconstruction to Deconstruction. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Pearson, T.D. “Bonhoeffer and the End of Christian Ethics.” Journal of Lutheran Ethics, 4, no. 8 (2004).
Plant, S. “The Sacrament of Ethical Reality: Dietrich Bonhoeffer on Ethics for Christian Citizens.” Studies in Christian Ethics, 18, no.3 (2005).
Tshaka R. &Senokoane, B. “The Christian Politician?An Investigation into the Theological Grounding for Christians Participation in Politics.”HTS Theological Studies, 72, no. 1 (2016).
Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under the Nazi regime: "The Jews are aliens in Germany -- in 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percent of aliens?"(Corelli, 2002).
Another important age group, the youth, received full attention from the part of the Nazis and the first youth organization was established in 1922 and was called the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. It went through a series of transformations and had several different names, till it finally became the name: Hitler Yugend. y 1935 over a half of the total German youth was member of this organization. After 1939 it became compulsory for the young Germans to join the organization.
It is obvious that children, young people, mothers were only…
1. Eher, Franz. On the German People and Its Territory.Nazi Propaganda: 1933-1945. 2007. Retrieved: Oct. 21, 2007. Available at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/hjhandbuch.htm
2. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Hitler and Nazi Germany a History 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. 2004
3. Welch, David. The Third Reich Politics and Propaganda 2nd edition. London. Routledge. 2002.
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
The question then becomes, not is there an Adolf Eichmann in each person, for undoubtedly there is. The question becomes, how well can people discern the difference between ideals with which they agree, and those things that are immoral; and perhaps most importantly, how effectively can people decide to do that which is morally correct even when faced with such unpopular consequences as standing out from the crowd and siding against a popular government (Alford)?
Those who held opinions that were opposed to Eichmann's trial in Israel did not wait to be heard. One notable contemporary in particular believed that the methods undertaken to achieve the trial were questionable at best. In 1961, Victor Gollancz published a pamphlet on the very trial in question. It was a plea to abstain from executing Eichmann, but it touched on issues related to the motives surrounding the trial. The Israeli Prime Minister wanted…
Alford, C. Fred. "The Organization of Evil." Political Psychology 11.1 (1990): 5 -- 27.
Web. 30 Mar. 2010.
"Argentina Uncovers Eichmann Pass." BBC News. 29 May 2007. Web. 12 April 2010.
Browning, Christopher. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish
As Baigent and Leigh point out, von Stauffenberg's co-conspirators were "aristocratic" men who despised what they now knew to be a murderous regime (26). However, it was Stauffenberg who was "the most active leader in the conspiracy against Hitler," which is exactly how Operation Valkyrie is portrayed (Hoffman xiv). The close relationship between Nina Stauffenberg and her husband is rendered thinly but at least accurately in the film, based on what historian Hoffman has to say. Although there are several other ancillary characters that were not addressed or developed in Valkyrie, the filmmakers chose what are arguably some of the most historically important in terms of the attempted assassination of Hitler.
Of course, the central event of Valkyrie is the attempted but failed assassination of Hitler. Interviews with Berthold von Stauffenberg, the Colonel's son, verify the accuracy of the historical events that shaped his father's life. For instance, Jones claims…
Baigent, Michael and Leigh, Richard. Secret Germany: Stauffenberg and the True Story of Operation Valkyrie. Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2008.
Brooks, Xan. "Valkyrie." The Guardian. 19 Jan 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/jan/20/valkyrie-tom-cruise-film-review
Craig, John S. Peculiar liaisons: in war, espionage, and terrorism in the twentieth century. Algora Publishing, 2005.
Hoffman, Peter. Stauffenberg: A Family History, 1905-1944. McGill-Queen, 2003.
Franklin Delaney oosevelt's attitude towards the Jewish problem during the War. I have read and heard such contradictory accounts spanning from Jews who congratulate for his involvement to some scholars and others who criticize him for an alleged anti-Semitism. Being that this is a famous personality that we are talking about and a prominent President of the U.S.A.; I felt that enlightenment on the subject was important. I wanted to go to the source, and therefore I accessed original documents from the collections of the Franklin D. oosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. These, compounded with other sources, are the results that I found.
By the 1940s, news had already reached the U.S.A. about the concentration camps which Edward . Murrow described (December, 13, 1942),as "A horror beyond what imagination can grasp . . . there are no longer 'concentration camps' -- we must speak now only of 'extermination camps.'" (FD…
Beschloss, M. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
FDR AND THE HOLOCAUST
Feingold, HL The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.
Dada and Degenerate Art in Germany
At the end of WW1, Germany found itself in a period of transition. Held responsible for the war and forced to pay reparations, the Weimar Republic was in a disastrous state. The Kaiser Willelm II had abdicated, hyperinflation decimated the value of the mark, and erlin was fast becoming vice capital of the world with "New Frau" poster-girl Anita erber taking pride in her position as the high priestess of immorality.[footnoteRef:1] It was a new Germany in every respect -- but not one that was destined to last: it was new in the sense that for the first time in its culture, the Germans were embracing the end -- the end of the old order, of the old code, of the old art and moral imperatives; life was short and falling apart at the seams as fast as the mark was becoming worthless. Jobs…
Altshuler, Bruce. The Avant-garde in Exhibition. NY: Abrams, 1994.
Barron, Stephanie. Degenerate Art: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. NY:
Droste, Sebastian; Berber, Anita. Dances of Vice, Horror and Ecstasy. UK: Side Real
Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.
Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany
etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.
. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…
Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last
updated in 2010. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667 .
Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty
That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.
He liked to show of the luxury than by now he could afford at the expense of the robberies conducted by him and his men and his very influential position. A closer look to Goering's life of luxury shows that he was more than enjoying his success, his arrogance and extravagance being by now well-known.
