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Kill a Mockingbird is a coming of age tale told from the perspective of a young girl in the Deep South. The perspective of the novel provides the reader with a fresh, innocent view of a world that is eventually stripped away of its gloss: the innocent eyes see a world that is riddled with injustice, lies, hatred, and evil -- yet in spite of the world of fallen nature that opens up before the girl there remains a hidden goodness that emerges to give the reader enough hope to carry on. This to me is the most interesting part of the novel -- that it begins in a state of innocence, watches as wickedness unfolds, and yet does not end on a cynical note or with a tone of despondency. On the contrary, it remains basking in the glory of Atticus Finch, the noble man whose efforts to save…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. NY: McIntosh and Otis, 1988.
Abstract / Introduction
When writing a “To Kill a Mockingbird” essay, keep in mind Harper Lee’s 1960 novel is a Pulitzer Prize winning classic. It was well-received at the time and is still loved and admired by new readers today. One of the reasons the story is so successful is that Lee uses archetypes to present a world of good and evil that is easy for audiences to understand. Atticus Finch is the archetypal hero, defending the good; Bob Ewell is the archetypal villain, pursuing evil at all costs even unto his own destruction. In this article, we’ll take a look at a list of related topics that a student could use to write a paper on this book. We’ll also provide a summary, analysis, quick description of characters, some good quotes, and a short list of themes. Let’s get started!
The novel’s main conflict is embedded…
Lee, Harper. (2006). To kill a mockingbird. New York :Harper Perennial Modern Classics,
Horton Foote and "To Kill a Mockingbird"
Some aspects of a literary work are often revealed through the author's biography. Horton Foote is no exception, as his biography reveals a thoughtful Southern writer who could brilliantly capture life's conflicts, triumphs and defeats. Both honored and criticized, Foote remained a considerate chronicler of humanity whose work is still admired decades after publication and whose life is an inspiration.
Horton Foote (March 14, 1969 -- March 4, 2009) was a southerner, born and raised in harton, Texas (Hopwood). The remaining facts of his personal life are simple and straightforward. Barred from military service during orld ar II due to a hernia, Foote wrote in his early life but also held various menial jobs, including night elevator operator and bookstore clerk (Hampton). hen working as a bookstore clerk, he met Lillian Vallish (Hampton), they married in 1945 and Foote remained married…
Baker, Frank W. "Film Study Guide for "To Kill a Mockingbird" - Seeing the Film Through the Lens of Media Literacy." 2003. Frank W. Baker Web site. Web. 29 March 2012.
Berardinelli, James. "To Kill a Mockingbird." 2012. Reel Views Web site. Web. 29 March 2012.
Crowther, Bosley. "To Kill a Mockingbird." 15 February 1963. New York Times Web site. Web. 29 March 2012.
Ebert, Roger. "To Kill a Mockingbird." 11 November 2001. Roger Ebert Web site. Web. 229 March 2012.
To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel that discusses race relations and the justice system in American culture. Atticus is a lawyer who defends a black man on trial for raping a white woman. As a result, the community is against Atticus and his family. Symbolism is one way that author Harper Lee discusses the sensitive issues in the novel, which was published first in 1960. At that time, the Civil Rights Act had not been passed and blacks were discriminated against in society. The United States still practiced racial segregation, especially in the South, when Harper Lee wrote the book. In To Kill a Mockingbird, the author shows how black men were often accused and convicted of crimes they did not commit. The book also shows how difficult it was to eliminate racism, even when there were people who did not believe in it. Harper Lee's novel…
Dave, R.A. "To Kill a Mockingbird: Harper Lees Tragic Vision." DISCovering Authors. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Discovering Collection. Gale. THORNTON TOWNSHIP HIGH SCHOOL. 17 May. 2010 .
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird.
Meyer, Michael J. Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird: New Essays. Scarecrow, 2010.
Historical Context of the Film To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird starring Gregory Peck is a 1962 film adaptation of the 1960 novel by Harper Lee of the same name. The film was produced during a decade in which the Civil Rights Movement was reaching its zenith. Blacks had been protesting throughout the South, and Martin Luther King, Jr., would be arrested in Birmingham in 1963. There he would write his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, justifying his actions at the front of the civil disobedience. Soon thereafter would be the march to Washington and then the Selma to Montgomery march. In short, race and desegregation was on everyone’s mind. The film gives special attention to the issue of race, even though it is set in the 1930s. The activities abuzz in the 1960s were surely reflected in the film’s story. For instance, the…
Kill a Mockingbird
Racism leads to a prejudice that can ultimately affect one's fate through the road of life. Give an entire town reason to hate a certain type of man, and the town can immediately cast that man out for the very color of his skin. Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird explores this prejudice in a rural American town in the South. Lee's fictional creation of Maycomb, Alabama showcases a world where racism runs rampant, to the point of unfairness in the justice system, and opens the reader's eyes to a society where the color of one's skin determines one's town rank. This viewpoint is shown tremendously through the trial of Tom Robinson, the mockingbird who is accused of things he did not do; that he is a black man only makes him guilty.
Maycomb is fashioned much like that of an actual Southern town during the Great…
obinson being black and the alleged victim of the rape being a white woman. Finch then states that "I have nothing but pity... For the chief witness whose evidence has been called into serious question... The defendant is not guilty, but somebody in this courtroom is" (Lee, 1988, 231). What Finch is attempting to say is that the true guilt lies on the white woman who has accused Mr. obinson of raping her, an accusation that is false. However, Finch then relates that "She has committed no crime" (Lee, 1988, 231), due to the fact that the statements of a white woman against those of a black man are always taken as truth by white southern society.
But then Finch throws a legal lasso over the court by declaring that the woman "must put Tom obinson away from her. Tom obinson was her daily reminder of what she did... She…
Cooper, Michael. (2005). "To Kill a Mockingbird -- a Book Review."
Ezine Articles. Internet. Retrieved at http://ezinearticles.com/?to-Kill-a -
Mockingbird -- a-Book-Review&id=78097.
Lee, Harper. (1988). To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
By allowing his children to address him by hist first name, Atticus is dismantling one of the many traditions that serve to reinforce and perpetuate traditions that ultimately only serve to delegitimize the experience and perspective of certain people. This forces the viewer to take Scout's recollections and narration more seriously, because although they are the memories of a relatively young child, the viewer cannot help but treat them with a little more respect in recognition of the respect that Atticus, as the most idealized character in the entire film, grants them.
