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familiar concepts transformational transactional leadership, terms coined James MacGregor Burns
Prior to discussing the myriad reasons why Martin Luther King Jr. And former United States senator Joseph McCarthy embody the characteristics of transformational and transactional leadership, respectively, it is essential to denote just what those particular traits are and how they are related to these two individuals. In many ways, transactional and transformational leadership are antipodes of one another. The former is largely based upon gratifying the needs of followers via a system of rewards and punishments. The latter is largely about motivating followers to transcend their own personal desires to help to actualize the desired goals and ends of an organization. There are also certain facets of the leader themselves that these two distinct leadership styles require which set them in opposition with one another.
Transformational leaders typically have some sort of charismatic appeal that renders them as personable…
No author. (2008). "McCarthyism." www.ushistory.org. Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/us/53a.asp
Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). "Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military." Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 31 (3): 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Jackson, W. (2000). "Book review: the true Martin Luther King Jr. ." The Christian Courier. Retrieved from https://www.christiancourier.com/articles/223-book-review-the-true-martin-luther-king-jr
Traywick, B. (2008). "Reagan's transformational leadership." www.youtube.com Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puB0Bnt5xfY&feature=related
Transformational Transactional Leadership
Leadership is one of the four major functions performed by managers. There are various leadership styles which managers adopt in different situations, problems, and organizational issues depending upon the sensitivity of their working environment (Hoye II 2005). These leadership styles include transformational leadership, transactional leadership, charismatic leadership, authentic leadership, paternalistic leadership, autocratic leadership, etc. These leadership styles shape the way a leader manages, motivates, encourages, trains, and directs its followers (Hannah, Woolfolk, & Lord 2009). This paper compares and contrasts transactional, transformational, and authentic leadership styles or approaches with a major focus on explaining how leaders motivate their followers using each of these approaches and identifying the most effective approach among them. The discussion is based on human resource management and organizational behavior theories; specifically the leadership and motivational theories.
1. Transactional Leadership:
Transactional leadership, often called as managerial leadership approach presents the basic role of a…
Basefsky, M., Maxwell, J.L., Post, A., & Turner, B.G. 2004, Manager to Manager - What Are the Five Most Important Qualities of an Effective Leader? Journal American Water Works Association, 96 (7): 34-36.
Bernthal, P., & Wellins, R. 2006, Trends in Leader Development and Succession, Academic journal article from Human Resource Planning, 29 (2): 5-9.
Bonnici, C.A. 2011, Creating a successful leadership style: principles of personal strategic planning, 1st Edition. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Education
Dereli, M. 2010, Leadership styles: a survey research of leadership styles of elementary school principals, 1st Edition. Saarbru-cken, Germany: VDM Verlag.
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
" Additionally, this style of leadership in the organization makes it impossible for employees to take actions to improve job satisfaction. (Wanjiru, 2009, paraphrased)
Furthermore, transactional leadership '...has been ineffective in providing skilled employees to their organization. This style of leadership is least interested in changing the work environment. Experts do not recommend this approach. Transactional leadership focuses more on management of punishments and rewards.
IV. Examples of Work Environment in Which Transactional Leadership Style is Effective
The work of Paul Gerhardt (2004) entitled: "Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Retail: Customer Service, Training and Evaluation" states that the transactional leader operates "...within existing systems, they believe in delivering penalties for noncompliance of requests. Another example of transactional leadership may be an elected official who promises to make a requested change or changes to certain policies if elected. Transactions are clearly being made as aspects of leadership styles." (Gerhardt, 2004)
Allen David (nd) Comparison of Leadership styles of United States and Japan. Broadway Business. 22 July 2009. Online available at: http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2009/07/comparison-of-leadership-styles-of-united-states-and-japan-6.html
Gerhardt, Paul (2009) Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Retail: Customer Service, Training and Evaluation. July 2004. Online available at: http://www.paulgerhardt.com/homework/TranformationalTransactonalLeadershipInRetail.pdf
Lussier, Robert N. And Achua, Christopher F. (2009) Leadership: Theory, Application & Skill Development. Cengage Learning 2009.
Thomas, Greg (2003) What is 'Transactional Leadership'? Leadership Tip of the Month. January 2003. weLEAD, Inc. Online available at: http://www.leadingtoday.org/Onmag/jan03/transaction12003.html
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
My organization is Miami-Dade Transit, for which I am a bus operator. The Transit system is an independent operating entity within the government of Miami-Dade County. Leadership of this company is typically appointed, and this was the case of the current Director, Ysela Llort. She was posted to the position at Transit in February 2012, after a career spanning many different units within the county, including Public Works, Aviation and Seaport, as well as an earlier role at Transit. Her background is diverse enough that she not only can effectively manage the transit system for one of the most highly-populated counties in the country but also that she can perform a role as liaison with the county, the government entity that funds and provides oversight for the Transit division. This paper will examine the leadership style of Ms. Llort, in the context of my experiences working there.
CBS (2010). Miami-Dade Commissioners livid over transit scandal. CBS News. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://miami.cbslocal.com/2010/12/07/miami-dade-commissioners-livid-over-transit-scandal/
LeMay, N. (2008). Leadership can be learned, but how is it measured? U.S. Aid. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www1.msh.org/Documents/OccasionalPapers/upload/How_Can_Leadership_Be_MeasuredOP.pdf
Miami-Dade (2013). Ysela Llort -- Director. Miami Dade County Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.miamidade.gov/biographies/transit.asp
Miami Today. (2012). Ysela Llort puts transit on track to open airport link station while trying to restore federal faith in the systems controls Miami Today. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.miamitodaynews.com/news/120308/story-profile.shtml
Leaders that are experienced in a certain type of situations can manage them faster and more efficiently.
Such experienced leaders have the advantage of having experienced similar situations before. Therefore, this means that these leaders know what the phases of the situation are and what outcomes they should expect to take place. In other words, they are aware of the actions and decisions they must make in order to efficiently manage the situation in case.
For example, in the case of a police station with an experienced leader, the teams are confronting with a situation where several burglars tried to steal the money from a corner shop. The salesperson managed to press the alarm button and several police cars arrived at the location of the scene. The burglars are armed and are threatening the salesperson and other clients of the store that have been taken hostages inside the location.
1. Transactional Leadership (2010). Retrieved October 4, 2010 from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm .
