Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The Queensland Council of Unions has organized small-scale protest rallies to pressure the government into halting the sale. 4,000 people marched through Brisbane, as smaller actions in regional centers, such as Townsville, Mackay, Rockhamption, Cairns and Gladstone took place. Union officials of Brisbane had a petition signed by 14,000 people calling for Bligh to nix the plan. Her government, however, has no intention of stopping the sale. Unions have worked to suppress industrial action. The disconnect between union and worker interests has probably been steepened by the lack of participation in the unions by workers. s union density declined, unions have been forced to cut back on their staff and resources, causing a more centralized mode of governance within the institutions. (Cook)
The de-unionization of ustralia has significantly altered the nation's superstructure. From wage differentials to worker consciousness, ustralia has moved, in this sense, away from the liberal democracies of…
Accessed at: http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/protesters-engulf-melbourne-cbd/2005/11/15/1132016771730.html
10. Rennie, Reko. March stops city traffic. The Age, 30 November 2006.
Accessed at: http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/march-stops-city-traffic/2006/11/30/1164777693335.html
Gerry is employed, part-time, for the last 6 months, by a takeaway eatery. Owing to poor work conditions, he decides upon becoming a trade union member. His boss finds him sharing trade union related information with another worker, causing him to lose his job. The reason provided is: his work’s demand has decreased. Gerry’s case is quite strong, since he lost employment owing to his superior discovering his associations with a trade union and not because demand for his work had actually decreased.
1. Is the resistance of employers to unionization a new phenomenon or simply a return to the historic relationship that has existed between unions and managements in the United States?
America’s labor and business history can be traced back to Philadelphian Cordwainers, and teems with cases of organizational opposition to unionization. The elemental differences between trade unionists’ and capitalists’ objectives, values, beliefs and ideas is what…
Deshmukh, S. G. (2014). Research Gate. Retrieved from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.
Fossum, J. A. (2014). Labor Relations: Development, Structure, Process, 12/e. Business and Economics.
PSH. (2010, December 09). Research: Employees\\\\' relationship with employers, unions. Retrieved from Harrisburg.psu.edu: https://harrisburg.psu.edu/news/research-relationships-between-employees-employers-unions
Trade unions have emerged as vital parts of the modern working environment to an extent they are regarded as crucial components of the social fabric and economic future. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of labor unions in the modern workplace, especially with regards to representing workers' interest and negotiating for better working conditions and incentives. The author begins with examining the history of these organizations with regards to their development and increased spread in the workplace. In this case, the author demonstrates that labor organizations started in the early 18th Century and played a crucial role in America's independence. Moreover, the author discusses how these organizations exploded in the 19th Century, particularly during the Industrial evolution, which contributed to the influx of new employees into the workplace.
The discussion of the development and growth of labor unions is followed by an analysis of the reasons for unions. In…
Brazile, D. (2012, September 4). What Have Unions Done for Us? CNN. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/09/04/opinion/brazile-unions/
Keller, L. (2012, April 10). The Pros and Cons of Joining a Labor Union. Fox Business. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from http://www.foxbusiness.com/personal-finance/2012/04/10/pros-and-cons-joining-labor-union/
Macaray, D. (2011, November 21). 7 Reasons You Should Join a Union. The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-macaray/labor-union-membership_b_973038.html
Occupy Theory (2014, May 20). Advantages and Disadvantages of Labor Unions. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from http://occupytheory.org/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-labor-unions/
Labor unions have been there for as long as one can remember. Workers joined labor unions to compel their employers to better their working conditions which were deplorable (Hay, 2010). Others joined these unions to be guaranteed better pay for the services they delivered. For any labor union to achieve its intended goal, it has to be assertive and competent (Hantke, 2009). In as much as it is very difficult for incompetent unions to achieve success, intelligent unions must also amass the required numbers to be able to competitively bargain for its members. The numbers count when negotiations fail and industrial action is the only bargaining tool that remains at the disposal of these unions. Labor unions are credited with myriad gains in the lives of working class some of which might not have been achieved had it not been for these unions. This essay explains why trade…
Debate.org (2013). Are labor unions really necessary to protect worker rights? Retrieved from http://www.debate.org/opinions/are-labor-unions-really-necessary-to-protect-worker-rights
Fitch, R. (2006). Solidarity for Sale: How Corruption Destroyed the Labor Movement and Undermined America's Promise. Public Affairs, 134-155.
Friedman, M. & Friedman, R. (1979). Free to Choose. Chicago Press.
Hantke, F. (2009). Trade Unions in the 21st Century. Retrieved from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/06672.pdf
The Harvard model argues that unions provide an excellent means for getting workers' valuable opinions aired and for "shocking" management into adopting better practices (Turnbull 1991). (Flanagan & Deshpande, 1996, p. 23)
Labor costs are one of the largest of business costs, in almost every area of business, including but not limited to wages and social support programs. For this reason most managers, owners and other stakeholders often seek to trim such costs, often at the expense of employee standards of living. (Lee, 1998, p. 313) Such decisions may be a logical business decision, with short-term results and long-term consequences or they could be legitimate ways in which to bring the labor market back to an efficient level that is more responsive to the real market in which employees work and businesses manufacture and sell products or services.
Though it is not universally clear if either unions or HM are…
Flanagan, D.J., & Deshpande, S.P. (1996). Top Management's Perceptions of Changes in HRM Practices after Union Elections in Small Firms: Implications for Building Competitive Advantage. Journal of Small Business Management, 34(4), 23.
Lee, E. (1998). Trade Union Rights: An Economic Perspective. International Labour Review, 137(3), 313.
Wells, D. (1993). Are strong Unions Compatible with the New Model of Human Resources Management? Relations Industrielles, 48(1), 56-85. Retrieved1, August 2008. http://www.erudit.org/revue/ri/1993/v48/n1/050832ar.pdf
labor unions on compensation and benefits, issues and challenges, and future trends and outlook. This study will also be geared towards developing important insights on how these organizations are formed and how they work. The need for such information is to gain experiences on how the work conducted by union members has provided personal benefits in one way or another. Some of the major issues that will be examined in the study include why unions are formed and why they are necessary in the modern working environment. Discussions on how unions have a made a difference will be provided based on research and findings. As an argumentative research paper, the author will examine whether unions are crucial promoters and protectors of workplace benefits or they are an outdated impediment to progress.
Labor unions are organizations of workers that are established to advance the interests of their members in…
Campolieti, M., Gomez, R. & Gunderson, M. (2013). Managerial Hostility and Attitudes
Towards Unions: A Canada-U.S. Comparison. Journal of Labor Research, 34(1), 99-119.
Domhoff, G.W. (2013, February). The Rise and Fall of Labor Unions in the U.S. Retrieved from University of California at Santa Cruz website: http://www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/history_of_labor_unions.html
Godard, J. & Frege, C. (2013, January). Labor Unions, Alternative Forms of Representation, and the Exercise of Authority Relations in U.S. Workplaces. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 66(1), 142-68.
Labor and Union Studies
Critically examine the options available to workers and trade unions for building more effective outcomes
Critical Examination of Options for Effective Outcomes
Labor and Union Studies
Critical Examination of Options for Effective Outcomes
Collective argaining Advantages
Dialogue: Key Negotiation Tool
Labor and Union Studies
Critical Examination of Options for Effective Outcomes
There are several processes that are utilized in successful resolution of disputes which arise between management and workers who belong to trade unions. Today's processes are more diverse and varied reflecting the workforce profile of today's world. Arbitration, Collective argaining as well as resolution through skillfully structure dialogue are discussed in this work. Collective argaining is stated to be more effect than arbitration. However, a new form of adaptive and family/worker/company all-accommodating solutions are seen emerging in companies throughout the world.
