Torture Essays (Examples)

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Fine Line Walked by Interrogators

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9366671

This last category includes the infamous waterboarding technique, which has -- in subsequent evaluations -- been labeled illegal torture. An important consideration in the evaluation of these techniques has been the additive impact of combining techniques to achieve an enabling condition or objective. In other words, in its 2002 memo to John izzo, the Acting General Counsel of the C.I.A., the U.S. Justice Department specifically prohibited some combinations of techniques and specifically permitted other combinations. In the period following 9/11 through 2005, revolving officials in the Office of Legal Counsel of the U.S. Justice Department issued radical memos supporting or opposing the standard imposed by Congress for identifying torture. The harsh interpretation in 2005 asserted that the techniques used by the C.I.A. were not "cruel, inhuman or degrading," and so could not be considered to be torture.

How would you validate the information received from a suspect that was deprived…… [Read More]

References

Greene, C.H. And Banks, L.M. (2009). Ethical guideline evolution in psychological support to interrogations operations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61(1), 25-32.

Mazzetti, M. And Shane, S. (2009, April 17). Interrogation memos detail harsh tactics by the C.I.A. The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/17/us/politics/17detain.html?hp [Type text]
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Josef Mengele the Angel of

Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80801089

Undoubtedly, this association is partially explained by his postwar notoriety, but the ubiquitous image of Mengele at the ramp in so many survivors' accounts has also to do with the fact that Mengele often appeared "off-duty" in the selection area whenever trainloads of new prisoners arrived at Auschwitz, searching for twins."

Mengele's fascination with twins, and especially with experimentation on twins in order to find a way in which he could potentially double the size of the German race, led him to experiment on everything from eyesight, to pain tolerance, to tuberculosis. From witness accounts, Mengele would even inject the children with diseases, which often provoked vomiting and diarrhea, or would subject them to cuts while strapped to a table.

Because of his firsthand experimentation and selection of many prisoners, Mengele is responsible for countless numbers of deaths. Furthermore, due to his orders, others were either tortured, maimed, or killed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Evans, Nick. "Nazi Angel of Death Josef Mengele 'created Twin Town in Brazil'" the Telegraph UK. 21 Jan. 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .

"Holocaust History." Josef Mengele. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .

"Holocaust History." Nazi Medical Experiments. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .

"Josef Mengele (German Physician)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
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Extraordinary Rendition the Costs of

Words: 6889 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32847680

In other words, up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no cases of note or significance that indicated that the executive branch of the UNITED STATES government had the authority to render suspects or criminals to foreign locations outside of the explicit authority granted through a signed treaty with a foreign government.

It was during the Civil War that the first major break with this established legal tradition was made. The incident involved the capture of a foreign citizen in New York City during wartime and performed by presidential authority alone. The man captured was Jose Augustin Arguelles, a Spanish subject, who captured illegal slave traders, claimed a reward, then sold the slaves to plantation owners. Under Spanish law he was a criminal, but the United States had no extradition treaty with Spain. Despite having no legal authority to do so, Lincoln authorized the capture of the…… [Read More]

References

Elsea, J.K. And Kim, J. (2007, January 23). Undisclosed UNITED STATES detention sites overseas: background and legal issues. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 29, 2007, at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33643.pdf

Grey, S. (2005, December 19). Torture's tipping point. New Statesman, pp. 24-25.

Grey, S. (2006, November 20). Missing presumed tortured. New Statesman, pp. 12-15.

Gutierrez, D. (2006, January-February). The extraordinary cruelty of "extraordinary rendition." The Humanist, pp. 11-15.
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Legal Reasoning A in His

Words: 1647 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48680778



A d) the theoretical approach to legal reasoning that casts the most helpful light on judicial reasoning in determining whether or not evidence derived from torture should be admissible is legal positivism, as developed by H.L.A. Hart. Hart's approach to legal positivism focused strongly on the relationship between the law and morality. One would be hard pressed to describe an area where the relationship between moral behavior and the law is more at issue than in a question involving torture. The question is especially salient when a country may not have any influence over interrogation procedures, such as when the United Kingdom is relying upon interrogations performed in other countries. However, Hart's rule of recognition articulates the point-of-view that social norms should not always be legal norms. There is no question that the prohibition against torture is a widespread social norm, as reflected by the common law, informal international law,…… [Read More]

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Extraordinary Rendition Refers to the

Words: 4875 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23995988

They point out that if a suspected terrorist gets on a plane and gets off at a place like Copenhagen or Toronto and demands asylum, even if he is not granted asylum, he's pretty much got a safe haven to operate in because he can' be deported or extradited back to where ever he came from. They believe that such lenient 'European' laws create a huge gap in security, which need to be tightened and that human rights conventions such as the Convention Against Torture make it almost impossible for states to gain a reasonable and necessary degree of assurance against devastating attacks in an age of asymmetrical warfare against international terrorists.

