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Tornadoes: Nature's Phenomenon
hat is a Tornado?
A tornado is "a violent, destructive, whirling wind accompanied by a funnel-shaped cloud that progresses in a narrow path over the land" (Merriam-ebster, Incorporated, 2012).
Tornadoes can develop in mere seconds and destroy everything in their path
Sometimes, a tornado will happen so quickly that there is little or no sign before it starts (Federal Emergency Management Association, 2012). A tornado can have the strongest winds on earth, up to 300 MPH, and can cause "fantastic destruction and great loss of life, mainly from flying debris and collapsing structures" (Snow, 2012).
How and hat of Tornadoes
The National Severe Storms Laboratory studies tornadoes and says that tornadoes come from thunderstorms. Before the thunderstorm, the wind changes direction, becomes faster and becomes higher. Then it becomes an invisible spinning wind going horizontally in the lower atmosphere. hile the thunderstorm is happening, air…
About.com. (no date). Enhanced F. scale for tornado damage. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from Geography.about.com: http://geography.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=geography&cdn=education&tm=35&gps=346_42_1366_651&f=00&su=p284.13.342.ip_&tt=2&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/tornado/ef-scale.html
Brain, M., & Lamb, R. (2012). How tornadoes work. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from Science.howstuffworks.com Web site: http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/storms/tornado3.htm
Federal Emergency Management Association. (2012). Tornadoes. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from Ready.gov Web site: http://www.ready.gov/tornadoes
Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. (2012). Tornado. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from Merriam-Webster.com Web site: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tornado
What causes a tornado?
Tornado' comes in English from a Spanish word 'tornada' that means 'thunderstorm'. As defined by Nation Weather Service, a tornado is a 'violently rotating column of air in contact with the ground and pendant from a thunderstorm'. Tornadoes result when there is stuffiest amount of moisture in the atmosphere at lower and mid levels, and when this condition gets combined with warm unstable air that rises above due to a lifting force. Initially, there should be some reason to cause air to flow upwards and to contribute in the formation of a tornado. This happens due to the fact that warm air is considerably lighter in weight than cold air (Earthbulletin). The buoyant air is produced as atmosphere gets heated near the ground surface. The heated air, which is warm and light, begins to rise upward and if during this phenomenon, a thrust of cool…
Bibliography http://www.f-5stormshelters.com/faqs.htm basic guide to what causes tornadoes http://www.usatoday.com/weather/wtwist2.htm
The American Museum of Natural History - EarthBulletin - Storms - Where Do Tornadoes Form? http://earthbulletin.amnh.org/C/4/2/index.html
Tornadoes Fact Sheet http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/torn.htm http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/tornado.htm
Weather Watch: Tornadoes http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/wwatch/tornado/emergency/warning.htm
Severe Weather Pattern Shifts In The United States. Aon Corporation. www.impactforecasting.com
Today, however society has an extremely advanced ability to be forewarned of a possible or actual tornado sighting before it ever touches ground. One method commonly used is a Doppler radar system that can detect a tornado while it is still in the sky and warn those in its path to take cover before it touches down. There are times that it won't touch down but is swirling in the sky. In addition to the Doppler radar system there are technologies.
Even with today's technologies at society disposal one of the most relied on methods for tornado warnings is the use of trained human storm chasers and spotters. The tornado spotters are trained to go out into weather that is capable of producing tornadoes, follow those storms and report in by phone if one is seen on the ground. They are able to detect it on the ground whereas the…
Schaefer, Joseph T. (2000) TORNADOES OF 1999: Twisters go urban.
Guy Gugliotta (2003) Tornadoes' Effects Defy Simple Models, Theories
The Washington Post
Tri-State tornado of 1925 is known to be one of the most lethal natural phenomena that has hit the U.S. especially because it found the residents of the three states that it affected totally unprepared and the path of the tornado was also long and wide in its coverage. It is estimated that the tornado took around only three and a half hours to cause the massive destruction that would dent the economy and livelihoods of the three states for decades. It is known to be the deadliest twister to hit the heartland in history. The path of the tornado ripped through Illinois, Indiana and down to Missouri. It is estimated to have destroyed well above 15,000 homes leaving approximately 700 people dead with the largest casualty being in Illinois which saw 613 people dead and another 2,000 people with injuries (Nguyen T.C., 2007).
The reason behind such a massive…
Henley J, (2013). Tornadoes can kill, and the Tri-State tornado was the deadliest of them all. Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/shortcuts/2013/may/21/tri-state-tornado-deadliest-of-all
History by Zim, (2013). The Tri-State tornado of 1925. Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.historybyzim.com/2013/07/tri-state-tornado/
Nguyen T.C., (2007). The 10 Worst U.S. Natural Disasters. Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.livescience.com/11365-10-worst-natural-disasters.html
Seconds later the twister struck. The kitchen door fell on the husband, pinning him to the ground. After the roof blew away, hail battered his face and body. The house disintegrated, but he survived and so did the dog. The woman, however, was crushed in the debris (osenfeld 179).
By coincidence, researchers from the University of Oklahoma were just outside Spencer before the tornado hit, which is one reason authors like osenfeld know so much about the tornado that destroyed Spencer. He writes, "Just a mile outside town, scientists from the University of Oklahoma had parked a small truck full of computers and meteorological equipment. They had driven more than 300 miles to document Spencer's tornado with their Doppler radar" (osenfeld 180). These were professional storm chasers, who knew how to follow the weather that often predicts tornadoes.
In recent years, "storm chasing" has become a popular recreational pastime. Professional…
Abraham Resnick. Due to the Weather: Ways the Elements Affect Our Lives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Robertson, David. "Beyond Twister: A Geography of Recreational Storm Chasing on the Southern Plains [*]." The Geographical Review 89.4 (1999): 533.
Rosenfeld, Jeffrey O. Inside the World's Deadliest Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Blizzards. New York: Plenum Press, 1999.
Tornadoes in the United States
Every state in the union has experienced them, and the destruction caused by tornadoes each year can climb into the billions of dollars. Scientists have learned a great deal about tornadoes over the past several decades, though, and warning systems are now able to prevent many of the casualties that tornadoes used to cause. To determine what has been learned and what steps have been taken for warning systems, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning tornadoes, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Tornadoes are violently rotating columns of air that reach from a cloud to the earth's surface (What is a tornado?, 2014). The spring months of April, May, and June are the period in which the majority of tornadoes in the Northern Hemisphere are formed (Cavendish, 2000). During these months,…
Cavendish, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of earth and physical sciences. New York: Marshall
Moore, T.W. & Dixon, R.W. (2011, July). Climatology of tornadoes associated with Gulf
Coast-landfalling hurricanes. The Geographical Review, 101(3), 371-377.
On January 24, 1997, a supercell resulted in a tornado outbreak that spurred 13 tornadoes across middle Tennessee with an estimated damage in excess of nine million dollars across the counties of Rutherford, Cannon, Wilson and Smith with more than 300 buildings damaged or destroyed completely which included homes, businesses, and public facilities. Reports state that 31 individuals were injured during the tornados, which are reported to have ranged from F2 to F4 in intensity. There were amazingly, no fatalities. The following table shows the Tennessee Counties in which Tornados occurred on January 24, 1997, with corresponding information on damages caused by the Tornados.