Thus, taking a cue from Atticus, Scout and Jem are respectful and relatively well-behaved, but are never hesitant to question or challenge attitudes and behaviors that they perceive as unjust or unjustified, and particularly in the case of Scout, are especially sensitive to behaviors that hypocritically contradict the ostensible moral standards of society. hile is worth noting that…
Edgerton, Gary. "A Visit to the Imaginary Landscape of Harrison, Texas: Sketching the Film
Career of Horton Foote." Literature/Film Quarterly 17.1 (1989): 2-12.
Foote, Horton. To kill a mockingbird, the screenplay: and related readings. Boston: McDougal
Kill a Mockingbird
The novel To Kill a Mockingbird by author Harper Lee tells the story of a southern American family living in a rural community during the Great Depression. Atticus Finch is the single, widowed father of Jeremy, nicknamed Jem, and Jean Louise, nicknamed Scout. Many people of the town of Maycomb, Alabama dislike the Finches because Atticus is educated, because of the way that Atticus is raising his children and also for his attitudes towards segregation and racial equality. Mr. Finch tries very hard to teach his children right from wrong, to let them live and make some of their own mistakes, and to raise them as intelligent human beings who judge men by the quality of the character, not the color of their skin. Although Atticus Finch is not a perfect man, he is ultimately a good father and a very good man.
Most of the plot…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1960. Print.
Kill a Mockingbird is one of the classical American novels that described the lynching of a black man accused of rape in Alabama during the 1930s. In this story, Tom Robinson is completely innocent, having been accused falsely by a white woman named Mayella Ewell. In reality, she was attracted to Tom and attempted to seduce him, but when her father found out he forced her to accuse him of rape. Atticus Finch knows the charges are false and defends Tom in court as best he can, knowing that the death sentence is inevitable in this case. As I reader, I can identify with the heroism of Atticus in the case, and sympathize with the injustice being done to Tom, who never has a chance of surviving once these charges have been made. Even the Ewell family, as degraded, violent and racist as they are should also be considered victims…
Bloom, Harold. Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird. Infobase Publishing, 2007.
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. HarperCollins, 1960, 1988.
McElaney, Hugh, "Just One Kind of Folks': The Normalizing Power of Disability in To Kill a Mockingbird in Michael J. Meyer (ed). Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird: New Essays. Scarecrow Press, 2010: 211-30.
Murphy, Mary McDonagh. Scout, Atticus, and Boo: A Celebration of Fifty Years of To Kill a Mockingbird. HarperCollins, 2010.
There are stereotypes on both sides of the racial issues raised in this book, and Lee tries to show that both of them are unfair and generalized, and that there were exceptions on both sides of the Black/white controversies and disagreements in the South.
Lee uses rape as a shocking way to bring racism to the surface, because sexual relations between a white woman and black man were even more volatile than just about any other kind of racial contact. The whites could never accept this, which is why it would be impossible for them to acquit Tom obinson at his trial. One critic sums up this mentality quite nicely. She writes, "Atticus Finch chided his son, Jem, for wondering why the jury did not give Tom obinson a prison sentence rather than the death sentence by saying, '[He's] a colored man, Jem. No jury in this part of the…
Bawer, Bruce. "The Other Sixties." The Wilson Quarterly Spring 2004: 64+.
Dorr, Lisa Lindquist. "Black-on-White Rape and Retribution in Twentieth-Century Virginia: 'Men, Even Negroes, Must Have Some Protection'." Journal of Southern History 66.4 (2000): 711.
Hertz, Karl V. "Seize the Teaching Moment in Behalf of Goodness." School Administrator Mar. 1995: 54.
Johnson, Claudia Durst. Understanding to Kill a Mockingbird a Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historic Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Aunt Alexandra does not say "please" or "thank you," just a simple command forcing Cal into subservience. Cal has symbolized strength and authority throughout Scout's childhood, by acting as a mother figure in the Finch household. Scout has never seen Cal in such a low and submissive position
Equality is not approved, segregation is traditional, and hate is accepted. Maycomb citizens believe that Tom Robinson is not, and should not be a part of their lives or of their community Atticus, on the other hand, find faults with the towns' traditional views. Thinking logically and wisely, he knows he does not want his children to grow up with similar views. Atticus attacks old southern tradition by using the law. He lives by a traditional code in which justice is highly valued. He strongly believes that "in our courts all men are created equal"(p.205). Atticus knows that if there is one…
Draper, James P, ed "Lee, Harper." World Literature Criticism: 1500 to present. vol. 4. Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1992.
Sullivan Richard. "Engrossing First Novel of Rare Excellence." Chicago Sunday Tribune 17 July, 1960.
Johnson, Claudia Durst. Understanding to Kill a Mockingbird. Wesport:the Greenwood Publishing, Inc., 1994.
Ward, Leo. Commonweal, 9 December, 1960.
Kill a Mockingbird Scouts view innocence beginning, middle end a multi-Paragraph 2 chunk 1:2 ratio. I a requirement sheet faxed emailed . Thank Zoanne Gray [HIDDEN]
Scout's view of innocence in "To Kill a Mockingbird"
The central character in Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird," Scout, is initially an innocent girl. The fact that she does not associate the low social status of black people in Maycomb, Alabama, with them being discriminated by the white community is essential proving this. This contributes to the belief that she is innocent, considering that she cannot possibly consider that people's nature can be so immoral. Although her father taught her in regard to life and concerning what would be best for her to do, he did not relate to society's problems and to their seriousness. Her innocence is reflected through the fact that she is curious about who is leaving presents to her…
Lee, Harper and Bloom, Harold, To Kill a Mockingbird, (Infobase Publishing, 2010).
Kill a Mockingbird
Introduction to the novel. Some writers explain that To Kill a Mockingbird is about growing up in the South during the Jim Crow days. Others explain that the story is about racial injustice in the South. Actually, To Kill a Mockingbird is both a story about growing up in the South and about racial bigotry in Alabama in the 1930s, and it goes deeply into the issue of justice and fairness within the big picture of what it was like to be in the South during that era. The story takes place over a period of three years, and it is made interesting by the author Harper Lee because the main characters evolve quite a bit and the social scene at the time is well depicted. It is easy to look back at American history through this novel and condemn the South, and Alabama, for the racism,…
Lee, Harper. 1993. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: HarperCollins.