Former U.S. officials such as Michael Scheuer, who helped to set up the CIA's rendition program during the Clinton administration, are more forthcoming about commenting on the nature and existence of 'extraordinary' renditions. Scheuer has in different statements…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Begg, Moazzam. "Rendition: Tortured Truth." New Statesman 26 June 2006: 19.

Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and 'disappearance.'" Amnesty International Report. April 5, 2006. February 5, 2008 http://www.amnesty.org/en/alfresco_asset/5d82f002-a2d8-11dc-8d74-6f45f39984e5/amr510512006en.html

Charter, David. "Britain accused on secret CIA flights." Times Online. November 29, 2006. February 5, 2008. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article653418.ece

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1987. February 5, 2008. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm
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Ethics and the War on

Words: 3193 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47292008

Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that, even if the ticking bomb scenario would justify the use of torture, it has not ever occurred and, therefore, cannot be used to justify torture.

In fact, what many people who advocate in favor of torture fail to acknowledge is that while torture may be guaranteed to elicit information from even the most reticent of subjects, there is no reason to believe that torture will elicit truthful information. The theory behind torture is that, with the application of sufficient pain and fear, people will talk, and that does appear to be true in the vast majority of cases. However, it is more important to wonder what they will say than whether they will talk. In the non-terrorist scenario, "About 25% of…… [Read More]

References

Armbruster, B. (2011, October 3). Obama's successful counterterror strategy. Retrieved March 21, 2012 from Think Progress website: http://thinkprogress.org/progress-report/obamas -successful-counterterror-strategy/

Bufacchi, V., & Arrigo, J.M. (2006). Torture, terrorism, and the state: A refutation of the Ticking-Bomb argument. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 23(3), 355-373.

Gathii, J. (2004). Torture, extra-territoriality, terrorism, and international law. Albany Law

Review, 67, 101-138. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from:
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Cultural Issues in Crimes Against Humanity

Words: 4595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34863415

Culture that Encourages Human ights

Americans were shocked when they learned about the abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Or were they? Certainly, the media reported shock and outrage on the part of the public to the unpleasant revelations. But the outrage, if it really existed, has certainly not been a lasting outrage. The White House response to photos of young military personnel sexually assaulting and humiliating prisoners was to imply that only a few poorly supervised bad apple MPs would do such things. President George W. Bush said: "These acts do not represent the values America stands for." However, many Americans do not abhor the treatment of those prisoners at all. In fact, they think there should be more of it. "They do it to us," is commonly heard in restaurants where ordinary people discuss current events. epublican Congressman James Inhofe of Oklahoma dismissed the whole thing by saying,…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, B. (2004). States of emergency. American Prospect, summer, 15, (9), 40.

Alloway, N. And Gilbert, P. (1998). Video game culture: Playing with masculinity, violence and pleasure. In Howard, S. (Ed.) Wired Up, London: UCL Press.

Barry, J., Hirsh, M., and Isikoff, M. with Hosenball, M. Gutman, R., Gegax, T.T., Scelfo, J., Liu, M., Nordland, R. And B. Dehghanpisheh (2004). The roots of torture. Newsweek, 24 May, 143, (21), 26-34.

Cohen, D. (2003). The American national conversation about (everything but) shame. Social Research, winter, 70, (4), 1075-1108.
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Rachel's Piece on Kant if

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28487805



According to Kant, men cannot be used as a means to an end, even to achieve a positive action for a greater number of men and women: "For he whom I propose by such a promise to use for my own purposes cannot possibly assent to my mode of acting towards him and, therefore, cannot himself contain the end of this action. This violation of the principle of humanity in other men is more obvious if we take in examples of attacks on the freedom and property of others. For then it is clear that he who transgresses the rights of men intends to use the person of others merely as a means, without considering that as rational beings they ought always to be esteemed also as ends, that is, as beings who must be capable of containing in themselves the end of the very same action." No human being…… [Read More]

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Security and Human Rights Mutually