Labor and Union Studies
Critical Examination of Options for Effective…
De Silva, Sriyan (1996) Collective Bargaining Negotiations: Conditions for Successful Collective Bargaining. International Labour Organisation ACT/EMP Publications located [Online] available at: http://www.ilo.org/public/engl ish/dialogue/actemp/p apers/1998/s rscbarg.htm#CD (accessed 19, Jan 2005)
Work/Family Reconciliation: What Trade Unions are Doing. Located [Online: http://220.127.116.11 / search?q=cache:1qGkICv2G 4UJ:www.ilo.or g/public/eng lish/protection/condtrav/pdf/infosheets/wf-8.pdf+Options:+Workers+and+trad e+union+negotiation+options& hl=en& ie=UTF-8]
Trade Union Education [Online: http://www.education-cee.org/oldsite/centres / podkrepa/education.htm]
Secretary of Labor 1985-1987[located Online] available at: http://www.wws.p rinceton.edu/cgi-bin/byteserv.prl/~ota/disk1/19 93/9343/93 4303.PDF]
On 4th May 2016 The Trade Union Bill received royal assent to become the Trade Union Act 2016.
Employment Minister Nick Boles said:
These changes will ensure people are only ever disrupted by industrial action when it is supported by a reasonable proportion of union members. The Trade Union Act means the rights of the public to go about their lives are fairly balanced with members ability to strike.
Unite General Secretary Len McCluskey said:
The bills progress today is a dark day for workers and for those who speak up in their defence when power is misused.
(Adapted from Moss (2016) Trade Union act 2016 becomes law, Personnel Today available at http://www.personneltoday.com/hr/trade-union-act-2016-becomes-law/ )
The Trade Union Act (2016) has been a controversial piece of legislation and did not have a smooth passage through parliament. The draft regulations are set to come into force on 1st March 2017.…
To intimidate striking workers or escort strike breakers, workers who would replace the individuals striking, across picket lines some employers contracted private companies like the Pinkerton Detective Agency.
The United States Department of Labor reports that the Coal Strike of 1902 proved to be a turning point in U.S. policy. On October 3, 1902, to address the strike in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields that he perceived to threaten a coal famine, President Theodore oosevelt resolved to end the strike by setting a precedent for the Federal Government's interventions. After a bitter battle, with President oosevelt's intervention, both sides of the coal labor dispute agreed to the findings of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission. As a result, labor and industry accepted that the public possessed overriding rights as well as vital interests. President oosevelt's voice and negotiation skills returned peace to the coalfields (the Coal Strike of 1902…, 2010).
A Brief History of the Labor Movement. (2006). NPR. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5758863
Florida State Union. (2009). Unions.org. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.unions.org/home/umap9-.htm
Greenhouse, S. (2010). Most U.S. union members are working for the government, new datashows. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/23/business/23labor.html
History at the Department of Labor. (2010). United States Department of Labor.
Union Organizing Campaign
I Human esource Management college I assignment studying alot unions workplace assignment I .Thanks Written Assignment 2 2-4 pages You hired XYZ a consultant. They facing a union organizing campaign.
The union organizing campaign
All employees should be allowed to join labor unions. The protection of the rights of employees in joining unions is one factor that leads to better establishment of a company. The company has to respect and acknowledge the responsibilities of unions in representing the interests of the employees.
The advantages of joining a union are that, it gives the employees the mandate to act together as a team, so as to improve on the working conditions at their respective places of work. Working in a union free environment denies the workers the chance to raise their grievances about the poor status of their places of work, for fear of…
Bragger, J.D., Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., Kutcher, E.J., Indovino, L., & Rosner, E. (2005). Work-Family Conflict, Work-Family Culture, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Teachers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(2), 303-324.
Brown, S.L. (2000). Union Transitions among Cohabitors: The Significance of Relationship Assessments and Expectations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(3), 833-846.
Burchielli, R. (2006). The Purpose of Trade Union Values: An Analysis of the ACTU Statement of Values. Journal of Business Ethics, 68(2), 133-142.
Lam, H., & Harcourt, M. (2007). A New Approach to Resolving the Right-to-Work Ethical Dilemma. Journal of Business Ethics, 73(3), 231-243.
The statement, "the role of unions has declined inversely to the passage of social legislation," means that unions have filed to be as effective as before as the passage of social legislation fills in the need for them.
Employees' unions have traditionally sought fairer wages and working hours and more humane working conditions through the formal process called collective bargaining between a union and the employer. Under federal labor laws, most private sector workers have the right to collective bargaining (Malfaro 1998), but not to those who work for state governments and institutions. Policemen and firefighters are exceptions.
In recent years, however, public-sector employees slowly gained the right to collective bargaining by forming coalitions and only after quasi-collective bargaining "meet-and-confer" efforts with public employers for many years (Malfaro). Teachers' unions have tried engaging in non-binding negotiations with school board through the process called consultation, sometimes fruitfully, sometimes not. ut…
1. Allan, Doug and Robert Lamoureux. (2001). Crushing Workload Hurting Health Care Workers and Patients, Survey Says. CUPE Communications. Canada CUPE Health Care Workers Want Action on Priority Issues.
BBC News. (2000). Unions Reap Social Benefits. Business. Low Graphics version.
Human Rights Watch. (1998). Unions Shielded from Justice: Police Brutality and Accountability in the United States. (accessed 13:03:03). http://www.law.nyu.edu/mirskyc/uspohtml/uspol106.html
Jones, Charisse. (2002). Charities, Unions Boost Payout for Firefighters, Police.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
But when it just recently occurred in 2004 at a store in Jonquiere, British Columbia, the reader must appreciate that a real battle had been won. The original efforts of that particular store for example had the local labor Commission reject certification by a margin of 74 to 65. When the union announced that it won the coveted certification at Quebec, it was quite a blow to the retailer. The Quebec Labour elations Commission issued the order certifying the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW) as the bargaining agent of employees in Wal-Mart's store in Jonquiere. As noted, the reason a victory of this magnitude is huge is because of the policies and tactics used by Wal-Mart. The retailer works diligently to prevent its workforce from engaging in any collective action and they have consistently shown that they are willing to cross the line to guarantee their position.
Baek, Seung Wook. (2000.) "The Changing Trade Unions in China." Journal of Contemporary Asia: March.
Budd, John W. (1994). "The Effect of Multinational Institutions on Strike Activity in Canada." Industrial and Labor Relations Review.
Corbett, Brian (2002). "Southern hospitality." Ward's Auto World, August.
Delsohn, Gary. (1997.) "UPS Strike May Revive American Labor Movement." Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News: Sept.
Unions in America today
The document outlines the pros and cons of unions in America. It takes into consideration how unions improve the working environments for workers. The paper considers the power of unions on law makers, collective bargaining and other advantages. The cons include decline in competitive advantage for American companies, low productivity and motivation and many others.
In any organization, unions act as binding agreements between employees and management. In this case, a group of persons are responsible for conducting negotiations with the management for the purpose of enhancing the welfare of workers. Unions originate from the period of American depression when workers faced various work challenges including low remuneration, and unfavorable working conditions. The purpose of this essay is to explore the pros and cons of unions in America in the current times.
Unions improve the working conditions and welfare of workers
One of the positive…
Bennett, J.T., & Kaufman, B.E. (2002). The future of private sector unionism in the United
States. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.
Pride, W.M., Hughes, R.J., & Kapoor, J.R. (2012). Business. Mason, OH: South-Western
As well when the same individuals were polled responses given stating that they believed that unions would become weaker in the future totaled 53%. It is certain that should unions fail to exist that individuals in today's work and labor forces would certainly receive less compensation, less vacation and leave time, less fringe benefits and that they would receive much less in the way of pension from the company following retirement.
Recommendations for Future Research
Arising from this brief review are recommendations for further research for the purpose of examining why it is that labor and worker unions are likely to become weaker in the future than they are presently.