Goering had good organizational skills and he was appointed in charge of so many different positions because he had the capability to follow the Nazi ideology with more belief than many others. Goering was truly dedicated to the Nazi cause, although not entirely unmotivated.
Goering was the man that stood behind the elimination of the Jewish community from German economic life, as he fined the German Jewish community a billion marks and order their exclusion from economy, their properties, even schools, parks, or forests. Goering was one of the leading figures that planned the "Aryanisation"…
Hermann Goering, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring ;
Hermann Goering, Jewish Virtual Library, available at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Holocaust/goering.html;
Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War 1), available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdgeschwader_1_%28World_War_1%29 ;
Manvell, Roger and Franenkel, Heinrich, Goering, Greenhill Books, London UK, 2005;
orld ar I and orld ar II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after I and through II and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post I culture of German.
According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.
Members of the movement believed…
Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Barnett, Victoria J. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=79117010
Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford U.S., 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97937045
Hannah Hoch was an artist most known for her work in between the wars—the Weimar period, in which the Dada Movement came to the fore to challenge the sensibilities and pretensions of the early 20th century. Dada was as much a protest against the bourgeois as it was a slap in the face of the rising Fascist Movement. Hitler despised the Dadaists and the Dadaists despised him. Hoch counted herself as one among the Dadaists during the Weimar period—a period in which art and life came into intense conflict, while the universal stage was being set for the final showdown between the new and the old in WWII. For that reason—and for the reason that Hoch’s art gets to the heart of the changes that society was undergoing during that time of upheaval—I have selected Hannah Hoch as the focus of this paper. She is important to our textbook…
" Emphasizing the phrase "the Third Reich" underscores the sinister tone of the scene. Strasser himself notices Renault's repetition and states, "You repeat Third Reich as if you expected there to be others." Renault replies, "I will take what comes," and his words echo his intention to choose his alliances for selfish reasons. Renault does "blow with the wind," and has loyalty to no one but himself. In many ways, Rick is the same except his love for Ilsa does affect his moral decisions in the movie.
While Strasser grills Rick, he scoops out caviar in the foreground but Rick is in focus. The camera cuts back and forth between the two men and occasionally to Herr Heinz, who asks about the Third Reich, "Can you imagine us in London?" The two Nazis are evidently trying to intimidate Rick. Rick, however, remains as cool as the music playing in his…
The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…
Abzug, Robert H. 1985. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi
Concentration Camps. Oxford University Press: New York.
Aroneanu, Eugene; Whissen, Thomas. 1996. Inside the Concentration Camps:
Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Praeger: Westport, CT.
A few moments after relaying this message, the Germans opened fire and for the next two weeks, the attle of the ulge raged on and when it was finally over, 100,000 German soldiers had been killed, wounded or captured; 81,000 Americans and 1,400 ritish troops had also been killed, wounded or captured; a total of 800 tanks had been lost on both sides; a 1,000 German aircraft had also been destroyed. Thus, the attle of the ulge "was the worst battle, in terms of loss, to the American forces during World War II. 10
On December 19, 1944, General Eisenhower and his top field commanders met at Verdun in order to come up with a plan to stop the German advancement. At this time, the American and Allied forces were experiencing massive attacks -- panzers were streaming across the Allied lines and numerous German legions were marching through a gap…
Davis, Franklin M. Breakthrough: The Epic Story of the Battle of the Bulge. Derby, CT: Monarch Books, 1961.
Dupuy, Trevor N. Hitler's Last Gamble: The Battle of the Bulge, December 1944 to January 1945. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.
Kline, John. "Battle Experience and Related Facts: Battle of the Bulge, December 16, 1944 to January 25, 1945." Available at http://www.mm.com/user/jpk/battle.htm. Internet. Accessed 16 October, 2005.
Merriam, Robert E. The Battle of the Bulge. New York: Ballantine Books, 1978.
The eyes of the women... showed how cruelly one was once again torn from the illusion of a normal middleclass existence.... That more and more each day the Jew was becoming fair game was the devastating realization that underscored every experience of this kind (Kaplan, 1998, p. 52)."
The look of the German woman, on the other hand, became one of increasing masculinity with their sense of superiority, which could not have been achieved without denigrating all things Jewish, including Jewish women. Irene Guenther (2004) writes"
On May 10, 1933, Propaganda Chief Goebbels met with Bella Fromm to discuss a fashion show that was being planned at the racetrack club in Berlin. Fromm, the social columnist for the Vossische Zeitung, one of several newspapers published by Ullstein Verlag, had been staging these shows for quite some time. At their meeting, Goebbels informed Fromm that he was satisfied with her…
Cosner, Shaaron, and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29226652 .
Fox, Jo. Filming Women in the Third Reich / . Oxford: Berg, 2000. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102309122 .
The true source of drama, then, is in the accounts of the genuine events, or fictionalized versions of true events.
The Nuremberg war crime trials presented many thorny jurisprudential issues, such as the problem of ex post facto criminal law and the issue of how the court obtained jurisdiction over the defendants. In particular, what justification is there for an international (rather than a German) tribunal to try a case in which the offenses were committed by Germans against other Germans?
The trial of the Nazi judges presented additional dilemmas. What of Rolfe's argument that Janning remained on the bench in order to make the system of justice more merciful than it otherwise would have been? Certainly if Janning had resigned he would have been replaced by a more brutal official. Should this be a defense against charges that in some cases Janning had acted in a brutal and lawless…
Crowther, Bosley. "The Screen: 'Judgment at Nuremberg': Palace Shows Stanley Kramer Production." New York Times. 20 December 1961. 24 July 2005 http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?title1=&title2=Judgment%20at%20Nuremberg%20%28Movie%29&reviewer=BOSLEY%20CROWTHER&v_id=63796&partner=Rotten%20Tomatoes&oref=login .
Judgment at Nuremberg. Dir. Stanley Kramer. Perf. Spencer Tracy, Burt Lancaster, Richard Widmark, Marlene Dietrich, Maximilian Schell, Judy Garland, Montgomery Clift, Werner Klemperer and William Shatner. United Artists., 1961.