Type a versus Type B Leadership
The ability to guide and direct a group, department or entire organization is predicated on being able to balance task and relationship orientation through transformational leadership. The most effective leaders balance short-term transactional strategies for getting immediate results with transformational leadership skills, intermediating between each using emotional intelligence (EI) to guide their decision making (Ivey, Kline, 2010). The foundational elements of transformational leadership include individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation (Ismail, Mohamed, Sulaiman, Mohamad, Yusuf, 2011) and idealized influence. Transformational leaders are able to use situational awareness and EI to selectively apply each of these approaches at the most opportune time to get the best results (Ivey, Kline, 2010). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how these techniques can be used for assessing scores from the Type A versus Type B tests taken. I received a score of 38 on Type…
Ismail, A., Mohamed, H.A., Sulaiman, A.Z., Mohamad, M.H., & Yusuf, M.H. (2011). An empirical study of the relationship between transformational leadership, empowerment and organizational commitment. Business and Economic Research Journal, 2(1), 89-108. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(3), 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.
Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.
Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:
Collins Business Essentials.
I have grown fond of Mr. Joe Scott because of his ability to inspire his followers to do more than they would have expected to do. He has the capability of engaging his staff's commitment in a context of shared values and vision. He is capable of aligning the interests of the organization and its members. Those who have worked closely with him attest to his ability to inspire and motivate those who are working directly under him. He is capable is inspiring change because he's idealized influence, individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspiration. He can maximize mutual interest and restrain in the process of exercising his power. His leadership style broadens and elevates the interest of the follower (Mind Tools, 2013). This ends up generating awareness and motivation towards the purpose and mission of the organization. His leadership traits bring the group purpose above individual needs for the…
Mind Tools (2013). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Style for the Situation. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Murray, A. (2013). Leadership Styles. http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
The authors also find that the firms where these antecedents are most present are those in which either leadership style is highly evident. Firms that lack either leadership style are the lowest performing with respect to quality management.
The ultimate objective of any leader is to improve the company's performance. The most basic measures of performance are profit, revenue, market share and other financial statement measures. Even if the leader excels at other elements, if they do not translate to the bottom line, then the leader is not meeting the needs of the shareholders. hittington et al. (2009) have found that organizational performance is most positively affected by transactional leadership, whereas transformational leadership as found to have no impact. By contrast, Spinelli (2006) found the opposite -- that transformational leadership was more effective at delivering performance outcomes. This again hints that the best leadership style is dependent on the situation.…
Burns, J. (1979) Leadership. Harper Books.
Pieterse, a., van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M. & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 31 (4) 609-623.
Kezar, a. & Eckel, P. (2008). Advancing diversity agendas on campus: Examining transactional and transformational presidential leadership styles. International Journal of Leadership in Education. Vol. 11 (4) 379-405.
Zagorsek, H., Dimovski, V. & Skerlavaj, M. (2009). Transactional and transformational leadership impacts on organizational learning. Journal of East European Management Studies. Vol. 14 (2) 144-165.
Leadership Analysis of OSIM
High growth technology companies are fertile organizations for the conflicts of leadership styles. The incessant need for accelerating new product development and staying in step with customer needs on the one hand and the pressure to reduce costs often lead high tech firms to adopt transactional leadership mindsets (Eppard, 2004). This gets amplified in Asian cultures where time is a very limited resource and large-scale organizations including OSIM International have a myriad of conflicting priorities (Beugr, Acar, Braun, 2006). Defining a management style that is agile enough to respond to these many challenges while at the same time concentrating on attaining cost targets is essential for survival in highly competitive industries (Pieterse, van Knippenberg, Schippers, Stam, 2010). on Sim, CEO of OSIM, must balance these many requirements while engraining a high level of accountability and ownership throughout the global operations of OSIM International. Balancing transactional and…
Beugr, C.D., Acar, W., & Braun, W. (2006). Transformational leadership in organizations: An environment-induced model.International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 52-62.
Deluga, R.J. (1988). Relationship of transformational and transactional leadership with employee influencing strategies.Group & Organization Studies, 13(4), 456.
Eppard, R.G. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership styles as they predict constructive culture and defensive culture. (Order No. 3144365, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 129-129.
Guay, R.P. (2013). The relationship between leader fit and transformational leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology,28(1), 55-73.
By the same token, by not having any specific policy implications, servant leadership theory does not expressly reject the transformational, situational or results-focused ideas of leadership. It is merely an adjunct to these theories, and is mostly useful for deciding on whether or not somebody should become a leader in the first place.
Situational Leadership and Results-Focused Leadership
These two leadership theories are opposed to one another, but they share the same philosophical underpinnings. The underlying theory of each of these leadership styles is that the leadership style is flexible, and the best leaders have the ability to utilize different styles and techniques depending on the needs of the day. here the two differ is in the understanding of the most important determinant of leadership style. Situational leadership theory argues that leaders need to adapt to the different circumstances, changing their style to suit the challenges with which they are…
The transformational leader- N.M. Tichy and M.A. Devanna ( 1990)
Servant Leadership- Robert Greenleaf
Leadership in organization - G. Yuki (2006)
At the core of leadership is the interaction between the leader and the follower. Much of leadership theory can be understood in terms of how leaders and followers interact and what the underlying assumptions are with respect to the roles and nature of leadership. Because of the many different types of leaders, and successful examples thereof, leadership scholarship has developed multiple branches that seek to explain leadership, but no one branch has yet proved definitive. Instead of understanding leadership through a single paradigm, and it better to understand it in terms of multiple paradigms, and different leadership theories can be applied to the same situation, and any given leader might apply multiple leadership styles at the same time.
Part of the appeal of leadership scholarship is that it encompasses so many unique academic disciplines. Leadership scholarship began life as in business schools but has been studied in the psychological…
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F. & Weber, T. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 60 (2009) 421-449.
Boyatzis, R., Smith, M., & Blaize, N. (2006). Developing sustainable leaders through coaching and compassion. Academy of Management Learning & Education. Vol. 5 (1) 8-24.
Falk, S. & Rogers, S. (2011). Junior military officer retention: Challenges & opportunities. Harvard University. In possession of the author.
Kocolowski, M. (2010). Shared leadership: Is it time for a change? Emerging Leadership Journeys. Vol. 3 (1) 22-32.
I see that in my own leadership style I am oriented towards a transactional style, but that in order to improve my leadership I need to weave the daily leadership actions together better with an eye to creating long-term organizational excellence. I feel that I have developed strong communications skills and healthy leadership traits in terms of being rational but also being able to deal with the emotional elements of the job. I perhaps struggle a little at listening, but I also can be short-sighted with my decision-making, such that months or years later I find my decisions have set an undesirable tone that must be corrected. These are the most significant deficiencies between the leader I am and the leader I wish to become.