Mishel, Lawrence and Walters, Matthew (2003) How Unions Help All Workers. Economic Policy Institute. 26 Aug 2003. Online available at: http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/briefingpapers_bp143/
Grabelsky, Jeff (2004) uilding and Construction Trades Unions: Are They uilt to Win? ILR Collection 2004. Online available…
Mishel, Lawrence and Walters, Matthew (2003) How Unions Help All Workers. Economic Policy Institute. 26 Aug 2003. Online available at: http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/briefingpapers_bp143/
Grabelsky, Jeff (2004) Building and Construction Trades Unions: Are They Built to Win? ILR Collection 2004. Online available at: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=articles
Majorities Say They Agree That Labor Unions Are Necessary to Protect the Working Person, but Plurality Believe Unions Will Become Weaker in the Future (2010) Public Agenda Organization. 1 Mar 2010. Online available at: http://www.publicagenda.org/charts/three-quarters-americans-say-they-agree-view-labor-unions-are-necessary-protect-workers-half-say
Sirolli, Carmen J. Sr. (nd) Bargaining Units vs. Management: Are Police Unions Necessary? Online available at: http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/Florida-Criminal-Justice-Executive-Institute/Docs/sirolli-carmen-final-paper-(1).aspx
This new generation of activists on college campuses nationwide has inspirited students to talk about their concerns about workers rights. This effort was also conducted largely through e-mail campaigns over the Internet. Some graduate students have already formed their own unions.
Appealing to Right-To-Work States
Arizona, famously known as a right-to-work state, is emerging as a new stomping ground for labor unions. Organized labor is making one of its largest efforts in state history to recruit new members and increase its political clout (Graham and Pitzl).
The effort cuts across a broad swath of industries that includes iron workers, painters, grocery-store workers, and state government employees.
Two unions kicked off their combined effort to organize state government workers, citing low pay and the need to have a voice on working conditions.
Union groups are leading the drive to establish a minimum wage in Arizona. "Arizona's labor unions have never been…
Asher, Herbert, Eric Heberlig and Randall Ripley. American labor unions in the electoral arena. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.
Boone, Louis and David Kurtz. Contemporary Business. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 1999.
Edwards, Richard. Rights at Work: Employment Relations in the Post-Union Era. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1994.
Graham, Chad and Mary Jo Pitzl. "Ariz.'s growth attracts unions." 20 Aug 2006. azcentral.com. 6 May 2009 .
HM as Intermediaries Between Management and Unions
Unions & HM
HM as Intermediary between Management and Unions
Centuries ago employees had little or no power when it came to negotiating wages, hours, and work conditions with their employers and often suffered great hardship as a result (Brown and Warren, 2011, p. 97). Eventually employees formed labor unions to take advantage of their collective power, thus forcing employers to improve compensation and work conditions, a practice that continues to play an important role in many economies globally.
The ole of Unions in the United States
The United States has experienced a greater than 50% decline in the prevalence of labor unions since the 1960s (Brown and Warren, 2011, p. 96) and on a global scale is one of the least unionized economies today (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 2011). Yet, the U.S. ranks as one of the most productive…
Abramson, Larry. (2011, Nov. 12). Teachers unions mobilize in a fight for their lives. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/11/12/142270037/teachers-unions-mobilize-to-survive-in-ohio
Brown, Travor C. And Warren, Amy A. (2011). Performance management in unionized settings. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 96-106.
Leonhardt, David. (2011a, Jan. 19). In wreckage of lost jobs, lost power. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/19/business/economy/19leonhardt.html?_r=2&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss
Leonhardt, David. (2011b, Jan. 26). Even more productive than Americans. New York Times. Retrieved from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/26/even-more-productive-than-americans/
A neo-mercantilist trade policy is defined as a situation where the state plays an active role in shaping trade, building a close relationship with the country's businesses. In doing this, the state will take steps to encourage exports, discourage imports, and generally seek to create the conditions where the nation's producers can thrive (Thoma, 2009). Based on this definition, it is hard to argue against the idea that China is employing a neomercantilist policy. The PRC exerts strong control over imports, while providing a wide range of support to exporters. These supports include currency manipulation – not allowing the yuan to float freely is passive manipulation – the provision of financing by the state-owned banking system, and a system of favorable trade barriers.
China's trading partners should take action – the question is what? There are limits to what actions can be taken within the confines of…
Unions are various organizations are formed by and for workers to practice collective wages, objectives, rules and benefits in a workplace environment. Unions started to grow mainly after the civil war as one of the reactions to contemporary industrial economy requirements.
Labor unions began forming in the mid-19th century, but because of their large scales and poor organization, soon collapsed. At its peak membership and power in the 1970's, private sector union membership sill continues to decline. Careful consideration on the necessity of union support in relation to union decline, influential generational aspects, and also external impacts as well as direction are detrimental in the success of unions in the 21st century. (Borjas, 2009)
There have been a lot of factors contributing to the success and failures of unions. Few of them include the federal and international labour laws, disagreements amongst workers as to form unions and what kinds of…
Berg, J, Kucera, D.(2008), in defense of Labor Institutions: cultivating justice in developing world, Palgrave Mcmillan
Borjas, G, 2009, Labor Economics, Mcgraw Hill/Irwin
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2005
Holger, R,. (2004), Employment Relation in United States: law, policy and practice, Sage Publications
In the 1990s, America was undergoing a major transformation. What was happening, is globalization (i.e. free trade agreements) made is possible to have access to numerous markets around the world without having to worry about tariffs. This created a transformation in the way many firms are operating by giving them the ability to: increase their profits and lower their labor costs. (Watcher, 2007, pp. 23 -- 29)
In the case of Caterpillar (i.e. Cat), they were dealing with similar challenges during this time. This is because, the firm was trying to lower its labor costs and increase their profit margins. However, a major challenge existed with the contract that the firm had in place with the United Auto Workers (UAW). In this situation, Cat wanted to move away from its traditional business structure to one that is more focused on: specific products lines and geographic locations. This created…
Caterpillar. (2001). Funding Universe. Retrieved from: http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Caterpillar-Inc.-Company-History.html
Brenner, A. (2009). Encyclopedia of Strikes. Armonk, NY: ME Sharp.
Cimini, M. (1998). Caterpillars Prolonged Dispute Ends. Compensation and Working Conditions, 4 -- 11
Gordon, D. (1996). Fat and Mean. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
There is a greater emphasis on written decrees or by-laws in union governance. Such rules help to enforce the structure of the union and create a system of governance (Housden, 2010). However, these rules lack consistency and at times lack transparency. For employers, such rules are generally limited and the managers are given significant leeway with respect to achieving their singular goal.
Lastly, the nature of the publicly-traded corporation means that there is more consistency and transparency in governance of employers. The governance principles and structures do not vary significantly from one employer to the next, even if the overall effectiveness of the governance mechanisms does. In unions, governance can vary dramatically. There is far less transparency, and there is often little direct contact between union leadership and the rank-and-file. Union leadership serves the needs of multiple locals, in addition to union head office. The possibility of conflicting objectives between…
Banks, a. & Metzgar, J. (1989). Participating in management: Union organizing on a new terrain. Labor Research Review. Vol. 1 (14) 1-55.
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 5, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Housden, C. (2010). Union governance finally cleaned up with passing of bylaws. Scan Online. Retrieved February 5, 2011 from http://scan.lusu.co.uk/news/2010/11/17/union-governance-fi-nally-cleaned-up-with-passing-of-bylaws/
Despite the fact that it is considered to be responsible for the immense inequalities in the economic sector, it also provides the progress for least developed countries and the environment for the maintenance of the developed countries. The existence of trade blocks such as NAFTA or ASEAN are even more reasons to consider globalization as a means of improvement in terms of politics, economic, and social aspects of life.
ASEAN. N.d. About. 28 September 2011 http://www.asean.org/about_ASEAN.html
Ian Goldin, Kenneth einert. 2006. Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, igration and policy . World Bank: Palgrave Macmillan, Washington, DC .