Lastly, both of the novels impart a common moral lesson to the readers. "There is more to it than meets the eye"... this is just one of the lessons that can be achieved from the said novels. Many of the characters in the novels are not what they truly seem to be. Like for example, most would write off Boo adley as a reclusive madman, Miss Dubose as a mean spirited old woman, and Dolphous aymond as a social deviant. These people are loathed by most, but these are not fair judgments (http://www.ezinearticles.com/?to-Kill-a-Mockingbird-a-Book-eview&id=78097,2006).
In both novels, it is also the characters that are able to ascertain the true nature of the other people's personality. Jem hates Ms. Dubose so much for what she says that he destroys her bushes. But when forced to spend time with her, he finds her a more acceptable person. And when Atticus points out that…
Lee, Harper (1998) "To Kill a Mocking Bird." (Reissue Edition). Warner Books.
To Kill a Mocking Bird." 2006. http://www.homework-online.com/tkamb/themes_racism-acceptance.asp
To Kill a Mocking Bird." 2006. http://www.ezinearticles.com/?to-Kill-a-Mockingbird-a-Book-Review&id=78097
During this time all the defendants remain in prison. Finally, on April 1, 1935, the United States Supreme Court overturns the convictions of Patterson and Norris on the grounds that qualified African-Americans had been excluded from all juries in Alabama, including on this trial. (Johnson, 20) the trials are reflected in the fictional trial of Tom Robinson, which parallels the tensions and prejudices existent between the black and white communities. The novel also deals with a fake accusation of rape by a racist white man. Atticus Finch, Scout's father in the novel, who is a lawyer in the fictional town of Maycomb, is attacked by the white community for his attempt to do justice and defend Tom Robinson. The novel thus perfectly mirrors the beginning of the Southern community's awakening from racism.
As a response to the injustice and discrimination against the blacks, the Civil Rights Movement begins in the…
Civil Rights Movement." http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html
Civil Rights Movement: An Introduction." http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/civilrights-55-65/montbus.html
Johnson, Claudia Durst. Understanding 'To Kill a Mockingbird': A Casebook to Issues, Sources and Historical Documents. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Vintage, 1983.
The book has had a huge impact on society, helping the post 1950s world deal more clearly with the subject of civil rights, racial injustice, and the eradication of childhood innocence. "In the 20th century, To Kill a Mockingbird is probably the most widely read book dealing with race in America, and its protagonist, Atticus Finch, the most enduring fictional image of racial heroism" (Crespino, 2000, 9).
There are numerous themes that also make this novel an enduring classic -- gender roles, compassion, truth, and while most scholars and librarians believe this is a book that everyone should read while alive, there are numerous critics who object to the novel's treatment of black roles and racial epithets. Fortunately, reason has prevailed, for it is just exactly those stereotypical characterizations and use of language that Lee wants the reader to become incensed with rage and disbelief that just a few short…
This is especially valid when considering the position of a white jury concerning a black man suspected of rape. Even with that, the only thing worse than a corrupt jury system is a racist angry mob. Although many white people in the South expressed racist beliefs during the early twentieth century, it is very probable that most of them were unable to argument their thinking. The novel is likely to fit perfectly in civil rights literature because of the way that it addresses the concept of racism.
The general style of the novel and the elements present in it "enable the student to begin the process of becoming a critical reader by learning that there is more to reading fiction than simply being able to tell "what happened" (Glenn). Boo Radley's character is most probably meant to be a reference to the fact that people should always look for good…
Brown, David and Webb, Clive, Race in the American South: From Slavery to Civil Rights (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007)
Glenn Richard A. "TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD, by Harper Lee," Retrieved September 27, 2011, from the University of Maryland Website: http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/lee0408.htm
Scout initially fears "Boo" Radley based on his race and his seclusion, "You never understand a person until you consider things from his point-of-view until you climb into his skin and walk around in," (Lee 62). Yet, once she can begin to "climb" into other people's skin, she understands the error of her ways. Eventually she and her brother begin to slowly understand Boo as an affectionate person rather than one to be feared. He had begun initial communication with the children by presenting them gifts, yet still refused to come out of his reclusion, "Boo was our neighbor. He gave us two soap dolls, a broken watch and chain, a pair of good-luck pennies, and our lives. But neighbors give in return. e never put back into the tree what we took out of it; we had given him nothing, and it made me sad," (Lee 39). In the…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Dramatic Publishing. 1970.
Unlike other court depictions, the questioning of the witnesses and Robinson occur in the center of the room, creating a more intense feeling of interrogation.
The editing of the film helps to further drive the story. Shooting the film in black and white helps to exasperate the tension between social classes while commenting on the fact that the morality is not as simple as black and white and that there are many grey areas. The passage of time is marked by transitions in which a preceding scene fades into the next. Long shots are utilized to show the freedom that the children have within their neighborhood as they travel down the street and throughout town. The use of medium and medium close-up shots is best represented during the closing arguments of Robinson's trial in which Atticus tries to convince the jury to find his client innocent of the charges brought…
Mulligan, Robert, dir. To Kill a Mockingbird. Universal Pictures, 1962. Film.
Kill a Mockingbird
Sociology has tried to inquire into the profound need people invariably feel to classify, to put a label on their fellow humans, to asses where they stand in their relationships with others, to what group they belong. This would not be a bad thing in itself as long as the criteria used for achieving this were free of prejudice.
The stratification of the human society goes back several millennia. Unfortunately, as much as one would wish to think that modern world is approaching a new era where social status as a basis of discrimination will become a notion of the past, the present is showing strong indications that the stratification of the human society is still in place even in the most advanced countries. Literature is one of the vehicles that have provided writers a powerful tool to expose the evils of certain societies as well as…
Discuss the presence of Jim Crow laws and their manifestation in the novel and social ramifications.
Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark case for maintaining segregation and inequality for blacks. Discuss how this was demonstrated in the novel.
Discuss how the economic stresses of the time added to social tensions in To Kill a Mockingbird.
Tom Robinson is a black man charged with rape of a white woman, tried by a white jury. Discuss the problems inherent in this situation that will ensure he won’t receive a fair trial.
Discuss the parallelisms between Boo Radley and Tom Robinson.
Discuss the parallelisms between Jem Finch and Tom Robinson.
Dill Harris is an intriguing supporting character as he represents a melee of so many of the people and circumstances around him. Discuss.
Critics have described Atticus Finch as overly optimistic. Agree or disagree and explain.
The novel is not a…
In this To Kill a Mockingbird essay example, the exploration of race and family will play a role in how the characters are experienced by the reader. A look at setting, an emphasis on characters like Aunt Alexandra, will help provide the kind of context needed to explore the topic further. The topic of family is an interesting area to cover because it is a personal and private attempt of the writer to showcase feelings that he or she may not otherwise show in their own lives. Novels like To Kill a Mockingbird offer a glimpse into ideals or struggles of family for the author.