Muller, Ingo. Hitler's Justice: The Courts of the Third Reich. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Nuernberg Military Tribunal, Volume III, Page 1156. 24 July 2005 http://www.mazal.org/archive/nmt/03/NMT03-T1156.htm .
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…
Aly, Gotz and Jefferson Chase. Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. Holt Paperbacks, 2005.
Caplan, Jane and Nikolaus Waschmann (eds). Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories. Routledge, 2010.
Collier, Martin and Philip Pedley (eds). Hitler and the Nazi State. Heinemann Educational Publishers, 2005.
Gassert, Philipp and Alan F. Steinweiss. Coping with the Nazi Past: West German Debates on Nazism and Generational Conflict, 1955-1975. Berghahn Books, 2006.
The free election of Hitler as a ruler was soon adopted by the Nazis' philosophy and Hitler was presented as a man of the people. The Nazis inoculated into people's mind the idea that since they had chosen Hitler as their ruler, he must be the right man.
All in all, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was aimed at subjugating and controlling the people and it was done through the manipulation of people into achieving the Reich's goals. As such, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was that of eliminating all individual features and unifying the population's objectives in the direction desired by the Nazis.
3. The Gleichschaltung philosophy as applied by the Gestapo and the SS
In order to gain control over the people, the Nazi thinkers needed the support of military and police forces. The necessary aid came from the Geheimes Staatspolizei-Amt or Gestapo and from the Schutzstaffel, or the SS. The…
Feuchtwanger, E., Nazi Gleichschaltung, Volume 7, Number 2, History on the Web, http://www.history-ontheweb.co.uk/concepts/concept72_gleichschaltung.htm , last accessed on October 19, 2007
Orlow, D., the History of the Nazi Party: 1933-1945, Canadian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 7, No.3, Sept 1974
Evans, J.R., the Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939, New York, Penguin, 2005
Browder, G.C., Hitler's Enforces: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution, the American Historical Review, Vol. 103, No. 3, June 1998
Therefore, it compromised the superiority of the German art and body politic. The Bayreuth festival, founded by Wagner, was utilized by the Nazis as a propaganda tool against the Jews.
Both Hitler and Wagner were not only racist, but both were also artists and politicians. Whereas Wagner exhibited a number of talents, Hitler was known for his painting and oratory skills. Both were paranoid that they had Jewish forbearers. Some of those things that Hitler and Wagner shared agreed upon are as follows: race is based on appearance, language, nationality and genetics; an "Aryan" white race is the supreme race of purity, beauty, and goodness; Germans will rule the world; all race other than Aryan are inferior; Nietsche's Will to Power and social Darwinism are the foundations upon which personality and society ought to be based; Jews were contaminating German blood; Jesus was not a Jew; Jews have no religion;…
In IBM's case, the Department of Justice found that their efforts were mired in failure. Unfortunately, IBM was so central to the economic operations of Germany and occupied Europe that it was necessary to preserve IBM's role in the economy of Europe so as not to jeopardize the postwar occupation.
Part II-Present Corporatist America and Comparisons with Fascist Italy-
When the Wall Street Journal, the United States' newspaper of record for financial affairs makes an explanatory note, it gives us all pause. Gerald F. Driscoll in "An Economy of Liars" takes aim at both the Obama and George W. Bush administrations when he speaks about the present economic reality and asserts "We call that system not the free-market, but crony capitalism. It owes more to Benito Mussolini than to Adam Smith ("An Economy of Liars" 2010)."
If a communist agitator on the proverbial soapbox spouted this statement, it could be…
Alter, J. 2006, the Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope,
New York, Simon and Schuster.
Black, E. 2001, IBM and the Holocaust, Crown Publishers, New York.
(1965) "The Economy: We Are All Keynesians Now," Time, Available from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,842353-1,00.html
A modern day auteur, Quentin Tarantino has continuously revolutionized how cinemagoers experience films. By embracing his various passions and interests, and incorporating them into his films, Tarantino has proved that genres and styles do not have to be limited by culture, and in the case of Inglourious Basterds (2009), historical accuracy. Because of his postmodern approach and his unique viewpoints and style, Inglourious Basterds is a welcome addition to Tarantino's cinematic canon.
Inglourious Basterds (2009) is a contemporary spaghetti western style film that is set in Nazi-occupied France during World War II. The film recounts the story of a motley crew of American soldiers, known as the Basterds, who set out on a mission to kill as many Nazi soldiers as possible. The Basterds are joined by rogue-Nazi soldier Hugo Stiglitz, who, like the Basterds, has taken matters into his own hands and has done everything in his…
Inglourious Basterds. (2009). Dir. Quentin Tarantino. USA/Germany/France: Universal Pictures.
Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the presence of this blood-banner which represents our Fuehrer I swear to devote all my energies, and my strength to the Savior of our Country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God. One People, one Reich, one Fuehrer." (Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression)
Nazi Youth formal agreement between the ehrmacht and the Hitlerjugend was published 11 August 1939. It recites that whereas 30,000 Hitlerjugend leaders had been trained annually in shooting and field exercises, the number would be doubled; that 60,000,000 shots had been fired in Hitler Youth training courses in 1938 and that a considerable increase in the figure was expected. The agreement recognized the close cooperation that existed between…
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Simpson, Christopher. "Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann's "Spiral of Silence" and the Historical Context of Communication Theory." Journal of Communication Vol. 46 (1996).
Stein, Howard F. "Disposable Youth: The 1999 Columbine High School Massacre as American Metaphor." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society Vol. 5 (2000).
The Adolf Hitler Historical Archives. 2003. 29 Apr. 2004 http://www.adolfhitler.ws/ .
Williamson, David. "Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? David Williamson Examines Two Seemingly Irreconcilable Schools of Thought." History Review. (2002).