D Henwood, 2003. "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 28 September 2011 http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm
D. Held,. 2005. Debating Globalization . Polity Press, Cambridge.
Economic Policy, 20 (1) Spring, 72-84
Woods N. 2000a 'The Challenge to International Institutions'. Primary eading.
D Henwood, "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 13, 2003. 28 September 2011
ASEAN. N.d. About. 28 September 2011 http://www.asean.org/about_ASEAN.html
Ian Goldin, Kenneth Reinert. 2006. Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, igration and policy . World Bank: Palgrave Macmillan, Washington, DC .
D Henwood, 2003. "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 28 September 2011 http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm
D. Held,. 2005. Debating Globalization . Polity Press, Cambridge.
Globalization Union Decline
Trade unions are the most important constituent of the system of current industrial relations in any country. Every trade union has a particular set of objectives or milestones to reach. It is a fact that modifications in the field of politics and education as well as societal structures may rechristen the unions as a forum for the protection and furtherance of the interests of the workers. The unions play a pivotal role in improving the workers' quality of life by helping them to make their customary roles of creating conditions of service bigger. A trade union can, thus, be simply described as "a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their working lives" (as qtd. In Sinha, Sinha & Shekhar, 2006).
Trade unions serve as a fundamental and influential feature in the modern-day system of making and supply of commodities…
Conte, C., & Karr, A. (2001). Outline of the U.S. economy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of State, Office of International Information Programs. Print.
Mosca, J.B., & Pressman, S. (1995). Unions in the 21st Century. Public Personnel Management, 24(2), 159+. Retrieved October 7, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-17191054/unions-in-the-21st-century
Pirie, M., & Hattersley, R. (2010, October 11). Is Time Up for the Unions? The President of the Free-Market Adam Smith Institute and the Former Deputy Leader of the Labor Party Discuss the Past, Present and Future of Trade Unionism. New Statesman (1996), 139 (5022), 32+. Retrieved October 7, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-240918339/is-time-up-for-the-unions-the-president-of-the-free-market
Sinha, P.R., Sinha, I.B., & Shekhar, S.P. (2006). Industrial Relations, Trade Unions, and Labour Legislation. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley.
Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations
In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.
Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…
Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).
Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.
Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.
Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.
Bny Mellon-Union Avoidance Program
BNY Mellon Human esource
Management rights to avoid union program
Severance of benefits and wages
Non-availability of unemployment insurance
Limited monetary benefits paid by unions
Economic implications for the company
eferendum on Unionization
estructuring wage structure
During a union organizing drive in any organization, it is the right of company's management to convince their employees of the potential benefits that not being part of a union may have for both the company as well as the employees. This is the crucial period when the union organizers, in this case International Brotherhood of Teamsters, will try to convince each employee of the potential benefits of joining a union. The usual tactics employed by union organizers are shortlist the opinion leaders and active members of employees and convince them. These opinion leaders in turn are tasked with convincing their coworkers to register in the union. In…
Bartik, T.J. (1985). Business location decisions in the United States: Estimates of the effects of unionization, taxes, and other characteristics of states. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 3(1), 14-22.
Bronfenbrenner, K. (1998). Organizing to win: New research on union strategies. Cornell University Press.
Cahill, N. (2000). Profit Sharing, Employee Share Ownership and Gain-sharing: What can they achieve? National Economic and Social Council (NESC). Research Series Paper No. 4, 1-31.
Clark, K.B. (1982). Unionization and Firm Performance: The Impact on Profits, Growth and Productivity. American Economic Review, 74(5), 893-919.
Social Partnership' And
The Implications for Trade Unions
This report attempts to explain what is meant by the term social partnership and it also evaluates some implications of social partnerships on trade unions. Social Partnerships have been elevated to be more of the foundation of industrial relations policies. Industrialized nations in these highly global, competitive and technologically advanced economic situations have all new social demands and issues. Labor parties and management teams today have come to realize and understand that if there are going to be economic success stories in their future, then both sides will be required to put emphasis on the importance of partnerships in the workplace. These partnerships entail new methods for problem solving, quality control and productivity. Today, both sides must understand that partnership agreements will help produce more socially adept workers who are well trained, prepared and competitive. Labor and management must come to a…
Baccaro, Lucio, et al. (1999). "The Brave New World of European Labor: European Trade Unions at the Millennium." Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Boucher, Gerry, & Collins, Grainne (2003). Having One's Cake and Being Eaten Too: Irish Neo-Liberal Corporatism. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 61.
Ferner, A. And Hyman, R. (eds) (1998) "Changing Industrial Relations in Europe." Oxford: Blackwell.
Guest, D.E. And Peccei, R. (2001) "Partnership at work: mutuality and the balance of advantage" British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 399 no.2 pp.207-236
Turkey Join the European Union
The accession of Turkey to the European Union has long been a subject of contention. The route of Turkey's membership to the European Union has been in process since 1959, but the consideration of Turkey being a part of the European Union is still an unresolved issue. A clear difference of point-of-view, regarding Turkish accession to the European Union prevails among the entire world, but Turkey is now in a suitable position to depict its manifesto as an independently developing Muslim majority country that owns all the necessary resources to survive at par with its competitors.
The European Union regards its self as a secular organization of European countries, which is reflected in there slogan "United in Diversity" (Dinan, 2004)? The slogan draws a clear picture that the European Union intends to unite the diversities from across the cultures, religions and traditions in order to…
L Baracani, E. (2007). Pre-accession and Neighbourhood. The European Union's Democratic Conditionality in Turkey and Morocco, 335-350.
Baracani, E. (2007). Pre-accession and Neighbourhood. The European Union's Democratic Conditionality in Turkey and Morocco, 240-245.
Benedict, P. (1974). Turkey: geographic and social perspectives. Netherland: Begium.
Dinan, D. (2004). Europe Recast: A History of European Union. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Unions have been dropping members at an incredible rate. The trouble can't be resolved by individual unions dealing with great, monopolistic, international companies. Unions must stick together and work in the political ring to elect government officials who understand that the nation is here for the citizens, and not for business (the Decline of Unions -- Why, 2007).
In 2000 the Union Network Federation (UNI) was fashioned with the purpose of structuring a coalition that could represent employees across many nations. According to UNI, when businesses are local, unions can be local; when businesses are national, unions must be national; when businesses are international, unions must be international. Apart from UNI, there are quite a few other international trade unions that could have some pressure on the expansion of unions internationally in the future. There are presently ten Global Union Federations (GUF's), which are the global representatives of unions in…
7.6. Labor Unions. (n.d.). Retrieved March 11, 2011, from Web site:
http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/NC/B0/B66/060MB66.htmlThe Decline of Smith, Keith. (2011). Employees Continue to Not Join Labor Unions. Retrieved March 11, 2011,
The Decline of Unions -- Why? (2007). Retrieved March 11, 2011, from Web site:
For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)
At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…
Little German Reform Would Go a Long Way" (Dec 1, 2003) Business Week. Issue: 3860; pg. 22. Retrieved from home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker / Businessweek/BW/2003/12_01_2003.pdf Accessed on 24 November, 2004
Economic Survey - Germany 2004: Main issues and policy challenges"
Retrieved at http://www.oecd.org/document/17/0,2340,en_2649_201185_33633425_1_1_1_1,00.html . Accessed on 24 November, 2004
Economy of Germany" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_GermanyAccessed on 25 November, 2004
The less negative situation encountered in the zech Republic could be explained by the fact that since 1990 the expenditure on health services per capita has been permanently increasing despite the restrictions of social expenditure imposed on the zech economy (data from EORG research Health are System in entral Europe: December 2004).