Race Relations in To Kill a Mockingbird
A Look at Jim Crow Laws in To Kill a Mockingbird
Calpurnia and Tim Robinson from To Kill a Mockingbird and Their Portrayal of the Black Community
Selected Title: The Role of Family in To…
kill a Mocking Bird's Aticus Finch
Defined as one of the best novel of the 20th Century, and selling more than "30 million copies around the world" having it's translation in more than 40 languages (Flood), the book "To Kill a Mocking Bird" has been considered as a true reflction of the American society in 1936. The story revolves around the story of the racial differences that exist in the small town of Maycomb, Alabama. The story is being narrated by the six-year daughter of the lawyer Atticus Finch, Scout Finch. The main plot revolves around the trial of Tom Robinson, a black man who has been accused of raping a white girl, and is being defended by Atticus. The story from the point-of-view of the child continues to be narrated, despite being forbidden to attend the court proceedings, as they hide themselves in the colored gallery. Facing a town…
Flood, Alison. Harper Lee breaks silence - just - for Mockingbird anniversary. 28th June 2010. 11th April 2012. .
Reasoning Behind the Title: To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird took the form of a novel before its adaptation into a film. This is a work that has a strong literal and metaphorical link to the title. To Kill a Mockingbird is an infinitive phrase that describes an action. The title is a phrase that communicates part of the main theme of the novel. By the time the reader has completed the novel, the reader should understand quite clearly what the consequences of killing a mockingbird in real life as well as within the context of the narrative. Mockingbirds, as the novel expounds upon, represent innocence and joy. Through various actions in the novel and as demonstrated through nearly all of the character arcs in the story, to kill a mockingbird is a solemn tragedy.
Characters such as Jem, Dill, Tom Robinson, Mr. Raymond, and Boo Radley are…
tticus Finch's identity prevents Scout from thinking that all is lost in society because of the fact that everyone is inclined to commit immoralities. tticus is the bona fide merican individual who is unwilling to join the masses in discriminating black people and even goes as far as risking his position in society with the purpose of demonstrating Tom Robinson's innocence. From watching her father's determination, Scout learns that one has to dedicate their lives to being moral, even when the respective person's campaign is doomed from the very start. Maycomb's general attitude toward black people challenges Scout's personality and influences the girl in acknowledging the insecure position of justice in society. s she realizes that the masses can easily overturn clear facts so that matters progress as they want to, she becomes even more determined to support people like her father. In becoming familiar with Boo Radley, Scout discovers…
Atticus Finch's identity prevents Scout from thinking that all is lost in society because of the fact that everyone is inclined to commit immoralities. Atticus is the bona fide American individual who is unwilling to join the masses in discriminating black people and even goes as far as risking his position in society with the purpose of demonstrating Tom Robinson's innocence. From watching her father's determination, Scout learns that one has to dedicate their lives to being moral, even when the respective person's campaign is doomed from the very start. Maycomb's general attitude toward black people challenges Scout's personality and influences the girl in acknowledging the insecure position of justice in society. As she realizes that the masses can easily overturn clear facts so that matters progress as they want to, she becomes even more determined to support people like her father. In becoming familiar with Boo Radley, Scout discovers that one can survive in society without getting involved in the local affairs. However, Radley's intervention in the clash between Scout, Jem, and Bob Ewell, proves that it is virtually impossible for an individual to remain passive to what goes on in his or her vicinity.
Even with the fact that he is unsuccessful in trying to save Tom Robinson, Atticus Finch nonetheless manages to live the American Dream through the fact that he is free to express himself at all times, in spite of the fact that his thinking comes against the one of the town's majority. The city of Maycomb is nothing like the American Dream in effect, considering that it is filled with corruption, racial inequality, and individuals devoted to committing crimes. Boo Radley's intention is most probably that of living the American Dream. However, in spite of the fact that the character struggles to ignore everything that goes on around him, he is eventually caught in the game and even risks being charged with murder.
Lee, Harper. (1960). "To Kill a Mockingbird." J.B. Lippincott & Co.
Scout and Jem are likewise tormented by their classmates because of their father's courageous decision to defend an obviously innocent man. Scout already hates school and feels like a persecuted mockingbird in its controlled, conformist environment. She would rather be playing with her brother and her best friend Dill. School is yet another example of the ways in which society can be cruel and persecutory of people who are 'different.'
Scout is not above hurting other people, however. When she is humiliated by her teacher because she explains why a poor boy named Walter cannot afford even to borrow money for lunch and her teacher reprimands her, Scout turns against Walter by beating him up during lunchtime. Before she is saved by Boo, she is frightened of him and she and her friends make up stories about him, because they fear what they do not understand. It is this misunderstanding…
Important in attempts to ban Bless Me, Ultima, are arguments that the book promotes witchcraft and worship of the devil. The book focuses on Ultima, a curandera, who works with herbs and can heal the sick and exorcise evil. However, it is clear throughout Bless Me, Ultima that the character of Ultima is a force of good, but that she is sometimes mislabeled as a witch. Thus, while witchcraft is discussed and alluded to, it is not necessarily promoted within Anaya's novel.
In addition, Anaya's book clearly shows the conflict between Christianity and other religions, and sometimes criticizes the Catholic religion. Throughout the book, the young Antonio is exposed to his father's love of the earth and freedom that supersedes his Catholicism, and his friend Florence's criticisms of Catholicism. Similarly, Ultima's earthy wisdom is often depicted as superior to the pat answers Antonio receives from his Catholic mother. In addition,…
Anaya, Rudolfo. Bless Me, Ultima. Warner Books, 1994.
Aurnague-DeSpain, JeanMarie, and Baas, Alan. Censorship of Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest Series Number EA44. 28 September 2004. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed315864.html
Education World. Banning Books from the Classroom: How to Handle Cries for Censorship, 1997. 28 September 2004. http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr031.shtml
Taichert, Pari Noskin. We can't allow our freedom to read to fall. 28 September 2004. http://www.abqtrib.com/archives/diversions03/091903_diversions_pari.shtml
Like other symbols of the civil rights movement such as the song "We shall overcome" and peaceful sit-ins, to Kill a Mockingbird quickly assumed a similar position.