At the same time, Hitler had very old-fashioned ideas when it came to his behavior towards the opposite sex. He believed that women belonged in the home, and had no role in public life of the Reich. Their main role was to mother racially pure Aryan children.
If Hitler were to have removed himself to a German-speaking part of Argentina in order to pursue an art career rather than remain in Europe and become leader of the Third Reich, one can only assume that he would have limited his contacts to Argentineans of German descent. Hitler felt that Jews, Slavs, and other racial "undesirables" were polluting the purity of the German race. Add to that his repressed nature that surfaced in the form of traditional attitudes towards sex and procreation, and it seems readily apparent that he would attempt to ground his Argentinean art career among German-speaking "pure" Argentineans.
Welch, David. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 79.
Victor, George. 1998. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's), 13-20.
Victor 1988, 62.
Apparently Brandt handled the medical needs of Bruckner well because Hitler made him "…his personal physician" and in time Brandt was given the rank of "major-general in the affen-SS" (Spartacus Educational).
Brandt helped establish the "Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health," which was a smokescreen for "compulsory sterilization" -- and in fact Brandt was in charge of the program ("Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenially-Based Diseases") that basically was established to kill those who were "insane" and the "physically handicapped" (Spartacus Educational). The JVL explains that Brandt's euthanasia program began in 1939, and deformed children along with the very old and insane were murdered by gas or lethal injections in "…nursing homes, hospitals and asylums" (JVL, 1).
During the Nuremberg Trials the prosecutors were "caught off guard by the numerous affidavits submitted by the defense" that testified to the quality of Brandt's "personal character"…
Bryant, Michael. (2009). "Only the National Socialist": Postwar U.S. And West German
Approaches to Nazi "Euthanasia" Crimes, 1946-1953. Nationalities Papers, 37(6), 861-888.
Glaser, Edmund. (2008/09). Ulf Schmidt's Karl Brandt -- the Nazi Doctor: Medicine and Power in the Third Reich and Justice at Nuremberg: Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial.
Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), 109-116.
The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich
I chose Hitler as my subject for a variety of reasons, most of which will be discussed as I outline the most important parts of this book. Hitler, in history, has always stood out to me as somewhat of a mythical figure. A man who has left an indelible mark of evil in our time and in our minds. ut with all powers of both good and evil, these stories of men and of events have a tendency to grow in size and in truth over time. This is why I chose The "Hitler Myth" as my book. I wanted to understand the persona and power behind this man.
ased largely on the reports of government officials, party agencies, and political opponents, Ian Kershaw's book details the creation, growth, and decline of the "Hitler myth." As an author,…
Kershaw, Ian. The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Considered to be one of the best films of all time, Casablanca centers on Rick Blaine, an American expatriate living in Casablanca and his role in helping people escape the clutches of the ambitiously overreaching Third Reich. Rick is the owner of nightclub and casino that caters to a variety of people from Nazis to the French to refugees attempting to flee Casablanca and the Third Reich. During the course of the narrative, it is revealed that Rick is emotionally hung up on Ilsa Lund with whom he had an affair with while he was still living and working in Paris. One of the film's central motifs is the song "As Time Goes By," which is used to highlight the relationship between Rick and Ilsa and is used exclusively to connect them.
Casablanca's narrative follows Rick as he attempts to exclude himself from any involvement between those attempting to…
Casablanca. Dir. Michael Curitz. USA: Warner Brothers, 1942. DVD.
IMDB. "Casablanca (1942)." Web. 8 June 2012.
Accordingly "the Hitler Youth movement emphasized activism, physical training, NAZI ideology, especially nationalism and racial concepts, and absolute obedience to Hitler and the NAZI Party. Indoctrinating children in National Socialist ideology was a key goal of the NAZI Party. Once Hitler assumed control over the German state, he used the Government to make the Hitler Youth the country's all encompassing youth movement" (HBU1, 1) The racial elements of the Hitler Youth indoctrination were also of critical importance to the Nazi movement as these propelled the aggressive social isolation and abuse of groups such as Jews, gypsies and homosexuals. The Hitler Youth would gain a sense of pride in the propaganda designed to project them as the future leaders of Germany. Essentially granted the right to defy those of any age who differed with the party's values, the Hitler Youth would be primed for a distinct level of enthusiasm based on…
Associated Press (AP). (2005). New Pope Defied Nazis As Teen During WWII. The New York Times. Online at http://bc.edu/research/cjl/meta-elements/texts/cjrelations/topics/new_pope_defied_nazis.htm
The History Place (HP). (1999). The History Place: Hitler Youth. Historyplace.com.
Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU). (1998). German Boys Scouts/Pfadfinderen. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/sco/country/ger/scoutger.ht
Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU1). (1998). Hitler Youth. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/nat/hitler/hitler.htm
Meanwhile, Adolf Hitler took advantage of the people's dissatisfaction with the treaty and in the hands of the Nazis, this issue was used to rationalize brutal persecution of entire ethnic minorities and political groups. This effort against previous international settlements enabled a junction of their political programs, war aims, and racist ideologies.
Hitler has also decreed that the SS were to be treated as "organizations in the service of the State," and thus, achieved a very high status in the society. The special position of the SS man meant that he must be dealt with in a special way. With that, no state court, nor even a Nazi Party court, had the right to judge an SS man. If so, this was to be the sole privilege and responsibility of SS judges and high ranking officers.
It was so obvious that because of the privileges that were granted to the…
Hofer, Walther (ed.). Der Nationalsozialismus Dokumente 1933-1945 (Frankfurt (I am Main: Fischer Bucherei KG, 1957), p. 71.
Oath of Loyalty." Taken at http://ddickerson.igc.org/oath-of-loyalty.html, Retrieved on November 15, 2006
Snyder, Louis L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich (New York: Paragon House, 1989), pp.
156 and 257.