Figure 1 - Tennessee January 24, 1997,
Tornado History Project
Description of the Event and Responsiveness of Media Personnel
Reports state that severe weather was identified as a threat early in the afternoon of January 23, 1997 and that a special weather statement was…
Stacy's Story (nd) Fox 17 WZTV Nashville News. Retrieved from: http://www.fox17.com/newsroom/top_stories/videos/wztv_vid_11126.shtml
Neese, Charlie (1997) The Barfield-Murfreesboro, TN Tornado. Retrieved from: http://www.stormtrack.org/library/archives/stmar97.htm
1990s History (nd) The History of TEMA. Tennessee Emergency Management Agency. TN.GOV. Retrieved from: http://www.tnema.org/about/agencyhistory.html
The Supercell Tornado Outbreak Across Middle Tennessee, January 24, 1997 (nd) National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office, Nashville, TN. Retrieved from: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ohx/?n=1997tornadooutbreak#duties
It is also noted within this same report that the Alabama Power reacted very promptly to the power outage by installing 6,000 distribution poles and placing well over 4 million feet of wire within the first seven days after the disaster.
Challenges and Public Health Issues
There were a few challenges that were experienced before, during and after the disaster that should be worked on in order to further lessen the human suffering during disasters. One of the most outstanding challenge that Alabama in general experienced was the issue of communication. It was noted that the lack of a common frequency that could be used by the response teams to coordinate the efforts was a hindrance to the rescue efforts. Logistics of moving donated items from one place to anther was yet another issue. This was made worse by the fact that most of the social venues that could be…
CDC (2012). Tornado-Related Fatalities -- Five States, Southeastern United States, April 25 -- 28, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6128a3.htm
Larry Copeland, (2011). Rebuilding will take years, millions -- and patience. USA Today. Retrieved October 16, 2012 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2011-05-25-joplin-tuscaloosa-rebuild_n.htm
National Geographic News, (2011). Monster Alabama Tornado Spawned by Rare "Perfect Storm." http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/04/110428-tuscaloosa-birmingham-alabama-news-tornadoes-science-nation/
The New York Times, (2011). Government's Disaster Response Wins Praise. Retrieved October 16, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/01/us/01fema.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
convert it into "Green Town"
Overall Analysis of the ebuilding Process
The region of Greensburg is an agricultural community, which is located in south-central Kansas. The day of May 4, 2007, marked a great tragedy in Greensburg, when it witnessed an EF-5 tornado. The study by FEMA (2007) states that according to the standard meteorological scale this was the most severe tornado in terms of wind speed. The consequence of the Greensburg tornado were very brutal, it demolished the region. The report by Paul, Che, Stimers and Dutt (2009) provides a complete description of the tornado. The author writes that the winds had a speed of over two hundred miles per hour. Moreover, the tornado cut a swath twenty-two miles in length and one and a half miles in width through the region. After the tornado passed, the damage was analyzed and it was found that approximately ninety-five per cent…
Blaikie, P, Cannon, T, Davis, I and Wisner, B. (1994) At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability, and Disasters. Routledge, New York, NY.
Brock, V.T., and Paul, B.K. 2003. Public Response to a Tornado Disaster: The Case of Hoisington, Kansas. Papers of the Applied Geography Conferences, Vol. 26: 343-351.
Cross, J.A. 2001. Megacities and Small Towns: Different Perspectives on Hazard Vulnerability. Environmental Hazards, Vol. 3: 63-80.
Tierney, K, Lindell, M and Perry, R. (2001) Facing the Unexpected: Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press.
formation of a tornado; the composition, causes, kinds and magnitude of destruction this natural calamity is capable to bring about. Tornado, a mysterious and violently destructive windstorm, is a funnel-shaped cloud extending towards the ground with a dark cumulonimbus mass on its end facing the ground. The funnel twists about into a mad oscillation of 200-300 miles per hour and is capable of causing great destruction where it meets civilization. This paper unlocks the mysteries of how a tornado is formed and unveils a violent aspect of Mother Nature.
Before we can understand how a tornado is formed, it is important that we discover and visualize the structure and mechanism of such a gigantic body. A tornado is a rotating column of air with a width of a few yards to more than a mile which spins at destructive high speeds accompanied by a conical downward extension of a…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2005, Columbia University Press.
Kirsten Weir, Mister Twister: Josh Wurman chases tornadoes across the U.S. countryside. Current Science, April 16, 2004
"The tornado core and the condensation funnel." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2005. pg 23-25
Kathy Wollard, Tornadoes form from 'supercells' into a column of whirling. The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Jul 19, 1999
The author of this report has been asked to focus on a single hurricane or tornado and how it impact human and societal life. Being that it is quite recent and it was very destructive, the author of this report has chosen the EF-5 tornado that decimated much of Joplin, Missouri in 2011. The author will cover how the tornado impacted the earth, the damage toll, the death toll, the economic impacts involved and any permanent consequences that have resulted. While the city of Joplin is certainly in recovery mode, that tornado hit that city head-on and levied a massive amount of destruction.
One account of the Joplin tornado that is quite exhaustive and informative would be that of the National Institute of Standards and Technologies, or NIST. The "EF-5" label mentioned in the introduction makes reference to the Fujita scale of tornado intensity. There are only five…
NIST. (2015). Joplin Missouri Tornado 2011. Nist.gov. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.nist.gov/el/disasterstudies/weather/joplin_tornado_2011.cfm
Wheatley, K. (2013). The May 22, 2011 Joplin, Missouri EF5 tornado. United States Tornadoes. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.ustornadoes.com/2013/05/22/joplin-missouri-ef5-tornado-may-22-2011/
Coping with a Disaster or Traumatic Event
Disasters are realities and bearing this in mind, there is a requirement to have comprehensive plans to ensure that there are coping systems and mechanisms in place to deal with the physical, mental and emotional problems faced after any fortuitous events
The paper will commence with various facts and statistics regarding how 2011 has been a banner year in terms of the number of tornadoes that hit the United States. Thence, emphasis will be placed on two major tornadoes that wreak the most havoc -- the one in Alabama that occurred in April 2011 and the month thereafter, the Joplin, Missouri tornado.
The succeeding paragraph will introduce the thesis statement especially not only the death and destruction brought about by tornadoes but the physical, mental and emotional turmoil cause by these extraordinary events.
Physical Problems After Disaster or Traumatic Events
The section will…
5. Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). The stages of grief. Available at http://www.memorialhospital.org/library/general/stress-the-3.html
6. Moyer, C. (2011, June 6). Doctors confront burst of mental health problems after disasters. American Medical News. Available at http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/m/2011/06/06/hl20606.htm
7. NOAA/National Weather Service. (2011, June 7). Monthly and annual U.S. tornado summaries. Available at http://www.spc.noaa.gov/climo/online/monthly/newm.html
Disaster Preparedness Plan:
Georgia has been an area threatened by some of form of natural disaster that has a huge negative impact on the well-being of its residents and the personnel and financial resources of the emergency response agencies. The most common natural disaster that occurs in this area is tornadoes that have terrorized both the rural and urban areas while making everyone in danger of their perils. In the recent years, Georgia experienced deadly tornadoes that caused harm, damages, and deaths in approximately 15 counties within the state. Give the nature of these tragedies, residents of this state need to be prepared and planned on how to respond to such emergencies.