As the focus of the movie was on right and wrong, the director of this film, obert Mulligan, provided the American movie viewing public with a strong lesson in justice but he was also able, largely through the character of Atticus Finch, to demonstrate that humanity can still prevail even under difficult circumstances. Mulligan could have soften the message and still have captured the essence of the book upon which the movie was based but, instead, Mulligan made a deliberate statement in the way that he portrayed the characters in the story and how the movie told the story. He took on the ways of the American South where the beliefs of men, despite their moral depravity, ruled their actions instead of the…
Referenced several times in the movie, the mockingbird is a symbol of harmlessness in that its only function is to make music for others. It has no real enemies and should be except from harm. As Atticus warns his children, "it is sin to kill a mockingbird."
In the movie Boo and Tom Robinson are similar to the mockingbird in that they are harmless individuals who would never intentionally hurt anyone, yet, both are harmed seriously in the movie and those who are hurting them is like shooting a mockingbird. The mockingbird symbolizes the good in life but, as the conviction and death of Tom Robinson demonstrates, evil has the power to overcome the mockingbird's goodness.
Another powerful symbol or image in the movie is the genuine goodness of the black community. The Maycomb black community is pictured in the movie as a group of simple, honest, and hardworking individuals who are barely eking out an existence but still manage to be happy. In spite of their poverty, they appear to possess a high measure of self-respect and pride in themselves. When Atticus decides to represent Tom Robinson, one of their own, the black community showers him with gratitude by supplying his family with fresh produce and baked goods to the point that the Finch home is overcrowding with such items and when Scout and Jem appear in the local black church they are treated with the highest degree of respect and deference.
The wholesomeness of the black community is contrasted with the poor whites in the Maycomb community who are depicted as being poor not because of their race but because of their inherent laziness and lack of ambition. Their living conditions are deplorable; their dress is filthy; they are rude; and, they ignore and abuse their children. Yet, in spite of their poorness and depravity they still look down at the blacks and consider themselves superior to them. These whites consider themselves superior not because of the quality of their character but because of the color of their skin.
The timing of the release of the movie is highly significant. The civil rights movement that was initiated to combat the very concerns addressed by the movie was fully active and this movie was a voice for the injustice that was occurring at the time. Because many of the injustices that were depicted in the movie remain relevant even today, the movie still has staying power nearly fifty years after its initial release. In 1962, the movie stood as a reminder of the effects of racial ignorance and it remains as such.
Kill a Mockingbird
A Textual Analysis of the Character Development within this Short Story
The short story by Harper Lee, "To Kill a Mockingbird," is an illustration of how people viewed the various stereotypical traits, which are deeply ingrained in the culture and associated with the various demographics that were present in the South during the period in which the story was set. The 1930s in the South was a period in the United States that most people cannot fully envision due to the fact that there have been many systemic changes in the country's culture. However, despite many drastic differences that are present in the contemporary period relative to the story's setting, on the other hand there are also many similarities that continue to persist until this day. For example, one of the primary themes in the story centers upon a sense of racial injustice that was present in…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Warner, 1982. Print.
Furthermore, he taught his son that society is not always right in what they believe. With that, racism is wrong because everyone is a human being and deserves equal rights. Even though America has racism in today's modern society, there are more people like Scout's father who honestly believes in diversity (120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature).
Don't attack something if it hasn't harmed you: This lesson is taught to Jem and Scout by Atticus when he teaches them about the mockingbird. He says that the mockingbird is innocent and only sings for you. It is therefore wrong to kill it. The examples of the mockingbird within the novel are Tom and Boo. Tom was attacked by the entire white society in Maycomb County. These attacks and accusations destroyed his innocent, respectable life. Arthur "Boo" adley was also an innocent victim to the taunts and of the people…
To Kill a Mockingbird. 1998. 13 March 2008. http://www.bellmore-merrick.k12.ny.us/mockingbird.html
Bloom, Harold. "To Kill a Mockingbird" (Bloom's Guides). 2004. Chelsea House Publishers, U.S.
Felty, Darren. Novels for students. 13 March 2008. http://www.answers.com/topic/to-kill-a-mockingbird-novel-7
Sova, Dawn. 120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature. 2005. Checksmarks Books.
The coming-of-age struggles of to Kill a Mockingbird and Romeo and Juliet
Although written in radically different styles (one is written from the perspective of an Elizabethan playwright, one is written in the voice of the child), at radically different eras, and in completely different media (one is a play, the other is a drama), both illiam Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird can be classified as coming-of-age dramas. In Romeo and Juliet, the teenage protagonists gain a sadder and more sophisticated understanding of the conflict-ridden world in which they live as a result of their love for one another. In To Kill a Mockingbird, the young narrator Scout comes to better understand the evils of the simmering racial tensions which exists within polite Southern society. Through the emotional struggles they personally undergo and witness both characters attain new levels of maturity they…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Grand Central Publishing, 1988.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo & Juliet. No Fear Shakespeare. Web. 31 May 2015.
The emotions flow freely culminating in hugs, kisses and even letting Scout watch her (Calpurnia) make supper. Since she previously treated Calpurnia at a distance, Scout wonders as to what had led to Calpurnia's change of heart. From this episode, Scout learns that, at some point in time, it pays to treat people with love and affection.
Scout introduces Miss Maudie by listing her good attributes. In chapter five, Scout proudly talks of the trust she had in Miss Maudie. She terms Miss Maudie as a person to trust, a good friend and as the best lady she knew (Milton, 10). This trust bred respect and the ability to talk and consult on anything from Miss Maudie. Miss Maudie gets singled out as the best friend and person Scout could have.
In this instance, Scout learns that the ability to gain trust, respect and friendship lay in the way a…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York:Warren Books, 1960
Joyce, Milton. Harper Lee's to Kill a Mockingbird. Woodbury, N.Y: Barron's, 1984.
Fisher, Jerilyn, and Ellen S. Silber. Women in Literature: Reading Through the Lens of Gender. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Greenwood Press, 2003. Print.
Scout's Maturation in to Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird addresses many issues that were relevant at the time of its writing and which are still relevant today. The book details the financial woes of the Great Depression. It deconstructs the state of race relations in the nited States. Most importantly, however, it provides a tale about growing up and maturing in a society that has a number of deep rooted prejudices and convictions, and which frequently expects people (especially young people) to believe them without understanding them. This final aspect of this novel is its most important, because it illustrates the maturation process that Scout undergoes while growing up. Scout is able to mature throughout this book by gaining the ability to take another person's perspective to understand why he or she acts as he or she does, without simply accepting society's reasons for those actions.