onclusions. A survey conducted by the EORG in November 2004, 5 months after the accession of the four entral European countries (data from EORG research EU Membership: November 2004) illustrates the positive feelings of Hungarian, zech, Slovakian and Polish citizens regarding the European Union membership of their countries. The rate of agreement with EU membership was generally very high - over 75% in all the four countries - with variations among age groups, gender and occupation, and ranges from 81, 6% in Slovakia to 74, 7% in Hungary of the total number of respondents agreeing with EU membership…
Central European Opinion Research Group. "Personal Trust in Different Categories of Social Institutions. http://www.ceorg-europe.org/
Central European Opinion Research Group. "EU Membership. http://www.ceorg-europe.org/
Gallup International. "Voice of the People 2005: Trends in democracy. www.voice-of-thepeople.net/ContentFiles/files/VoP2005/VOP2005_Democracy%20FINAL.pdf
elevance of Unions in America:
Unions are organizations whose primary role is to negotiate with corporations, businesses and other organizations on behalf of union members. Trade unions usually represent workers who work at a particular type of job such as the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). In contrast, industrial unions represent workers employed in a particular industry like the United Auto Workers (UAW). At the prime of the industrial revolution era, unions played a key role in securing better working conditions and wages for employees. Consequently, many unions formed in various fields like manufacturing and resource companies, textile factories, mines and steel mills. While they have spread into various industries, a large percentage of union membership can be found in utilities, transportation and government ("Unions: Do They Help?," 2009)
There are several concerns that have prompted the questioning of the role and relevance of unions in present…
Sherk, J. (2008, April 1). Do Americans Today Still Need Labor Unions? Retrieved February 6, 2012, from http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2008/04/do-americans-today-still-need-labor-unions
"Unions: Do they Help or Hurt Workers?" (2009, June 28). Investopedia.com. Retrieved February 6, 2012, from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/09/unions-workers.asp#axzz1lV6CaN4R
"Union Members Summary." (2012, January 27). Economic News Release. Retrieved from United States Department of Labor -- Bureau of Labor Statistics website: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nr0.htm
Outsourcing Jobs and Labor Laws
Outsourcing Jobs to Foreign Countries Without Fair Labor Laws
government currently does not prohibit companies from outsourcing jobs to foreign countries that do not have unions and/or fair labor laws. Whether this practice is acceptable or should be stopped is worthy of consideration. There are two main reasons for researching this topic. First, the cost to outsource to foreign countries is often much less than the cost to pay employees in the United States to do the same work (Baldwin, 2006; Dine, 2007). That means that the profit for the company can be larger, and the amount customers have to pay for the products can be lower, which benefits both the customers and the company (Panitch & Swartz, 2003). Second, not all countries have the same types of labor laws, and some countries have no unions and few labor laws at all (Schifferes, 2004). This…
Aneesh, A. (2009). Global labor: Algocratic modes of organization. Sociological Theory 27:4.
Buchholz, T.G. (2004). Bringing the jobs home: How the left created the outsourcing crisis - and how we can fix it. New York: Sentinel.
Krugman, P., Obtsfeld, M., & Melitz, M. (2012) East Asia: Success and crisis, in International Economics: Theory and Policy. NY: Addison-Wesley.
Part III -- Persuasive Paper: Possible Disadvantages and Answers
An increase in employee-management teamwork and communication likewise reduced the need for labor union representation. Labor unions, thus, no longer play the critical role they once did in labor-management relations (Encyclopedia of Small usiness, Maxwell).
A New Global Labor Federation
Representatives from trade unions throughout the world organized a new global labor federation to insure that workers' rights are not overlooked in economic globalization (Associated Press, 2006). The new body, the International Trade Union Confederation, replaced the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. It would adapt itself to the fresh challenges to the rights of unionized workers. It would also take bolder steps against forced and child labor. Appointed head of the new federation was Guy Ryder, who assured everyone that "the strong tradition of solidarity" would continue. He emphasized the importance of trade union unity in the international level in insuring effective representation of workers rights and interests in…
Associated Press (2006). Delegates launch global labor union. Deseret News: Deseret
News Publishing Company. Retrieved on June 8, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20061102/ai_n16831637/?tag=content;col1
Encyclopedia of Small Business (2002). Labor unions. CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved
on June 8, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qx5201/is_2002/ai_n19121346/?tag=content;col1
Ever since Adam Smith demonstrated in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that individuals would be better off if they specialize, instead of trying to be economically self-sufficient, countries across the world have tried to apply the same principle to international trade. It is argued that all countries would be better off if they exchange the products and services that they are relatively good at producing for those things that other countries are relatively better at producing. David icardo (1772-1823), British economist and businessman, through his theory of Comparative Advantage went on to "prove" that it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even if one of them is able to produce each item more cheaply than the other.
The colonialist powers, particularly Britain, had realized the benefits of international trade after its industrial revolution although it is highly debatable whether such trade was beneficial for the colonies…
Dollar, D. And Kraay, A. (2001). "Trade, Growth, and Poverty." Development Research Group: The World Bank. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://econ.worldbank.org/files/2207_wps2615.pdf
Moore, Richard K. (1999). "Achieving a Livable, Peaceful World." Part I - Corporate rule and global ruin. Introduction. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://cyberjournal.org/cj/rkm/alpw/p1.intro.html
Nordstrom, H. And Vaughan, S. (1999) "Trade and Environment." Special Study: World Trade Organization. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.wto.org /english/tratop_e/envir_e/environment.pdf
'The Rural Poverty Trap." (2004). Oxfam Briefing Paper # 59. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.maketradefair.com/en/assets/bp59_The_Rural_Poverty_Trap.pdf
Basically collective bargaining is when an employer and employees (or their representatives) sit down and negotiate about something pertaining to the workplace. It may be a negotiation over workplace conditions, salaries, time off, or other matters important to employees. Typically when there is a union present in a workplace the union leaders will negotiate with management to improve conditions or to settle other issues that come up, according to Cornell University Law School.
hat are the legal components of collective bargaining?
Collective bargaining is governed by laws in states and at the federal level; the states have statutory laws, and there are federal and state administrative agency regulations and court decisions that govern how collective bargaining takes place. If there are overlapping regulations between states and the federal government, the U.S. Constitution (Article VI) points out that federal law "preempts" state law (www.law.cornell).
As to the legal components,…
Johnson, J.E., Billingsley, M. (2014). Convergence: How Nursing Unions and Magnet
are Advancing Nursing. Nursing Forum, 49(4), 225-235.
Law. Cornell. (2010). Collective bargaining and labor arbitration: an overview. Retrieved October 9, 2015, from http://www.law.cornell.edu .
Payscale.com. (2014). Average Hourly Rate for Union Hospital Employees. Retrieved October 9, 2015, from http://www.payscale.com .
Involving the Bargaining Team
Labor unions once represented a significant share of the U.S. labor force, peaking at almost 35% of workers in 1954 however this percentage has declined steadily to less than twelve percent (Vachon & Wallace, 2013). The decline in the rate of unionization has left many organizations unfamiliar with responsibilities duties that they have to unionized members of their organization. Despite the unions not having as large of a presence in society, most of the rules and regulations that govern these interactions are just as strong today as they were in the peak of the union's power. Therefore, organizations that deal with the presence of unions must be cautious to ensure they meet all of their requirements. Furthermore, even though the number of unions has fallen, the average size of the membership base in organizations has grown; the number of members per union grew from…
National Labor Relations Board. (N.d.). Employer/Union Rights and Obligations. Retrieved from National Labor Relations Board: https://www.nlrb.gov/rights-we-protect/employerunion-rights-and-obligations
Pencavel, J. (2014). The Changing Size Distribution of U.S. Trade Unions and its Description by Pareto's Distrabution. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 138-170.
Vachon, T., & Wallace, M. (2013). Transformation, and Union Decline in U.S. Metropolitan Areas. Labor Studies Journal, 229-255.
However, since its independence in 1905, Norway has worked towards building a strong economic base for its economy, although farmers and farming, too, continue to be strong identities in the nationalistic perception of Norwegians, its fishing industry, oil production and other natural resources. Norway's fishing industry is strong, although the country has some concerns about pollution and environmental issues, they're not strong or serious enough to adversely impact Norway's fishing economy.