Tornadoes in Georgia:
Tornadoes are regarded as nature's most violent storms since they can generate wind speeds of over 250 mph and appear from nowhere with little warning ("March Marks Start of Active Tornado," n.d.). These natural disasters…
"Defining the Need." (2002). Georgia Amateur Radio Emergency Service. Retrieved January 31,
2012, from http://www.gaares.org/ARESPlan/potential_disasters_in_georgia.html#tornadoes
"Georgia Emergency Operations Plan." (2010, August). GEMA / Homeland Security.
Retrieved from Georgia Emergency Management Agency / Homeland Security website: http://www.gema.ga.gov/content/atts/prepare/Plans%20and%20Maps/Plan%20Library/GEOP2010.pdf
Business Name: MWV located in Covington VA
Number of Employees 190
Emergency management plan entails a system of managing resources, information analysis and decision making in the event of a tornado hitting the facility (Hubbard, 2009). The emergency management plan acts a guide to the responsible personal, the staff and residents within the facility on the steps to take upon the occurrence of a tornado. The emergency plan gives a description of the role that the pre-appointed Emergency Management Group (EMG) is expected to carry out in the event of a tornado. The Emergency Management group will serve as the overall authority over the activities in the facility relating to the occurrence of a tornado.
The emergency management policy is to ensure the safety of every individual within the facility and bring the facility to normal operations after an accident.
The head of the Emergency Management group is…
Hubbard, C. o. (2009). Emergency Response, Windshield Survey; Hubbard, . City of Hubbard Oregon.
Safety, C. f C.P. (2002). American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Guidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies. . New York: CCPS-AICHE.
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…
Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/mappingbook.pdf
Choi, CQ (2012) Jupiter's Moon's Ocean May Be Too Acidic for Life. Space. Retrieved from: http://www.space.com/14757-europa-moon-ocean-acidic.html
Jovian Planets vs. Terrestrial Planets (2012) Buzzle. Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jovian-planets-vs.-terrestrial-planets.html
From the historic standpoint, as well as from a scientific standpoint, the hill's ability to protect against tornados is once again promoted as a myth. Originated from the Native Americans, the myth argued that there were specific areas protected against tornados by land features, such as hills, rivers, mountains or ridges. The legends were passed on from one generation to the other and created a false sense of protection. Until the tornados hit almost all region in the ocky Mountains, to kill tens of people (Scavuzzo, 2004).
And aside from history and science, the third means of convincing the population would be through the use of the common sense. Considering a situation in which the hills did indeed reduce the risks of tornados in the region, it is impossible for them to entirely eliminate the threat. This virtually means that when the tornado hits, it will create loses. If the…
Scavuzzo, W., 2004, Tornado alert, Crabtree Publishing Company, ISBN 077871571X
1999, Myths, The Tornado Project, http://www.tornadoproject.com/myths/myths.htm last accessed on October 7, 2010
Joplin Tornado Disaster
The Category EF-5 tornado that struck Joplin, Missouri, in 2011 devastated the region, killing 161 people and injuring over a thousand more (Smith, Sutter, 2013). In all, local, state and federal agencies and officials worked together to ensure a better response to the disaster, when compared to the debacle that was the response to Katrina; what was most notable about the disaster recovery in Joplin was that officials allowed the private sector "to lead the response and recovery (Smith, Sutter, 2013, p. 166). In other words, authorities from government agencies took a hands-off approach to the disaster response in Joplin and allowed non-profits and private organizations do the majority of the work. Volunteers took part in providing shelters and faith-based organizations rallied around the community to assist in the various needs using social media to help put out notices, organize and identify strategic aims; local organizations, churches…
After the Storm. (2012). Missouri's Commitment to Joplin. Retrieved from http://sema.dps.mo.gov/newspubs/publications/AfterTheStormMissouriCommitmentToJoplin.pdf
Bollin, S. (2011). The Day After: Recovery Efforts at St. John's Mercy Joplin.
Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiD0u7YwLnNAhVOdlIKHZZ6DOgQFggeMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iowadnr.gov%2FPortals%2Fidnr%2Fuploads%2Fwaste%2FP2%2520Workshops%2520Resources%2F11oct05joplin.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFte_zoIqgVi1RC6ZHbBYvNI_UGoQ&sig2=X0DPREp-8vdIIfHMvjjSkg
Joplin Proud. (2016). Joplin Disaster Recovery Summit. Retrieved from http://www.joplinproud.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/JoplinProud-SummitProgram-8.5x11-WEB.pdf
For example, the company could consider placing the data recovery system in the desert between West Texas and Nevada. In general, these areas are not subject to tornados or hurricanes. You could then choose, to place the location for all backup servers in a facility that will protect it against the weather such as: placing it underground. Once the facility is complete, you want to ensure that there is key staff to monitor and address any kind of issues that arise. Using such a system, will allow you to reduce the overall amounts of lost data that can occur at a particular location (due to weather / terrorist related activity).
Emergency Operations Center
The next issue that is going to be faced by the company / location is: establishing an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). In general, an EOC will serve as a place where the company can effectively coordinate a…
Great Britain Intelligence and Security Committee." Report into London Terrorist Attacks on 7 July 2005." London:
Stationary Office. 2006. Print.
Hoffer, Jim. "Backing Up Business - Industry Trend or Event." Health Management Technology, 12.9, (2001): 79
10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.
11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed
12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.
5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…
The failure to be able to deal with the fallout of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans caused many overstressed hospital workers to respond in what would later be regarded as a horrific manner. Investigators "were stunned when health care workers charged that a well-regarded doctor and two respected nurses had hastened the deaths of some patients by injecting them with lethal doses of drugs" allegedly in an act of mercy due to the inability of rescue workers to evacuate the patients in an effective fashion" (Fink 2009:1). The New Orleans doctor implicated in the patients' deaths argued that "informed consent is impossible during disasters and that doctors need to be able to evacuate the sickest or most severely injured patients last -- along with those who have Do Not esuscitate orders -- an approach that she and her colleagues used as conditions worsened after Katrina," given she believed that many…
Evaluation of hospital disaster drills: A module-based approach. (2011). Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality. (AHRQ) Retrieved February 26, 2011 at http://www.ahrq.gov/research/hospdrills/introduction.htm
Fink, Sherri. (2009, August 3). Strained by Katrina. The New York Times.
Retrieved February 26, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/30/magazine/30doctors.html
"The Great Storm reigns today as the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. Between 10,000 and 12,000 people died during the storm...the added toll on commercial structures created a monetary loss of $30 million, about $700 million in today's dollars" (Smith 2003).