Long-term strategy can also be considered somewhat of a weakness. There is certainly a gap between the specificity of long-term strategies that the organization has…
Schermerhorn, John. (2001). Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey. Ohio University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.situational.com/PdfViewer.aspx?pdfPath=~/Pdf/Conversations_With_Paul_Hersey.pdf
Fielder, Fred. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Vroom, VH & Yetton, PW. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Yale University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.lederne.dk/NR/rdonlyres/E8715858-DCEE-4355-88BB-B3E82FE7DA9B/0/18VictorVroom2.pdf
Enos, Darryl D. (2007). Performance Improvement. CRC Press, p. 153
Leadership - Central Core of Organizational Success
Effective Leadership in Corporations
you didn't mentioned anything about (For each theory explain how it might benefit a named organisation as well as how it could be incorporated effectively into the organisation.
Introduction to Leadership
What is leadership? A leader could be interpreted as someone who sets direction in an effort and influence people to flow the direction, helps them to establishment to goal, guides them towards achieves these goals, thereby allowing them to be effective. A leader is one who influences others to attain goals. he greater the number of followers correlates to the greater the influence. Additionally, the more successful the attainment of worthy goals, the more evident is the leadership. However, one must explore beyond this bare definition to capture the excitement and intrigue that devoted followers and students of leadership feel when they see a great leader in action.…
Transactional leadership was described by Max Webber in 1947, and then by Bernard Bass in 1981. The transactional leadership theory is widespread and commonly used inorganizations (e.g. military). It is based on transactions or deals made between an employee and an organization or between followers and leaders. A transactional leadership is based on a military like clear chain of command with a 'Carrot and Stick' philosophy. In short, it is a proven method of running an organization wherein, through reward and punishment, things are done! The main motivation behind transactional leadership is taught to be in the self-interest of the subordinate. There is an exchange process that is meant to affect a subordinate's behaviour in a positive way.
Transactional leadership works well in organizations that have a need for absolute and immediate response to authority, and where innovation is not a valued variable. A good example of this theory applied to an industry is the type of country-rebuilding that occurs after a war. The operations of the mercenary army company of Blackwater USA. It is not an accident that Blackwater USA leadership mirrors that of the military, since the company is, in effect, an army.
If one is familiar with Maslow's hierarchy of needs, then one will understand that this transactional leadership theory will work on people, whose needs in the bottom half of the
The passive style is described as management by exception where employees do not receive notice for their positive contributions to the organization, but instead are paid attention by their manager only when an error or problem arises. Punishment or disciplinary action is often the medium used in this approach. Active transactional leadership uses contingent rewards. With this approach, employees are praised for their performance and may be eligible for pay increases or other incentives (Bolman & Deal, 1991, p. 419). The type of leadership exhibited clearly determines the type of motivation used and often its success or failure.
The situational leadership theory of Hersey and Blanchard proposes that the optimal amount of task and relations behavior depends upon subordinate maturity. As the authors note, what the manager needs is a simple and logical framework for making decisions that will be successful (Hersey & Blanchard, 1990, p. 412). This theory prescribes…
Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bossidy, Larry; Charan, Ram; Execution, the Discipline of Getting Things
Done; Crown Business, New York, NY. 2002.
DuBrin, a.J., R.D. Ireland, & J.C. Williams. Management & Organization. Cincinnati: South-Western, 1989.
The transformation was so effective in the company that it eventually changed an entire industry as well (Lawless, 1998).
Another aspect of leadership lessons learned from Her Keller include his tolerance for individuality and non-conformity on the part of his employees, and how the culture of the company became known as a haven for those who wanted to work hard yet also have fun (Lubans, 2009). Not every leader can accomplish this unique feat of creating a culture tolerant and even promoting non-conformity over time, let alone become its main evangelist for this approach. Yet Mr. Kelleher realized that if management and the employees were going to trust one another, there would need to be an unpretentious, open culture that had a tolerance for failure and nonconformity (Lindebaum, Cartwright, 2010). Getting back to the point made earlier, a mindset that sees failure as feedback, not a dead-end, is critical for…
Bennis, W. (2009). Crises Reveal the Quality of Leadership. Leader to Leader, 2009(54), 27.
Why Herb Kelleher Gets So Much Respect from Labor. (1984, September). Business Week: Industrial/Technology,(2861), 112.
Robert Lawless. (1998). Introduction: Speech-Herb Kelleher. Competitiveness Review, 8(1), 1.
Lee, William G. (1995). Southwest Airlines' Herb Kelleher: Unorthodoxy at work. Management Review, 84(1), 9.
The four lanchard leadership styles include:
3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)
2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)
V. CHARISMATIC THEORY
Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's…
Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).
Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.
Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
Leadership for Organizations
The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).
The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (ass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).
In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).
Leaders need to possess a wide range…
Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.
Allen, K.E. (1995). Making sense out of chaos: Leading and living in dynamic systems. Campus Activities Programming, 52-59.
Argyris, C. (1970). Intervention theory and method: A behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
Mr. Smith has been the president of our social club for a very long time. He has been reelected as the president unanimously for more than three times since he started his term. The reason as to why he has held this position is because of his effective leadership.
There are various traits that he holds which have made him an effective leader for this entire while. These traits include vision; he is a visionary leader. He looks forward to the future of the club with a lot of expectations. He has envisioned the club to be a success and attain a significant growth. He has an idea of the club which is clear and exciting of where the club is headed and at the same time try to accomplish the goals of the club. Secondly he is a courageous leader. This means that he is…
Mind Tools Ltd., (2013). Leadership Styles. Retrieved April 1,2013 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Cherry, K.,(2010). Lewin's Leadership Styles. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/leadstyles.htm
University of Missouri, (2010). Important Personal Traits of Effective Leaders. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://web.missouri.edu/~campbellr/Leadership/chapter4.htm
The administrative support staff who is dealing with frustrated doctors who cannot adjust to the new computer tablets they are using as an alternative to paper files may require a transactional leader who can provide the organizational support needed to move through an uncomfortable transition. A single leader cannot always be everything to everyone. By learning one's leadership strengths and weaknesses and understanding the leadership skills needed to achieve the organizational objectives, the leader can begin to develop and foster his or her leadership team with people who offer complimentary skills and leadership styles.
Avolio, B.J. & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald Group Publishing.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Clawson, J.G. (2009). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005, Spring).…
Avolio, B.J. & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald Group Publishing.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Clawson, J.G. (2009). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005, Spring). The relevance of emotional intelligence for leadership performance. Journal of General Management, 30(3), 71-86. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Thankfully, in my role I have become experienced in dealing with multiple stakeholders. I utilized my transformational leadership skills to have all stakeholders buy into my vision of the project, allowing me to shape the project in a manner that would allow me to deliver satisfactory results to all of the stakeholders.