It started in the fall of 1932, Evans explains; Jewish businesses were bombed, Jewish synagogues and other Jewish places were destroyed. In the weeks after Hitler's appointment as Reich Chancellor "…stormtroopers broke into synagogues and desecrated the religious furniture, smashed the windows of Jewish shops, and subjected Jews to random acts of humiliation," like forcing them to drink castor oil and shaving their beards forcibly in public, Evans goes on.
The Jewish judges and lawyers were not spared from this violence. All over Germany, the Nazi stormtroopers "burst into courthouses… dragged Jewish judges and lawyers out of the proceedings and beat them up…" (Evans). It is hard to imagine the horror that participants must have experience during court proceedings, to have armed storm troopers burst in and grab the judge, drag him into the street and beat him. Of all the outrageously violent and terrifying events in Nazi Germany --…
Barsam, Richard Meran. 1975. Filmguide to Triumph of the Will. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
Evans, Richard J. 2005. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Books.
Hegi, Ursula. 2000. Stones from the River. Madison, WI: Demco Media.
Hitler, Adolph. 1926. Mein Kampf. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://www.hitler.org /writings/Mein_Kampf.
His speeches showed that he was a charismatic outstanding personality with self-confidence and energy. He knew how to influence and manipulate crowd; civilians, SA or German army. He spoke what people wanted to hear, what they were afraid to say but what they thought about. This was his weapon and he used it skillfully. He believed that German was a great nation and he made people to believe it. In his speeches and political program Hitler paid a lot of attention to propaganda of a new Germany, with iron order and strict social hierarchy. In order to solve political and economical problems Hitler proposed to eliminate "hidden enemies of state": Jews and communists. It was much easier to accuse someone in own faults than to find origins of the problem, and "hidden enemies of state" were the best scapegoats. Anti-Semitism was common for Germans in the twentieth century and it…
Ron Rosenbaum Explaining Hitler: The Search of the Origins of His Evil Harper Perennial 1999
David, Abraham The Collapse of the Weimar Republic: Political Economy and Crisis, Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1986
Sheridan, Allen, The Nazi seizure of Power: the experience of a single German town, 1922-1945 F. Watts, 1984
Chronicles of Holocaust available online:
Kringlen also published more extensive case records for his monozygotic twins than any other researcher had done (pp. 7-8)."
The information gained by these studies was significant. One, in particular, conducted by William Pollin and his colleagues set out to disprove the biological or genetic factors, and to establish the basis for.".. psychodynamic, interpersonal phenomena that might have some significant etiologic role with respect to schizophrenia (Torrey, p. 9)." What Pollin and his colleagues found, instead, was that there were significant physiological conditions in the twins examined who had schizophrenia (p. 9).
The most significant findings were a history of lower birth weight and more obstetric complications in the affected twins in discordant pairs, and more neurological abnormalities in the affected twins (Pollin & Stabenau, 1968; Mosher et al., 1971). The findings, said these researchers, suggested that "the intrauterine experience of one twin, relative to the co-twin, tends to be…
Csernansky, J.G. (Ed.). (2002). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109107379 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113408413
Harrop, C., & Trower, P. (2003). Why Does Schizophrenia Develop at Late Adolescence? A Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Psychosis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113408491 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111909680
Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111909680 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85769272
As displayed in the movie, Hitler has put an end to the Depression by bringing German pride back, and by having Germans work again in a prosperous society. This time, the swastika is put next to wheat on banners.
Probably uninspired at a certain moment in editing the film, when Hitler asks various laborers where they are from, Riefenstahl first shows an individual who is from Friesenland, a location of little importance for Germans.
Hitler presumably wants to put an end to discrimination between classes, as he claims that all German people should consider themselves as their Fuhrer's people. The process he wants to make work in order to unite people is none other than that of work. Hitler's strategies, along with that of Riefenstahl's make it possible for the movie to be a very convincing material. When being combined with political propaganda, art is more effective than it could…
The Germany Army also condoned what had happened in the purging of the Night of the Long Knives, showing that their side was with Hitler and thus they began their association with him that would nearly lead them to a world conquest (1996). The two-hour, highly emotional speech that Hitler gave at the Reichstag explaining his behavior to the German people as well as to the disbelieving foreign press would be one of the most important speeches of his career (1996). The "brownshirts" were either brought into Hitler's army or they just simply disappeared while the would become Hitler's main tools of mass murder that would go on for another eleven years (1996).
ection E: Conclusion.
The Night of the Long Knives was absolutely vital in Hitler's consolidation of power. Before the purge, Hitler had opposition in the A party who were still interested in some of the original ideas…
Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power. New York, NY: Penguin, 2006.
History Place. The Night of the Long Knives. World War II in Europe, 1996. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from the Website,
Maracin, Paul R. The Night of the Long Knives: Forty-Eight Hours That Changed the History of the World. Guilford, CT: First Lyons Press Paperback Edition, 2007.
The churches provided open opposition to Hitler, particularly as he had declared a form of war on them as he wanted the state to take over the churches and to direct them in ways compatible with National Socialism. Various religious leaders were arrested, hundreds of them, eventually resulting in a diminishing of the resistance from that front. Shirer notes that this persecution of religion did not arouse the German people as it should have: "A people who had so lightly given up their political and cultural and economic freedoms were not, except for a relatively few, going to die or even risk imprisonment to preserve freedom of worship" (Shirer 240).
hile a large proportion of the intellectual class has rightly been blamed for failing in its responsibility to criticize the rise of National Socialism, there were also leading men in philosophy and education, history, jurisprudence, economics, physics, and other disciplines…
Rothfels, Hans, the German Opposition to Hitler. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1962.
Shirer, William L., the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960.
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
Even though the Gypsies in prewar Germany consisted of a very limited per capita population they received massive amounts of attention from the Regime and were left ripe for further marginalization and destruction.