A more recent powerful tropical system that affected the Texas coast was that of Hurricane Carla. Carla illustrated how storms are particularly damaging to the low-lying areas of Texas near the Gulf Coast. "Carla's circulation enveloped the entire Gulf of Mexico with fringe effects along all Gulf Coast states," and one-half million residents of the area had to be evacuated to higher ground ("Texas Hurricane History," 2008, USA Today).
Because of its location in the Southeast, Houston is subject to the El Nino effect, the climate changes that occur because of variations in water temperature in the Pacific Ocean. El Nino years tend to have higher levels of…
About our office." (2008). National Weather Service (NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/office.htm
The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm." (2004) National Weather Service Forecast Office
NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/projects/xmasevesnow04.htm
Houston." (2008). Environmental Protection agency EPA. Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.epa.gov/hiri/pilot/houston.html
Nik and the following is my problem. I have been assigned to a beautiful island in order to help my team, Alex and Chris, set up their work site. Kava, the island itself, is battered with more challenges that I have ever lived with that include tidal waves/tsunami; typhoons/hurricanes; tornadoes; floods; fires; volcanic eruptions; earthquakes. Add to this mixture HIV / AIDS; petroleum spill; high risk for avian flu; and terrorism and you understand why I am queasy about the chances of success and, more so, perplexed about where to start. Aside from the above external problems that impact the project, internal challenges include disorganization of the work location and site; shoddy H procedures, chaotic organizational structure; and non-harmonious workforce that has been reflected in the organization's history of high turnover.
My task, according to Alex and Chris, consists in helping them establish a greater presence in Kava. Ways of…
MindTools.Com. Paired Comparison Analysis. Retrieved on 2/24/2012 from:
New Product Development Group
Gerry assumes that because Maria has been successful as a small entrepreneur that her business will easily be integrated into a much larger-scale operation. Although her product has national distribution, this does not necessarily translate into widespread market demand for all demographic groups. Food is very regionalized in terms of eaters' preferences (for example, deep dish pizza is popular in Chicago while 'skinny' pizza is popular on the east coast). Maria's tacos may have an audience, but it does not necessarily coincide with that of Manchester Food's audience. Furthermore, some foods work well as small scale operations but do not as a mass-produced product. For example, on the streets of New York, halal food in like grilled lamb in pitas is very tasty and affordable but this has not translated into generic fast food success for this item. Maria's idea for Sudden Seafood seems more of…
security and governance program is "a set of responsibilities and practices that is the responsibility of the Board and the senior executives." This is the procedures by which the company ensures information security in the organization. The program consists of desired outcomes, knowledge of the information assets, and process integration (ITGI, 2013). Security of information is important because of the value of information, especially proprietary, in today's business world. The biggest differentiator between governance and IT security is that the latter is about the physical constructs of the IT program but governance incorporates everything include spoken communication so any form of information creation or handling.
The first thing is the desired outcomes. The company has to know what it wants to accomplish with this program. Ideally there is alignment between the information security strategy and the organization's overall strategy. There should be risk management, so understanding the different risk and…
ITGI. (2013). Information security governance. IT Governance Institute. Retrieved November 29, 2013 from http://www.isaca.org/Knowledge-Center/Research/Documents/InfoSecGuidanceDirectorsExecMgt.pdf
NYC African Restaurants
African Restaurants in NYC
The restaurant's soft industrial lighting makes the chrome gleam. A soft and expansive backdrop of blue gives the space a cool and slightly futuristic industrial like a hip loft in the future. Exposed brick walls are tinged in a blue sheen and the distressed wood chairs and tables have been stained steel gray and have marble table tops. In three weeks, Cisse Elhadji, the owner of Ponty Bistro in Midtown, will open his new restaurant La Terengea. Located at 144 West 139th St., the restaurant us nestled in between the Hudson and Harlem rivers a few blocks west of the City College of New York. The location of the restaurant is quite lucrative given its relative proximity to both Central Park as well as Yankee Stadium.
Though Elhadji has succeeded once with an African restaurant, La Teregenga is still a gamble.…
Social isk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract
Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations.
All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are…
Bexar County Emergency Management. (2016). The Mission & Vision of the OEM. Retrieved from: http://www.bexar.org/675/OEM-Mission-Vision
Chavi. (2015). Here Are The 10 Worst Disasters to Occur in Pennsylvania History. Only in Your State. Retrieved from: http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/pennsylvania/pa-disasters/
City Data. (2016). Philadelphia: Geography and Climate. Retrieved from: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Philadelphia-Geography-and-Climate.html
Dunning, C. M., Durden, S. (2013). Social Vulnerability Analysis: A Comparison of Tools. Institute for Water Resources.
In the United States over 1,000 tornadoes occur annually (Grazulis 1993), but they are difficult to predict, and average warning lead times are only 10-15 minutes, meaning that, unlike with hurricanes, many people are unable to leave their homes in the tornado paths"(Simmons and Sutter 2005). Just think, if the homes of these poor people were in the 20th floor of a high-rise building it would likely take them more than the fifteen to twenty minutes warning time just to traverse the stairs in their building. Such a scenario would put many individuals in undue precarious situations with no rescue in sight, and it would not necessarily only affect those people who lived in the building, but would affect those that were attempting to rescue those individuals as well. This type of situation would be inherently dangerous to the firemen and policemen, much like the televised horror experienced by millions…
Grazulis, T.P., (1993) Significant tornadoes: 1680-1991, Environmental Films, p. 1326
Monikowski, F., Woodcok, C., (2007) the challenge of high-rise fire sprinkler retrofits, Buildings, Vol. 101, No. 5, p. 30
Qi, Y., (2002) a study on the reliability of fire water supply system in high-rise buildings, Fire Technology, Vol. 38, p. 71-79
Simmons, K.M., Sutter, D. (2005) WSR-88D radar, tornado warnings, and tornado casualties, Weather Forecasting, Vol. 20, pp. 301-310.
Advice, Not Color Codes
John Stossel, commentator for ABC news shows, is well-known for his TV segments titled "Give Me a Break!" In these short segments, he talks about instances he perceives as government waste.
On March 15 of this year, he talked about the new government agency, the "Office of Homeland Security." This office was created shortly after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States.
It seemed like a good idea at the time. e knew we had been incapable of protecting ourselves on September 11. Since we protected our federal buildings with ground barriers after the Oklahoma City bombings, our enemies simply commandeered passenger jets and used them as flying guided missiles.
Since we have had extra security in our airports since the late sixties, when hijackings to Cuba and other countries became common, we were aghast. e didn't know how to protect ourselves. e needed…
Stossel, John. "Homeland Insecurity. abc NEWS.com. Accessed 3/21/02 via the Internet. http://www.abcnews.com
Parkland Hospital: A Dallas Icon
The history of the City of Dallas would hardly be complete without consideration of Parkland Hospital and its contributions to the Dallas community. Parkland Hospital began in the Civil ar Reconstruction era and has always maintained operations that were state of the art for the time. Parkland hospital has always aligned itself research and the academic community and it is for this reason that Parkland has always offered the latest in techniques and technology. Parkland Hospital has a long tradition of caring for the poor and those who cannot otherwise care for themselves. The following research will highlight the major accomplishments of the hospital from its primitive beginnings to its present position as a leader in patient care and technology Seven years after the end of the Civil ar; Dallas became a thriving city. In 1885 the Dallas Morning News began publication, at that time…
Abraham, Laurie. Dramatic Differences: Dallas Public Hospital: A Lesson for County? Chicago
Reporter. May 5, 1990. http://www.chicagoreporter.com/1990/05-90/0590%20Dramatic%20Differences.htm Accessed February, 2003.
