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American Civil ar
arfare in the American Civil ar
The estern characteristic of total war best exemplifies warfare in the American Civil ar because it was this definitive tactic which helped the Union to completely crush any remaining hopes of victory in the South. Two Generals effected a policy of total war against the South: General Philip Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley and General illiam Tecumseh Sherman in his March to the Sea campaign from Atlanta to Savannah, leaving devastation and ruin in his wake. Both military tactics were designed not only to cut off supply routes to Southern armies but also to undermine the morale of Southern civilians and destroy their very capacity to live without surrender. Sherman himself stated his belief that the Union was fighting "a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war" -- in other words,…… [Read More]
Civil War Economics and Total War
Total war strategies target and destroy the homes and livelihoods of civilians, from houses and farms to factories and railroads. They are never an acceptable, regardless the cause for which an army is fighting. Civilians, whether friend or enemy, should be excluded as targets, because no matter their allegiance, they have not chosen to actively take part in combat.
While total war may bring an earlier end to a conflict, the speed with which a war is conducted does not define the damage it does. While total war may reduce the duration of a war, it also produces a long-term reduction in quality of life for the remaining population. In tallying the cost of war, one does not simply count how many lives were lost, nor the length of the conflict, but also the long-term impact. One also does not dismiss the actions of…… [Read More]
warfare in the Napoleonic era fundamentally similar to warfare practiced today?
No, warfare in the Napoleonic Era is fundamentally different from warfare practiced today.
While the Napoleonic era introduced brought civilians to the war front, this is fundamentally different from warfare today, because warfare practiced today takes the war to the civilians.
While warfare in the Napoleonic era inspired civilians to fight guerilla-style against the encroaching armies, this style was different from today's warfare, which is based on the idea of Total War -- first exampled in the Civil War in Sherman's March to the Sea and later in WW2 with the firebombing of cities in Germany and the total destruction of civilian populations in Japan.
Point # 1 Topic Sentence: Napoleon did not practice Total War in the same fundamental way that it is practiced today.
Napoleon introduced the notion of mass conscription, but this was an act of…… [Read More]
Shutting the Gates of Mercy:
The American Origins of Total War
In his thesis, Shutting the Gates of Mercy: The American Origins of Total War, 1860-1880, Lance Janda asserts that the tactics used in the Civil War are the origins of the concept of total war for America. The definition of total war he chooses for his thesis lends itself especially well to his argument. Since the terminology was not used during the time of the Civil War, Janda may interpret its meaning with 20/20 hindsight and this may be his most glaring bias.
He supports his claim with numerous examples taken from the memoirs and letters of the Union Leaders he feels most responsible for the shift from Napoleonic and American tactics to those used in later wars. He even calls them a "trinity of generals" (Janda p. 9).
Had Janda quoted from Military Law or theory of the…… [Read More]
However, the trenches were often muddy and filled with water, and they were no match for the newly designed tanks that became a standard part of warfare.
This was a very different war than the world had been used to. There were many more inventions, such as airplanes, tanks, and new types of explosives and weapons helped turn both sides into very efficient killing machines, and hundreds of thousands of lives were lost before the war was over. Industrialization also meant that the men fighting could be transported quickly and efficiently from area to area, and they could receive continual supplies, as well. Another historian writes, "A century of industrialization meant that the Germans, French and British could each keep millions of men under arms on the Western Front - clothed, fed and free from lethal epidemic diseases, day and night, all the year round without respite" (Badsey). Thus, World…… [Read More]
War Without Victory
Nominally, the United States achieved victory in the first Gulf War. However, the decades of fighting in the Middle East, punctuated by the second Gulf War demonstrate that the United States was not victorious in that war. However, equally clear is the fact that Iraq was not victorious. This paper examines the politics behind the Gulf War including deterrence, diplomacy, power struggles, and military and political implications to come to the conclusion that there was no victor in the Gulf War.
In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, ordered an invasion of Kuwait (A&E, 2013). This action alarmed other countries in the area, and these countries asked for intervention from other countries and from the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council responded by ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. The United States, working with and through the United Nations, attempted to use deterrence…… [Read More]
However, in the end, they were unable to stop the war despite their best efforts. The war happened anyway, in spite of the best intentions and actions to prevent it. T he actions of the various governments were reactions to events that they had tried their best to prevent. They did not make a full-blown effort to convince their people of the need for war, until the war had already begun. Had the war been intentional on the part of Germany or any other entity, there would have been plans in place to gain the support of the people long before August 1, 1914.