Understanding Radley's perspective from his vantage point proves a watershed moment for the young girl, who is then able to make these sorts of connections with other people and other events. The fact that she is able to do so readily means she has matured past the early stages of the book when she simply took society's values and opinions for her own, and was not able to distinguish them from her own. She indicates her newfound maturity at the end of the novel as well as she explicates the events of a story to her father. The events of the story eerily parallel those of Lee's novel -- there is a character who is accused of criminal activity yet who is really innocent, a fact that is revealed at the end of the tale, prompting Scout to tell her father "When they finally saw him…he hadn't done any of those things…he was real nice" (285). This passage reveals that Scout is able to transfer her ability of understanding a person's circumstances before transferring judgments beyond just Boo Radley and apply it to the larger world (and literature). Her father readily agrees with her assessment of the book (285). Scout's application is an unequivocal part of her maturation process.
In summary, Scout is able to mature due to some key events in this story. They include her father's advice of learning about other people before judging them, her many encounters with Boo Radley, and her ability to apply this knowledge to both Radley and external circumstances in general. In many ways, her understanding of Boo Radley beyond just what society has portrayed him as mirrors the understanding that many people should have of Tom, who is wrongfully accused of raping a woman. Unfortunately, most of society never came to such an understanding -- which explains Tom's wrongful death. In this fact, Scout is perhaps more mature than the society in which she lives.
Mis) representations of African-Americans in film:
From the Birth of a Nation onward
Recently, the Academy of Motion Pictures awarded 12 Years a Slave the title of Best Picture of the year. However, it is important to remember that the development of American cinema, racism, and the perpetuation of African-American stereotypes in film has a long and ignoble history. In the essay "The Good Lynching and Birth of a Nation: Discourses and aesthetics of Jim Crow," historian Michele Faith allace examines how one of the great silent film epics directed by cinematic master D.. Griffith consciously and subconsciously validated hegemonic racial ideologies. allace argues that when cinema was in its infancy, although African-Americans were portrayed on screen less frequently than whites, they were not addressed in the same derogatory manner as characterized the Griffith epic and Griffith's masterpiece set the tone for decades afterward. "The film's continued notoriety challenges all…
Ebert, Roger. "The Birth of a Nation movie review." Roger Ebert Reviews. 30 Mar 2003
[4 Mar 2014] http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-the-birth-of-a-nation-1915
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder: Southern violence and the blues tradition. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Flew ver the Cuckoo's Nest"
Independent films have become such a mainstay of American cinema that it is difficult to tell what should be considered independent and what should be considered a major production these days. Small, independent film studios can gain such a following that they are soon producing movies that are seen by millions. f course, this was not always the case because the reason there are indie films is because of the rebellion over the control of the large studios. In the case of the movie "ne Flew ver the Cuckoo's Nest" it was an indie film, but it was seen by a large audience. Like many indie films of that time and this though, it had a flare that could not be seen in major motion pictures. Since major motion picture studios were interested more in the bottom line and worried about turning a profit for…
One only has to look at history to see the fallacy perpetrated by major motion picture studios. "They Died with Their Boots On" is a retelling of the story of the Little Bighorn massacre which starred Errol Flynn and was released by the major motion picture company Warner Bros. The movie makes a hero of Custer as he tries to run down Sitting Bull and a corrupt, gun-selling Indian agent. The picture is factually inaccurate from start to finish and perpetuates the myth that Custer was the honorable one at Little Bighorn. Sitting Bull is seen as an opportunist and a rebel who only wants to kill white people. This sort of movie was immensely popular (released in 1949) because, although everyone knew it was probably a biased retelling, it had a distinct hero and a villain (there were actually later movies which had Sitting Bull as the hero which is also factually inaccurate). Although the movie is enjoyable when an individual wants to spend a mind-numbing few hours in front of the TV, it is also a symbol of why many people were tired of major motion pictures, and why indie films have gained the traction that they currently have. A true telling of the story would reveal that neither was a hero, but that Custer, as a glory-seeker and narcissist, sacrificed his troop on a fool's errand.
In recent times, major motion picture studios have gotten the message, at least partially, that people crave a little more reality. That is why big name releases such as "American History X" and "American Beauty" were released by New Line Cinema and Dream Works respectively. These are considered indie film companies, but they are that in name only. These are both major studios that are producing edgy movies under an indie tag. Both of the releases mentioned above were both critical and box office successes because they were edgy. Another film that shows the influence that indie films has had is "Unforgiven." This is not a classic Western that has a distinct white-hatted good guy and a black hat wearing bad guy. The lines are blurred between the sheriff and the ex-outlaw. Some of the things Eastwood's outlaw character does are good, and some are not. The same can be said of Hackman's sheriff character.
These movies seem to rely on the success of such movies as "One Flew Over a Cuckoo's Nest." Because movie producers could see a major shift in the way they viewed edgy movies, the large motion picture studios changed the way they made movies. The money shifted, so the movie makers did also.