I knew that I was going to demand a lot from all of the different stakeholders, and therefore I needed to lead by example. I took this as the core of my vision for my leadership. I was a situational leader, moving between transformational and transactional as the situation required. I was tough when necessary, in particular with respect to ethics, but I was also able to make contributions that improved the positivity surrounding the project. I worked with the union representative to build a set of disciplinary actions based on my code of ethics, which…
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
Therefore, culturally endorsed leadership theory may require some degree of code-switching (employing different languages or emphasizing and de-emphasizing certain cultural elements) on the part of leaders in order to maintain the balance of general attributes associated with positive leadership. In general, however, there is less of a reliance on the leader as an individual in this type of organizational leadership style, and more of a reliance on universally perceived leadership qualities.
Another fairly efficacious style of leadership for contemporary organizations is transformational leadership. Transformational leadership theory seeks to actuate a change by empowering the various individuals that comprise an organization with the tools necessary to perform their jobs better. Transformational leadership may require a restructuring of a company's objectives, or a reevaluation of the best ways to achieve those values. Oftentimes, transformational leaders are charismatic and are endowed with natural leadership attributes that endear them to people. Their goals are…
Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). "Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military." Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 31 (3): 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Javidan,, Dorfman, P., De Luque, M., & House, R. (2006). "In the eye of the beholder: Cross cultural lessons in leadership from project GLOBE." Academy of Management Perspectives, 20 (1): 67-90.
Traywick, B. (2008). "Reagan's transformational leadership." www.youtube.com Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puB0Bnt5xfY&feature=related
Hence, a more corporate attitude is being embraced by pro-vice-chancellors, but the salient question in this article is this: will a university be better off with corporate-style, bureaucratic leadership, or with leadership that pursues academic excellence and a pure mission of educating students?
Wang, Yong, and Poutziouris, Panikkos. (2010). Leadership Styles, Management Systems and Growth: Empirical Evidence from UK Owner-Managed SMEs. Journal of Enterprising
Culture, 18(3), 331-354. Doi: 10.1142/So21849581000604.
What these authors bring to light in this article is that a higher rate of sales and growth for medium sized businesses can be realized when run by an owner that also manages the business. This survey of 5,710 respondents in the UK further pointed to the fact that when the owner-manager delegates authority, the operation is more professional and successful.
Webb, Kerry S. (2009). Creating Satisfied Employees in Christian Higher Education: Research
on Leadership Competencies. Christian Higher Education, 8(1), 18-31.…
Zembylas, Michalinos, and Iasonos, Sotiroula. (2010). Leadership styles and multicultural education approaches: an exploration of their relationship. Leadership in Education,
13(2), 163-0183, doi: 10.1080/13603120903386969.
In this article the authors surveyed 17 principals in multicultural schools in Cyprus in order to find out what leadership styles worked best. The issue is relevant because immigration means new challenges for education leaders. About half of the 17 principals embraced a transactional leadership and "conservative multiculturalism" although another group adopted a style more in tune with what the authors call "critical multiculturalism embedded in critical and social justice leadership."
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
The speeches by Chris Christie and Bill Clinton at their respective national conventions highlight a number of characteristics of collaborative leadership. In politics, being able to collaborate while retaining one's sense of identity is essential success. Obama won by building a coalition of African-Americans, Latinos, women, the young, city dwellers and the educated. Romney failed to build a coalition of different groups, relying primarily on rural white voters. Collaborative leadership and team-building are clearly essential to political success.
Both speeches spent considerable time attacking the other side, and those elements of the speeches work against collaborative leadership. We can learn from the negativity, because there is a tremendous fracture in American politics. As a result of this fracture, the last Congress passed a low number of laws, failed to do even the basic tasks of government, and managed to get the credit rating of the country lowered. Dedicating your…
3. Group participants can in many situations be empowered to contribute to decision-making, however this should be contingent on the situation. In situations such as those I encounter as a Squad Leader, the overall strategy is not always immediately evident. In this situation, the followers should be expected to maintain a high level of dedication to task regardless of whether or not they understand the full ramifications of their actions. In civilian life, where perhaps the stakes are lower, a company can succeed by empowering employees because the ability to make a contribution can increase their dedication to the task and to overall objectives. This is more reasonable because the objectives are often transparent throughout the organization. In addition, the organizational culture is one of employment at will, where there is no implicit dedication to the organization. Engagement from the employees is dependent on their feeling of empowerment. When the…
It is like a double-edged sword, one must understand the pros and cons to every option. Yes with option one, it appears that by having the bank take over that this offers the best case scenario for everyone but Joe must weigh the possible repercussions and how they will affect business. In other words, this may be saving everyone's job and the company but at what cost to quality of the job and the company? This bank intervention may not be worth the hassle if the culture of the company changes for the negative. This can have a direct influence on productivity and morale. Joe needs to keep all the details in mind before deciding.
Question 4: hat pressures does Joe face regarding honesty and telling the truth about his situation?
In this situation, Joe faces many pressures as most business owners would when faced with such challenges. He has…
Leadership Ethics? I did not have the information about the chapter. Citation style below.
Last name, first name. Book title. City of Publisher: Publisher name, year of publication.
One reason has to do with the intellectual hurdles that senior executives jump in obtaining their jobs. It takes at least an IQ of about 110 to 120 to get an advanced degree such as an MBA. There is thus a high selection pressure for IQ in order to enter the executive ranks." (p. 250)
The text goes on to argue that the result is that there is not a great deal of variation in the intellectual properties possessed by most leaders. In a sense, this is a further confirmation that certain qualities are inborn, insofar as most leaders can be expected to fall within a specific range of proven intellectual capacity. To go a step further to this point though, Goleman et al. indicate that the difference between the excellent, the average and the inadequate leader will be founded on the high variance of emotional intelligence capabilities. This suggests…
Avolio, B.J. (2005). Leadership Development in Balance. Psychology Press.
Goleman, D.; McKee, a. & Boyatzis, R.E. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Harvard Business Press, 1st Edition.
Koestenbaum, P. (2002). Leadership: The Inner Side of Greatness, a Philosophy for Leaders, New and Revised. Jossey-Bass; 2nd Edition.
Kouzes, J.M. & Posner, B.Z. (2003). The Leadership Challenge. Jossey-Bass, 3rd Edition.
Leadership vs. Management
It has often been said that a manager is what one does, and a leader is who one is. The leading theorists who are studying management and leadership have a myriad of studies that support this contention of leadership being more inherently linked to who a person is (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 2010). From my experiences, this is certainly the case. The best managers are much like technicians who know how to orchestrate people, processes and systems to gain the greatest level of performance. Leaders on the other hand can infuse such a strong belief in a goal or mission that one is readily willing to give their all in its accomplishment
(Schmidt, 1993). The intent of this analysis is to describe the differences between leadership and management using examples from actual experiences. Second the circumstances when management is critical as part of leadership are also discussed as are…
Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.