Conger, Darrell. Southwestern Department of Opthamology History. Department of Opthamology. March 20, 2001. http://www.swmed.edu/ophth/history.htm . Accessed February, 2003.
Dallas Nephrology Associates. History of DNA. Online. http://www.dneph.com/about/history.html Accessed February 2003.
ASLP Planning Emergencies
Emergency management plan is the document that contains information on how the authorities, people and businesses can respond, prepare and mitigate the risks associated with hazards in the United States. The emergency plan also assists in identifying the magnitude of a disaster, and probability of its occurrence within a specific year. The information assists the government to put aside the adequate resource to manage the emergence. The paper identifies the Hail Storm, Tornadoes and Wildfire for the hazard and vulnerable analysis.
Hazard & Vulnerability Analysis Table
Speed of Onset
Likely to occur during the winter and spring
May last between one and two weeks
More than 24 hours' warning
Damage to properties. Shutdown of critical facilities
Likely to occur during the winter
May last for more than a week
More than 24 hours'…
Gebert, K.M.; Calkin, D.E.; Yoder, J. (2007). Estimating suppression expenditures for individual large wildland fires. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 22: 188 -- 196.
Liang, J.; Calkin, D.E.; Gebert, K.M.et al. ( 2008). Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 17: 650 -- 659.
National Association of Community Health Centers (2010). Essential Components of Emergency Management Plans at Community Health Centers Crosswalk of Plan Elements.USA.
Hazard Potential Grid
Fre- quen- cy
Speed of Onset
Scope and Inten- sity
Act of war
Lowest risk within ten years =1; highest risk = 5
Earthquake: St. Louis is about 200 miles from the New Madrid Fault, but because of the geology of the region, shock waves travel a very long distance with considerable force. A major New Madrid Fault earthquake could destroy many vulnerable buildings, do major damage to others, buckle highways and collapse overpasses and possibly bridges. Although the fault has not triggered a major earthquake in modern times, in 1809 and 1810 it triggered two earthquakes about six weeks apart that were both probably around 8.0 on the Richter scale. The region avoided major damage and loss of life only because…
Websites are an effective medium of promotion and providing necessary information. It can be used for the purpose of disseminating knowledge and can also achieve a purpose of publicity. The given below, extract is a review of three websites visited for the purpose of evaluating the traits that should be present in the credible website which provides accurate and complete information, serves its purpose and is user friendly. This evaluation helped us establish a criteria regarding how absence of various elements can affect the effectiveness of the website.
The website is known as www.allaboutexplorers.com. The website is produced on webpress by WOO Themes. Gerald Aungust is the webmaster and lead designer for allaboutexplorers.com. Furthermore, he has been involved in education at junior levels for seventeen years. The second author is Lauren Zucker. She is the research and content specialist for this website. She has been involved in teaching…
If the area they were placed in was prone to blizzards, earthquakes, terrorist outbreaks or anything else the public to be educated that if it heard the sirens it meant that specific disaster was likely occurring, had occurred or was about to occur.
The sirens are also universally recognized as a warning system therefore the process of installation and public education would not be significantly difficult to complete.
TSUNAMI WANING SYSTEM
The world was shocked and traumatized when the Indian Ocean Tsunami hit a few years ago and hundreds of thousands of people died as a result of that disaster.
When it struck there was very little or no warning for most of those who were impacted by its arrival.
Most people did not know it was coming until they saw the giant wave coming toward them as they stood on shore (Indian Ocean tsunami warning system (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4524642.stm).
Outdoor Warning System http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/EM/Disaster_Preparedness/sirens.php
Indian Ocean tsunami warning system http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4524642.stm
Decisions in Paradise III With Paretto Analysis
Decisions in Paradise II
Cesar a ivera
Decisions in Paradise II
This is Nik's problem
Nik has landed on Kava an island that is faced with numerous challenges including tidal waves/tsunami; typhoons/hurricanes; tornadoes; floods; fires; volcanic eruptions; earthquakes; HIV / AIDS; petroleum spill; high risk for avian flu; and terrorism, and has been asked to helped establish a business there. Aside from the above problems that impact the potential business, other challenges include the location and site being a mess; H procedures being chaotic, disrupted and confused organizational structure; and conflicting and conflicted workforce due to diverse composition, beliefs, attitudes, and ideologies. Employees in the past, the wrong mix and too many, barely stayed and so business management and environment became increasingly chaotic.
Nik's tasks, according to Alex, consist of establishing a greater presence in Kava. Ways of establishing that presence…
Decision Making Styles." Leadership Management. Leadership Management
Development Center, Inc., 1997. Web. 6 Jun 2011.
"Introduction Human Resources Applies to Any Size of Organization." Library's Human
Resources Blog. Free Management Library, 2010. Web. 6 Jun 2011.
Developing Writing and Reading Skills for Second Graders
Standards and Objectives: The objectives of this lesson plan include: a) inspiring students to create ideas with light-hearted fun; b) learning to write creatively; c) learning to speak in front of the class with poise and clarity
Length of Lesson: Two full days of classroom work
Required Materials for Students: Paper, pencils
Required Materials for Teachers: A tricky story to read; scratch paper to pass out to students
What will you do?
The teacher reads a humorous story to the class, using great emphasis and stopping at key points to ask the class what will happen next. The story is about a young boy who got confused on his way from school. He met a girl while coming home from school who asked if he had an apple in his backpack. "Yes I do," he said. "Well, I…
I was pretty enthusiastic when I returned to the 56th ACT having been ordered to assume responsibility as the deputy brigade commander (DCO). I felt proud and lucky. I had held the proud and shinny image of the 56th ACT in my head for the last two years. When I returned, there had been some significant changes. It has not been long since I returned, and with the division commander losing confidence in the ability of COL Timmons to be an effective commander of the brigade, I now command the 56th ACT. On my mind always was how I was going to restore the image of the 56th. I know it will be hard and challenging, but one thing I am sure of is that it can be done. I have had vast experience in the brigade. Drawing from this experience and the CGSOC L100'S themes - notably…
Aldweiri, Maj Bashar. (2012). academia.edu. n.d. https://www.academia.edu/8997235/US_ARMY_COMMAND_AND_GENERAL_STAFF_COLLEGE_US_Army_Command_and_General_Staff_School_Command_and_General_Staff_Officer_Course_CGSOC_L100_Developing_Organizations_and_Leaders_L100_Take_Home_Exam_Case_Study_AY_13-14_The_56th_A (accessed November 24, 2014).
Chandler, Diane J. "The Perfect Storm of Leaders' Unethical Behavior: A Conceptual Framework." International Journal of Leadership Studies, 2009.