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82868170

This is because, most suspects will more than likely only begin talking after they have been subject to extreme amounts of pressure. Evidence of this can be seen with Danner writing, "American officials acknowledged that such techniques were recently applied as a part of the interrogation of Abu Zubaydah, the highest ranking Al Qaeda operative in custody until the capture of Mr. Mohamed. Painkillers were withheld from Zubaydah, who was shot several times during his capture in Pakistan." (Danner, 2004, pg. 7) This is important, because it is showing how the use of torture can help to provide officials with information about terrorist related activities. However, during the process of obtaining this information is when they will have to use different tactics that will place physical and emotional pressure on the terrorist. This is when they will begin to openly talking about future activities and plans.

When you compare the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Danner, M. (2004). Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib, and the War on Terror. New York: New York Review of Books.

Wanchekon, L. (1999). The Game of Torture. Journal of Conflict Resolution 43 (5): 596-609
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Geneva Conventions Enacted After the Horrors of

Words: 5201 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48124855

Geneva Conventions

Enacted after the horrors of World War II demonstrated the limitations of earlier treaties, the Geneva Convention of 1949 have become one of the preeminent international standards dictating the behavior of combatants and the treatment of individuals in the context of international and other conflicts, to the point that it has become a part of generally accepted customary international law. Building upon three earlier treaties signed in Geneva, the Convention of 1949 outlined rigorous standards defining and governing the treatment of civilian and military prisoners, the wounded, and civilians found in and around the war zone. Over the course of the last decade, the centrality of the Geneva Convention to international war and politics has come to the fore as a result of debates surrounding the relevance of the Convention to the United States execution of the War on Terror, especially in regards to the treatment and detainment…… [Read More]

References

(2008). Senior u.s. officials acknowledge waterboarding of three suspected terrorists; administration defends practice. The American Journal of International Law, 102 (2),

359-361.

Bellamhy, A. (2008). Security and the war on terror. New York: Routledge.

Bugnion, F. (2000). The geneva conventions of 12 august 1949: From the 1949 diplomatic conference to the dawn of the new millennium. International Affairs, 76 (1), 41-50.
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Hidden Conflicts

Words: 1456 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28912157

Latin America

In Ariel Dorman's play Death and the Maiden, Paulina has obviously been deeply traumatized by her experience of being tortured by former military regime of this Latin American country, and is definitely not prepared to peacefully coexist with those who committed atrocities against their own people. Although the country is never named specifically, anyone familiar with the history would recognize it as Chile, which had been ruled by General Augusto Pinochet in 1973-90. Nowhere does the play mentioned that Pinochet was installed in a coup by the Central Intelligence Agency and supported by the United States government, or that the U.S. has continued to lie about these events up to the present. As part of the transition to democracy, also brokered by the U.S. government, the members of the former regime received an amnesty so that they could never be prosecuted. Paulina is one of the victims of…… [Read More]

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Pinochet Case's Is Not Yet Satisfying to Chilean and Human Rights Activists

Words: 2174 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87565104

Pinochet's Case is Not Yet Satisfying to Chilean and Human Rights Activists

Although hampered by internal constraints and challenges, the nation of Chile stands poised to enter the 21st century as a major player in the world's international community. On the one hand, the sound economic policies that were first implemented by the Pinochet dictatorship resulted in unprecedented growth in 1991- 1997; these policies have also helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. On the other hand, General Augusto Pinochet has been found guilty of the torture, disappearance, and murder of thousands of Chileans, including international citizens, but he has not yet been brought to justice. After Patricio Aylwin inaugurated a democratic presidency in 1990, he continues to bring excuses for Pinochet's actions or exercises control to avoid facing justice. Pinochet declared himself as Commander of Chief of the Army and afterwards, Senator for life in Chile.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blakesley, Christopher. "Autumn of the Patriarch: The Pinochet Extradition Debacle and Beyond." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 91.1 (2000): 1.

Ensalaco, Mark. Chile Under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth. Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Facts on File. "Chile: Pinochet Ruled Unfit for Trial, Resigns." Facts On File World News Digest, 2002. Multnomah County Library, Portland, Oregon. 11 Jul. 2002. http://www.2facts.com.

Hawkins, Darren. "Universal Jurisdiction for Human Rights: From Legal Principle to Limited Reality." Global Governance 9. 3 (2003): 347+.
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Nthe Effectiveness of Human Rights

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48702959

Also, the death penalty still in use in a great deal of countries might provide another subject for debate from the point-of-view of human rights.

