Treaty Of Versailles Essays (Examples)

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How Versailles Treaties Shaped World History

Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17783628

Naval Disarmament: Versailles and Naval Treaties

Washington Naval Treaty is popular known as Five-Power Treaty. This was the treaty involving major nations after winning World War I. The terms and conditions of the treaty included making efforts towards preventing arms race through control and limitation on naval construction. The negotiations at the Washington Naval Conference held between 1921 and 1922 led to the signing of an agreement between governments of Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, and France. The focus also limited the overall construction of battleships, aircraft carriers, and battle cruisers from the signatories. The scope of other warship categories such as cruisers, destroyers, and submarines, were not put on a leash by the treaty. However, they were narrowed down to 10,000 tons in displacement. The following treaties included the number of limitation conferences for naval arms, which sought to continue increasing warship-building limitations.

The Washington treaty…… [Read More]

Reference List

1. Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

2. Folly, Martin., and Palmer, Niall. Historical Dictionary of U.S. Diplomacy from World War I through World War II. New York: Scarecrow Press, 2010.

3. Madsen, Chris. The Royal Navy and German Naval Disarmament, 1942-1947. New York: Taylor & Francis, 1998.

4. Papastratigakis, Nicholas. Russian Imperialism and Naval Power: Military Strategy and the Build-Up to the Russo-Japanese War. New York: I.B.Tauris, 2011.
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Human Condition Transcends the Esoteric

Words: 3896 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82626823

The world would now be required to accept socialism, Leninism, and eventually Stalinism, as part of the European landscape.

With the defeat of Germany, Austro-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire; the shift in the balance of power moved toward the only major participant not devastated on its own soil by war -- the United States. The U.S. grew in economic power after Versailles, assisting not only its former allies in rebuilding, but also a crucial and profitable effort to help finance Germany's rebuilding and aid the new Weimar epublic. However, because of the failure of the war to achieve the ideals of peace and unity promised by President Woodrow Wilson, America shifted to an isolationist foreign policy -- it was deemed acceptable to be economically aggressive, but politically neutral. Until the stock market crash of 1929 and resultant Depression, the U.S. enjoyed a decade of relative prosperity and limelight due to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

The Holocaust - Orchestras. (2009, January). Retrieved August 2010, from Holocaust - Lest We Forget:  http://www.holocaust-lestweforget.com/orchestra.html 

Banks, J. (2006). Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Bowker, J. (2006). World Religions: The Great Faith;s Explored. New York: DK Books.

Carruthers, P. (2006). The Innate Mind: Culture and Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.
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May 4th Movement vs Modern Chinese History

Words: 2312 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73592713

Movement

All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.

The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chen, Duxiu, "Our Final Awakening." (Essay, 1916). Retrieved from,  http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/china/chen_duxiu_final_awakening.pdf .

Chiang, Kai-shek, "Essentials of the New Life Movement." (Speech, 1934). Retrieved from,  http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/cup/chiang_kaishek_new_life.pdf .

Mao, Zedong, "Reform our Study." (Speech, 1941). Selected Works of Mao, Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 1971.
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War Without a Cause as

Words: 1870 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26997012

However, in the end, they were unable to stop the war despite their best efforts. The war happened anyway, in spite of the best intentions and actions to prevent it. T he actions of the various governments were reactions to events that they had tried their best to prevent. They did not make a full-blown effort to convince their people of the need for war, until the war had already begun. Had the war been intentional on the part of Germany or any other entity, there would have been plans in place to gain the support of the people long before August 1, 1914.

Only Germany had such a plan in place. However, this does not mean that they started the war intentionally. It might mean that they saw it coming and wanted to be prepared. In the end, only the players know what their motives were on any particular…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Primary Sources

The Treaty of Versailles (1919), esp. Article 231,   http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/versailles.html  

Memorandum of Prince Karl Max Lichnowsky (1914)

Secondary Sources
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Nazis' Rise to Power One

Words: 3165 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76659854

In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,

The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."

So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65194469

Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458

Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388

Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
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Nationalism Before World War I

Words: 1489 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85302243

World War I

Causes and Consequences of World War I

World War 1

(Causes, America's Contribution to the War, ole of President Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles Failure)

The First World War (1914-1918) or the Great War was fought between the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies included 27 countries of which ussia, the United States of America, France, Japan and Britain are the most prominent. The Central Powers consisted of Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary as the chief combatants. It is the greatest and most atrocious war brawled till date.

Causes

There were a number of causes that initiated the brutality of World War I Major causes include imperialism, nationalism, materialism and alliance systems. However, the immediate cause of the beginning of the War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the oyal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. As he was killed by a Serbian nationalist in June…… [Read More]

References

America in the Great War. (2000). Retrieved from  http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/snpwwi1.htm 

Wilson, Woodrow. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053275

World war one - causes. (2011, 01, 02). Retrieved from  http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/causes.htm 

World War I. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053630
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Rise of the Third Reich

Words: 1078 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62424795

First World War were felt far and wide. These effects were difficult on everyone as both the victors and losers of the war both suffered. Germany, who mady blamed for initiating the War, may have felt the most acute effects. Germany lost a large percentage of its available workforce as the result of the work and, as a result, they were hard pressed to rebuild their struggling economy.

Hard economic times are an advantageous time for new and radical political ideologies to emerge. Therefore, Germany, suffering from deprivation and devastation following the First World War, was fertile ground for political change. Hitler and his Nazi party, founded on the philosophy of fascism, used the situation to advance their political agenda and in the form of the German people they found vulnerable victims.

The philosophy underlying Fascism is based upon the ideas of one of Germany's most famous philosophers Nietzsche. Fascism…… [Read More]

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World War I And Related

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62380097

All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile.

Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"German Revolution." Spartacus Schoolnet. April 14, 2010.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERrevolution.htm

"Wars and Battles, World War I." U.S. History. April 14, 2010.

 http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1334.html
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Industrialization and Colonization in the

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25784917

With localized colonial governments, world leaders demonstrated that empires could be founded on mastery of regional trade routes. At the beginning of the 20th century nations like Japan were at the forefront of the new model of imperialism.

Q3.Explain WWI? World War 1.

World War One was a natural outcome of the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the subsequent imbalance of power those downfalls entailed. Moreover, the First World War was a direct consequence of the ages of imperialism, colonialism, and industrialization. The war paved the way for emerging states to create a free market economy based on capitalism or on the other hand, a closed-market system based on state-controlled resources.