Schmidt, J.E. (1993). Transformational leadership: The relationship between consciousness, values, and skills. Western Michigan University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 204
Singh, N., & Krishnan, V.R. (2008). Self-sacrifice and transformational leadership: Mediating role of altruism. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(3), 261-274.
Leadership and Change Management
Consider a change that has been recently introduced in your organization. Using relevant change and leadership theories, critically analyze the benefits and problems that introduction of this change has brought. TO WHAT EXTENT HAS LEADERSHIP CONTRIUTED TO THE RESULTS OF THIS PROCESS?
RasgGas is a joint venture gas company between Qatar Petroleum, the State of Qatar's national oil and gas company (majority stakeholder), and ExxonMobil, an American Integrated Oil and Gas company. The company is about fifteen years old and has been involved in all aspect of exploration, development, production, liquefaction and marketing of gas from the North Field. RasGas is a major contributor to the State of Qatar's worldwide leadership in the production and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export. The company has utilized technologies to drill high capacity gas well and build the largest and most efficient liquefaction trains in the world. These…
Brisson-Banks, C.V. 2010. "Managing Change and Transitions: A Comparison of Different Models and the Commonalities." Library Management, Vol. 31, No. 4/5, pp.241-52.
Brown, A.D. 1994. "Implementing MRPII: Leadership Rites and Cognitive Change." Logistics Informational Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 6-11.
Drew, S. And C. Coulson-Thomas 1996. "Transformation through Teamwork: The Path to the New Organization?" Managerial Decision, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 7-17.
Eisenbach, R. et al. 1999. "Transformational Leadership in the Context of Organizational Change." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 80-88.
Second, as a spin-off division focused on electronic commerce, systems integration and increasing sales of F&H products online there is a definite status level associated with being a member of this group. For any new manager or COO of this group that can work for or against them, depending on how the new leader manages the transition. Finally the controls in place are focused purely on logistics and order management functions so the group is no doubt evaluated from its efficiency at systems and process integration as well.
ecommendation for estructuring the Department
Clearly after studying the simulation S&F Online needs significant restructuring organizationally and the use of more transformational leadership strategies is also needed. First, the Project Manager needs to be promoted to Operations Director, S&F Online, with the Logistics Manager reporting to him. The Marketing Manager needs to stay reporting to the COO and also having their dotted…
Boga, I., & Ensari, N. (2009). The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success. The Psychological - Manager Journal, 12(4), 235.
Crespell, P., & Hansen, E.. (2008). Managing for innovation: Insights into a successful company. Forest Products Journal, 58(9), 6-17.
Lyons, J., & Schneider, T. (2009). The effects of leadership style on stress outcomes. Leadership Quarterly, 20(5), 737.
Zhu, W., Avolio, B., & Walumbwa, F. (2009). Moderating Role of Follower Characteristics with Transformational Leadership and Follower Work Engagement. Group & Organization Management, 34(5), 590.
There are many different concepts of leadership, and much of what a person does as a leader is related to the concept to which that person subscribes. Some leaders are more interested in their followers than others, while other leaders are more focused on what they can do for the company and the bottom line. Neither option is necessarily the right option, because there are many ways in which leadership can be effective (Benson, 1994). However, for the majority of companies a leadership style that is transformational in nature and geared toward being a steward for the company is the best option. That is because people who are being led want to see that they are part of something bigger, and that they have value to contribute to the organization of which they are a part. If they do not feel as though they are receiving anything for the…
Benson, F. (1994). One right way doesn't work with leadership either. Journal of Quality and Participation.
Blank, W., Weitzel, J., & Green, S. (1990). Situational leadership theory. Personnel Psychology.
Miner, J.B. (2005). Organizational behavior: Behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.
Tittemore, J.A. (2003). Leadership at all levels. Canada: Boskwa Publishing
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to leadership. First is a compare and contrast of Fiedler's Model of Leadership followed by a description of the Cognitive esource Theory. Next, it is asked whether high experience or high intelligence is a better trait to have in a high-stress situation. Lastly, the author is to give examples of transactional leadership, transformation leadership and visionary leadership in a police setting.
Fiedler's Model of Leadership & Cognitive esource Theory
Fiedler said that a "pretzel-shaped" theory is needed to describe and quantify the characteristics of a "pretzel-shaped" world. He said the three main factors in play were leader/member relations, task structure and position power. However, he emphasized that leader/member relations took on twice the importance of the other two dimensions because the impact of management (or mismanagement) of this dimension was much more profound (Salisbury,…
Biography. (2013, August 12). Steve Jobs Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story
Biography.com. Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from http://www.biography.com/people/steve-jobs-9354805
CSS. (2013, August 11). Cognitive Resource Theory. CSS.edu. Retrieved August 11, 2013, from faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/cogresourcetheory.html
Salisbury. (2013, August 11). Fiedler's Theory. Salisbury University. Retrieved August
leadership theories and how they are influencing an organization. As, we carefully examine the different ones and discuss how this will impact the long-term sustainability of the firm. This is the point that we can determine how and when these different ideas should be used to motivate subordinates.
When most people hear the word leadership they will often think of a person that is sure of themselves. As they are using: their experiences and courage to help inspire everyone around them during the most challenging of times. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that genuine leadership is more than just an image or an ideal. Instead, it is common form of thinking and a way of life that can help to transform the world as we know it. To fully understand how this is taking place requires: providing a basic definition of this concept and examining…
Alasdair MacIntyre, 2011, Wikipedia. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011].
Concepts of Leadership, 2010, NW Link. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
Traditional Theories of Leadership, 2011, E How. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011]
Cherry, K, 2011, Leadership Theories, About. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
leadership style is one of the most important factors that determine cross functional teams' success. Research and practice in the field have revealed several types of leadership theories, such as trait, behavioral, situational contingency, participative, transactional, and transformational theories. Each of these leadership theories introduces several types of leadership styles, amongst which the most frequently met in private and public organizations are autocratic or authoritative leadership, democratic or participative styles, transformational leadership, and others (Ricketts, 20). It is difficult to determine which of these leadership styles is the most efficient, as the need for a certain style depends on each situation. The table below compares and contrasts three key variables found in these theories.