A minimalist set of human rights, meant only to keep people safe from humiliation and pain cannot be effective. This is mainly because while certain human rights seem to be of little necessity, they are actually indispensable. Economic, civil, and political rights are of great importance because they assist society's interests.

Human rights are not likely to have any decisive effect in international relationships, and they are also not expected to be of any use when it comes to the stopping perpetrators from breaking the law. The best thing to do in order to make the world a better place would be to promote the concept of good, so as to influence the masses into contributing to preserve human rights.

orks cited:

1. Forsythe D.P.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Forsythe D.P. (2004). 3 U.S. Foreign Policy and Human Rights in an Era of Insecurity," Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy, ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering. New York: Routledge.

2. Ignatieff M. Appiah K.A. Gutmann a. (2003). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton University Press.

3. Ramcharan B. (2005). A UN High Commissioner in Defence of Human Rights: "No License to Kill or Torture." Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
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Conadep in 1976 Life Changed Dramatically in

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16804305

CONADEP

In 1976, life changed dramatically in Argentina. On March 24, 1976, a military coup took place. In an attempt to wipe out all dissenting opinion, they began a campaign of terror where thousands of people literally disappeared. The testimonies of the survivors of torture and kidnapping are brutal to read. The methods used to torture them; including electrical prods and live burials left lasting scars, both physical and mental on these survivors. The patterns in these testimonies are all the same. The torturers were sadistic and brutal, and would stop at nothing to get the information they wanted. They tortured loved ones in front of their family members, they took whole families from their homes, and they killed thousands with no remorse.

The patterns are patterns of extreme violence, and the violence seems to stem from fear. They feared the recriminations of the left-wing dissidents, they feared their reaction…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "CONADEP." Yendor.com. 2009. 17 Nov. 2009.

.
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Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish

Words: 1875 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94747396



Foucault sharply contrasts the disciplinary prison system with the initial transformative ideal.

y becoming a prisoner, the offender relinquishes not only his or her right to freedom, but also to privacy, as stated above. Observation is used to assess the individual with all the influences that contributed to the crime. According to Foucault however, this system is defective, as it merely functions to objectify along with its individualizing function. Observation then becomes a power relation rather than a rehabilitative function. Prisoners learn only apprehension towards the observing party, rather than strategies for living a more functional life within society, or indeed the "self-correcting" thoughts and reading intended by judges.

As rehabilitative institutions, prisons therefore leave much to be desired during Foucault's time. He makes several suggestions towards improvement, the first of which is that the central function of a prison is to be the transformation of behavior. This occurs by…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Tr. By Alan Sheridan. New York: Pantheon Books, 1977.
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Legal Critics to the US Actions in the Movie the Road to Guantanamo

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29015226

Road to Guantanamo

The docudrama, the Road to Guantanamo, the 2006 film by Matt Whitecross and Michael Winterbottom provided a unique look at the complexities and difficulties of enforcing international cooperation. This thrilling tale of the now famous "Tipton Three" British men of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin who, through a combination of poor decision-making and violations of international law, allows the viewer to examine these modern problems using the war on terrorism as a means of telling the story. The purpose of this essay is to examine this film and highlight five separate violations of international cooperation using the articles of the Geneva Conventions and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a guide and authority of the discussion.

The first violation of international cooperation is evident at the beginning of the film. The film is taking place under the conditions at the beginning of the war on terror in…… [Read More]

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Military Law and Military Justice

Words: 1367 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94689987

Terrorists operate like spies and not like soldiers. For this reason, terrorists are not regarded as members of the combat concerning the conventions and treaties that ban torture. Therefore, it is normal for them to be given a different treatment when they are captured. This approach suggests that terrorists undertake actions that exclude them from protection from torture as indicated in treaties such as the Geneva Conventions (Hall 27). Their actions justify the argument that terrorists should not be given the legal protection normally given to other citizens on the foundation of law. Moreover, terrorism has created the foundation of the global context that provides justification to the suspension of the rights of suspects. People who are suspected to assist terrorists or to be part of terrorism groups do not belong to humanity. Therefore, it is possible and necessary for them to be tortured if this is the only means…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McCormack, Wayne. Understanding the Law of Terrorism. New York: Lexis Nexis, 2007. Print

Hall, Simon. Peace and Freedom: The Civil Rights and Antiwar Movements in the 1960s.

Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. Print
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Tests You Went and Got

Words: 2118 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73385379



While the medical field agrees that prolonged suffering is not a desired product of medical care it has not yet reached the point of accepting that it is actually torture.

When we are at war we have soldiers how are standing trial for the torture and inhumane treatment of prisoners of war, however, we are not allowed to prevent that same level of torture from being thrust upon our loved ones who are ill / this makes no sense. Making someone endure the fevers, the pain, and the physical maladies that come with many of the life ending diseases today is actually a form of torture. It makes a person suffer against their will and at the hands of someone else, in this case the medical community.

More recently there have been strong arguments in courtrooms regarding Euthanasia and the right to choose to die now rather than later after…… [Read More]

References

____(2006) Jury to Rule Whether Woman Had Right to Die

South Florida Sun-Sentinel

Doerr, Ed. (1997)The Right to Die. The Humanist
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Banality of Evil What Is the Relationship

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56103927

Banality of Evil

What is the relationship between the banality of evil and the ordinariness of goodness?

Justas the 'banality of evil' was committed by apparently ' regular' ordinary' people who proceeded with the premise that their actions were acceptable based on their indoctrinations or cultural teachings (as e.g. By the third eich) and, therefore, 'evil' lost its maliciousness and became ordinary, so too, as per David Blumenthal (1999), goodness is also normalized and becomes banal through systems of social hierarchy, education, and childhood discipline that shape both good and evil attitudes and actions.

2.How do both torturers and the tortured come to terms with their circumstances? Are their similarities between these processes?

Torture not only causes pain to the body but can also cause associated damage and corruption to the psyche. The torturer, on the other hand, may not experience physical pain but will certainly experience the same damage…… [Read More]

References

Blumenthal, D.R. (1999) The Banality of Good and Evil

Moral Lessons from the Shoah and Jewish Tradition, NY: Pegassus.

Conroy, John, Unspeakable Acts, Ordinary People: The Dynamics of Torture, Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.

Hrea.org. The United Nations Human Rights System
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Code of Ethics & Military

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65024374



a) Changes in APA Public Policy

According to several changes made in APA Public policy with relation to the role of psychologists in the interrogations session, APA has prohibited its psychologists from taking part in the varied torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading interrogation techniques by stating, "No psychiatrist should participate directly in the interrogation of persons held in custody by military or civilian investigative or law enforcement authorities, whether in the United States or elsewhere. Direct participation includes being present in the interrogation room, asking or suggesting questions, or advising authorities on the use of specific techniques of interrogation with particular detainees (Pope, 2008, Psychologists at the Center of the Controversy)." urthermore, it was asserted through referendum which took place in 2008 that psychologists must not operate outside territories which are under the jurisdiction of international law such as Guantanamo, Bagram, or the CIA or JSOC "black site" prisons,…… [Read More]

Furthermore, since APA complies with United Nations definition of human rights, it can be implied that APA's definition of human rights includes universality and inalienability. The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions (UNHR, 1996). Hence, APA recognizes humans to have rights which cannot be taken away (APA, 1987).

Impact of U.S. Policies on Detainees

Where treaties like Geneva Convention and convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, prohibit any inhumane behavior resulting into physical and mental distress, there are no governing bodies to supervise the law and order agencies as an organization like APA has been
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Counter Terrorism Issues The Writer

Words: 3245 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72130172



Even if the torture of these people would save lives it is a slippery slope that we do not want to begin. Once we allow the torture of suspects or terrorists it could begin a landslide witch-hunt in which people who are not terrorists and have not committed any crimes could be tortured based on suspect or circumstantial evidence.

While there is justified outrage at what happened in this country we, as Americans, must maintain our ethical standards at all times. It is only by maintaining these standards that we can hope to set and example worldwide about the strength and dignity of our nation and all that it stands for.

The history of "just war" philosophy stems from religious and secular issues. One of the longest standing Just War traditions centers on religious differences including the differences between Muslim and Christian faiths. In addition the "Just War" theories support…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Anti-American Backlash The Washington Post; 10/16/2001 The Washington Post

10-16-2001 Anti-American Backlash

IRAQ WAR MIGHT NOT BE A 'JUST WAR' United Press International; 10/1/2002

United Press International 10-01-2002
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Guantanamo A Complicated Issue Guantanamo Naval Prison

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29864405

Guantanamo: A Complicated Issue

Guantanamo

Naval prison camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, has been a controversial topic among American citizens and politicians ever since information surfaced about detainees being held indefinitely without charge and possibly tortured while incarcerated there. President Obama made it a key issue in his 2008 campaign, vowing to close it when he became president. He seemed to be making good on his promise in December of 2009, when he signed an Executive Order demanding the transfer of remaining prisoners to other facilities or to foreign countries and the permanent closure of the prison camp. But as of 2012, the prison camp at Guantanamo Bay remains open.