Q4.The Paris Exhibition had two famous sculptures: one of Paris in an evening gown and the other of Rodin's the Thinker. Elaborate upon the meaning of both and its lesson for us in the…… [Read More]

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Categories the Chinese Revolution the

Words: 2679 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63582793

This became a reality with the killing of the tsar in 1918. The death of the tsar was the visible reaction to a series of underlining causes that would eventually encourage the raise to power of a political ideology that addressed these issues and offered political and propagandistic solutions.

The social situation of the populations was rather grim during the tsar's regime. ussia had been engaged in the First World War effort and the condition of the soldiers was disastrous. Similarly, the peasants often were subjected to oppressive taxes in order for the regime to be able to financially support the war effort.

Aside from the social causes of the revolution, there were also political aspects that determined the fall of the tsar and the subsequent establishment of the communist regime. Thus, the authoritarian imperial rule opposed the visions of politicians such as the Bolshevik leader Trotsky. He was seen…… [Read More]

References

Carroll, J., and George Herring. (1986) Modern American Diplomacy. Scholarly Resources Inc. Wilmington, Delaware.

Fairbank, J.K. (1986). The great Chinese Revolution: 1800- 1985. London: Pan Books.

Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.

Rauch, Basil. (1963). The history of the New Deal. New York: Capricorn Books.
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What Led to World War 1 And How Did it End for Different Nations

Words: 1449 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2248747

WW1

USSIA

In 1917 ussia suffered two revolutions, which resulted in a drastic change of leadership. Tsarist ussia became Lenin's Soviet ussia and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed shortly thereafter in March 1918 with Germany. The treaty gave Germany much: over a million square millions and 60 million people -- a third of ussia's population -- were annexed. ussia lost railroads, factories, the majority of its coal and iron -- but Germany was in no position to immediately profit from the treaty. The Western Front was calling. ussia gained some peace from the treaty, and could now focus on its internal problems resulting from the recent overthrow and the war effort. Leading up to the treaty, Imperial ussia had suffered devastating casualties and food shortages. The Bolsheviks called for an end to the war on the Eastern Front, and Germany supported this call, allowing Lenin himself to return to…… [Read More]

Reference List

Grebler, L. (1940). The Cost of the World War to Germany and Austria-Hungary. Yale Keynes, J.M. (1920). The Economic Consequences of the Peace. NY: Harcourt Brace.

Stone, O., Kuznick, P. (2012). The Untold History of the United States. NY: Gallery

Books.
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WWI the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Words: 1553 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55010445

WWI

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.

As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…… [Read More]

References

Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.

Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.

Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.

Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
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Chinese Atrocities in 1939 and

Words: 5252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26706849

Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.

The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…… [Read More]

References

Alderman, Sidney. 1945. Address to the Tribunal: November 23, 1945.

Chang, Iris. 1997. The Rape of Nanking. Penguin Books.

Marrus, Michael R. 2006. The Nuremburg war Crimes Trial. Bedford Press.

Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. 2008. Global Justice. Stanford University Press
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International Labor Organization History and Feasibility of

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14853799

International Labor Organization: History And Feasibility of Standards

When it comes to the promotion of social justice and the enhancement of labor rights, the relevance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) cannot be overstated.

This text will concern itself with the history of this crucial organization and the feasibility of international labor standards. Further, the paper will address not only the advantages but also the disadvantages of standards.

The ILO describes itself as "the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards" (ILO, 2012). On its Website, the ILO clearly defines its history from the time it was formed/created to its earlier days and recent times. Formed in 1919, the ILO was originally "part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War 1" (ILO, 2012). According to the organization, a number of considerations at the time led to its formation. These considerations were largely of a…… [Read More]

References

Budd, J.W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. New York: Cornell University Press.

McElrath, R.G. (Ed.). (2003). Monitoring International Labor Standards: Summary of Domestic Forums. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

The International Labor Organization -- ILO (2012). International Labor Organization: Promoting Jobs, Protecting People. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from the International Labor Organization website: http://www.ilo.org/global/lang -- en/index.htm
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International Labor Organization Ilo

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76371528

International Labor Organization (ILO)

The history of the International Labor Organization is an interesting one which actually points to the history of organized conflict within the world. At a micro level, the organization was formed in 1919 as part of the Treaty of Versailles which helped to end World War I. The establishers of this organization were convinced that in order to preserve international peace for all time that social justice needed to reign -- perhaps the key driving force behind social injustice is the regular exploitation of the laborer from his labor and the capital benefits it produces.

However, from a macro level, the creation of the ILO extends much further than the political motives associated with the first World War. Prior to the waging of that war and ever since the industrial revolution took place and the means by which laborers were displaced from the results of their…… [Read More]

References

International Labor Organization. (1996). Origins and history. www.ilo.org. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/history/lang -- en/index.htm

International Labor Organization. (1996). Mission and objectives. www.ilo.org. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/mission-and-objectives/lang -- en/index.htm
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Hapsburg Empire in the Half Century Before

Words: 1956 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19521802

Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I

At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.

The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.

During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…… [Read More]

Conflicting National Interests

 http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/civil_n2/histscript6_n2/wwstart.html 

Military Casualties of W.W.I  http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/casualties.htm
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Events of the 20th Century

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1379502

20th Century

The twentieth century had been tumultuous, particularly during the former half, the world witnessing two major world wars, many revolutions and nationalist struggles, each holding a significant bearing on the other. The major events being discussed are -- Chinese Revolution, Russian Revolution, India's independence, World War I and Treaty of Versailles and World War II. Though the events do not chronologically fall in order, each spanning over a few too many years, the developments and undercurrents of one has greatly influenced the other.

Chinese Revolution

Revolution in China began in 1911 with the National Party of China -- Kuo Min Tang -- playing the major role initially. The prime motive of Revolution was to solve the political and economic problems that plagued the Chinese society during the turn of the century --feudalism and semi-feudal patterns of relations in agricultural production, introducing agrarian reforms with modern methods of production,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brian McArthur, Penguin Book of Twentieth Century Speeches (London: Penguin Viking, 1992), pp. 234-237.