Table . Leadership Theories Analysis
Key variable / theory
Situational contingency theories
Characteristics of leader
Cognitive abilities, social intelligence
Informing, clarifying, monitoring
. Derue, S.et al. (2011). Trait and Behavioral Leadership Theories. Personnel Psychology. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://php.scripts.psu.edu/faculty/s/e/seh25/DeRueNahrgangWellmanHumphrey2011.pdf .
12. Seyranian, V. (2009). Contingency Theories of Leadership. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://www.sagepub.com/northouse6e/study/materials/reference/reference6.1.pdf .
The concept of leadership is an issue that has elicited considerable debate in the recent past to an extent that there is an extensive body of research and literature that addresses the issue. Some of the most common issues in the wide range of literature on this issue include scientific investigation, fiction, and biographies (Truckenbrodt, 2000, p.233). This concept has generated such concerns because leadership influences politics, academics, organizations, military, and government. As a result of its influence, the leadership abilities of individuals has not been conceptualized but also tested in behavioral psychology and other fields. The tests care carried out because the existing numerous studies are relatively difficult to classify into various approaches such as traits, behaviors, and styles. Some examples of leadership tests include the LMX (leader-member exchange) questionnaire and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). In addition to determining the various types of leadership approaches and styles, these…
Northouse, P.G. (2010). Leadership theory and practice (5th ed., pp.145-201). Thousand Oaks,
CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Truckenbrodt, Y.B. (2000). The Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange and Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Acquisition Review Quarterly, 233-244. Retrieved from http://journals.humankinetics.com/AcuCustom/Sitename/Documents/DocumentItem/467.pdf
In contrast, a "selling and coaching" (S2) approach is demanded when the leader knows the follower may be uncertain about how to perform the task, but the subordinate has a high level of commitment, as in the case of an intern or a new hire. S2 is a motivational or mentoring approach. The employee craves direction, but will be motivated more by personality and praise than 'carrots and sticks' versus the S1 situation (Straker 2004).
A "participating/supporting" leadership situation (S3) is when the leader knows that the employees can complete the task but the manager wants more of an emotional investment or a higher level of excellence. An example of this approach might be a manager of a fast food establishment with a teenage, low-skilled workforce. The employees can do the job, but needs more motivation to perform at a high level rather than task-specific direction. Finally, an (S4) situation…
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald.
DISC. (2010). Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://www.discprofile.com/
Homrig, Mark a. (2001, December 21).Transformational leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
Straker, David. (2004). Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. Changing Minds. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
"Our leadership development and training programs push each and every delegate to gain a rigorous personal insight into what makes them tick and then, with that understanding of themselves, to stretch the boundaries of what's comfortable for them" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory). Leadership training through the organization stresses emotional rather than technical skills, unlike GE. Human perception, creativity and out-of the box thinking is what is defined as leadership skills by Impact Factory and by the companies that use its services to train new and older employees alike, employees defined as leaders, and lower level employees as well. Key to success for individuals and the organization as a whole include: "Determining how well you perceive what's going on around you...polishing interpersonal skills and communication skills" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory).
The influence of leadership theory of a 'great man'…
General Electric: Imagination at work. (2008). GE. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008. http://www.gepower.com/commitment/en/integrity.htm
Ethos. (2008). The Impact Factory. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at http://www.impactfactory.com/ factory.shtml
Impact Factory. (2008). Impact Factory Homepage. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at
These factors -- self-awareness, self-concept and emotional intelligence -- will also affect one's leadership style. High levels of these traits would make one a perfect candidate for servant leadership, but if levels of these traits differ, they could guide one to other forms of leadership. For example, a leader with relatively poor social skills is unlikely to be a servant leader, and is more likely to pursue a transactional leadership style. Somebody with great social skills but lacking in self-awareness or self-concept could become a "great man" -- style leader or could become an autocrat (or both, in some political cases).
One's self-concept in particular will guide one's leadership style. How one envisions him- or herself is critical to understanding how he or she will define his or her leadership style. Self-awareness contributes the ability to challenge one's assumed constraints and to celebrate one's points of power (Fowler et al.,…
Fowler, S.B., Blanchard, K., and Hawkins, L. (2010). Self leadership: The power behind empowerment. In K. Blanchard, Leading at a higher level (pp. 91-103). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Greenleaf, R.K. (1970, 1991). The servant as leader. Indianapolis, IN: Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership.
Furthermore, there are a number of similarities and overlaps between such leadership theories that do not prevent their being characterized as transformational in nature. For example, "Most leaders behave in both transactional and transformational ways in different intensities and amounts; this is not an entirely either-or differentiation" (Miner, 2002 p. 743).
One of the more interesting issues to emerge from the research is the need for transformational leaders to teach what they know to others. Certainly, it would be reasonable to assume that most leaders got where they are by virtue of some innate skill or ability within an organization, and while it would likely be easier - and faster -- for them to simply do some things themselves, teaching others how to become effective leaders in their own right is a fundamental responsibility and effective leaders and serves to differentiate a truly transformational leader from others leadership styles: "True…
Apple. (2007). Yahoo! Business. [Online]. Available: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=AAPL
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership: Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact. (1998). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Where the urns (1978) book sets itself apart is through its evaluation of the practice and theory of leadership skills. In the book, urns (1978) states that he defined leadership as "leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that represent the values and the motivations -- the wants and needs, the aspirations and expectations -- of both leaders and followers" (p. 19).
Another important reason that urns (1978) remains so popular today is that he addresses leadership styles throughout the book by using examples that can be easily related to. Moses, Napoleon, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. are all discussed. How they led, why, and in what capacity can shed significant light on specific types of leadership skills and the styles with which they best fit. Also included in urns' (1978) book are Adolf Hitler and Machiavelli, and they are all used to show how leaders who…
Benson, F. (1994). One right way doesn't work with leadership either. Journal for Quality and Participation. 17(4): 86-89.
Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
History of Modern Leadership Studies Since 1900
The evolution of modern leadership studies begins with the Great Man Theory, which originated in the 19th century and carried over into the 20th century. It came about as people looked at the world’s greatest leaders who stood out from the run of the mill individuals of their time and made a significant difference upon the course of human history. Individuals like George Washington, or Abraham Lincoln or Napoleon Bonaparte—they were seen as Great Men who were born with something special that made them into great leaders. The idea was promoted by Thomas Carlyle (1888) and other writers, such as Herbert Spencer (1896), who added his own twist on the theory by arguing that Great Men were as much products of their own day and age as anything else. Great Man Theory got the ball rolling in leadership studies, and out…
Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The leadership quarterly, 16(3), 315-338. Badshah, S. (2012). Historical study of leadership theories. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 1(1), 49.
Carlyle, T. (1888). On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History, NY: Fredrick A. Stokes & Brother.