Though they made up less than 0.1% of the German population (between 20,000 and 30,000), Gypsies, like Jews, received disproportionate attention from the authorities as the various agencies of the state sought to transform Germany into a racially pure society. etween 1934 and the outbreak of World War II, a series of laws and regulations created a web of restrictions that set Gypsies apart and severely restricted their ability, individually and collectively, to survive. In July 1934, a decree forbade intermarriage between Germans and Gypsies. 4 the same year, the law permitting the deportation of aliens was extended to foreign Gypsies. 5 in September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws declared the Gypsies "an alien People" 6 and restricted…
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe,. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Csepeli, Gyorgy, and David Simon. "Construction of Roma Identity in Eastern and Central Europe: Perception and Self-Identification." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30, no. 1 (2004): 129.
Csepeli, Gyrgy, and Antal rkeny. "The Changing Facets of Hungarian Nationalism." Social Research 63, no. 1 (1996): 247-286.
Epstein, Eric Joseph, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of the Holocaust: Biography, Geography, and Terminology. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.
obert M. Edsel's The Monuments Men, is the study of the United States Army's attempt to save valuable art objects during the Second World War. Edsel's primary objective was to showcase the men and women involved in what was known as the "monuments division" and tell their unique stories as it relates to the importance of saving many of Europe's most valuable art treasures. Although the initial responsibility of the monuments division was to safeguard monuments and buildings against bombing and shelling when possible, their job was later shifted to cover movable works of art that the Nazis has stolen and relocated throughout the war (Edsel, 2009, p.2). The work done by this interesting and unique group of U.S. Army soldiers is a story that up until now has not been told. Edsel's book fills a gap in the narrative of the Second World War that has hitherto…
Edsel, Robert M. (2009). The Monuments Men. New York: NY. Hachette Book Group.
Monumentsmen.org. Valland, Capt. Rose. http://www.monumentsmenfoundation.org/monumentsmen/bio.php?personID=296
Heidegger and Hitler
Proponents of Heidegger's metaphysical viewpoint are reluctant to identify a relationship between it and the opprobrious Nazi regime which Heidegger supported from 1933 to 1945. Critics of Heidegger, however, view the relationship between his metaphysics and his politics as significant. One might well ask, therefore, whether the relationship is real or only apparent -- whether the tenets of National Socialism are found in Heidegger's philosophy, or whether the fact that the two came from one man is merely a coincidence that ultimately means little.
Yet, by the formula of his own analysis (set forth in Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event), one can see that Heidegger's metaphysics cannot be separated from his politics anymore than he himself can be separated from the environment and context in which he came to maturity. But while some scholars view Heidegger's political views as having an impact on his metaphysical views,…
Farias, Victor. Heidegger and Nazism. PA: Temple University Press, 1987. Print.
Gillespie, Michael Allen. Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History. IL: University
of Chicago Press, 1984. Print.
Heidegger, Martin. Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event. IN: Indiana University
During the inter-war years, Nazism strengthened its populist support by emphasizing its nationalist ideology, thus drawing on the German traditions of the 19th century and gaining strength from the disillusion that had set in after the defeat in World War I. Hitler's policies for Germany included the resurgence of a Greater Germany, by instilling the German people with a renewed sense of purpose in order to inspire, "the miracle of Germany's emergence as a nation" (Berwick, 20). This rejuvenated nation would also include Austria and the German-speaking people who had been lost to Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1919. Before 1933, Hitler played on the unjustness of the Versailles Treaty and, between 1933 and 1939 repeatedly claimed that he was reasserting the national rights of Germany, which included the publicly popular issue of territorial claims (Payne, 1995). Therefore, the reoccupation of the hineland in 1936, the occupation of…
Berwick, M. The Third Reich. London: Wayland Publishers, 1971.
Carsten, F.L. The Rise of Fascism. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1970.
Eatwell, Roger. Fascism: A History. New York: The Penguin Group, 1995.
Mosse, George. The Crisis of German Ideology. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
In Psychology, paranoia is defined as 'a mental illness in which somebody wrongly believes that they are hated or badly treated by others'. In this context, Adolph Hitler and Osama bin Laden do not have commonality of thought. Although leaders of their respective groups or nations, both the men, were poles apart. Adolph Hitler and Osama bin Laden belonged to two stark opposite backgrounds, performed differently, were brought up in absolutely opposite environments and functioned in this transitory world thereby spending their lives with a cause. However, the motives behind their actions were as different in the two cases as their actions were. In short, Hitler and Osama bin Laden have little comparison; our thesis statement that will be backed with sufficient evidence in the following passages of our research paper.
Adolf Hitler was the head of the state and he brought much anguish as well as created extreme…
The psychology and development of Adolf Hitler. Retrieved September 22, 2003 at http://www.abelard.org/hitler/hitler.html
Bernhardt (2001). Osama Bin Ladin, Anthrax and the Psychology of Terrorism.
Lauryssens S (1999). The Man Who Invented the Third Reich.
Speech at Kulmbach on 5 February 1928, quoted in Hitler, A Study in Tyranny
The way in which Hitler took over Germany was very open, but yet it was not thwarted by others in the political realm. By the time they realized what was taking place, it was already done.
Hindenburg was still president of Germany at that time, but right before he died a law was passed that the presidency would be abolished with his death, and all power over the government and the country would go to the chancellor (Hitler) (Benderwky, 62). This was a very insidious way to get the remaining power that he was still lacking, and it provided him with completely political and legal control over Germany and its people. In 1934, Hitler told a reporter how people had laughed at him 15 years prior, when he stated that he would become ruler of Germany (McNab, 70). At that time, he said he would remain in power, and his…
Aigner, Dietrich. Hitler's ultimate aims -- A programme of world dominion? In Koch, H.W. Aspects of the Third Reich. London: MacMillan. 1985. Print.
Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany: 1919 -- 1945. NY: Rowman & Littlefield. 2000. Print.