Roberts, J.M. The Penguin History of the World, The Penguin. Third Edition Helicon Publishing, 1992

Kevin Reilly, Worlds of History: A Comparative Reader: Since 1400, Bedford/St. Martin's; (February 2000)

Mao Tse-Tung, Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung: Vol. I, From: Be Concerned with the Well-Being of the Masses, Pay Attention to Methods of Work --The Concluding speech made by Comrade Mao Tse-tung at the Second National Congress of Workers' and Peasants' Representatives held in Juichin, Kiangsi Province in January 1934. Available at http://www.maoism.org/msw/vol1/mswv1_idx.htm. Accessed on 18.7.2003
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Causes of World War One

Words: 1893 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56235563

Wilson was one of the massive supporters of this League of Nations as he felt it would help in being responsible in preventing subsequent wars. One major aspect of the treaty of Paris in 1919 was that it contained the Treaty of Versailles, one which has a major goal of disciplining Germany and forcing a sense of punishment and finality of Germany. For instance, Germany lost many colonies and investments in lieu of this treaty and their ability to forge a military was crippled and limited to a fraction of its original size; the German air force was also similarly crippled. Germany was also further bankrupt in the reparations that it was ordered to pay -- the equivalent of $132 billion gold marks. These intense punishments were a major aspect of the treaty and were something that did cause a deadlock at certain points in the negotiating process (MacMillan, 195).…… [Read More]

References

Afflerbach, H. (2007). An Improbable War?: The Outbreak of World War I and European Political. New York: Berghahn Books.

Louis, W. (2006). Ends of British Imperialism. New York: I.B.Tauris.

MacMillan, M. (2007). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. New York: Random House Publishers.

MacMillan, M. (2009). The War that Ended Peace. New York: Random House Publishers.
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American Foreign Policy

Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67209682

Gambia, Africa

The Republic of The Gambia used to be part of the Empire of Ghana and the Kingdom of the Songhais (ureau of African Affairs 2005). First records came from Arab traders of the 9th and 10th centuries who had commercial relations with the native for slaves, gold and ivory. The Portuguese took over through sea routes at the time The Gambia became part of the Kingdom of Mali. Exclusive trade rights were sold to the English under Queen Elizabeth I. In the 17th and 18th centuries, England and France fought for political and commercial control over it until the Treaty of Versailles of 1783 turned it over to Great ritain. Slaves from The Gambia were first taken to Europe when the labor market expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. The ritish established a military post at athurst or the modern-day anjul in…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bureau of African Affairs. Background Note: the Gambia. U.S. Department of State, 2005.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5459.htm 

2. Cohen, Herman J. The United States and Africa. American Diplomacy Publishers, 2003.  http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2003_07-09/cohen_africa/cohen_africa.html 

3. GNU Free Documentation License. Politics of the Gambia, 2005. http://area51.ipupdater.com

4. Haley, George et al. Re-energizing United States-Africa Relations. Worldpress.org, March 21, 2005.  http://www.worldpress.org/Africa/2050.cfm
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Economic and Social Effects of

Words: 9045 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41483765

Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.

Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany

etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.

. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last

updated in 2010. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667.

Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty

That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.
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America's Decision to Stay Out

Words: 5328 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99155591



The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations

After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,

and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North

Carolina Press, 1978.

Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
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A concise Analysis of America and the Great War

Words: 1940 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43088527

America and the Great War

How the Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism Irrevocably Led to World War I

At face value, it can be concluded that WW started as a result of increasing military power in the participating European nations. It may also be argued that the arms race played a role too. However, an in-depth interrogation of the circumstances that surrounded the outbreak of the war reveals that there were more reasons why countries rose against each other.

To begin with, countries in Europe experienced a strong sense of nationalism that set them apart from the rest. This euphoric nationalistic tendencies and patriotism was also the seed for hatred for other countries. It seemed to the people of that age that for one to excel, the other must be under subjugation or eliminated altogether. Economic competition that existed at the time also played a major role in fuelling…… [Read More]

Reference: https://www.reference.com/history/did-alliances-contribute-outbreak-world-war-eeccfc725528d22a#

Wilson, W. (1914). President Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality, issued by The World War I. Retrieved from http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson%27s_Declaration_of_Neutrality
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Soviet WWII Soviet Policy Leading

Words: 2876 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40659937



The explanation that the Non-Aggression Pact was an agreement in which Hitler ultimately exploited Stalin may not necessarily be accurate. There is even the supposition that Stalin was deeply hurt on a personal level by Hitler's betrayal. But in reality, the Pact was sufficient to prevent the Soviet Union and Germany from coming into conflict until almost a full two years later. These were two years during which Hitler needed to focus his efforts on facing the British and French while strengthening Germany's key alliances with Japan and Italy.

Likewise, the Soviets benefited in the intervening time both by reaching gradual armistice with the Japanese and by enjoying the full extent of the Pact's guarantees to unchecked Soviet reclamation of the Baltic States, and its share of Poland. Though "Nazi Germany occupied the remainder of Poland when it invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941," the Soviet foothold in Poland…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Halsall, P. trans. (1997). Modern History Sourcebook: The Molotov-Ribbentrop

Pact, 1939. Modern History Sourcebook. Online at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1939pact.html>

Holocaust Memorial Museum. (2005). Invasion of Poland, Fall 1939. Holocaust Encyclopedia. Online at http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?ModuleId=10005070>

Roberts, G. (2001). From Non-Aggression Treaty to War: Documenting Nazi Soviet Relations, 1939-41 Geoffrey Roberts Explains the Fateful Sequence of Events from the Nazi-Soviet Pact to Hitler's Invasion of the U.S.S.R. History
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Hyperinflation of Weimar Republic the

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4470270

It is finally understood why such a burdened population would look to dolph Hitler and his Nazis to restore economic stability in the country.

2. Germany at the end of World War I

The German parliamentary republic, also known as the Weimar Republic, was established in 1919, shortly after the end of World War I, and officially brought the German Revolution to an end (Blanning, 2000, p. 159). This era was one of much political and social turbulence, as Germany was left in shambles after being defeated by the llies in the Great War.

The stage for the conflict was set by the terms by which Germany was held accountable in the Treaty of Versailles. The Versailles Treaty of 1919 was an agreement that was signed by the llied Powers and the German authorities during World War I, and it is this treaty that officially brought this particular war to…… [Read More]

As the Great War would come to a resolution, the political and economic contexts in Germany would come to be met with more unrest. In the face of social pressures, as well as the sense of the hurt national pride -- due to both the loss of the war but also to the fact that it was being held accountable -- the German authorities strived to restore balance. The outcome was however far from the desired one.

Weimar was faced with numerous problems as soon as it was established in 1919. Germany had lost a war, and its central government could not exercise much power on international or domestic affairs. The Weimar Republic adopted a system of proportional voting, which promoted a creation of twenty-eight small, weak, and decentralized parties (Finer, 1946, p.555).