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…
References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
Exercise 5: Population Survey
It was in October 1997 that the Office of Management and Budget or the OMB announced that the standards for the gathering of federal data on race and ethnicity in the United States of America would be changed from thenceforth, and that the minimum categories for race would be form then onwards, divided into the following categories: American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Black or African-American; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; and White. This meant that any individual, when choosing to self-identify himself, would not have to place himself according to the multi-racial perspective that had been in use earlier, but rather; he could select one or more races when he would have to identify himself for any purpose. In addition, the OMB has today made an added provision, which is known as the 'Some Other ace'. (acial and Ethnic classifications used in Census…
Berardinelli, James. "To Kill a Mockingbird, all time 100" Retrieved From
Accessed 27 October, 2005
Dirks, Tim. "To Kill a Mockingbird (1962). Review by Tim Dirks" Retrieved From
In my opinion, Atticus Finch teaches us the latter kind of model of leadership both, in his small family as a widowed father, and his small town community as an attorney. I think it follows from this style of leadership that leaders are very often regarded as people who "act" instead of people who simply "direct." Atticus runs his family like a judge: he's the one in charge, and has a clear set of rules. Neither of the Finch kids ever calls their father "Dad"; he's always "Atticus." While he definitely puts his foot down when necessary, he also treats his kids with respect. He does not expect his children to respect him just because he sees his role in directing them as their father, but because he acts in a way that deserves respect (see Atticus Finch: Character Analysis, 2011, p. 1). For example, when Scout doesn't want…
Faulkner's attitude on race relations at the outset of the civil rights movement in the south is best expressed in one of his lesser works, Intruder in the Dust. The main theme in this book is a simple one: an old black man, Lucas Beauchamp, known for his temper is accused of murdering a white man by the name of Vinson Gowrie in the outh, and his friends must prove his innocence against the backdrop of a society who sees his race as proof of his guilt. Moreover, it is the story of a white teenager, Chick Mallison, who must come to terms with the absurdity of racism in the context of a racist society that has taught him to embrace it. Chick is saved from drowning by Lucas, who pulls him out of an icy stream and refuses to take money from Chick as repayment for his heroic deed.…
Joel Williamson. William Faulkner and Southern History; Oxford University Press, 1993 University of Virginia News. Unpublished William Faulkner Short Story Found By Scholar Cleaning Out His Files. June 11, 1999. http://www.virginia.edu/topnews/releases/faulkner-june-11-1999.html
Frederick J. Hoffman, Olga W. Vickery. William Faulkner: Two Decades of Criticism; Michigan State College Press, 1951
Book by Robert W. Hamblin, Charles A. Peek. A William Faulkner Encyclopedia; Greenwood Press, 1999
Book by Donald M. Kartiganer, Ann J. Abadie. Faulkner in Cultural Context; University Press of Mississippi, 1997
y identifying with the crowd, the individual is freed from responsibility for his or her actions, and thus is more likely to engage in violent behavior (or at a minimum, feels more comfortable engaging in said behavior). However, this does not fully account for violent crowds, because even if individuals gain anonymity through the crowd and thus are free to engage in violent behavior, one must explain just how this violent behavior is instigated and transmitted through the crowd, because although there is a positive connection between anonymity and violent or unethical behavior, one cannot go so far as to say that anonymity causes this behavior. Instead, one may look to a topic in bio-mechanics that, while usually reserved for discussions concerning birds or machines, actually goes a long way in explaining how violent crowds can form, or how previously nonviolent crowds can transition rapidly.
"Flocking" is a term first…
Beck, E.M. And Timothy Clark. "Strangers, Community Miscreants, or Locals: Who were the Black Victims of Mob Violence?" Historical Methods 35, no. 2 (2002): 77-83.
Felson, Richard B. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22,
Hodge, Joel. "Why do Humans Commit Violence?" Compass 45, no. 3 (2011): 3-12.
movie industry in America has been controlled by some of the monolithic companies which not only provided a place for making the movies, but also made the movies themselves and then distributed it throughout the entire country. These are movie companies and their entire image revolved around the number of participants of their films. People who wanted to see the movies being made had to go to the studios in order to see them. They made movies in a profitable manner for the sake of the studios, but placed the entire industry under their control and dominated over it. The discussion here is about some of those famous studios inclusive of that of names like Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Culver, RKO, Paramount Studios, Warner Bros, 20th Century Fox, Walt Disney Studios, Universal Studios, Raleigh Studio, Hollywood Center Studio, Sunset Gower Studio, Ren-Mar Studios, Charlie Chaplin Studios and now, Manhattan Beach Studio.…
"What better way to annoy the Hollywood liberals than to remind them every single day that
George W. Bush is STILL the President?" Retrieved from https://www.donationreport.com/init/controller/ProcessEntryCmd?key=O8S0T5C8U2 Accessed 15 September, 2005
"What's interesting about the business is that it's no longer the movie business" Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hollywood/picture/corptown.html Accessed 14 September, 2005
Short story -- A brief story where the plot drives the narrative, substantially shorter than a novel. Example: "Hills like White Elephants," by Ernest Hemingway.
Allusion -- A casual reference in one literary work to a person, place, event, or another piece of literature, often without explicit identification. It is used to establish a tone, create an indirect association, create contrast, make an unusual juxtaposition, or bring the reader into a world of references outside the limitations of the story itself. Example: "The Wasteland" by T.S. Eliot alludes to "Paradise Lost" by John Milton.
epetition -- The repeating of a word or phrase or rhythm within a piece of literature to add emphasis. Example: The story of Agamemnon in The Odyssey by Homer.
Blank verse -- Unrhymed lines of ten syllables each with the even-numbered syllables bearing the accents, most closing resembling the natural rhythms of English speech. Example: "The…
Wheeler, Dr. L. Kip. "Literary Terms and Definitions." Web.
"Word List of Literary and Grammar Terms." Web.
Though he knew he faced incredible odds, Atticus Finch defended his client, because it was the right thing to do. In America, he had the right and the ability to do what he believed was morally and ethically right in a situation. Watching that movie was the first time I wondered what it would be like to live in America.
Of course, not every Hollywood movie is so inspiring about the American dream, but I found the same message in apparently diverse movies. I remember watching the movie Jerry Maguire, which starts out as a man with everything rejecting what appears to be the American Dream. However, the story really is of someone coming into his own and allowing his conscience, not societal mores, not externally imposed limitations, guide him in his life and career. I watched movies like Radio and I am Sam, with their messages that even severe…
I had to go into town on Saturdays to the dentist and I joined the Sunshine Club that was organized by the Mobile Press Register." He goes on to tell about entering a work of writing on the children's page publication, which he had called "Old Mr. usybody." The first installment of his writing appeared in a Sunday edition under his real name, which was Truman Streckfus Persons. The second installment never was published after the townspeople figured out he in actuality ' was serving up local scandal as fiction'. (Compote in Interview)
Capote and Writing Technique
When asked the question of "Are there devices one can use in improving one's technique? Capote answered by stating, "Work is the only device I know of. Writing has laws of perspective, of light and shade, just as painting does, or music. If you are born knowing them, fine. If not, learn them.…
Epstein, Joseph (2004) a Lad of the World, "Truman Capote and the Cost of Charms" Vol. 101 Issue 12 (Dec 12-2004) Online available at www.weeklystandard.com.
Truman Capote (nd) Speaking of Stories From the Page to the Stage [available Online at www. Speakingofstories.org]
Truman Compote, the Art of Fiction (nd) the Paris Review No. 17
Capote, Truman. A Christmas Memory. New York: Random House Inc., 1956.
Formally, 'Aparthied' may have been dispersed inside the United States and South Africa. On the other hand, there is still the illegal version, in every way that is still bad, every bit as evil and just as belittling as all segregation was destined to be.