Maser, Werner. Hitler: Legend, Myth, Reality. London: Allen Lane. 1973. Print.
McNab, Chris. The Third Reich. NY: Amber Books Ltd. 2009. Print.
The past is not something that stays in the past. It reaches out and extends forward into the present; it shapes and instructs us, warns and interests us. Sometimes we return to it in order to judge it anew or attempt to reconstruct it in a way that allows it to make more sense. Sometimes new information is uncovered from the past that puts a new perspective on things. Sometimes the past can be impactful on the course of events still occurring in the present. In short, there is no wall or barrier between the present and the past. The two mix and mingle and inform one another. Therefore, everything about the past is relevant in 2016. This paper will examine 8 articles that deal with specific incidences in the past that I find to be particularly meaningful today.
History teaches us to pay attention -- to be…
Spear of Destany
The history of civilization is full of legends and myths that have cut across cultural barriers and are nowadays some of the most well-known stories related to the old times of religion and civilization. One of these myths include, among others, the Holy Graal, the Shroud of Turin, or the Spear of Destiny, both of them linked to the life and death of Jesus Christ.
The present research provides a detailed account of the history of the Spear of Destiny, or the Holy Spear, which is considered to have been the one that eventually killed Jesus on the Cross. The accounts of this artifact is important and to some extend crucial for the history of Christianity in particular because of the role it played in the final hours of Jesus' life and, at the same time, due to the mysticism and meaning that has been attributed to…
Above Top Secret. (2014). The Spear of Destiny and Its Victims: From Jesus to Hitler . Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread914336/pg1
Bible Probe. (n.d.). Search for the real Holy Lance. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from http://www.bibleprobe.com/holy_lance.htm
Charney, N. (2013, Dec 21). Hitler's Hunt for the Holy Grail and the Ghent Altarpiece. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/12/21/hitler-s-hunt-for-the-holy-grail-and-the-ghent-altarpiece.html
Don Schwager. (n.d. ). Daily readings and Meditation. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from The Gospel of John: a commentary & meditation: http://www.rc.net/wcc/readings/john1931.htm
For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)
At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…
Little German Reform Would Go a Long Way" (Dec 1, 2003) Business Week. Issue: 3860; pg. 22. Retrieved from home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker / Businessweek/BW/2003/12_01_2003.pdf Accessed on 24 November, 2004
Economic Survey - Germany 2004: Main issues and policy challenges"
Retrieved at http://www.oecd.org/document/17/0,2340,en_2649_201185_33633425_1_1_1_1,00.html . Accessed on 24 November, 2004
Economy of Germany" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_GermanyAccessed on 25 November, 2004
In 1918 Iceland became independent but remained under the rule of the Danish king. At the end of the war a plebiscite showed a 75% pro-Danish majority and the North Slesvig was once again reunited with Denmark (Miller 224).
As World War I was coming close and Denmark remained neutral Jews started moving to the country. There are no exact statistics since many of these immigrants were wary of the authorities, but as many as twenty to thirty thousand Eastern European Jews may have entered Denmark during this period and approximately 3,000 stayed permanently, thus doubling the Jewish population (Hammerich in Kisch). More did not stay because the existing assimilated Jewish community wanted to pay their passage out; they believed their position in society was threatened and latent anti-Semitism would spread. The Jewish congregation even actively cooperated with authorities such as the police to expel unemployed or unwanted individuals from…
Buckser Andrew. After the Rescue. New York: MacMillan, 2003
Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University, 2001
Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979
Kische, Conrad. The Jewish Community in Denmark: History and Present Status.
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…
Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.
Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.
Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…
Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.
The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…
Alderman, Sidney. 1945. Address to the Tribunal: November 23, 1945.
Chang, Iris. 1997. The Rape of Nanking. Penguin Books.
Marrus, Michael R. 2006. The Nuremburg war Crimes Trial. Bedford Press.
Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. 2008. Global Justice. Stanford University Press
Institutions are defined as the existence of formal rules, on the one hand, and informal conventions and norms (such as impolitic societal rules that constrain behavior and impose forms of conduct) on the other. A system of enforcement structures are set in place to ensure that society abides to both and the strength of that enforcement system generally determines the extent to which individuals of a particular society will abide by its rules and conventions.
Enforcement may be carried out by various means depending on the specific set of situations. It may be carried out by self-enforcement (such as when one imposes upon oneself dietary restrictions of eating in order to lose weight). Enforcement may also be carried out by a second party as retaliation (as, for instance, another refusing to cordially greet the other is impolitely dealt with). Thirdly, and most strongly linked to maintenance and support of institutions,…
Bergman, P. (1980). Sociology of Knowledge, Oxford Univ. Press: Oxford.
Crossley, N. (2006) Contesting Psychiatry: Social Movements in Mental Health Routledge
Gerard, A. Institutions, path dependence and decomocratic consolidation, Journal of Theoretical Politics 13(3): 249 -- 70
Harris, H.W., Felder, D., & Clark, M.O. (2004). A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum on the Care of African-American Patients. Academic Psychiatry 28 (3): 226 -- 239
Undoubtedly, this association is partially explained by his postwar notoriety, but the ubiquitous image of Mengele at the ramp in so many survivors' accounts has also to do with the fact that Mengele often appeared "off-duty" in the selection area whenever trainloads of new prisoners arrived at Auschwitz, searching for twins."
Mengele's fascination with twins, and especially with experimentation on twins in order to find a way in which he could potentially double the size of the German race, led him to experiment on everything from eyesight, to pain tolerance, to tuberculosis. From witness accounts, Mengele would even inject the children with diseases, which often provoked vomiting and diarrhea, or would subject them to cuts while strapped to a table.