It was nearly impossible for one particular party to maintain power for a long period of time, and the Weimar Republic started to lose its credibility and support of the German people. Because the central legislative body of the Weimar Republic, or the Reichstag, was feeble and unpopular due to the constantly changing ruling party, the power of the German states grew, and they frequently ignored orders or directions of the central government. This instability would constitute a primary factor in the generation of the
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Causes of World War I

Words: 2738 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46041458

WWI was also the first time that toxins such as mustard gas were used and this created panic and death in many different countries, significantly raising the death toll from the war and also making it more difficult for the country to stay organized and on-track when it came to supporting the troops that were fighting (Marston, 1981).

Italy was another of the allies that joined up to retaliate against Germany. If it were not for the issue with the alkans, it is likely that WWI would have never taken place, but other countries objected so strongly to the way that Germany handled the problem that they felt they must become involved. When Italy had finally been pushed far enough, it "decided to retaliate" and officially joined the war (Marston, 1981).

For Italy, going into the war meant protecting itself and its allies. It had generally enjoyed a good relationship…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Americanization (1925). Dept. Veterans of Foreign Wars of U.S., America: Great crises in our history told by its makers.

Barnes, Harry Elmer. (1970). The genesis of the world war: an introduction to the problem of war guilt. Howard Fertig, Inc.

Marston, F.S. (1981). The peace conference of 1919: organization and procedure Greenwood Press, 1981.

Rothberg, Gunter E., Moltke, Schlieffen (1986). The Doctrine of Strategic Envelopment. In Makers of modern strategy from Machiavelli to the nuclear age. Peter Paret ed.
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Hitler's Personality and Rise to Power Adolph

Words: 2883 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4563154

Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power

Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current

File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03

1939.

In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
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World War II Happen The

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15911546

" Military History. [online]

available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.

Heath.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.

Carr, p. 117.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Hickman, p. 1.

Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.

Corum, p. 4.

Corum, p. 5.

Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…… [Read More]

References

Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great

War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic

Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
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Zionist Influence in World War I

Words: 1903 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77380740

WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism

The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…… [Read More]

References

Balfour Declaration. (1917). Knesset. Retrieved from https://www.knesset.gov.il/lexicon/eng/BalfourDeclaration_eng.htm

Bradberry, B. (2012). The Myth of German Villainy. IN: Authorhouse.

Gilbert, M. (1994). The First World War. NY: Henry Holt and Company.

Lloyd-George, D. (1939). Memoirs of the Peace Conference. CT: Yale University
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Weimar Republic

Words: 5507 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11107001

Nervous Conditions

After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…… [Read More]

References

Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.

Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.

Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm. Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
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WWI & WW2 Comparing and

Words: 1852 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68215387

The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.

eferences

Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:

Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm

Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html

Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html

Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…… [Read More]

References

Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:

Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm

Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew Rockwell.com. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html

Keylor, William R. (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
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Peace Agreements and International Intervention

Words: 3606 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65074896

Peace Agreements and International Intervention

A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .

Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and Grievance, Policy Research Paper 2355." World Bank Development Group. May 2000.

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
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Nazi Youth

Words: 3919 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96595491

Nazi Youth

Prelude

Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the presence of this blood-banner which represents our Fuehrer I swear to devote all my energies, and my strength to the Savior of our Country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God. One People, one Reich, one Fuehrer." (Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression)

Becker)

Nazi Youth formal agreement between the ehrmacht and the Hitlerjugend was published 11 August 1939. It recites that whereas 30,000 Hitlerjugend leaders had been trained annually in shooting and field exercises, the number would be doubled; that 60,000,000 shots had been fired in Hitler Youth training courses in 1938 and that a considerable increase in the figure was expected. The agreement recognized the close cooperation that existed between…… [Read More]

Works Cited continued

Simpson, Christopher. "Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann's "Spiral of Silence" and the Historical Context of Communication Theory." Journal of Communication Vol. 46 (1996).

Stein, Howard F. "Disposable Youth: The 1999 Columbine High School Massacre as American Metaphor." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society Vol. 5 (2000).

The Adolf Hitler Historical Archives. 2003. 29 Apr. 2004   http://www.adolfhitler.ws/  .

Williamson, David. "Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? David Williamson Examines Two Seemingly Irreconcilable Schools of Thought." History Review. (2002).
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Innovations in the WWII

Words: 1735 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79414055

WWII

If there is a period that will always be remembered in the history of the 20th century, it is the Second World War. Although it was blamed for deaths of hundreds of thousands, it is also a period that stimulated technological advancement and prepared the world for the social changes that ensued after the war. Some of the most notable social changes include the termination of European colonial rule in some countries. It is also the period that marked heightened civil rights movements in the U.S.A. and the emergence of women's movements. The programs that set the pace of the exploration of outer space also started in this period. The warring groups involved a split on the axis of Nazi Germany, imperial Japan, Fascist Italy and some relatively smaller allies versus the allied group that involved ritain along with the commonwealth nations, the Soviet Union, and USA[footnoteRef:1]. The allies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Diffen - Compare Anything. Diffen. Discern. Decide. World War I vs. World War II - Difference and Comparison -- Diffen. Accessed January 28, 2016, from http://www.diffen.com/difference/World_War_I_vs_World_War_II

"The European Theater in WWII: The Eastern Front, Western Front & Fight for North Africa." Study.com. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-european-theater-in-world-war-ii-the-eastern-front-western-front-and-fight-for-north-africa.html.

"The European Theater." World War 2 History Info. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.worldwar2history.info/Europe/.

"World War II." History Net. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii.
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Nationalism and Economic Distress the Causes of World War II

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17788746

Causes of orld ar II

orld ar II was generated by a combination of worldwide economic distress, nationalism, and ineffective attempts to stem the tide of fascism. The unsatisfactory solution of the Versailles Treaty laid the groundwork for political unrest which eventually led to another mass upheaval throughout Europe, Asia, and most of the European colonies. The failure of appeasement to contain Hitler combined with the lack of an effective international governing structure to broker an agreement due to the weakness of League of Nations further exacerbated the existing problems simmering beneath the surface.