Chaleff, I. (2015). Intelligent disobedience. ILA Member Connector.
DeRue, D. S. (2011). Adaptive leadership theory: Leading and following as a complex adaptive process. Research in organizational behavior, 31, 125-150.
Ghasabeh, M. S., Soosay, C., & Reaiche, C. (2015). The emerging role of transformational leadership. The Journal of Developing Areas, 49(6), 459-467.
Gibson, J. W., & Blackwell, C. W. (1999). Flying high with Herb Kelleher: a profile in charismatic leadership. Journal of leadership studies, 6(3-4), 120-137.
Katz, R. L. (1955). Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review, 33 (1), 33-42.
Lewin, K., Lippitt, R. & White, R.K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology 10: 271–301.
ethical obligations -- as discussed, for example, in Chapter 16 of the Northouse text -- allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office. (These obligations will not "fit" perfectly, as the real world does not always match the academic world precisely. Contemplate and give the best answer.) In each case, describe the ethically-proper course of action that was not taken by the relevant actors. Does New York -- like Chicago, Illinois, which was called the most corrupt city in the United States (Cody, 2012) -- have a special culture where corruption is accepted or even expected? Be sure to contrast the differences between leadership and power. Also discuss whether Smith and Halloran's behavior would have been unethical in the private sector.
New York State Sen. Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were arrested by federal authorities in an alleged plot to rig the New York…
Associated Press. (2013, April 2). Politico. Retrieved from N.Y. state sen. arrested in alleged mayor race plot: http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Greenleafe Center. (2011). What is Servant Leadership? Retrieved from Greanleafe Center for Servant Leadership: http://www.greenleaf.org/whatissl/
Margolin, J. (2013, April 2). State Sen. Malcolm Smith, city Councilman Halloran arrested in 'bribery plot' to rig mayor race. Retrieved from New York Post: http://nypost.com/2013/04/02/state-sen-malcolm-smith-city-councilman-halloran-arrested-in-bribery-plot-to-rig-mayor-race/
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Different leaders espouse differing styles of leadership. The managers in various organizations benefit from diverse approaches comprising transformational leadership, transactional leadership, enigmatic leadership, dictatorial leadership or visionary leadership (Esfahani and Soflu, 2011). In the contemporary, there is increased consideration regarding the role that quality relationships play in the workplace and how they can profit the organization. Emotional intelligence is delineated as the subsection of social intelligence that takes into account the capability of an individual to monitor his or her own feelings and emotions as well as those of others, to distinguish amidst them and to utilize this information for guiding the individual's thoughts and actions (Hunt and Fitzgerald, 2013). In other words, emotional intelligence is the power of rational, coherent response and comprehending a sequence of emotions and belief that the managers with high social intelligence, through the assistance of ideal self-assurance and inherent control center have high capability…
Different Modes of Leadership
It seems that one of the most effective collaborative approaches to leadership involves situational leadership. Situational leadership, of course, is a paradigm in which leaders vary their leadership style and methodology according to the various situations they encounter (Wright, 2017, p. 27). In this respect, this form of leadership is highly effective for situations in which there are rapid changes, such as leading others during a merger or an acquisition. Moreover, it is collaborative in that the input from one’s followers regarding the sort of changes impacting situational leadership affects the type of leadership model one chooses to deploy next. Thus, both the situations and their consequences for followers informs the type of leadership involved, which is a collaborative means of implementing this flexible type of leadership.
Additionally, it also appears that transformational leadership is an efficacious approach to collaborative leadership. This particular leadership approach typically…
Leaders Can Manage Change
Transforming the Client Organization:
From Transactional Management to Transformational Leadership
Staying in step with customer and client needs is more than fulfilling their requests on a periodic basis and meeting their basic expectations, as any company that excels in client management understands. It is the ability to align every aspect of an enterprise to the needs and expectations, experiences and requirements of clients. Often internally-based organizations including those that are given the objective of being client-focused, end up paradoxically being the most myopic and inward-focused, resistant to change. Any organization that is experiencing this is in danger of losing the most valuable relationships and trust they have with customers. As leaders must continually push accountability, ownership and a clear sense of responsibility for results to the front lines of their enterprises, when traditional management and leadership strategies fail to deliver results, change is required. The intent…
Bibliography and References
Armenakis, A.A. & Harris, S.G. (2002) "Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness," Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169-183.
Boga, I. & Ensari, N. (2009), "The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success," The Psychologist Manager Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 235.
Bordum, A. (2010), "The strategic balance in a change management perspective," Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 245-258.
Brown, A.D. (1994), "Transformational leadership in tackling change," Journal of General Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1-1.
History Of Leadership
Throughout much of history, leadership was viewed as an inherited position. It was rare that somebody would earn their way into a leadership position. Over time, a leadership model emerged that emphasized traits, and those who displayed those traits were funneled into a leadership system that, at best, worked on a linear hierarchy where tenure determined who held what position.
The major gains in leadership theory occurred when the study of leadership moved beyond these two concepts. By the 1940s and 50s, there was a move towards behavioral theories. Leaders weren't successful because of their traits, but because of the behaviors that existed, a concept that was similar but different. Behaviorism opened up the study of leadership, however. It was really the first theory that focused on emergent leadership over assigned leadership. It also began to separate the idea of management from that of leadership. That separation…
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Leadership Central (2015). Leadership theories. Leadership Central.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.leadership-central.com/leadership-theories.html
A comparison of Law Enforcement with Other Professions
Who first comes to mind when you think of a 'Leader'? Is it Alexander the Great? Napoleon? Winston Churchill? Gandhi? Leadership is an interesting phenomenon to consider, from the perspective of civilization, of nations, of political change, and of history. What makes one person a leader while another tries and fails? What is a good leader and how is that different from a 'great' leader? The definition of leadership also varies with the context and with the individual who is defining leadership. The nature of leaders has changed as civilization has evolved, and the leaders we as a society need today may be different from those of a century ago. A national leader is distinct from a local leader, a oy Scout leader, or a team leader in a sport.
Thus, definitions of leadership vary with the situation. However, they include…
Avery, G.C. (2004) Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage
Avolio, B.J. (1999) Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bittner, Egon (1970). The functions of the police in modern society: a review of background factors, current practices, and possible role models. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Health, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.
Boedker, C., Vidgen, R., Meagher, K., Cogin, J., Mouritsen, J. And Runnalls, M. (2011). Leadership, culture and management practices of high performing workplaces in Australia: The High Performing Workplaces Index. Society for Knowledge Economics: Sydney.