Keltner, D., Langner, C.A., & Allison, M.L. (2006).Power and moral leadership. In D. Rhode (Ed.), Moral leadership: The theory and practice of power, judgment, and policy (pp. 177-194). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Lipman-Blumen, J. (2005). The allure of toxic leaders: Why we follow destructive bosses and corrupt politicians - and how we can survive them. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
successful entrepreneur takes a lot of hard work. People often require a great idea and excellent implementation of said idea to gain success. Using the business competition chain, people can come up with an idea and through effort, turn it into an innovation and therefore, a marketable product. The business competition chain is as follows: Idea attracts entrepreneur that seeks capital that enables a team/business to compete in the market. So considering those, I suggest the idea of flashlights that have an end piece that expands or narrows for both focused, intense light on the narrow version and weak wide-covering light on the open version. Many products already have the idea of opening and narrowing the end piece of an object. For example, a metal steamer opens and closes in order to accommodate a range of food items. Joseph Schumpeter understood that by taking the business cycle approach, during financial…
Kokemuller, N. (2015). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Debt and Equity Financing. Small Business - Chron.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-debt-equity-financing-55504.html
Lynn, G., & Akgun, A. (2015). Innovation Strategies Under Uncertainty: A Contingency Approach for New Product Development. Engineering Management Journal, 11. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10429247.1998.11414991
Shepherd, D., & Wiklund, J. (2005). Entrepreneurial small businesses. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
The Weather Channel,. (2015). Tornadoes Cause Destruction, Flooding Continues in Texas; 5 Dead, 2 Missing. Retrieved 31 October 2015, from http://www.weather.com /storms/severe/news/severe-weather-impacts-southern-plains-texas
Hatchet - Plot
The book by Gary Paulsen, Hatchet, is one of the most highly rated and revered young person's stories. A thirteen-year-old boy named Brian Robeson finds himself in the survival adventure of a life time. He is initially identified as a boy that is burdened with the fact of his parents' divorce. And adding to that pain, Brian has seen his mother kissing a strange man in a station wagon. There are interesting ironies in the beginning of the book, as Brian is preparing to spend the summer in the north woods of Canada where his father (who is an engineer) is working in the oil fields. Just before Brian leaves (in a small Cessna) for Canada, his mother gives him a hatchet, as a gift, and he can't see the purpose of that hatchet at that time. But after the plane crash and being launched into a…
Paulsen, Gary. Hatchet. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.
Connections to the author's life
USACE program funding, compliant with Federal Continuity Directive 1. It will also address processes required for continuing the business continuity plan for the Nation's Survivability and Critical Infrastructure.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) identifies itself with the following mission: to offer critical services in the public engineering area, during times of war and peace, for strengthening America's security, mitigating disaster risks, and energizing the nation's economy (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers -- The United States Army). Via its egulatory Program, the USACE oversees and implements CWA (Clean Water Act), Section 404, and the 1899 ivers and Harbors Act's (HA), Section 10. The latter forbids unsanctioned alteration or obstruction of any of America's navigable waters, unless one possesses a USACE permit. The term 'navigable American waters' refers to all waters subject to the tide's rise and fall, which have been in use earlier, or are currently used, or…
(2014). Charleston District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Guidance for Submittals to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by Council Of Government Offices. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.sac.usace.army.mil/Portals/43/docs/regulatory/Guidance_for_Submittals
(n.d.). FEMA.gov -- Federal Emergency Management Agency. Emergency Support Function #3 -- Public Works and Engineering Annex. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.fema.gov /pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-esf-03.pdf
Gibson. (2014). Department of Veterans Affairs. Army Corps identifies need for "transformative change" in VA construction process - VAntage Point. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.blogs.va.gov/VAntage/22620/army-corps-identifies-need-for-transformative-change-in-va-construction-process/
Goodeyon, S. (2013). The Official Home Page of the United States Army -- The United States Army. USACE responds to FEMA mission in aftermath of killer Okla. tornadoes -- Article -- The United States Army. Retrieved May 29, 2016, from http://www.army.mil/article/105191/
Threats due to weather include floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes and blizzards. Planning for weather events should be very realistic in nature. Major weather events usually occur in 25, 50 and 100-year cycles. Disease outbreaks are also a big threat. A potential flu pandemic could be detrimental to many businesses. For example, the bird flu pandemic scenarios that are floating around are being modeled on the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. That global outbreak killed 500,000 people in the United States and more than 20 million people worldwide. Since that time there have been two other smaller scale flu pandemics, each that killed hundreds of thousands of people. The flu is just one disease that can cause a business disaster situation around the world (Business Continuity during a Disaster, 2008).
ecent years have also shown that terrorism threats are a real possibility that needs to be considered. Terrorism is a great…
Aceh Post-Tsunami Reconstruction: Lessons Learned Two Years on. (2006). Retrieved
September 22, 2009, from the World Bank Web site:
Amato-McCoy, Deena M. (2006). Planning for Continuity. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Bank Systems and Technology Web site:
This revision, they note, was "partly in recognition of research demonstrating that traumatic events were in fact not uncommon. DSM-IV defines the traumatic stressor as when a person 'experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others" (Vasterling and Brewin 6).
The diagnostic criteria established by the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) for PTSD state that an individual must have:
itnessed, experienced, or otherwise been confronted with an event that involved actual or possible death, grave injury, or threat to physical integrity; and,
The individual's response to such a traumatic event must include severe helplessness, fear or horror (cited in Clancy 2004).
According to Clancy (2004), a number of professions such as law enforcement, firefighters and combat veterans tend to experience a…
Baum, Andrew, Tracey a. Revenson and Jerome E. Singer. Handbook of Health Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Breton, J.J., Valla, J.P. And J. Lambert. (1993). "Industrial disaster and mental health of children and their parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32: 438-445 in Richman and Fraser at 134.
Browne, Ivor. (1990). "Psychological Trauma, or Unexperienced Experience." Re-vision 12(4): 25.
Clancy, Kris. (2004, March). "Reducing Trauma's Toll: Managers in Fields Such as Security Must Be Aware of Trauma-Related Stress and Find Ways to Assist Employees in Dealing with it." Security Management 48(3): 30-31.
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
Community Outing isk eport: Touring Old Mesilla
The outing proposed needs to be a four hour tour for a group of 20 individuals with varied backgrounds, experience, and physical abilities. It needs to be an outdoor activity. The people in the group include four people in the 60-70-year range (three males and one female) two females over the age of 75, both of whom have health problems, four children between the ages of six and ten years old (one with chronic asthma and one with a severe peanut allergy), six people between the ages of 35 and 40 (three males and three females; one of the females is pregnant), and four people between the ages of 16 and 18 (2 males and 2 females). Furthermore, while everyone in the tour group is an English speaker, English is not the first language of the elderly members of the group (those age…
ABQ Webmaster, 2011, National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office: Albuquerque, NM.