Although all nations suffered in the wake of the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, in Germany the suffering was particularly acute. Despite then-President oodrow ilson's desire for a peace without victors after orld ar I, France insisted that Germany be heavily penalized. The Treaty of Versailles humiliated Germany by forcing it to assume responsibility for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"World War II: Causes." History on the Net. August 14, 2014.

http://www.historyonthenet.com/ww2/causes.htm (accessed December 28, 2014).
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World War II in Europe

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23478242



By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-

3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…… [Read More]

References

Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)

Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)

Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)

Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)
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Hitler as a Politician Hitler

Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90079531

This included the
annexation of Czechoslovakia. He reneged on areas in Poland which had been
ceded from German in the Versailles treaty. While Britain and the Soviet
Union were unable to come to an alliance, Germany was able to develop a non-
aggression pact with Stalin, negotiated over the partitioning of Poland.
Hitler continued to work against significant disbelief on the part of the
general European public and conquered France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg
and Belgium. Hitler took advantage of Europeans disbelief that another war
to the extent degree of World War I was possible, and certainly not
possible under the restrictions placed on Germany by the Treaty of
Versailles. Hitler's victory brought France and Italy to his side.
Hitler was unable to obtain air superiority over Britain, despite
blistering attacks on British cities. The ability of the British to hold
out against the rest of Europe was a rallying cry…… [Read More]

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Changes Brought About by World

Words: 1334 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69814484

hat we learn from this is that no mistake can be erased from history just as no reparations can completely repair damage done. Germany's inability to carry her own weight during this time of trouble only prolonged the world economy, which was badly bruised and desperately needing to be healed.

2. Democracy became the word that was whispered across the globe during the twenties and thirties. The promise of democracy proved to be easier than the act of democracy. "Democracy seemed divisive and ineffective, so one country after another adopted a more authoritarian alternative during the twenties and early thirties" (Noble 1034). However, it is impossible to squash the human sprit that longs to be free. Noble asserts, "Democracy proved hard to manage in east-central Europe party because of special economic difficulties resulting from the breakup of the Habsberg system" (Noble 1035). In addition, he notes, "The countries of east-central…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chamber, Mortimer, et al. The Western Experience. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 1979.

Chodorow, Stanley. A History of the World. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers. 1986.

Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2000.

Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.
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Weimar Republic Explaining the Successes

Words: 1166 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30719195

The result was an inflation rate that brought the value of the German mark down to virtually zero and for nine long months the country languished in a state of economic starvation, hoping for leniency from the Allies. ith none forthcoming, the present regime resigned and the new "Reich" coalition party assumed control of the government under the helm of Gustav Stresemann (127).

Germany's Return to Prominence?

The rise of Stresemann was evidence of the failure of the 1918 German Revolution. The effort lacked popular support, economic acumen or diplomatic ability. Germany in 1923 was perhaps worse off than it was in 1918. In order to begin a true rebuilding process, the new coalition first set out to stabilize the German mark.

The period of the eimar from 1924 through 1930 is seen as the "golden years" (139). In 1924 the mark had stabilized and the communist and Nazi parties…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Orlow, Dietrich. A History of Modern Germany. Prentice Hall, 5th ed. (2001).
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True Story of Ah Q

Words: 2298 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17977456



Meantime, on page 107 (Chapter 2) a good character description of Ah Q. is provided by the narrator: "There was only a single instance when anyone had ever praised him," and that happened to be when Ah Q. was actually the butt of a joke. Ah Q. was looking "scrawny and worn out" so when the old many said "That Ah Q's some worker!" It could only be interpreted as folly, irony, and even though Ah Q. was "pleased as punch" he had been set up to be the fool. as China, in Xun's estimation, also the fool, the butt of international jokes? It seems likely in a literary way.

hile his adversaries taunted him, and he kept losing his fights, he turned to giving dirty looks. And when dirty looks didn't do it for him, he tried "snappy comebacks" and that didn't work either as the villagers continued to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Xun, Lu. "Ah Q -- the Real Story." Diary of a Madman and Other Stories. Ed. William a.

Lyell. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. 101-172.

Xun, Lu. "Diary of a Madman." Diary of a Madman and Other Stories. Ed. William a. Lyell.

Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. 29-41.
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Impact of WWI

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39166867

World War I

The Causes and How America Joined the War

The events that led to the causes of the first world war had its roots in the Balkans in late July 1914 and there are causes including political, territorial, and economic conflicts among the great European powers in the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, a complex web of alliances, imperialism and nationalism were some of the other causes that led up to the First World War.

The root for the Second World War lay in the peace accords and the punishments that were meted out to the Germans after the First World War and the sense of humiliation and economic debacle following the end of the First World War.

The animosity between the Americans and the Germans started with the sinking of the Lusitania as she made her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York in…… [Read More]

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WWII Battle of Monte Cassino History Has

Words: 2237 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64322020

WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino

History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to win the war in the holy land. The problems stem from their not being able to directly attack certain Muslim holy locations or shrines even though Iraqi insurgents are constantly utilizing these positions as sanctuaries and initiation points for waging battles against the allied forces or the new Iraqi government. During World War II, the Axis powers with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi army also attempted to use similar tactics to fend off attacks by Allied forces.

This report discusses the Battle of Monte Cassino and the pros and cons of the Allied Forces' actions during World War II. A historic shrine was completely destroyed by the events of the Allied forces during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian…… [Read More]

References

Colvin, David, & Hodges, Richard (1994). Tempting providence: the bombing of Monte Cassino. History Today, Vol. 44.

Eagle19. (n.d.). The Battles for Monte Cassino and the Defense of the Gustav Line. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.eagle19.freeserve.co.uk/cassino.htm

Griess, Thomas E. (2002). The Second World War Europe and the Mediterranean. The West Point Military History Series.

Hapgood, David, & Richardson, David (1984). Monte Cassino: The Story of the Most Controversial Battle of World War II. Add City: Add Publisher.
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U S Foreign Affairs the Causes

Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43963551

Perhaps that more timely international cooperation could do better to save innocent people.

Stephanie Power covers a period from 1915 to 2001 with the increasing capacity of U.S. response to genocide. While in 1915, nothing could be done about the urkish genocide in Armenia, the U.S. role increased constantly to the ones played at the end of the 20th century in Yugoslavia and with the role in Saddam's Iraq. Perhaps such examples can help develop preemptive action towards genocide that can be acted upon in the future.