Only Germany had such a plan in place. However, this does not mean that they started the war intentionally. It might mean that they saw it coming and wanted to be prepared. In the end, only the players know what their motives were on any particular…… [Read More]
Despite all the graphic, inventive detailed descriptions of the physical suffering and the mental anguish Turner has endured, in the end, it is the cliche, metaphoric image of a breaking heart that sends the strongest message. It should break any human being's heart to kill, and those who are not emotionally torn up by taking another human being's life are therefore, essentially heartless.
There is also an indication in Here, Bullet, that it is not only the heart that malfunctions in the throes of death and killing, but the brain as well. hen Turner speaks of "the leap thought makes at the synaptic gap" he is symbolizing the leap a person's mind is forced to make from have a respect for life and compassion for mankind to suddenly believe that it is okay to kill, maim and torture in the name of your country. Thus from Turner's point-of-view, after being…… [Read More]
Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.
The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…… [Read More]
In 1066, illiam the Conqueror and his army of Normans established themselves as the dominant power in Britain, and the form of French they brought with them quickly became the language of the powerful classes in British society, while the lower classes still spoke English (English Club, 3). For the second time in just over five-hundred years, a major conquest of the Isle of Britain was conducted by an invading tribe with a foreign tongue. This time, however, the existing language and people were not replaced, but instead the Latin influence of the Norman tongue began to seep into English, creating the first elements of a "bastard" tongue (Anglik.net, 6). ords such as "beef" and "cow" illustrate how the class difference that existed at first between speaker of the Norman and Anglo-Saxon languages eventually resulted in a language with a greater diversity of words than any other -- cow has…… [Read More]
In fact, the local public library, increasingly threatened by competition from other entertainment sources such as expanded home entertainment systems, deluxe bookstores with cafes, and the Internet, could do well to adopt TQM principles. "A library should focus on providing the best services possible, and be willing to change to serve its customers. To determine if changes need to be made, a library administrator might ask: hat are our niche markets? hat do the customers come in for? How can I look at the efficiency of my library? How do we serve the current customers that exist today? (Masters, 2003, citing Total Quality Management, 1995). In short first learn about the customer, in this case the library patron and then solve the problems with attendance.
A library that alienated customers by being old, poorly lit, and dusty, could improve its customer service by creating more open, airy, and well-lit places…… [Read More]
limited and total war, and the factors leading to either type of wars.
States will escalate a limited war to total warfare only in cases where they do not have certain limitations.
Key discussion areas:
A definition and a discussion of limited and total wars
A discussion of the Koreas war and how major world powers (the Soviet Union and the United States ) were fighting their own proxy wars in the conflict
A discussion of military imperatives such as nuclear weapons and their scale of destructions and why their possession and use is restricted. And how nuclear asymmetry affects modern warfare.
A discussion of the four main factors limiting war and why such factors are important to making defense policy decisions for nations in the modern day world
Summary of main points:
Limited and total war
Military imperatives; nuclear weapons and military factors
Factors limiting war
What are the…… [Read More]
great wars of the twentieth century can be classified as "total wars" not because of their far-reaching effects, although many of them have been global wars. Rather, the term "total war" refers more to the all-encompassing effect of war on the cultures involved. Total wars alter civilian mentality and ideology in a way traditional wars do not. Patriotism and nationalism are by no means new concepts; nor is taking civilian casualties a new practice. But since World War One, total wars have taken on new meanings and transformed political ideologies.