Available from: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/abq/?n=prephazards
ISO, 2009, ISO 31000: 2009. Available from:
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
Managing Homeland Security
isk and vulnerability
There are two general types of disasters which occur, that of disasters which occur regularly with moderately severe consequences such as flooding and less common but far more horrific events, such as terrorist attacks. The latter type of disaster naturally draws the most press coverage, although it is the first type of disaster that tends to concern local residents the most and draws the majority of community dollars. As noted by my colleague Charles Cowart in his response, this is because these types of small-scale disasters are virtually certain to occur and are thus seemingly more deserving of scarce resources.
However, as noted by my classmate Mark Taylor, major disasters can draw a great deal of public outrage after they occur, if they are handled in an incompetent fashion. A good example of this is Hurricane Katrina. People are upset by major disasters not…
Community wind shelters. (2012). FEMA. Retrieved:
http://www.fema.gov /library/viewRecord.do?id=1972' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness (U.S. Federal Programs: Advantages and Disadvantages)
The confrontations and prospects for the reduction of hazards/disasters have never been greater than in the current period. In theory, the challenge is to do away with all disasters that cause the loss of life or injury to people along with the property and environment damage. On the other hand, such a goal is not possible to achieve practically. Although it is possible to avoid certain risks but the elimination of environmental hazards seems to be an idealistic task (Smith, 2004, p. 268).
The evidence signals that there is a need to do more today for tomorrow. Though investment in hazard mitigation has increased, there are few signs that show the effectiveness of the sustainability plans. In United States of America, several plans are outlined that have lessened the number of casualties and scale of destruction (Smith, 2004, p. 268).…
About FEMA. (2011, November 14). In FEMA. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://www.fema.gov /about/index.shtm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
p Executive briefing on current emerging issues in emergency management to brief a local executive
Executive briefing of emerging issues in emergency management:
Capabilities, vulnerabilities, and needs for Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha, Nebraska is subject to the specific geographic and meteorological conditions to its region that give it a unique profile for emergency managers. Unlike the major coastal cities of Los Angeles and New York, for example, it is not identified as a high-priority target for potential terrorists because of its cultural significance. But although it is not proximate to a national border, Homeland Security issues are still of great importance as reflected in the recent rebuilding of its Homeland Security office to LEED (environmentally sustainable) standards. This ensures that the building can be energy-efficient and can answer the needs of the community in the future (Omaha Department of Homeland Security, 2008, CBE Berkeley).
egarding natural disasters common to Omaha,…
Douglas County, NE local emergency operations plan (2010). Nebraska.gov. Retrieved:
Duggan, J. (2013). Plan for the worst with the Keystone XL pipeline. Omaha.com. Retrieved:
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Emergency Planning: Washington, DC
Emergency planning entails planning carefully for every type of hazard that may affect a particular area. It involves forecasting and developing a plan to deal with natural, manmade and technological disasters.
Washington, DC's emergency planning has of course changed entirely since September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks that left the entire country stunned and scarred had a particularly strong impact on Washington, DC. The center of America's political structure and a strong financial base, Washington continues to be a prime target for terrorists, one that will always be on a "short-list," so to speak, of cities that may yet again have to endure a terrorist attack of mammoth proportions.
One of the primary concerns for Washington, DC emergency planners is Reagan National Airport. The airport is so close to the most important landmarks and population centers in downtown Northwest Washington, DC, that it poses a continual…
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Moreover, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Through FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (http://www.fema.gov).Moreover, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).…
American Red Cross." http://www.redcross.org /services/disaster/0,1082,0_319_,00.html accessed 11-17-2003).
The Department of Homeland Security." http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html .
A accessed 11-17-2003).
Emergency Food and Shelter." Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.fema.gov .(accessed 11-17-2003).
Problem of Evil
Natural Evil vs. Moral Evil
Natural evil is a term that embraces theodicy, in the sense that there are devastating earthquakes, and tornados, tsunamis, and hurricanes, and other terrible weather situations that harm people and communities (Philosophy of Religion). God created the planet and in doing so He never promised to always have fair weather with puffy white clouds and rays of sunshine every day. The planet is a natural world reality, and besides the frightening weather events, natural evil could also be seen in a child's birth defects, in a mother's breast cancer; one could argue that a woman got breast cancer from eating too much red meat or other foods that are not recommended, but nevertheless when she is stricken with this deadly disease, it can be considered a natural evil that has caused her pain -- and maybe taken her life as well.
Elwell, Walter A., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Second Edition). Edited by Walter A.
Elwell. (Ada, MI: Baker Academic, 2001): 434-436.
Flescher, Andrew Michael. Moral Evil. Georgetown University Press. (October, 2013).
Retrieved June 28, 2014, from http://press.georgetown.edu .
Stafford Act can rightly be considered the principle legislation governing emergency and disaster management in the U.S., spelling "out - among other things - how disasters are declared, the types of assistance to be provided, and the cost-sharing arrangements between federal, state, and local governments" (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007, p. 3). FEMA is, essentially, charged with implementing the Act and overseeing its two incident levels - major disasters and emergencies. However, despite the fact that it is put into place several times every year, during declarations of catastrophes and emergencies, the Stafford Act is not without its critics who have outspokenly called for an overhaul to some of is fundamental provisions. The author posits that in its present state, the Stafford Act lacks standardized mitigation procedures, and ought, therefore, to be "reformed to aggressively encourage the reconstruction of improved infrastructure, in addition to providing funding for mitigation projects" (Moss &…
Bea, K. (2003). Federal Disaster Policies after Terrorists Strike: Issues and Options. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers.
Hunter, N.D. (2009). The Law of Emergencies: Public Health and Disaster Management. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann
Moss, M.L. & Shelhamer, C. (2007). The Stafford Act: Priorities for Reform. New York University Library. Retrieved 4th July 2014 from http://www.nyu.edu/ccpr/pubs/Report_StaffordActReform_MitchellMoss_10.03.07.pdf
orkplace Emergency Planning
hat preparations should be made by companies to be ready to respond when there is an emergency? hat kinds of emergencies should employees and management be prepared for? hat actions should be taken when an emergency occurs in the workplace? These issues will be discussed in this paper, with references from the American Red Cross and the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
Emergencies and Preparation - OSHA
The truth of the matter is that no one really expects an emergency or a disaster, but as OSHA points out on page 1, a disaster can happen almost anywhere. And even though a disaster cannot be predicted, because it threatens workers and the public and customers it is vitally important that companies be prepared.
hat are some of the emergencies that might occur in a workplace? Depending on the geographic location of the workplace,…
American Red Cross. (2008). Preparing Your Business for the Unthinkable. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.redcross.org .
OSHA (2001). How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and Evacuations. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.osha.gov .
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency esponse for Natural Disasters or Terrorists Attacks in Florida
Emergency management has been described regarding the phases by using words such as prepare. Mitigate, respond and recover. For this paper, we are going to examine the underlying concepts, variation, limitations, and implications of emergency management phases. Moreover, we are going to look at the various preparedness and response strategies applied by the State of Florida when dealing with natural disasters and terrorist attacks among others. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show the preparedness and response put in place for these crises for both researchers and practitioners. The paper will also try to give definitions and descriptions of two components, preparedness and response, of emergency management, the temporal versus functional distinctions. Moreover, it is important to understand the interrelationships and responsibilities for each of the phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and the diversity…
Adamski, T., Kline, B. & Tyrell, T. (2006). FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief: FEMA Reorganization. Perspectives on Public Affairs, 3, 1-36.