4. Between 1939 and 1941, Germany had started the war in Europe with its attack on Poland, on September 1, 1939, preceded by a series of aggressive actions such as the remilitarization of the Rhineland and the annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia. With Great Britain and France declaring war on Germany, armed conflict proceeded in Europe with the rapid German victories over Poland,…… [Read More]

The Treaty of Versailles saw the creation of the League of Nations as the organization that would attempt to guarantee world peace. Wilson, however, could not convince the U.S. Senate to join the League of Nation, mainly because the Senate saw this as a limitation of U.S. right to declare war on other countries. Lack of support and U.S. non-adherence to the organization are possibly some of the low points of Wilson's foreign policy.

On the other hand, Wilson was also active in his attempts to establish solid democracies in Latin America and towards stabilizing these countries. U.S. interventions in Mexico, Nicaragua, Haiti or Panama marked the period of WWI as well.

Cushing, Lincoln. 1997. 1898-1998 Centennial of the Spanish - American War. On the Internet at http://www.zpub.com/cpp/saw.html.Last retrieved on August 16, 2007
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Wars of the Century Major Wars of

Words: 2772 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41238277

Wars of the Century

Major Wars of the 20th Century: the Causes

The twentieth century has certainly seen its shares of horrors of killings. Internationally, an astonishing number of major and minor wars have broken down during this specific time period. All of these major and minor conflicts have certainly changed the face of our society and affected millions of people worldwide; to understand the changes undergone by our international culture and society as well as the major causes of war, it is of the utmost importance to gain a better understanding of those conflicts. The similarities in many of those worldly conflicts traceable to the twentieth century are astonishing and deeper analysis of the causes and outcomes of those conflicts certainly is necessary from a historic point-of-view. By establishing a list of the major conflicts of the twentieth century and learning more about the deep-rooted causes of those wars,…… [Read More]

References

Best, Anthony et al. (2008) International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Oxon, Routledge.

Booth, Ken and Dunne, Tim (eds) (2002) Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of the Global Order. Hampshire, Palgrave.

Chatfield, Charles and DeBenedetti, Charles (1990) An American Ordeal: the antiwar movement of the Vietnam Era. Syracuse, Syracuse University Press.

Cowley, Robert and Parker, Geoffrey (1996) The Reader's Companion to Military History. New York, Houghton Mifflin.
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Pre and Post Reactions to World War I

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58538457

orld ar I: "The Great ar"

The historical record shows that orld ar I, the "ar to End All ars," did not end war, but rather set the stage for an even greater global conflagration a generation later. This paper reviews the relevant literature to assess the relative importance of diplomacy, imperialism, and nationalism in causing the Great ar (1914-1918), as well as to identify the major players leading Europe to war. An analysis of why this "unwanted war" was greeted with such joy is followed by an assessment of whether this enthusiastic reaction to the outbreak of war was the consequence of domestic tension or simple patriotism and whether the victors' positions after the war reflect their wartime experiences. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the Great ar are presented in the conclusion.

Relative Importance of Diplomacy, Imperialism and Nationalism in Causing the Great ar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Olmsted, Kathryn S. Real Enemies: Conspiracy Theories and American Democracy, World War I to 9/11. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

"The Great War." (2015). The History Channel. Web.

"WWI Casualties and Death Tables." (2015). PBS. Web.
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Causes and Effects of World War I

Words: 1489 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10394223

1st orld ar (I) was a global scale military conflict, which erupted in 1914. Virtually, the whole of Europe was involved as well as countries and kingdoms from other regions of the globe (Strachan 9). It should however be noted that the countries that engaged in this war entered the said war at different times and joined different alliances. Essentially, the war was between two alliances - the Central Powers and the Allies. In addition to these two sides, there was a neutral group of nations that remained neutral to the war. However, some of the said groups later on started taking sides. The Allies according to Kelly consisted of Great Britain, Belgium, Ireland, Serbia, Montenegro, Russia, as well as France and they were later joined by some neutral nations including Romania, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. On the other hand, the Central Powers alliance included the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collins, F. Ross. World War One. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.

Howard, Michael. The First World War. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print.

Kelly, Martin. Top 5 Causes of World War 1. 5 January, 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.

*****. Consequences of World War I.17 march, 2005.Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
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Global Social Economic Perspectives Global

Words: 2927 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12766737



Those countries who have developed their own WMD programs and have not signed various non-proliferation agreements, highlights this hypocrisy that is existing in the international community. Where, no one is willing to force new countries that develop their own WMD programs to commit to such standards. This is problematic, because it telling the world that those countries not committing to various non-proliferation efforts, can maintain their programs (in secrecy) despite the international standard that is in place. At which point, other nations will seek to start their own WMD programs, as they see this as a double standard. Where, you are not supposed to have these weapons, yet once you do they may not apply.

When you combine this with the fact, that those countries that have not signed various international accords are also not making such disclosures to the IAEA; will more than likely be inclined to pass this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cimbala, S. (2005). Nuclear Weapons and Strategy. New York, NY: Routledge.

Gardner, H. (2007). Risks of Nuclear Proliferation. American Global Strategy and the War on Terrorism. (pp. 81 -94) Aldershot, UA: Ashgate.

Heng, Y. (2009). The Proliferation Security Initiative. Risk, Global Governance and Security. (pp. 87 -- 95). New York, NY: Routledge.

Lia, B. (2004). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Globalization and the Future of Terrorism. (pp. 39 -- 48). New York, NY: Routeledge.
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U S Foreig Policy the First

Words: 1092 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43809468



Thirdly, the approach Woodrow Wilson had put forward at the Peace Conference was based on the mutual agreement between the states of the world to avoid any military confrontation in the future. The final point which demanded for the creation of a world body to guarantee "political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike" would have implied certain equality between the parts of this Pact. The actual situation on the ground however could not have supported such a claim because the states present in Paris were split between winners and losers of the war and automatically between countries that were satisfied with the status quo the war had established and the ones that were unsatisfied with the post war situation. Part of the first category, France and ritain, as well as the U.S. tried to keep to the results the armed conflict had reached, while Russia and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994

Brigham Young University Library. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. 1996. Accessed 2 August, 2007 at  http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/1918/14points.html 

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003
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Downfall the Movie Downfall the

Words: 815 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71551458

He is simply overlooked by the other Hitler fanatics who are so caught up in the mob mentality that was so representative of Nazi Germany. ather than come to his senses, Hitler would rather scorch the earth, or enact the Demolitions of eich Territory Decree, which was the mass suicide of the German people who remained during the last few weeks of the war.

In this madness, there was a continual belief that the Germans will still win the war, despite the clear fact that the Soviet Army was already well on its way to taking Berlin.