In "Little Rock Central: 50 Years Later," HBO's 2007 which was a documentary concerning the present-day Little Rock Central High School, a teenage girl mentions, "You [Caucasians] have it all fed on a silver spoon from the day you were born." The writer Jonathan Kozol makes this affirmation in his statement that was in a 2005 article from Harper's Magazine: "The current per-pupil expenditure level in the New York City [public] schools is $12,700, which can be linked with a per-pupil expenses equal in the additional of $23,000 in the wealthy suburban region of Manhasset, Long Island." Furthermore, he mentions that New York City schools…
6 Baer, Frances Lisa. Resistance to Public School Desegregation: Little Rock, Arkansas, and Beyond. 2008. 328.
7 Beals, M.P. "Warriors don't cry: A searing memoir of the battle to integrate little rock's central high." Simon & Schuster, 1994. 17
8 Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal (1997)
While I do not believe that Narnia exists, I do believe it exists and can be reached through a wardrobe while reading that book. In contrast, while most modern romance novels are set in modern-day, realistic settings, the events within them are so obviously contrived that it detracts from, rather than enhances, the storyline. Therefore, I think that fiction writing teachers need to concentrate on teaching students how to write about the fantastic in a plausible manner.
Examining my own conclusions about the tradition of writing, I have come to the conclusion that the separation of genres hinders good writing. Whatever the genre, my favorite writing tends to feature conversational and engaging writing. The plot scenarios, even when wildly fantastic, are presented in a believable manner. Furthermore, the author uses elements of writing that make the reader feel as if they are a part of the story being told. While…
functional literacy activities? What are some examples?
Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.
What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?
One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…
Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from Getreadytoread.org: http://www.getreadytoread.org/early-learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/preparing-for-kindergarten-begins-the-year-before
Teachervision.com. (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from Teachervision.com: https://www.teachervision.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html
Virginia.edu. (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from Virginia.edu: http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/pdfs/Phon_Spel_Handout.pdf
The Tom Story
Both Mudbound (2017) and Detroit (2017) seem to mobilize “the Tom story” in ways that seem significantly interesting and different to me. Neither film, for instance, really makes the viewer feel a kind of self-righteousness from a distance—at least not in the way that Williams describes occurs in To Kill a Mockingbird. In the novel, the reader can comfortably shake the head at the treatment of the innocent black man. In the film Mudbound and the film Detroit, the viewer is really too caught up in the horror and the nightmare of what is happening in the moment to be able to feel self-righteous about how he would have handled it differently. There is no distance in the watching of the films. The action is too immediate and the viewer too wrapped up in the unfolding of the drama for “the Tom story” to really have an…
The theme of unrequited love in The Great Gatsby
Discuss the fallibility of youth in The Great Gatsby
Discuss the primacy of socioeconomic status as it manifests in The Great Gatsby: which characters confront it with the most grace? Which with the least?
If Daisy and Jay had been members of the same socioeconomic class would they have ended up together? Why or why not? Provide textual evidence.
Nick Carraway goes to great lengths to show and tell the reader that he is a reliable narrator: discuss three concretes way he does this and how successful they are.
How does the period and place of the novel add to the sense of youth, love, promise or despair?
How does the death of Myrtle Wilson highlight a sense of something rotten underscoring the 1920s? Discuss using the novel and the historical period.
What role does Jordan Baker serve in the…
hate crimes against African-Americans. In particular I want to address media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans and how media interprets this phenomenon and in turn depicts it. As media is responsible for shaping much of public opinion (Baum, Potter 39), it is helpful to understand how the public is impacted by media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans through popular news reports, film and television portrayals, books, magazines, music and even scholarly articles. This essay wants to see if different types of media portray hate crimes against African-Americans with more or less sensitivity, with a more or less judgmental approach, with a more or less confrontational/antagonistic tone, and with more or less sympathy and empathy. This may help us to better understand why hate crimes against African-Americans occur.
In order to answer these questions, I will look in particular at films such as Malcolm X by Spike Lee, books…
Baum, M., Potter, P. "The relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: Toward a theoretical synthesis." Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65.
Holt, Lanier Frush. "Writing the Wrong: Can Counter-Stereotypes Offset Negative
Media Messages about African-Americans?" Journalism and Mass Communication, vol. 90, no. 1 (2013): 108-125.
Lee, Spike, dir. Malcolm X. LA: Warner Bros., 1992. Film.
Exhaustion" demonstrates an interest in the subject of how different media might affect the meaning of art. Barth's general remarks at the opening of "The Literature of Exhaustion" indicate a sort of ambivalence about what he terms "intermedia' arts" (65). He seems to approve of "their tendency to eliminate…the most traditional notion of the artist…one endowed with uncommon talent, who has moreover developed and disciplined that endowment into virtuosity" (65). Yet in terms of aesthetic theory this is not altogether different from a normative 19th century or modernist conception of the artist's role: one thinks of such famous aesthetic pronouncements as Flaubert declaring that the artist must be like God, "everywhere present and nowhere visible," or Wilde's dictum that "to reveal art and conceal the artist is art's aim," or James Joyce's God-like artist "invisible, refined out of existence, indifferent, paring his fingernails." It could be argued that this main…
e see the creative mind at work in "The Fall of the House of Usher" as Poe creates a parallel between the house and Roderick. The suspense with this thriller is heightened with the fact that the narrator is inches from the same fate as Roderick. There is undeniable connection between the two that is never fully disclosed. The narrator looks for logical ways to explain what occurs in the home and he also wishes to find out the reason behind Roderick's agitation. Interestingly, Roderick believes the house is the source of all of his tension, yet he rarely leaves the house. The image of the house sinking dramatizes Roderick's sinking state of mind. In essence, both are experiencing a type of split. The house is sitting upon an unstable foundation and Roderick does not attempt to fool anyone by denying he suffers from a mental disorder that shakes his…
Cangeri, Francesca. Aspects of Edgar Allen Poe's Cosmology and His Theory of the Short Story
Hoffman, Daniel. "The Fall of the House of Usher': An allegory of the Artist." Readings on Edgar Allan Poe. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998. Print.
Magistrale, Tony. American Writers. Parini, Jay. et al.New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 2003.
Consequently, the former will attempt to behave toward the latter in view of the prejudices he or she has relating to the particularities present in the latter. Most individuals make use of anti-locution when they put across their discriminatory principles, as it is easier and apparently less immoral to do this. Anti-locution is as wrong as direct discrimination, given the fact that it encourages people to be prejudiced.
Avoidance is another form of prejudice that seems to be less harmful than straightforward discrimination. Because they were taught that people from a community different from theirs behave in a particular manner believed to be wrong, individuals will consider that it is easier for them to evade any chance of interaction with the categorized group rather than risk having to deal with the particularity associated with the group that is "not normal."
People will not hesitate to accept that discrimination is a…