Durmaz, H. (2007). Understanding and Responding to Terrorism. Washington, USA: IOS Press.
Edwards, F. L. & Steinhausler, F. (2007). NATO and Terrorism: On scene: New challenges for the first responders and civil protection. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Elders Affairs. (June 2013). Disaster Preparedness: Guide for Elders. Elder Update -- Special Edition, 24(3), 1-24.
Outline the major risks associated with maintaining continuity of operations in the event of an environmental catastrophe.
The Chief Operating Officer
erwick Hospital System
Risks Linked to Environmental Disaster
The erwick Hospital System identified some susceptibilities common to hospitals in Louisiana that experienced the Rita and Katrina calamities. For minimizing the harm, we may suffer in case an environmental disaster strikes, I have encapsulated within this memo a few potential risks linked to environmental calamities, and an operations continuity plan for coping with such a situation.
The erwick Hospital System represents a healthcare facility/hospital situated in Illinois State's downtown Chicago area. The main division of the organization comprises of medical labs, 5 operation theatres, and 673 hospital beds. The campus also holds seven smaller satellite structures, which include the nursing home, outpatient doctors' offices for outpatient access/visits and hospice.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) defines an emergency as any…
CHA. (2014). Hospital Continuity Planning Toolkit. California Hospital Association.Retrieved from: http://ddcache1.net/calhospital.s1017.SU/sites/main/files/file-attachments/hcp_toolkit_1.pdf
Gregg, M. (2009, June 8). CISSP Exam Cram: Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
Planning. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from Pearson: http://www.pearsonitcertification.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1329710&seqNum=3
IEMA. (2016). Illinois Disaster Plans. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from Illinois Emergency
History Of Climate Change and Potential Impact of Climate Change
HISTOY AND POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
History of Climate Change
Climate change can be traced back to the 19th century when ice ages together with different natural changes were first noted, and effect of greenhouse first identified. Most recently, the glaciers are melting. Water levels in the seas are increasing. Evidence of increased temperatures in the atmosphere is evident from these. For the last ten years, rampant cases of tornados, winter freezes, wildfires, tropical cyclones, and floods have been common in the US and across the globe. Besides, environmental temperatures have risen steadily over the past century. Today, human activities have advanced, with their eventual effects resting on the environment (McNall, 2012). The use of nuclear energy is a devastating blow to the sustenance of the natural state of the cosmos. The use of fossil fuels has increased the…
Black, B. (2013). Climate change: An encyclopedia of science and history. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
McNall, S., G. (2012). Rapid Climate Change: Causes, Consequences, and Solution. Framing 21st Century Social Issues. Routledge
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall on the coast of Texas. While it was predicted to hit the United States as less destructive tropical storm or Cat 1 hurricane, a number of factors combined to make Harvey extremely destructive. First, Harvey strengthened as it approached land. Second, the storm was slow-moving, so that it continued to drop rain on the coast. Finally, Harvey’s rains hit one of the most heavily-populated areas of the United States. Combined together, these factors made Harvey one of the most destructive natural disasters to ever hit the United States.
One of the reasons that Harvey was so destructive is that people did not have adequate time to prepare for the storm. Harvey formed very quickly and was expected to make landfall as a tropical storm or, at most, a Category 1 hurricane. The upgrade to above Category 1 status occurred very quickly before landfall. Although local employers and school districts struggled…
Early focus for moving operations to Kava will include organizational processes with a step-by-step plan, human resources evaluation, and study of ethical dilemmas that they might encounter. This project will take more man power than the two of us presently in Kava; a team will need to be assigned to help work the project.
This project will be one of the company's largest endeavors, we will need to ensure that we have one controlling master schedule so that individual aspects of this project do not spiral out of control
Research of the culture must be done to ensure the success of the venture, before attempting to market services to a foreign country we must understand the culture and the differences
. In understanding, respecting and accepting the different culture and the ability to set our own aside we will see a smooth transition when collaborating with the local government, parents…
By structuring a plan to formally educate the young people of Kava, we will help the island economically by looking toward the future and our ultimate goal of opening a facility that will employee the islanders that we have trained, this is a positive situation for both parties involved as we improve their standard of living while we gain access to a more cost effective workforce to improve our operating margin. Conforming as much as possible to their culture and respecting their differences, we will win their respect and trust. Implementing the above plan will also help other countries who obtain supplies and services from Kava by keeping the island alive and economically viable. Better education will help them overcome the many obstacles they are faced with on a daily basis.
Ned Kock, Dorrie DeLuca. (2007). Improving Business Processes Electronically: An Action Research Study in New Zealand and the U.S. Journal of Global Information Technology Management
Nutt, P.C. (1987). Making tough decisions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
It needs to be well understood because just like knowledge, ingorance cannot be talked about without basing on some individual or group. It should therfore be negotiated soically because it is socially constructed. Ignorance is treated indiscriminately and unitary whereby terms like uncertainity, ambiguity and vagueness are considered synonymous by most writing on disaster.Turner together with several other writers in the fields of disasters and hazards refer to about three ignorance senses consisting of distortion which he also calls misinformation, incompleteness and irrelevance whereby relevant information is discounted and overlooked. In order to prevent disasters, there are various ways in information which would be need is classified. The things which are not known; what is known but not entirely appreciated; something which someone knows but does not present it collectively with other information in a timely manner when there will be realization of its significance and action of its message…
Auf der Heide, E. (1989). Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St.
Louis: C.R. Mosely.
Britton, N. (1999). Whither the emergency manager?" International Journal of Mass
Emergencies and Disaster, 17(3), 223-36.
(J. Frank Norris -- Everything on).
Norris' Controversial Side
Norris admits to a lot of behavior that he may not have been able to get away with in today's politically correct climate. Admittedly, in the 1930's, Norris campaigned vehemently against Al Smith, a Catholic, whom was running for President. Norris used his power to wage a campaign against him so as to protect the other candidate whom was a member of the Klu Klux Klan, a known white supremicist. Additionally, Norris advocated in favor of placing people on trial for allegedly supporting communism or taking part in communist activities. In fact, he adamantly wrote to the anti-American committee and volunteered to testify against members of the Southern Baptist Convention. On many occasion, Norris openly praised Joe McCarthy for his anti-communist work. Moreover, Norris' own friends have stated that Norris always loved a fight; and, Norris himself admits that at first…
"J. Frank Norris - Everything on J. Frank Norris (information, Latest News, Articles,...)." Spiritus-Temporis.com - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives. Web. 14 Apr. 2010. .
"J. Frank Norris." Enriching the Mind, Inspiring the Heart. Arlington Baptist College. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. .
"J. Frank Norris." Enriching the Mind, Inspiring the Heart. Arlington Baptist College. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. .
"J. Frank Norris." Expert Archive Questions. Allexperts.com. Web. 13 Apr. 2010. .