First Attempts to Join the EC
At its inception, in 1948, the European Union was known as has the European Community, the EC; that a fully integrated Norway would mean economic enlargement for the EU. It offered attractive benefits to the European nations, and initially those benefits were comprised of a unified security system and economic incentives. One of the most appealing benefits for Norway, certainly appealing to Norway's farmers, is a subsidized farm plan that would generate income…
Burch, Stuart. "Norway and 1905: Stuart Burch Considers the Significance to Norway-Both in Terms of the Past and the Present-of the Anniversary of 1905, When the Country at Last Won Its Independence from Sweden." History Today, June 2005, 2+.
Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?
Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.
President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government…
Arnold, James. Steel sector stares into the abyss. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm . Accessed April,
Arnold, James. Steel spat could mean wider worries. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
It stated that the future negotiations will "try to achieve substantial improvements in market access; reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support" (Beghin, oland-Holst and Van Der Mensbrugghe, 2002).
6. Possible future developments
All in all, the topic on the international trade of agricultural products remains opened for further discussions; and the most likely outcome is an increase in the efforts made by the World Trade Organization to resolve the disputes and complaints of the participants in the meaning of reducing and even eliminating export subsidies, while in the same time easing the access to the markets in the high income countries.
Ballenger, N., Blaylock, J., 2003, Consumer Driven Agriculture, Amber Waves, Volume 1 Issue
Beghin, J.C., Aksoy, a., 2003, Agricultural Trade and the Doha ound: Lessons from Commodity Studies, Center for Agricultural and ural Development,…
Ballenger, N., Blaylock, J., 2003, Consumer Driven Agriculture, Amber Waves, Volume 1 Issue
Beghin, J.C., Aksoy, a., 2003, Agricultural Trade and the Doha Round: Lessons from Commodity Studies, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at http://www.card.iastate.edu/publications/DBS/PDFFiles/03bp42.pdfon March 9, 2008
Beghin, J.C., Roland-Holst, D., Van Der Mensbrugghe, D., 2002, Global Agriculture and the Doha Round: What Are the Implications for the North and South?, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at http://www.card.iastate.edu/publications/DBS/PDFFiles/02wp308.pdfon March 9, 2008
Schmitz, a., Koo, W., Moss, C., 2003, International Agricultural Trade Disputes: Case Studies in North America, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
Trade Agreements and Negotiations on International Trade
Trade is important to countries all around the world. International trade opens up job opportunities and also leads to development of economic activity in every region of the trading country. The trading countries must also ensure that traders, whether self-employed entrepreneur, corporate executive or pensioner must bear the responsibility of making sure that goods and services are transported efficiently to global markets. The best way to advance in international trade is to work on two aspects namely, the Trade Commissioner Service, and also foster productive ways of negotiating and administering trade agreements and rules.
International Trade is defined as follows:
The law relating to the exchange of goods and services between nations. Legal issues can relate to tariffs and government restrictions on export and import, as well as the contracts between the trading partners." [LawyerLocator - Glossary of Terms]
International Economic Data Bank - UN Trade Data, available at http://iedb.anu.edu.au/iedb/datainfo/UNtradedata.htm, accessed on: October 31, 2003
International Trade, available at http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/trade/menu-en.asp , accessed on: October 31, 2003
International Trade Research, available at http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/majoract.htm , accessed on: October 31, 2003
ITC - Products - Market Development Section - Artisanal Products Home Page, available at http://www.intracen.org/mds/sectors/artisanal/welcome.htm , accessed on: October 31, 2003
S. with the land from which these manufacturing warehouses and factories were to be built. Inevitably, with the establishment of manufacturing companies in China, it had slowly developed and became known as one of the primary producers of technological products and merchandise -- that is, mass production of technological merchandise. China was pitted against its other Asian neighbors, especially Korea, when it comes to manufacturing (since Japan was known as the cradle of technological invention and innovation and not so much for manufacturing technological products and materials.
The third phase involves the integration of China into the world market. With the U.S. As its primary investor, China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) at the onset of the 21st century. The country continued its role as provider of foodstuffs to America, especially agricultural products such as edible meat, vegetables, oil seeds, sugar, cocoa, nuts, and tobacco substitutes…
China in the WTO: An interview with Amb. Charlene Barshefsky." (March 2000). Asia Source Web site. Available at http://www.asiasource.org/news/at_mp_02.cfm?newsid=13811.
McMillion, C. (March 2000). "The U.S., China, and WTO: More false promises, debt, and unnecessary instability." Washington, DC: MBG Information Services.
Shambaugh, D. (April 2001). "No easy way forward with China." The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/03/opinion/03SHAM.html .
Worden, R., a. Savada, and R. Dolan. (July 1987). "China: a country study." Library of Congress, Federal Research Division.
Investment and Trade Over the Next 30 Years
Perhaps the most notable trend in recent economic history has been the falling-away of the influence of the G7 nations of United States, Japan, Germany, ritain, France, Canada and Italy and the explosion of economic clout in the developing world (What is the G7, 2012, Wise Geek). All eyes are looking to China, in terms of the trending of trade and investment patterns. China is the world's largest potential market, and still has untapped growth in terms of its vast consumer marketplace. That is why the Chinese economy is often seen as a barometer of the health of global demand. For example, in the last quarter, "trade was a net drag on growth last year as the world's second biggest economy turned in its slowest rate of expansion since 2009, at 9.2 per cent, with each quarter's growth in 2011 successively weaker…
Edwards, Nick. 2012. China surprises with March trade surplus. The Globe and Daily Mail.
Viewed 24 Apr 2012 at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/international-news/china-surprises-with-march-trade-surplus/article2396805/
Greenblatt, Alan.2011. As Europe ages, its economies look vulnerable. NPR. Viewed 24 Apr
2012 at http://www.npr.org/2011/09/24/140736119/as-europe-ages-its-economies-look-vulnerable
I believe that the right to strike is an intrinsic element of the collective bargaining process, but not that strikes are. A strike is a situation where the workforce withholds its labor, usually in response to not having a contract. Certainly, workers are under no obligation to work without a collective bargaining agreement, in those situations where the company has agreed to the collective bargaining process. Workers should also have the right to bargain collectively, as there is often a collective interest (U.S. DoL, 2015). Withholding labor will create motivation for the management to reach an agreement. While the right to strike is not the only bargaining chip that labor has, it is one of the most important. The right to strike also serves as a valuable counterpoint to management's right to lock out workers, in absence of a collective bargaining agreement.
The right to strike where there…
Baez, J. (no date). Bread and Roses. YouTube. Retrieved April 18, 2015 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWkVcaAGCi0
Library of Congress. (2015). Songs of unionization, labor strikes and child labor. Library of Congress. Retrieved April 18, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/item/ihas.200197381/
US DoL (2015). Collective bargaining agreements. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved April 18, 2015 from http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/labor-relations/collbargaining.htm
Intra-Industry International Trade
Standard trade theory and its deviations
The classical theory of international trade can be traced back to the founding father of capitalism Adam Smith: Smith's 1776 Wealth of Nations theorized that free trade would be beneficial to all nations. Smith stated that much like merchants, nations should specialize in the particular goods and services which they could produce most efficiently and trade with other nations who could produce alternate goods and services equally efficiently. Thus free trade resulted in advantages for both trading parties. Smith's theory was later fleshed out by David icardo in his Principles of Economics. iccardo stated that free trade could optimize efficiency for every country on a global level by reducing the inefficiencies generated by the excess resources involved in producing the goods and services the nation was not suited to produce (Sen 2010: 2).
This common wisdom remained relatively consistent…
Agglomeration economies. (2013). Economics Help. Retrieved from:
Carlton & Perloff. (2010). Strategic trade. Modern Industrial Organization (4th ed). Pearson.