There was not really another possible outcome, because of the social conditions and the practices of the upcoming Nazi regime within Germany at the time. The mob mentality has swept over Germany, because there were no easy solutions to the problems facing the German people. Economic hardships after World War I had caused…… [Read More]

References

Arbury, J., 2011, "Impact of Nazism on German Society," Essays, Web, http://portal.jarbury.net/essay/nazigermany.html

Hickman, Kennedy, 2012, "Effects of the Treaty of Versailles," World War II Europe: The Road to War, Web, http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Hirschbiegel, Oliver, 2004, Downfall, Constantin Film Producktion.

Hirschbiegel, Oliver, 2004, Downfall, Constantin Film Producktion.
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Lu Xun the Founding of the Chinese

Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38675318

Lu Xun

The founding of the Chinese Communist Party was preceded by an influential intellectual movement called the New Culture Movement. Usually dated between 1915 and 1919, the New Culture Movement was headed by Chen Duxiu of Beijing University, as well as Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, and Hu Shi (Ebrey; "New Culture Movement"). The New Culture Movement provided the theoretical, scholastic, and ideological underpinnings of the subsequent political movements that would come to define 20th century Chinese culture. riters like Lu Xun captured the prevailing social unrest in his unconventional novel A Madman's Diary. A Madman's Diary uses a grotesque metaphor to capture the self-destructive, primitive, outmoded, and senseless oppression of the Chinese model of feudalism. ritten during the warlord period, A Madman's Diary exposes the futility of social conformity to the Confucian value system while suggesting that the only way to evoke change is to appear as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ebrey, Patricia B. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1996. p. 270-271. Retrieved online: http://www.wellesley.edu/Chinese/Chin110/Timeline/StudentResponses/Republican/1915_new_culture_mvt.html

Lu Xun. A Madman's Diary.

"New Culture Movement." Cultural China. Retrieved online:  http://history.cultural-china.com/en/34History7207.html
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American Interventionism

Words: 1146 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73706635

U.S. FOEIGN POLICY

American Foreign Policy from 1890 to 1930

From neutrality to intervention

Early on in American history, President George Washington advised Americans not be become embroiled in foreign conflicts. However, at the end of the 19th century, it became increasingly difficult for America to remain isolated from the issues affecting its neighbors abroad. The period from 1890-1930 was characterized by a far more expansionist American foreign policy than had been the case before. Although this policy was often defended by the notion that the U.S. was making the world safe for democracy, self-interest rather than idealism was usually the real motivating force.

A good, early example of this in Latin America can be found in the form of the Spanish-American War (1898) which eventually resulted in the U.S. acquiring territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Spain's repression of the Cuban pro-independence movement combined with the sinking…… [Read More]

References

Spanish-American War. (2015). History.com. Retrieved from:

 http://www.history.com/topics/spanish-american-war 

U.S. foreign policy in Asia. (2015). KQED. Retrieved from:

 http://www.kqed.org/w/pacificlink/history/usforeignpol/
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Jury System Currently in the United States

Words: 2690 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81735329

jury system currently in the United States in terms of fairness and justice.

In the world of excellence and valid legality, the legal system would donate a genuine and wide procedure via which a defendant's inherent and conscious deliberation towards crime in the breaching of criminal laws would be pinpointed in an impartial way. Anyhow, theoretical proof provides suggestion that this genuine and impartial pattern of working is non-reaping. The U.S. legal system has been in a tumult of peaking censure currently. Any criminal legal pattern is an instrument society applies to implement the patterns of behavior required to save people and the community. It functions by intercepting, punishing, accusing, and putting to trial those individuals of the community who breach the basic guidelines of group life. The perpetration against law breaching individuals is patterned to be servile to three reasons beyond the urgent disciplinary one. It curtails intimidating individuals…… [Read More]

References

Baldassare, Mark. Regional Variations in Support of Regional Governance. Urban affairs Quarterly, Dec. 1994, pp. 45-51

Fulton, William; Glickfeld, Madelyn; McMurran, Grant and Gin, June. "A Landscape Potrait of Southern California's structure of Government and Growth." Retrieved at http://www.cp-dr.com/landscape_port/landport.html. Accessed on 12/11/2003

The Way We Elect Our Presidents." The Phyllis Schlafly Report. Volume 34, No.5, December, 2000, pp.24-28

Wayne, Stephen J. "The Multiple Influences on U.S. Foreign Policy-Making" U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda, March 2000, pp.11-16
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Evolution of Nuclear Weapons the

Words: 1648 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84477617

The development of the atomic bomb as well as its perceived success rate however made further development in chemical and biological weaponry unnecessary.

It is worth noting that biological weapons were never employed significantly in World War I and World War II. The effects of biological weapons even if crude has been pointed out by Spiers (2010) when he mentioned how Japanese surrendered in 1945 abut six of their soldiers released several plague-infested rates as well as sixty horses that were infested with the deadly glanders into the relatively quite and safer Chinese countryside. This left Changchun as well as its environs unsafe for habitation until the 1950s

Conclusion

A review of literature indicates that the United States never actively used chemical or biological weapons as part of its military operations. In its history of military development and its rise to be the world superpower. There are cases however when…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, F (F) ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Black.J (2002) America as a Military Power: From the American Revolution to the Civil War

Chambers, JW (1999)ed., The Oxford Guide to American Military History

Doughty, R., Gruber, I, Flint, R, Grimsley, M and Herring, G (1995)American Military History and the Evolution of Western Warfare. Wadsworth Publishing
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Human Rights Improve Around the

Words: 1983 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36980176

Social ideals and ethics are secondary. As such, if it were most beneficial to the State to commit genocide while conquering another nation, that would be the course of action taken. However, again thanks to increased media coverage, the world and governing bodies such as the U.N. Would not sit idly by. For this reason, this perspective is quickly becoming antiquated. Idealism, in contrast, is on the other end of the international relations spectrum.

Idealism surmises that a State's internal policies should be reflected in their foreign policies -- what they wish to occur within their boundaries is what they should support outside of their boundaries. Followers of idealism live by the Golden un -- Do unto others as you'd have them do unto you. The promotion of human rights globally would be incredibly important, from this perspective, as they too would want to enjoy the benefits of human rights…… [Read More]

References

Human rights timeline: From antiquity to the Magna Carta. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline1.cfm.

Human rights timeline: From European expansion to the Enlightenment. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline2.cfm.

Human rights timeline: From the American Revolution to Napoleon. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline3.cfm.