There are several difficult issues that complicate Obama's ability to close "Gitmo," as it is sometimes called. Guantanamo does not have a good reputation among Americans, and it has an even worse reputation in other countries. One of the primary…… [Read More]

References

Center for Constitutional Rights (July 2006) Report on Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment of Prisoners at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://ccrjustice.org/learn-more/reports/report%3A-torture-and-cruel,-inhuman,-and-degrading-treatment-prisoners-guantanamo-

(Nov. 18, 2010) Q&A: Closing Guantanamo. BBC News: U.S. And Canada. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-11623753 

Khan, I. (2005) USA: Guantanamo Bay is a stain in America's reputation. Amnesty International. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from  http://www.amnesty.org.au/news/comments/493/
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High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received

Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097

high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]

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English Literature of American Culture

Words: 1454 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62504061

River Runs Through Her: River Imagery and Symbolism in Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl"

Water symbolism, and especially that of the river, is integral to Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Rivers, with their winding waters, are not just part of the geographic landscape or the natural world. For Jacobs, rivers and all bodies of water have both practical and symbolic functions. The river forms a physical barrier between places; it divides states and physical locations. Rivers divide cites like Philadelphia and they provide natural borders between cities and states. Rivers also help delineate the North and the South, which in Jacobs' time was eminently significant. Therefore, the river is a metaphorical barrier between slavery and freedom. The oppressive plantations of the south are separated from the Free States in the north by these flowing bodies of water. In Harriet Jacobs'…… [Read More]

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Global Socioeconomic Perspectives Describe and

Words: 1998 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66242570



Amnesty International (2010) also reports that domestic violence is the major cause of death and disability for women ages 16 to 44 years. Of course, there isn't any forgetting that women in Colombia and Darfur -- places of dangerous armed conflict -- are commonly raped. Amnesty International also notes that the trafficking of women has become a global issue; women are exploited sexually, raped, forced into hard labor and are victims of severe sexual and physical abuse.

The United States must take a stance in helping to protect women across the globe. On February 4, 2010, members of Congress introduced the International Violence Against Women Act (I-VAWA), an important step in protecting, defending and empowering women around the world. This would be a groundbreaking law as we live in a world where "approximately 1 out of 3 women worldwide has been beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused in her…… [Read More]

References:

European Parliament. "Background Note on the Political and Human Rights Situation in Sudan and Darfur." 2007. Retrieved on June 27, 2010, from the Web site:

www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2004_2009/.../696365en.pdf

Responsibility to Protect. 2010. Retrieved on June 26, 2010, from the Web site:

 http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/crises/37-the-crisis-in -darfur/201-human-rights-watch-abu-ghraib-darfur-call-for-prosecutions
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Saddam Hussein & His Totalitarian

Words: 2601 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73694026

In the words of BBC Middle East analyst Gerald Butt (2001), "…his (Saddam's) opponents have not been able to nominate anyone else who might hold Iraq together -- with its Kurds in the north, Sunni Muslims in the centre [sic], and Shi'a in the south. What the outside world calls terror, Saddam calls expediency." Interestingly, Butt's analysis took into consideration the fact that despite the atrocities that Saddam had and has purportedly done to Iraqis and Iraq's neighbors, world leaders, particularly Western leaders like the U.S. And Britain, are still actually taking an active role in Saddam's political decision-making, albeit the latter has chosen to contain himself within Iraq's borders. Prior to 9/11, U.S. leadership continued to tolerate Saddam's regime, only until the point that it is able to find a 'suitable' replacement for the dictator (Dickey and Thomas, 2002).

In addition to "covert actions" taken to secure that Iraq…… [Read More]

References

Butt, G. (January 2001). "Saddam Hussein profile." BBC News World Edition website. Available at:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1100529.stm 

Dickey, C. And E. Thomas. (September 2002). "How the U.S. helped create Saddam Hussein." Global Policy Forum website. Available at: http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/167/34978.html

O'Reilly, B. (2004). "Document connects Saddam Hussein to 9/11 terrorists." Fort Worth Business Press.