Retrieved from: http://wps.aw.com/aw_carltonper_modernio_4/21/5566/1425036.cw/content/index.html
Intra-Industry International Trade: Benefits and Costs
Trade is brought about by specialization. People specialize in those goods and services that they can produce effectively, and since they cannot survive on only these, exchange their surplus production for other items that they need, but do not produce. There are mainly two types of trade in this regard; international and domestic. The domestic form of trade refers to the exchange of trade items (services and goods) within a country's borders. International trade, on the other hand, can be defined as "the exchange of goods and services among residents of different countries" (Chacholiades, 2006). International trade can take either of two forms; intra-industry or inter-industry forms of trade. Inter-industry trade is trade between industries, whereas intra-industry trade takes place within industries. Intra-industry trade, therefore, refers to the importation and exportation of same-industry items of trade (Gandolfo, 1998).
International trade has been on…
Boyes, W.J. & Melvin, M. (2007). Microeconomics (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Chacholiades, M. (2006). The Pure Theory of International Trade. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
FAO. (2000). International Trade: Some Basic Theories and Concepts (Module 2). The Food and Agricultural Organization. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x7352e/x7352e02.htm
Gandolfo, G. (1998). International Trade Theory and Policy. Rome: Springer.
Marshall Executive Brief #3 Trade Policy Greece and France
This brief will discuss critical issues of trade policy, including global trade, global currency exchange, business strategy and operations, R&D, human resources, accounting and finance.
Global Trade and Currency Exchange
Free trade is a system where the governments of two countries do not discriminate between the imports and exports of the other country. In particular, free trade in the modern sense applies to tariffs and other trade barriers, or the non-existence thereof. Ricardo described free trade in terms of absolute and comparative advantage. Usually, this concept is described using a simplistic, fictional world in which there are two countries and maybe only two goods. In this example, countries should produce the good in which they have comparative advantage, and in doing so the two countries combined with have a higher aggregate output than if only the country with absolute…
2012 General Mills Annual Report. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTQ5MTc4fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1
EC. (2013). What is the common customs tariff? European Commission. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/
Formiani, R. (2004). David Ricardo: Theory of free international trade. Economic Insights. Retrieve April 18, 2013 from http://www.dallasfed.org/assets/documents/research/ei/ei0402.pdf
A labor union refers to an association of employees that have come together in pursuit of common goals, such as better pay. Labor relations are wider in scope; they refer to the interactions between the labor unions (employees' representatives) and employers - and usually deal with the maintenance of collective bargaining agreements.
Labor relations date way back to the formation of the very first significant unions: the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). The Knights of Labor, however, failed to achieve its objectives due to its large membership. AFL, unlike the other two, initially restricted its membership to skilled tradesmen. However, with the 1935 formation of CIO, which incorporated both skilled and unskilled laborers, conflicts resulted and the two unions later merged.
Enacted in 1926 and later on expanded to rope in the airline industry, the…
Overall, fair trade is a great way to make sure that countries work together and help one another focus on developing and moving forward. Not all fair trade is fair, but most of the options given to people who want to see fair trade are better than what they would receive if they were not part of any particular fair trade agreements. People who are interested in fair trade and the Czech epublic's role in that trade have to consider that individuals and countries both have to play a role in whether trade is fair or whether there are problems with it that go deeper than WTO regulations. While the WTO is not the only organization that has anything to do with trade on an international level, it is certainly the most recognized. Because of the current strength of the Czech epublic and its ties to numerous other countries, the…
Czech Republic to join Schengen. (2006). The Prague Post.
Garrett, S.A. (1996). Conscience and power: an examination of dirty hands and political leadership. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hochman, Ji-i. (1998). Historical dictionary of the Czech State. NY: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Rich, E.E., Wilson, C.H., & Postan, M.M. (1977). The Cambridge economic history of Europe: The economic organization of early modern Europe. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Economics of International Trade China
Exploring the Economics of International Trade: China
"Chinese international trade has experienced rapid expansion together with its dramatic economic growth which has made the country to target the world as its market," and its expansion has only continued to show powerful growth within the international economic marketplace (Sun & Heshmati, 2010, p 1). After China was reopened to trading with the West in 1978, the country has really took off in becoming one of the world's biggest producers and exporters of a plethora of different goods. China has grown tremendously as nations like the United States have become their biggest trading partners. In response, China has helped refuel this growth with the manipulation of their currency and their heavy investment in the U.S. dollar, which ensures them a more competitive position for their exports.
For generations, China had closed itself off to trading and interacting…
American Manufacturing. (2012). China and currency manipulation. Issues. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://americanmanufacturing.org/category/issues/china/china-and-currency-manipulation
Barboza, David. (2012). Business and economy in China. New York Times. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/china/business_and_economy/index.html
Congress Quarterly. (1999). The consumer culture. CQ Researcher, 9(44), 1001-1016.
Manzay, Terrance. (2010). China export industry dominates worldwide. Article Snatch. Web. Reprieved September 4, 2012 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/China-Export-Industry-Dominates-Worldwide/3853472#.UEZqYKNIuHY
Americans who want to open businesses in Mexico's cities would be able to do so easily, which would stimulate Mexico's economy as well as America's. Mexicans who want to live and work in the United States could do so without risking their lives and leaving their families. Quality of life would vastly improve in Mexico, and the improved economy would mean less strain on health care and other social services. During the current economic recession, unifying the two countries makes more sense than it ever has.
One of the best reasons to have a union between the United States and Mexico is to reduce rates of crime. Border towns are violent places, and law enforcement officials are often killed in skirmishes that involve organized crime. The United States and Mexico are both at fault for fueling organized crime. According to Donnison, "More than 6,000 people died last year in Mexico…
Donnison, John. "Mexico Says U.S. Fuels Gun Crime." BBC News. 12 April 2009. Retrieved Nov 14, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7996196.stm
"Mexico Environment." Retrieved Nov 14, 2009 from http://www.questconnect.org/mexico_environment.htm
States News Service. "U.S.-Mexico Border 2012." Retrieved Nov 14, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/Border2012/
Union Jobs eing Out-Sourced
In recent years, the outsourcing of union jobs has emerged as a disturbing new trend affecting millions of middle-class workers everywhere. As a result of this devastation, the U.S. manufacturing sector and the permanent loss of millions of high-wage, good benefit, middle-class jobs, are now threatened with extinction (Gibson, 2004). Service jobs are affected, as well as high paying, professional and technical career opportunities due to the growing off-shoring movement. Although corporate America has already moved most of the high-paying manufacturing jobs overseas, even minimum wage jobs are becoming out-sourced.
The labor movement has fought the flawed trade and tax policies of the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s that rewarded companies for shipping American manufacturing jobs overseas. For decades, unions such as the Teamsters, the United Auto Workers and the Steel Workers Union controlled a great deal of this nation's economy (Gibson, 2004). Researchers have argued that…
Black, S. & Lynch, L. (2000). What's Driving the New Economy: The Benefits of Workplace
Innovation. NBER Working Paper 7479, 7-14.
Choi, I. (2003). Organizing Negotiation and Resistance: Comparison between two Labor Unions
in Korea. Retrieved from University of San Diego Web site:
Thirdly, an advantage of the TO treaty is that it protects individual privacy when it comes to the "processing and dissemination of personal data and the protection of confidentiality of individual records and accounts" (www.wto.org). That issue came up because consumer advocate Ralph Nader was quoted as saying, "Particularly in the area of Internet privacy protections, the TO is forcing governments to forego sovereign privacy protections deemed to be overly restrictive to international trade" (www.wto.org). The TO's answer to that the trade deal signed by 123 nations "has had nothing whatever to do with internet privacy" and indeed a safeguard is built into the General Exceptions in Article XIV regarding processing and dissemination of personal data, as mentioned at the top of this paragraph.
The fourth advantage of international trade under the auspices of the TO is that deals signed cannot force any country to move towards the privatization…
Organics Unlimited. (2009). FreshPlaza: Global Fresh Produce and Banana News / EU
Proposal to end Banana Trade Dispute. Retrieved June 11, 2009, from http://www.freshplaza.com/news_detail.asp?id=38939 .