Because of his firsthand experimentation and selection of many prisoners, Mengele is responsible for countless numbers of deaths. Furthermore, due to his orders, others were either tortured, maimed, or killed…
Evans, Nick. "Nazi Angel of Death Josef Mengele 'created Twin Town in Brazil'" the Telegraph UK. 21 Jan. 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
"Holocaust History." Josef Mengele. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
"Holocaust History." Nazi Medical Experiments. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
"Josef Mengele (German Physician)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
It would construct a credible, but false, situation to deceive or lead the target to act in a manner, which would accomplish the commander's goal. When the target accepted the deception, the commander determined the means or methods needed to present the events. The manual demonstrated the mechanism of "Conditioning an Adversary" through the case of the Egyptian crossing the Suez in 1973. It consisted that deceptive measures and a broad range of centrally-directed and controlled deception events, involving political and military activities. Whether the objective was to control the public and elite view of a conflict or for purposes of military deception, the U.S. military had keen interest in media's perception of events in the battlefield. If the media was present and undermined the political strategy, it needed to be controlled. ut if it were non-neutral, there was greater need to control it. Whether it behaved impartially or not,…
Breuer, William. Uncover Tales of World War II. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1999
Bush, Georg W. Remarks at the Decication of the National World War II Memorial. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Government Printing Office, May 29, 2004
Conant, Jennet. Tuxedo Park: a Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science that Changed the Course of World War II. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002
Friedman, Max Paul. Nazis and Good Neighbors. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003
Following their dramatic loss in the First orld ar, the people of Germany were suffering greatly, both emotionally and physically during the period of the 1920s and into the 1930s. The harsh stipulations of the Treaty of Paris forced the German government into a fragile and fragmented institution which was ripe for the abuse of power-hungry would-be tyrants. The people, eager for a strong figure to look up to, would have accepted almost anyone with perhaps any political agenda so long as the person said the right things and gave the people hope. Enter onto the world stage one Adolph Hitler. Between 1932 and 1933, Adolph Hitler was able to rise from the position of relative insubordinate in the government, to fuehrer and leader of the entire country of Germany. The only way that one man could have achieved such political success in so quick a time has…
Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2007. Print.
Bessel, Richard. Life in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University, 1989. Print.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb. "To the German Nation." Modern History Sourcebook. 1806. Print.
Goebbels, Joseph. "Our Hitler: a Radio Speech to the German People in Honor of the Fuhrer's
Glimpse Into the Mind of a Genius
Vladimir Nabokov wrote about the world in which he lived. His world was the first half of the twenty first century, and was filled with mistrust and double standards. His world was one of death and the darker side of human nature. It is this side of human nature that intrigued Nabokov and also something that his life had led him to experience first hand. In a world at war one is surrounded by death and death was a central theme of Nabokov's work. Nabokov's work reflected the world in which he lived. Nabokov uses stereotypical references to paint a clear picture of life during orld ar II."
Many consider Nabokov to be a literary genius who weaves complex plots and rich characters together in ways that can seem incomprehensible at times. No one will argue with his clever command of the English…
Nabokov, Vladimir. "Conversation Piece" Retrieved at http://ruslit.virtualave.net/nabokov/conversationl.html Accessed August, 2002.
Brian Boyd. Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. Alfred A Knopf Publishers. March,
Grossman, Lev. The gay Nabokov. Salon Media group, Inc. Salon.com. 2000. Retrieved at http://dir.salon.com/books/feature/2000/05/17/nabokov/index.html Accessed August
Thorpe, Vanessa. Gay brother 'is key to Lolita author" The Observer. Sunday May 21, 2000.
Gypsies, otherwise known as Roma, came to the Americas with the very earliest settlers. Throughout the course of the past 500 years, the Roma, their preferred name, have held on to their traditions and practices. Historical written record says that the Portugese exported Gypsies to South America. According to legend, the Portugese did the same thing in what is now South Carolina, long before the English came to settle the area.
The long tradition of Gypsies in the United States is almost as interesting as the origination of Gypsises as a people. Gypsies originated in India over 1000 years ago, migrating to Europe in the Middle Ages. No one knows for sure how or why they began to wander the globe as they have. Today, there are more than twelve million Roma located in many countries around the world. ecause the Romani are almost never included on official census counts,…
Cheverly, MD; Gypsy Lore Society, 1994.
Patrin timeline of Romani History" http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/timeline.htm
Bunce, C. "Travelers are the Unhelathiest People in Britain." British Medical
Journal. 19 October 1996
Meier, David a. "An Appeal for a Historiographical Renaissance: Lost Lives and the Thirty Years War." The Historian 67, no. 2 (2005): 254+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010923917.
Murdoch, Steve, ed. Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. Boston: Brill, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109286924.
Silve, Benoit M. "From Leadership to Partnership: a New American Security Strategy for Europe." Naval War College Review 50, no. 1 (1997): 88+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037619771.
Theibault, John. "The Rhetoric of Death and Destruction in the Thirty Years War." Journal of Social History 27, no. 2 (1993): 272+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000249833.
Wilson, Peter H. "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question ." History Today, August 2009, 12+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.
. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and erman Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.
. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years'…
Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247 .
Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001),
. . ' Their authority may only be of the order and breadth determined by the Idea of the whole; they may only 'originate from its might'. That things should be so lies in the Idea of the organism. But in that case it would be necessary to show how all this might be achieved. For conscious reality must hold sway within the state." (Marx, 77)
This suggests that independence is a pathway to authoritarian tyranny, whereas the 'might' of the state is accorded only by a collective population supporting this right. this resonates most closely with my own personal perspective, denoting something of a universal order in which central authority is necessary to retain civility but in which collectivism is elevated over materialism as a way of empowering such leadership.
The spread of capitalism as both a chief ideology and an aggressive response to the mores of socialism…
Eksteins, M. (2000). Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Mariner Books.
Gerth, H.H.; Mills, C.W. & Weber, M. (1958). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Oxford University Press.
Hachmeister, L. (2006). The Goebbels Experiment. First Run Features.
Marx, K. (1992). Early Writings. Penguin Classics.