Paz, M. And J. Aviles. (2009). "Demonizing the tyrant: Saddam Hussein's image in Spanish news programs during the Second Persian Gulf War." International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1.
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Fran it Is Difficult to Discern What

Words: 2116 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59797623

Fran

It is difficult to discern what the most egregious act of injustice was during the criminal case involving Frank Jude and the police department of Milwaukee, isconsin. The brutal beating the young man incurred, which clearly transgressed the line from a mere drubbing to wanton, pernicious acts of torture, would appear to lead the unspeakable travesty that would befall him in the months and years following his initial 2004 encounter with this police department. However, the duplicity involved in the farce of the investigation that was filed, culminating in the state trial in which justice was made a mockery of, is equally if not more so insidious because it directly deceived not only Jude and his civil rights, but also those of all others who depend on the criminal justice system for some semblance of righteousness. Or, quite possibly the most disturbing if not outright criminal aspect of this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Associated Press. "Wisconsin: Sentences for Former Officers." The New York Times. 2007. Web.  http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9902E4DA143CF934A35751C1A9619C8B63 

Department of Justice. "Five Former and Current Milwaukee Police Officers

Indicted on Civil Rights Charges; Additional Officer Pleads Guilty To Obstruction." www.justice.gov. 2006. Web. http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2006/October/06_crt_715.html

Diedrich, John. "3 Ex-Officers Guilty." Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinal. 2007. Web.  http://www.jsonline.com/news/milwaukee/29464434.html
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Rights Constitution Election System General

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66088935

Eason Jordan made what he defined as a "life and death" decision to withhold information that might get his informants killed in Iraq. "It's very simple," he said. "Do you report things that get people killed? The answer is no.," (cited by Rutenberg, 2003). Jordan's decision is a little bit surprising, considering the media's generally ruthless approach to journalism: such as the push to get the story first, or to glean information before competitors in the industry. Journalism is cutthroat enough on an individual level: leading reporters on the ground and editorial boards to make decisions that are in the best interest of the company, but which are not necessarily ethical.

In the case with Eason Jordan, however, it seems that the editorial choice might have been the ethical one. Although "several journalism professors and commentators said Mr. Jordan had compromised CNN's journalistic mission so the cable network could continue…… [Read More]

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Politics of Memory

Words: 2845 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94543967

politics of memory, and the politicization of memory, with particular reference to Chile and the human rights violations inflicted upon the population by the Pinochet regime.

What memories are present in Chilean society? In 1973, Chile witnessed a political coup, with President Salvador Allende's left government being overthrown by the military dictatorship of General Pinochet. Following this coup, Pinochet made it his mission in life to eradicate 'leftist' thinking, to rid society of the evils of this thinking, by killing political opponents, by torturing people thought to be of a leftist persuasion, by forcing leftists thinkers into exile (Angell, 2000; rook, 2000). Thousands upon thousands of people 'disappeared' in Chile during the Pinochet regime. This situation brings about many memories, all of which are painful. For those on the left, there are the memories of the people who were killed, memories of the torture, memories of their family members forced…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Paul Brook, Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government and Politics (new York: St. Martin's Press, 2000) Chapter 1: Theories of Non-Democratic Government.

Pamela Constable and Arturo Valenzuela, A Nation of Enemies: Chile Under Pinochet. (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1991). Chapter 1: The War, Chapter 6: The Culture of Fear.

Patricio Silva, "Collective Memories, Fears, and Consensus: the Political Psychology of the Chilean Democratic Transition," in Kees Koonings and Dirk Kruijt, eds. Societies of Fear: The Legacy of Civil War, Violence and Terror in Latina America. London. Zed Books, 1999.

Felipe Aguero, "Chile: Unfinished Transition and Increased Political Competition" in Jorge Dominguez and Michael Shifter, Eds. Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America. Second edition. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. (only pp.292-303)
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Eason Jordan Op-Ed on Iraq for CNN

Words: 774 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92944307

The somber tone revealing the tense nature of reporting for CNN in Iraq. The intent of his piece was not to ask for forgiveness, but rather to enable understanding for why he did the things he did. He explains he couldn't divulge any of those stories he heard for fear of putting his staff and Iraqi citizens in danger.