World Trade Organization. (2005). The Uruguay Round / GATS Fact and Fiction.
Retrieved June 13, 2009, from http://www.wto.org .
All profits went to slave owners so the South "could feed itself, but do little else" (29). The South turned a blind eye to the innovations of the industrial revolution because of selfishness. A few wealthy landowners held control of large portions of the local economy. The South was supported by a working population in the field. It had to purchase most manufactured goods from the North. The effects of the war on the South were indescribable and ironic, according to Davidson, because the "demands of war fundamentally transformed the southern economy, society and government" (Davidson 432). The failing economy and worsening conditions drove many slaves to move from the South. Supplies of "labor, already inadequate, shrank further as men were called into military service" (Olegario). Once things started going downhill, it was difficult to regain strength. hile the Southern army was losing energy, the Northern army was gaining energy.…
Norton, Mary Beth, ed. A People and a Nation: Third Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company. 1990. Print.
Rowena Olegario. "War and the Economy (1754-1783)." American Eras. Gale Research,
Reproduced in History Resource Center. Site Accessed July 29, 2010.
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
Future of Unions in America
Union membership has been steadily decreasing since the 1970's. But since the history of union membership has been filled with short, fervent periods of rapid increases in membership, followed by long periods of stagnation and decrease in membership, this may not seem to be cause of worry. However, while the current decrease in the number of union workers may seem to be just another slump, the fact that it has lasted more than thirty years, is disturbing. In that time, the world and it's economy has dramatically changed, and one must ask the question "could this be the twilight of the American labor movement?" If unions are going to, not only survive, but flourish and expand their influence, the entire labor movement must change it's very nature; expanding it's scope of interest, membership, and international relationships. This essay will examine the history of the union…
Fletcher, Bill, Kate Bronfenbrenner, Donna Dewitt. (2011 June 2) The Future of Organize Labor in the U.S.: Reinventing Trade Unionism for the 21st Century. Monthly Review. Retrieved from http://monthlyreview.org/commentary/the-future-of-organized-labor-in-the-u-s
Friedman, Gerald. "Labor Unions in the United States | Economic History Services." EH.Net | Economic History Services. Retrieved from http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/friedman.unions.us
Haeberle, Kevin. (2011, Feb. 17) Labor Unions are Dead…or at Least on Life Support. Becker's Hospital Review. Retrieved from http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/news-analysis/labor-unions-are-deador-at-least-on-life-support.html
Hirsch, Barry. (2008). Sluggish Institutions in a Dynamic World: Can Unions and Industrial Competition Coexist. Retrieved from http://18.104.22.168/scholar?q=cache:G9FwFp3jAsIJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=
European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations
The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…
Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.
Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.
Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.
Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
This is exactly the case with the European Union; a European-Union-Member-State that fails to pay on its public arrears will cause weakening of capital amidst its financers. The danger that this financial catastrophe will extend towards the remaining Euro-Area would position the ECB under immense stress to help and rescue the dissolute Member-State, despite the fact that this move may undermine Euro-Area value in the progression (Eichengreen and Wyplosz, 1998). As long as private agents consider that ECB would give way to this stress and as long as Member States keep the right to act in a dissolute way, the central bank will eventually require reliability. Once more, most of this reasoning is also relevant to numerous supply-side procedures; for instance, the viewpoint of inflationary earnings settlements. Salaries negotiating that drive the curve externally will, perhaps, produce pressures for the central bank to assist the ensuing inflation to keep away…
Agell J., Calmfors, L. And Jonsson, G. (1996), 'Fiscal policy when monetary policy is tied to the mast', European Economic Review, 40, pp. 1413-40.
Aizenman, J. (1994), 'On the need for fiscal discipline in an union', National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper W4656.
Alesina, a., Blanchard, O., Gali, J., Giavazzi, F. And Uhlig, H. (2001) Defining a Macroeconomic Framework for the Euro Area: Monitoring the European Central Bank 3, London, CEPR.
Allsopp, C. And Vines, D. (1996), 'Fiscal policy and EMU', National Institute Economic Review, 158, pp. 91-107.
The procedures, rules and regulations for creating the unions are varying in different parts of the world. Moreover, those labors are not accustomed to the working conditions, rules and regulations and provide less desirable attributes for labor works. Hill (2007) also explained with extensive research statistics for the establishment of union programs in different regions such as Mexico.Despite rules and regulations, the labors are forced to work as salves. They are not given the complete incentives that their job description offers. With this in mind, the labor unions continue to present an idea on its rapid growth so that labors can be given their rights with freedoms. According to Hill (2007), labor unions though provide some solutions for immigrant labors however; effective programs and measures are working towards the change that is needed by these unions (Hill, 2007). The formation of labor unions can be useful to control the illegal…
Baldwin, R.E. (2002). The Decline of Us Labor Unions and the Role of Trade. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.
This book depicts the history of labor unions and tells us the circumstances under most of the labor unions declined. It tells us about the role played by labor unions in the past and what were their failures due to which they faced their decline. Besides this, it also relates the labor unions with trade.
Compa, L. (1993). Labor Rights and Labor Standards in International Trade. Law and Policy in International Business, 165-191.
Compa, in this article describes the problems that labor faces in many companies and how due to these problems many of the members of these unions leave their team. This article tells that it is imperative that labor unions should not involve in each and every matter of the company but should only involve in such matters where they think it is suitable.
In this regard, Francis adds that, "The determining factor will be ASEAN's ability to provide the leadership necessary to create a strong, independent East Asian Union" (Francis, p. 77). In addition, Bowles (2002) notes that the ongoing efforts to create improved Asia/Pacific regional cooperation are fundamentally efforts intended to balance the influence of the United States on the region and the world in general.
4. What are the main hypotheses of the work?
The guiding hypotheses of the proposed study are as follows:
H1: Encouraging China to participate in as a coalition leader in an East Asian Union in the future would serve to ensure that the price it would have to pay in terms of loss of trade and investment if it acts against the interests of the union's other members would be prohibitively high.
H2: Former Cold War alliances will be replaced by new ones in the future…
Bowles, Paul. 2002. "Asia's post-crisis regionalism: Bringing the state back in, keeping the (United) States out," in Review of International Political Economy (London) 9(2): 244- 270.
Francis, N. 2006. For an East Asian Union: Rethinking Asia's Cold War alliances. Harvard International Review 28(3): 76-77.
Gowan, P. 2003, July-August. "U.S. Hegemony Today." Monthly Review 55(3): 30-31.
Gratton, C., & Jones, Ian. 2003. Research Methods for Sport Studies. New York: Routledge.
A reduction in farm subsidies is stated to be necessary in order to improve access to market along with Common Agricultural Policy reforms, which should be "de-linked from production." Finally, stated as a requirement is that of a commitment for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which may be achieved "through market mechanisms..." (OECD, 2007) the OECD additionally states that structural reforms are required in addressing the challenges that the EU faces and while there is an improvement in terms of the economic prospects of the EU, "there is no room for complacency." (OECD, 2007) the OECD survey relates that the EU has the potential to play a critical role in the provision of solid conditional framework and the ongoing enhancement of the internal market in the EU.
The provision of the single market includes the wider range of goods access for consumers as well as a wider range…
Economic Survey of the European Union (2007) OECD Policy Brief. Sep 2007. Online available at www.oecd.org.
The European Union (2008) Environmental Aspects of Regional Trade Agreements. (2000) United Nations Environment Programme. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Online available at http://www.iisd.org/trade/handbook/7_2.htm
Cini, Michelle (2007) European Union Politics. 2007. Oxford University Press. Online Google Scholar Books at http://books.google.com/books?id=ZZf1839nw0gC&dq=European+Union:+Organizational+impact+on+market+and+trade&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Organizational Review of European Union