The term "total war" seems to have originated during World War One, when the idea of a "People's War" gained popularity. As burgeoning nationalism changed the face of European geographical boundaries, national identities fostered a fresh sense of patriotism. The 19th century saw the unification of Germany following a series of battles that incidentally led up to the First World…… [Read More]
(laufarb 30 -- 54)
At the same time, the war had a negative economic impact upon these areas. In this case, civilians could see their homes and their way of life destroyed (because of the continuous fighting that was taking place). This is troubling, because it would mean that many individuals had difficulty maintaining their standards of living and earning an income (to provide for their families). As they would find their communities devastated, from the total sacrifice that everyone made (in one way or another). At which point, this would affect how someone was able to earn a living, by having limited opportunities (from all of the fighting). (laufarb 76-101)
Gender would determine how someone viewed themselves in society. This is because, male domination would have an impact upon the way soldiers and civilians were acting. Where, the males often engaged in actions that were seen as disrespectful to…… [Read More]
The United States after the Great ar
orld ar I, also known as the Great ar, officially came to an end in 1918 and reshaped the country in a variety of ways. One of the most immediate changes was the way the world perceived the United States. Before the war, most of the country and its leaders preferred an isolationist stance to any international conflict. In 1914 the U.S. had only a small army and a pitiful navy, yet as the war progressed many Americans began to disapprove of the German's use of submarines to sink neutral ships such as the infamous sinking of the Lusitania (Hickman). However, it is interesting to note that the German's were actually correct in their assertion that the Lusitania was being used to carry military ammunition, as divers have recently uncovered from the wreckage, which did actually make the ship a legitimate…… [Read More]
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…… [Read More]
orn in 1826, George . McClellan served as an officer in the U.S. Army. He was also a politician who became a major general at the time of the Civil War from 1861-1865 as well as a railroad president. In 1861, he was in command of the Army of Potomac, which he organized. McClellan also served the Union Army as the general-in-chief for a short time. He was very popular among his men, but was reluctant to make strong attacks on the Confederacy, despite having an advantage due to the number of men in his army. This brought differences between him and President Abraham Lincoln[footnoteRef:1]. When the Seven Days attle came to an end in 1862, McClellan's Peninsula Campaign fell apart. He was unable to defeat the Confederate Army of Robert E at the attle of Antietam at a later time of the same year. His extremely cautious…… [Read More]
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…… [Read More]
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…… [Read More]
It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.
According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…… [Read More]
Within the context of war fighting, the idea of limited war and the rules of engagement within that paradigm can often conflict if not counter act each other. The purpose of this essay is to correlate the understanding the rules of engagement (OE) with limited war ideology as seen through the perspective and experiences of different levels of the chain of command.
The Vietnam War was mosty a guerilla style war fought between young and aggressive soldiers on all sides of the conflict. For soldiers at this level, all war is total war. The perspective of the individual soldier transcends mission and war objectives and resides mostly in the survival mode of living, escaping death or capture.
As one progresses higher upon the chain of command, the Battalion Commander begins to participate in the more strategic aspects of the conflict. Even though this medium…… [Read More]
Civil War and Its Meaning
The Civil War defined Americans because it was the war fought over the Constitution as it was written. It was the war of States' ights and the War of Northern Aggression. It was the war that brought about the totalitarian drive of the central state, where the President assumed for himself authoritarian powers. There were actually many facets to it: the election of Lincoln, the low tariffs set by Southern Congressmen, which upset Northern Industrial magnates, the Homestead Act and the rise of the transcontinental railroad -- both of which could be seen as maneuvers by Northern states to take over the Midwest in a move to block out Southern influence and expansion to the West (Egnal, 2001, p. 30); and the issue of slavery (flamed to inferno-like levels by men like the radical abolitionist John Brown).
The South regretted surrendering because they didn't just…… [Read More]
Civil War Field Artillery
In many ways, the Civil War was the first modern war. The scorched earth policy implemented during Sherman’s March to the Sea introduced “total war” to the world (Cummings, 2012). And it involved the use of weaponry that would come to define the modern age of war: advanced, technological and devastating. As Gen. Hunt put it, artillery should be “a separate arm”—a specialized force of the army that could be used to maximum advantage (Hazlett, Olmstead & Parks, 2004). Field artillery weapons included the 6-pounder gun made of bronze which shot a 6 lb. projectile at a speed of 1,400 feet per second with a range of 1,500 yards; the M1857 12-pound “Napoleon” made of bronze, which weighed 1,227 lbs. and shot the 12-lb. ball at a speed of 1,440 feet per second with a range 1,600 yards; the 24-pounder Howitzer made of bronze, which…… [Read More]
World War I
The Causes and How America Joined the War
The events that led to the causes of the first world war had its roots in the Balkans in late July 1914 and there are causes including political, territorial, and economic conflicts among the great European powers in the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, a complex web of alliances, imperialism and nationalism were some of the other causes that led up to the First World War.
The root for the Second World War lay in the peace accords and the punishments that were meted out to the Germans after the First World War and the sense of humiliation and economic debacle following the end of the First World War.