By writing this piece in paragraphs, it looked more like a personal essay than an article. He kept it in the first person and included an introduction and conclusion, noting how he felt about having to hide these stories from the public. Although some of it makes it seem like a letter, the structure, and the transitions in-between paragraphs clearly denotes an essay. Some of it was written in defense of his actions, and then in the end he expressed remorse for having to keep it all inside. However, the overall…… [Read More]

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Lynching in Virginia

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89044529

Lynching in Virginia

The history of lynching in the state of Virginia is still surrounded by many misconceptions. Even though is has been decades since the last of the official lynchings took place, it is still difficult to find reliable and accurate information that accurately represents what went on during that period in history. Many of the primary documents on the issue are relatively sketchy and they avoid the real truth of the matter. Memories that have been passed down through generations are also somewhat sketchy and often they are changed by the passage of time. There are some surviving photographs but they do not really give insight into the meanings and motivations of the tradition, and instead show only the brutality (Allen, 2000).

It does appear, however, that the lynching practice did originate in Virginia with Col. Charles Lynch and some of his associates (rundage, 1993). It is not…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, James, ed., Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe: Twin Palms

Publishing, 2000.

Brundage, Fitzhugh W. Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930. Urbana:

University of Illinois Press, 1993.
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Dr Karl Brandt Karl Brandt

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71029081

Apparently Brandt handled the medical needs of Bruckner well because Hitler made him "…his personal physician" and in time Brandt was given the rank of "major-general in the affen-SS" (Spartacus Educational).

Brandt helped establish the "Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health," which was a smokescreen for "compulsory sterilization" -- and in fact Brandt was in charge of the program ("Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenially-Based Diseases") that basically was established to kill those who were "insane" and the "physically handicapped" (Spartacus Educational). The JVL explains that Brandt's euthanasia program began in 1939, and deformed children along with the very old and insane were murdered by gas or lethal injections in "…nursing homes, hospitals and asylums" (JVL, 1).

During the Nuremberg Trials the prosecutors were "caught off guard by the numerous affidavits submitted by the defense" that testified to the quality of Brandt's "personal character"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bryant, Michael. (2009). "Only the National Socialist": Postwar U.S. And West German

Approaches to Nazi "Euthanasia" Crimes, 1946-1953. Nationalities Papers, 37(6), 861-888.

Glaser, Edmund. (2008/09). Ulf Schmidt's Karl Brandt -- the Nazi Doctor: Medicine and Power in the Third Reich and Justice at Nuremberg: Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial.

Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), 109-116.
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History of Corrections

Words: 2922 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38581426

History Of Corrections

Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.

King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at:  http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf 

Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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French Literature

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55952484

La Parure "The Necklace" by Maupassant

French author Guy de Maupassant is considered one of the greatest French short story writers. Maupassant wrote more than 300 short stories, six novels and three travel books until in 1891, when he went mad. Maupassant's tales were dark and ironic, he portrayed the bourgeoisie life of Paris and his characters were unhappy victims of their greed, desire or vanity. What was most remarkable was Maupassant's style, he was a master of his skill, and he had a highly controlled style marked by objectivity and with sheer irony and comedy. His stories were usually about simple episodes of everyday life, which revealed hidden sides of people.

La Parure (The Necklace) is one of the celebrated works of Maupassant, a short story filled with irony and dark humor with implicit philosophical message that 'pride goeth before a fall' and the fact that pride always brings…… [Read More]

Sources:

Bernardo, Karen. Guy de Maupassant's "The Necklace" 2000 at http://www.storybites.com/demaupassantnecklace.htm

Maupassant, Guy de. The Necklace and Other Short Stories (Dover Thrift Editions), Dover Pubns; (February 1992).
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Ethical Treatment of Animals the

Words: 3045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60756557

The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.

One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.

Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;

1st edition.

Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
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Huxley & G Orwell Two

Words: 2815 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63572806

Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).

Capitalism

Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.

Destruction of the concept of family

oth novels…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bessa, Maria de Fatima (2007). Individuation in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Island: Jungian and Post-Jungian Perspectives. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

Beniger, James K. (1986) the Control Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 61.

Greenberg, Martin H., Joseph D. Olander and Eric S. Robbon. No Place Else: Expectations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Southern Illinois: University Press, 1983. 29-97.

Grieder, Peter. "In Defense of Totalitarianism Theory as a Tool of Historical Scholarship" Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 8.314 (September 2007) Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Grace Van Dyke Bird Library, Bakersfield, CA. 15 November 2008 (http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct-true&db=aph&an=27009808&site=ehost-live.