Leadership Crucible Experience
Leadership is a practice that is learnt from the experiences of the leaders. According to Bennis and Thomas (2002), a crucible is delineated as a changing experience through which a person ends up having a new sense of self and character. In particular, the capacity to mine knowledge from such challenging and difficult experiences is what differentiates and tells apart successful leaders from their counterparts (Bennis and Thomas, 2002). The purpose of this essay is to ascertain, define and justify a crucible experience that one can have in life and delineate how that experience can have an effect on the personal style of leadership, behaviors, outlooks and viewpoint and shed light on how it will impact one as a leader in the organization.
So what can happen to make an individual go through a crucible experience? Leadership ability can be tested when one is abruptly and quickly…
Bennis, W. G., & Thomas, R. J. (2002). Crucibles of leadership. Harvard business review, 80(9).
Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology,89(5), 901
Markos, S., &Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management,5(12), 89.
Thomas, R. J., & Cheese, P. (2005). Leadership: Experience is the best teacher. Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 24-29.
.....leadership outlines a number of different hypotheses regarding leadership style that have emerged over the years. At the intersection of traits and more progressive views of leadership style is the idea that emotional intelligence is a significant contributor to leadership success. Similarly, it has become leadership orthodoxy that transformational leaders are more successful than transactional ones. Given that transformational leadership requires the leader to inspire and motivate followers, and that a high degree of emotional intelligence would reasonably be thought to aid in this, the hypothesis can be formed that leaders with emotional intelligence are more likely to be transformational leaders, and more successful ones as well.
Several studies have explored the link between emotional intelligence and the transformational leadership style. Quader (2011) notes that emotional leadership can be subdivided into five different areas. Of these, three are more associated with transactional leadership: self-awareness, self-motivation and emotional mentoring). As such,…
Leadership in Context
Carleton Fiorina, who is commonly known as the Carly Fiorina, was one of the most powerful businesswomen in America in the year 2000 as she was employed as the Chief Executive Officer of Hewlett-Packard, a technology giant. As a result of being hired by this technological giant, Fiorina became the first woman to lead a Dow 30 company in the United States. She had a tremendous career in leadership as she rose rapidly through the ranks at AT&T and Lucent Technologies before joining Hewlett-Packard (HP). However, Fiorina's helm at HP came to an abrupt end in 2005 when she and other members of the firm's board were fired for their failure as moral persons and moral managers. This situation provides a good case study of leadership in context with regards to elements of leadership, application of leadership theories, and probable reasons for leadership failure.
Elements of Leadership…
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Mulcahy, DJ 2005, 'The Importance of Leadership', Bridgewater Review, vol.24, no. 1, pp.7-10.
Event in Health Care Organization
In order to run health care organizations such that they are always viable, when it comes to both economic and health results, health care leaders frequently feel attracted to a practical managerial point-of-view with insistence on the daily production pressures together with its need to react to both large and smaller issues. This tendency could restrict their capability of engaging on visionary leadership practices, that assist in changing their organizations for the futures. For instance, the present event in the health care of Kenya is that health care employees' need encounter a rising multitude of job demands: cost efficiency, patient care and administration as well as optimal employment, and might be less efficient in both secondary and primary role liabilities. Thus, leadership skills are required in assisting both providers and managers in making consistent and thoughtful choices amid values in competition. This matter…
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Followership, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Work Role Performance: A Cross-Level Study, Journal of Management published online DOI: 10.1177/0149206312457822 accessed at http://fanseel.be/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Leroy-Anseel-Gardner-Sels-in-press-JOM.pdf
Leadership Choice: Designing Climates of Blame or esponsibility
In E. Grady Bogue's book The Leadership Choice: Designing Climates of Blame or esponsibility, the author addresses the impact that self-knowledge can have on a person's life and career. In other words, the way a person acts in his or her personal life is often directly related to the way a person acts in his or her professional life. The morals, opinions, and beliefs held by a person are not generally confined to one area of that individual's life. They are spread across all of the areas of life and designed to be used by that person in many different ways. When a leader has opinions and beliefs, those are generally included in that leader's personal and professional lives, and it may be very difficult to keep them separate. Most people would likely question why anyone would want or need to keep…
Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A.T., & Sternberg, R.J. (2004). The nature of leadership. New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bogue, E.G. (2010). The leadership choice: Designing climates of blame or responsibility. New York: WestBow Press.
Frey, M., Kern, R., Snow, J., & Curlette, W. (2009). Lifestyle and transformational leadership style. Journal of Individual Psychology, 65(3), 212-240.
For any project, the first step is to inspire people to want to work on the project. There are few more powerful motivators than inspiration. Inspiration breeds creativity, innovation, hard work, determination and other attributes that comprise the more functional elements of leadership. There are a number of different leadership styles, but the most important for getting a grand new project off the ground and building a committed team is inspirational leadership. Inspiration is the process by which the performance in people can be inspired, rather than coerced or motivated (Seidman, 2009). It is believed that inspirational leadership is the most powerful means of getting people into action.
Beyond leadership style, the plan need to be detailed, including areas of concern that may require back-up plans. Planning is essential -- the role of inspiration is to ensure that the people working on the plan give their best effort, and…
ChangingMinds.org. (2011). Servant leadership. ChangingMinds.org. Retrieved May 6, 2011 from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/servant_leadership.htm
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Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
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According to the Ohio State University (2004), both could be equally appropriate in terms of overall company outcomes, as they are very similar in terms of valuing and inspiring follower excellence.
When considering the motivation towards leadership for each type of leader, the contrast is sharper. The servant leader, for example, leads from a motivations basis of egalitarianism. The leader's fundamental belief is that he or she is no better than followers. The company's collective goals are then reached by means of an egalitarian team effort, where both leader and followers learn from the experience. Servant leaders are therefore much more focused upon the non-traditional form of leadership, which exists in beign servants themselves (Patterson, edmer and Stone, 2003, p. 6). Followers are provided with a large amount of freedom to exercise the abilities they can bring to the promotion of the business goals. This means that a very high…
Bugenhage, M.J. (2006, Dec). Antecedents of Transactional Transformational, and Servant Leadership: A constructive-Development Theory Approach. University of Nebraska. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=aglecdiss
Changing Minds (2011). Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/bass_transformational.htm
The Ohio State University. (2004, Dec. 22). Transformational and Servant Leadership: Content and Contextual Comparisons. Leadership Center. Retrieved from: http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2004/december-2004-transformational-and-servant-leadership-content-and-contextual-comparisons
Patterson, K., Redmer, T.A.O., and Stone, a.G. (2003, Oct.) Transformational Leaders to Servant Leaders vs. Level 4 Leaders to Level 5 Leaders -- the Move from Good to Great. Regent University. Retrieved from: http://www.cbfa.org/Patterson.pdf