The animosity between the Americans and the Germans started with the sinking of the Lusitania as she made her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York in…… [Read More]
attle of Monte Cassino during WWII with focus on the Allied decision to bomb the ancient monastery at Monte Cassino
An Analysis of the Allied Decision to omb the Ancient Monastery at Monte Cassino
On this day... In 1944 the battle of Monte Cassino ended as Allied troops finally captured the old fortified abbey (Europe's oldest monastic house), after more than three months of bombardment by shell-fire and air attack. -- Cyril Leslie eeching, 1997
The brief epigraph above does not do justice to this historic World War II battle, since the stakes were high and the decision to attack the "oldest monastic house" in Europe could not be made lightly. In fact, the destruction of the monastery at Monte Cassino, more than any other episode from the Italian campaign of 1943-1945, remains a source of heated debate. This paper provides an overview and background of the events that took…… [Read More]
But nobody believed this blatant lie when news spread of our triumphant uprising in the southern plains. It was all part of my plan, to fight the government with my own propaganda. To make myself into a mysterious hero, whose actual existence or mere fabrication was never known. I would be the hidden crusader, making appearances here, winning a battle there, and then disappearing until the next uprising. By one day I was victorious in Vilanueva, the next bitterly defeated in Guacamayal. I was eaten alive by Motilon Indians, only to be found dead a backwater village swamp and rising victorious again in Urumita. The result was is vast increase in my causes popularity and in the sizes of our military recruits.
Yet, I soon became an outcast in my own party, who were giving up on total victory and settling for the consultation prize of gaining token representation in…… [Read More]
Internment of Japanese-Americans in orld ar II
hen the national interests are threatened, history has shown that American presidents will take extraordinary measures to protect them, even if this means violating the U.S. Constitution. For example, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act enacted immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, watered down civil liberties for American citizens. Likewise, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil ar just as President Franklin D. Roosevelt did during the outset of orld ar II following the Japanese sneak attack on American forces at Pearl Harbor when tens of thousands of Japanese-American citizens were interred for the duration of the war. Despite the compelling circumstances that were involved, this paper will show that the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II was not only unconscionable, it was also a fragrant violation of the U.S. Constitution and should not have taken…… [Read More]
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…… [Read More]
war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.
The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…… [Read More]
total 3000 words: Organisation - Telkom South Africa Questions strategy theory applicacable models 1. Undertake a resource based analysis Telkom, South African telecommunications company comment implications analysis future strategy organisation
Telkom South Africa
The telecommunications industry is the fastest growing industry at an international level. It relies on innovation and developments and it impacts all aspects of life. The telecommunications industry in the Western Hemisphere is generically assumed as the leader of the world, possessing the most impressive resources and developing the most impressive technologies. Aside from the United States however, intense telecommunications is also present in Japan, China or ussia.
In the global discussion of telecommunications, South Africa is often overlooked as a region noteworthy of attention. Nevertheless, the African continent does possess an impressive telecommunications company, which operates in 38 countries and which could easily pose competition to the more commonly known westerner companies. This is the Telkom…… [Read More]
current events and the war in Iraq. The writer discusses the importance of the events on a personal level and explains how they impact the life of the writer today.
I would be hard pressed to find anyone in America who does not know about the war going on in Iraq. The world was glued to the television as the war began and since that time there has not been a single day, in which the newscasters haven't discussed the events of the war, the future of Iraq, or the popularity ratings of President Bush. The war is important on many levels. It is the first step to letting terrorists know that they will no longer be tolerated. I support the war and the reason we began the battle, but hope we will continue to move forward in the effort to unseat terrorists and rebuild those nations which they have…… [Read More]
This contrasts completely with another theory of modern warfare put forth by Samuel Huntington, who agrees that warfare is transitioning away from its previous incarnation(s) but actually sees war and conflict increasing in its scope, especially from an ideological perspective. In Huntington's view, war in the modern era (beginning in the seventeenth century) has moved from wars between princes or monarchs (wars between individuals in authority, such as the animosity between certain French and English rulers of the period, for instance) to wars between nation-states (wars between peoples, such as the American Revolution as one example) to wars of ideology that involved several or many nations on both sides of the engagement (the two World Wars and even the Cold War serve as examples). Now, Huntington contends, warfare is continuing this trajectory of an increasing scale by becoming wars of civilization: essentially wars between Western and non-Western civilization(s). The commonality…… [Read More]
invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of Iraq with its neighbors and how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers. Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent…… [Read More]
socioeconomic status and obesity are related. Indeed, there have been major strides on bringing down the number of obese children. However, the one group that always seems to lag behind the others are racial minorities and the poor and those two are quite often one and the same. Tackling obesity for people of all racial and income levels is important because it brings down the average healthcare costs for everyone as it prevents (or at least slows) conditions like diabetes, heart disease and cancer. This report will only cite articles and studies that appear in academic-level journals and that are stored on EBSCO Host. No internet sources or other material shall be used. While entirely stomping out obesity will not likely happen in our lifetime, there are people that are very much at risk and that would be those with lower socioeconomic status and thus the inability to afford quality…… [Read More]
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…… [Read More]
Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism
The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .
In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the…… [Read More]
France paid a high price for this conflict, and the conditions demanded by the Germans were harsh (Franco). France lost Alsace and Lorraine and were forced to pay 5 billion Gold Francs in reparations (Franco). Germany entered the conflict with a total of 797,500 men, against France's 935,960 troops (Franco). France lost 150,000 men, while Germany lost only 44,000 (Franco). To add further humiliation, Bismarck insisted that France allow a German triumphal march down the Champs Elysees (Siege).
hile the Franco-Prussian ar was a war declared, it was essentially a 6-month conflict. Although the French outnumbered the Germans, they were careless and underestimated the Germans' military tactics and strategies. Emperor Napoleon III had basically played right into Bismarck's hands. Napoleon lost his power and reign, while Bismarck achieved exactly what he had set out to do, unite Germany.
The aftermath of the Franco-Prussian ar generated considerable apprehension throughout Europe concerning…… [Read More]
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…… [Read More]
Military ar or Campaign
The world has existed amidst a set of wars and conflicts that have shaped political systems, governments, and humanitarian associations. Gulf ar is one of the universal and all time conflicts that rocked the world. ith equitable measures and categorical procedures, philosophies, missions, and visions of these wars, this piece of study exemplifies Gulf ar as one of America's participatory wars in the world. The article tries to establish the basement of Gulf ar together with its consequences and responses it received from the United States of America and the world as a whole.
and the Middle East have been on good terms for quite some time. Various wars between the U.S. And countries including Iraq have occurred. In such instances, military deployment by the U.S. government is intense supported by its foreign policies. This study focuses on the 1990/91 Gulf ar. The America's paradoxical love-hate…… [Read More]
Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).
The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…… [Read More]
esocialization and Total Institutions
esocialization Total Institutions
ecycling: esocialization and Total Institutions
esocialization and Total Institutions
esocialization is a process in which the identity and personality of the individual is radically changed by placing that individual in an environment or institution, which is controlled and monitored strictly. Total institutions are such institutions that utilize resocialization process in order to bring significant changes in the personality of individuals living there. The goal of these institutions is to eradicate personal identity of the individual and then, create a new identity through reward and punishment system.
esocialization and Total Institutions
esocialization is a process in which the identity and personality of the individual is radically changed by placing that individual in an environment or institution, which is controlled and monitored strictly. Total institutions are such institutions that utilize resocialization process in order to bring significant changes in the personality of individuals living…… [Read More]
What was the war's bloodiest day? Was it Gettysburg? No. It occurred in September, 1862, at Antietam Creek in Maryland, when 22,700 soldiers died. "[General] Lee "hoped to win decisively...but the Union army prevailed."
Meantime, the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1 through July 3, 1863, was the bloodiest battle of the war. It was the "most famous and most important Civil War Battle... [General Lee] believed his own [rebel] army was invincible..." Potter asserts. But in fact the Confederates suffered an estimated 28,000 casualties (out of 75,000 men in battle) and the Union lost 23,000 out of 88,000 - albeit, the Union won the battle. Doing the math one comes up with around 51,000 deaths on that blood-drenched, corpse-cluttered battlefield.
On July 1 and July 2, 1863, the Confederate army had gotten the best of the fighting, but Friday, July 3, 1863, would be another day, and would end quite…… [Read More]
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was what allegorically kick-started the First World War. However, there was a lot more to what actually led to the outbreak of war than one political assassination. The assassination of the Archduke was significant in that it represented a growing trend in the geo-political landscape of Europe: nationalism. The Serbian assassin was a member of a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand.
Sensing that budding discontent against the Austro-Hungarian regime could be politically costly, the Empire, still under Franz Josef goaded the Serbian nationalists first by issuing an ultimatum. The Austro-Hungarian Empire wanted to gain total control over the entire Balkans: a geographically strategic area. Serbia stood in its way, making it seem like a worthwhile maneuver to enter into war if need be. Serbian nationalists, on the other hand, also believed it worthwhile to push back against the encroachment on…… [Read More]
In April 2nd 1982, the then Argentinian government sent soldiers to take over the disputed Falklands Islands. The reason for this is that the South American country regarded the group of islands as part of its territory. However, the British, who already occupied the islands, also regarded the Falklands as their territory. Over the next one month, both countries made serious attempts to store the conflict from escalating. Alexander Haig, who was the then United States Secretary of State was right in the middle of the diplomatic negotiations to try and stop the conflicting from escalating. He and his team travelled frantically between the London and Buenos Aires to meet and negotiate with the leaders of the two countries, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom and President Leopoldo Galtieri of Argentina. Nevertheless, the countless hours of negotiations and the frantic efforts of the Alexander Haig and his…… [Read More]
War against Iraq
War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…… [Read More]
6). At home, though, the media can often be co-opted by being made to feel that public opinion would be against it if it reported something other than the prevailing public sentiment. After't he 9-11 attacks, the public wanted the perpetrators and their leaders punished, so the war in Afghanistan had the support of the public. By extension, the idea of the war on terror also had support, though the parameters of that war were never clearly defined and were certainly not explained to the public. The Bush Administration made use of this support when it decided to invade Iran and suggested in many ways that this was a continuation of the war on terror and even that Saddam Hussein was responsible for 9-11. The news media did not do its job as well as it should and did not question most of these assertions until some time had passed.…… [Read More]
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…… [Read More]
While so many concerned world leaders, politicians, and social services professionals have bemoaned the physical and materials consequences of the Syrian Civil War on displaced persons, there is an even greater issue at stake. This issue has largely been ignored by experts. This issue is the existential crises afflicting so many displaced people: the loss of identity. The bulk of this presentation explores the idea that if one’s present is suddenly put into a state of upheaval (as though the rug has been pulled out from under one) it can shift how solidly and lucidly one views one’s own identity. Such a state is exacerbated even further when this occurs and the future is also in limbo: it can heighten the sense of a shattered identity. Hence, this presentation will explore how these impacts of a dissociated or disintegrated identity are manifesting with Syrian refugees.
The need for immediate survival…… [Read More]
Note that the figure given in the above source corresponds with the figure of Russian military dead in Table one, which further adds validity to that table.
With regard to Germany, there are a number of disparate figures and tables. The figures given from intensive research of actual wartime and administrative documents are as follows:
Total Wehrmacht Losses, September 1, 1939-January 31, 1945: Eastern Front 1,105,987
Scandinavia 16,639 - Southwest 50,481 Southeast 19,235 - West 107,042 - Navy 48,904 - Air Forces 138,596. Total Wehrmacht 1,810,061 in the West Since D-Day (June 6, 1944), German Armed Forces Lost: Army 66,321 Air Force 11,066 Additional Total Deaths 2,001,399.
Using these monthly rates, the total Wehrmacht toll reached 2,150,000, of which 1,960,000 were killed in action.
The following extract shows the detailed way in which this information was gathered.
The German army, all through the war, maintained a monthly…… [Read More]
History Of American War: Aerial Warfare
Since time immemorial, warring sides in battles have sought ways of gaining strategic advantages over their enemies. Those who manage to get that one crucial advantage during war have an added advantage and, hence, a higher probability of winning the war. For a long time, militaries from across the world have sought to take to the air and advance their ability to not only launch attacks at enemy lines but also defend their positions. Prior to the first word war, flight was largely focused on the collection of field information, including sighting of enemies and guiding of troops. This was during the hot balloon era, where the said aerial devices could be used to gain bird's eye view of the battle field.
It is important to note that although the Unites States, the only remaining world superpower, boasts of a fully fledged Air Force…… [Read More]
This unity generally took the form of diplomatic and military opposition to the state of Israel. Egypt's leading role in the acceleration of Arab political unification would have a long-term effect of philosophically influencing such movements as the liberation front of Yasser Arafat in the Palestinean territory, and the host of other terror organizations which have waged guerilla campaigns in search of political recognition.
These examples will be relevant in discussion hereafter on the long-term effects of the conflict. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, it would become clear that these political implications were not accidental. Quite to the contrary, the Arabs understood quite well that they could not anticipate a military victory. Still, "in October 1973, Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria chose war as their instrument of policy -- their primary policy objective in waging war: to recover Arab lands occupied by Israel since the 1967…… [Read More]
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…… [Read More]
Iraq War on the U.S. Economy
The current U.S. War in Iraq has become the most expensive military undertaking by the United States in the last sixty years. According to a recent study, the U.S. Treasury is paying out more money each month to sustain the war in Iraq than it did during the Vietnam War. While there is little disagreement about the actual expenses involved in the Iraq War, the opponents and the supporters of the War disagree on its actual impact on the U.S. economy. While the political left and the traditional conservatives in the country are staunchly against the Iraq war and decry its detrimental effect on the U.S. economy, the right-wing neo-conservatives consider the expense of the war worthwhile and beneficial for the U.S. In the long run. This essay takes a look at the impact of the U.S. War in Iraq on the U.S. economy…… [Read More]
First, by linking public education funding to standardized test scores, the schools become accountable to the federal government for the funds they receive. Second, by providing parents with detailed reports about the performance of their childrens' schools, the NCLB increases accountability on a local level. In addition, proponents of the NCLB believe that the 100% compliance requirement goal of 2014 requires school districts to provide better educational services to minorities and other groups that have previously been the recipients of sub-standard educations. By requiring schools to use scientifically-based research practices, proponents of the NCLB believe that schools are being held to a higher educational standard under the NCLB. They believe that standardized testing provides objective measurements of performance, which they believe is critical to the vitality of a school. The first wave of standardized testing is aimed at the teachers, and seeks to ensure that they are proficient in the…… [Read More]
Iraq War - on Iraq and the U.S.
The drums of war once again echo in my ears. I am disgusted seeing Donald umsfeld on television defending the U.S. invasion of Iraq. CNN shows old footage of umsfeld shaking Saddam Hussein's hand, made in the late eighties when the U.S. was providing know-how for Saddam to build chemical weapons. I was five years old when we left the country, but I have one clear memory of the Iran-Iraq war in the 1987. I was at my grandmother's house in Esfahan, Iran.
My grandfather was listening to the radio report on our volunteer army, fighting the evil Saddam Hussein in the name of Islam. Grandfather turns the radio up; its' a bombing raid. "Let's go," Grandfather says; we go to the basement and I hear engines roaring. My mother presses me to her bosom. The roaring gets louder; they…… [Read More]
break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. he chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. hey feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.
Psychiatry ratified the PSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly,…… [Read More]
Gulf War of 1991. The writer explores the history, the cause, and the war itself. The writer uses several sources to illustrate what the U.S. government bas dints decision to go to war on and how well received that decision was by the American public.
As the U.S. gears up for a probable attack on Iraq American minds turn back the hands of time to 1991 and the Gulf War. The war became nicknamed "Desert Storm" and that is exactly what it turned out to be. A storm that raged across the desert with such force it quelled any hope of defense from the Iraqi Army. Desert Storm was one of the shortest wars in history but it showed the world that the U.S. has not become a complacent party to wrongs committed by others. It demonstrated the strength and veracity by which America is capable of flexing its power…… [Read More]
deteriorating effects of wars. The line of reasoning follows the commonly used Taulmin's Model. The orks Cited four sources in MLA format.
All wars are not wrong?
The world that we live in is estimated to have the age of 5000 years plus. All wars throughout the history of the world have ended in terrible devastation and extensive destruction in terms of economic, social and political repercussions for the countries and their people (Sullivan- iley & Eisentein) [Sullivan-iley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of orld ar I similar to the effects of orld ar II. Retrieved February 08, 2003 at http://www.pomperaug.com/bass/a_block/kirajess/kirajess.html]
Different wars led to different end results. In some cases, the economies crashed such as the Great Depression in the United States of America after the orld ar 1 which reduced the value of the currency to mere its paper, cost of living escalated beyond human…… [Read More]
Rather, the Union argues, Washington was ill-informed in its preparations for the campaign. Furthermore, the paper condemns Washington for seeking to force the removal of the Modocs from their native country in which they co-exist successfully with the whites.
Another example of the paper being protective of the military occurs on January 10, 1873, when the army was having little success flushing the Indians out of 'Lava Bed.' The Army cavalry was made to retreat after an attempted advance. The Union described this failed mission in a five sentence article. The last sentence of the article noted that the Army was expecting the arrival of Howitzer guns the following week. The title of the article, did not reference the failed offensive, but instead read was The Modoc War- The Howitzers Coming.
Most of the articles give daily updates as to the war. If there was any combat the previous day,…… [Read More]