Human rights timeline: From the Indian Removal Act to the U.S. Sedition Act. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline4.cfm.
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International Law Consists of Customs

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99213216

S. policymakers about the international consensus on questions and issues. The U.S. thus uses international law in its foreign policy and also contributes to its formation and development. This is why it formally recognizes and respects fundamental rules and principles as guide to its foreign policy (Joyner).

However, American foreign policy has not focused very much on international law (Rivkin and Casey 2000). Since the end of the Cold War, many international organization have struggled to modify the traditional law of nations governing the relationships between States into an international regulatory code. This intended and new international law would also govern the relationship between citizens and their government. It would regulate primary domestic issues, such as environmental protection and the rights of children. It would also virtually eradicate the use of military force, avoid all civilian casualties during combat, promote the equitable criminal prosecution of individual state leaders or officials…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Joyner, Christopher C. International Law. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2002. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qx5215/is_2002/ai_n19132421

Mitchell, Paul Andrew. Citizenship is a Term of Municipal Law. Supreme Law Firm:

Supreme Law Library, 2005. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://www.supremelaw.org/rsrc/privlaw.htm

Rivkin, David. B., Jr. And Lee a. Casey. The Shoals of International Law. The National
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American Politics

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52770778

American Politics

Historically, the significance of the executive branch has increased during periods of war, crisis and economic turmoil, while the legislative branch has assumed greater responsibility during peaceful reprieves and ostensibly stable times. The relation between these two branches is complicated, but the increase of power and prestige of the president during crisis times must be approached in two ways: the president as a more efficient executive administrator of policy, and the president as symbolic leader.

The constitution provides the president with the certain powers that enhance his ability to perform in crisis situations, and, given the increased significance of the media in American politics of the last half-century, the president's role as a symbolic figure is more important than ever.

There is a generally perceived division between the executive and legislative branches: Congress is steeped in bureaucratic and intensely inefficient processes, while the president maintains the ability to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Herring, George. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam 1950-1975. New York: McGraw Hill, 1995.

Sandel, Michael Democracy's Discontent: America in Search of a Public Policy. New York: Belknap, 1998.

Tulis, Jeffrey. The Rhetorical Presidency. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
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Reconstructing the Occurrence of the WW1 and the Great Depression

Words: 1506 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61541414

World War I and the Great Depression

World War I

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria. However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question (The Balkans), and the crises before 1914. The main powers of Europe before 1914 were: (i) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882) and (ii) the Triple Entente of Britain, ussia and France (1907). In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts. Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…… [Read More]

References

Giangreco, D. M. & Griffin, R. E. (1988). Airbridge to Berlin -- The Berlin Crisis of 1948, Its Origins and Aftermath. Background on Conflict with USSR.

Hiebert, Ray, and Roselyn Hiebert. (1970). The Stock Market Crash, 1929. New York, NY: Franklin Watts.

McElvaine, R. S. (1993). The Great Depression: America, 1929-1941. New York, NY: Times Books.

Parrish, M. E. (1992). Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1941. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
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What Led to World War 2

Words: 971 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23331537

Lloyd George from England, Woodrow Wilson from the U.S., Orlando from Italy, and Clemenceau from France held a meeting in 1919 to discuss the manner through which Germany was to be made to pay for the harm that had been brought about by World War 1. According to Woodrow Wilson, an agreement founded on his 14-point plan was the most appropriate way of bringing peace to Europe. However, Georges Clemenceau wanted payback. He wanted an assurance that Germany would never attempt to begin another war. Lloyd George welcomed Wilson's idea, however, realized that the British public welcomed Clemenceau's idea. He attempted to find some compromise amidst Clemenceau and Wilson (World War Two -- Causes). Germany was anticipating an agreement founded on Wilson's 14 points, and was not pleased with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Nonetheless, they had no option but to sign the treaty.

The League of Nations…… [Read More]

References

"Causes of World War 2 - What REALLY caused WW2?" World War Two History Guide -- WW2 Battle Guide. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .

"World War Two - Causes -- HistoryOnTheNet." From Ancient Times to the 20th Century -- HistoryOnTheNet. 14 Aug 2014. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .

"World War II: Causes and Outbreak." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help.. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
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Western Civ V The Philosophes

Words: 1913 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57432668

) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.

c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?

There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source

Documents, History 100.

Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.

Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
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Bank for International Settlements Bis

Words: 3026 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75432570

From its creation to 1988 it undertook banking functions and opined generally on the international banking system.

2. Starting in 1988 it began to assume the role of an unofficial international bank regulator. Although it had no official international status, its members -- central banks of the major banking countries -- were obligated by the nature of their membership to abide by its edicts and the rest of the world took them seriously.

3. Starting in the late 1990s, it began to consider itself the equivalent of an international bank regulator. Every subject of significance was within its jurisdiction and, although its legal powers were no greater, it assumed that it had a right to make rules for local banks to observe in the conduct of their businesses.

4. Sometime in the future there is a widespread anticipation that it will be given, through some treaty mechanism, the power to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, James Calvin. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.

Birdsall, Nancy. "Whither the IMF in the Current Crisis? Invite the Big Emerging Economies to the Table." 2 October 2008. Center for Global Development. 26 February 2009 http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2008/10/whither_the_imf_in_the_current.php.

BIS. Bank for International Settlements (BIS). n.d. 25 February 2009  http://www.bis.org/about/index.htm .

Carl Felsenfeld, Genci Bilali. "The Role of the Bank for International Settlements in Shaping the World Financial System." January 2004. Social Science Research Network Electronic Library. 26 February 2009 http://ssrn.com/abstract=496022.
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Origins and Rise of National

Words: 3207 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38157807



Nevertheless, in the immediate period, due to the increasing prosperity, the Republican left started to benefit from the people's trust and this was proven as well by the elections in 1928. Moreover, the coalition formed by the German's people Party with the three Republican parties was undoubtedly considered a change. However, the situation was not to last long and one year afterwards in Germany the first signs of an economic depression have made themselves felt. As a consequence, people started to mistrust the political change they had sustained and that allowed the left-wing and right-wing radicalism to gain legitimacy, a fact which led to tensions of the parties which sustained those currents of thought on the political scene. In this situation, one of the logical measures, which later determined the appearance of Fascism, was that the Socialists, under the pressure of the fear that their sustainers would embrace Communism, became…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Felix GILBERT, The end of the European Era: 1890 to the Present," W.W. Norton Company, New York, 1981 pp. 270;

AJ.P. TAYLOR, "The origins of the Second World War," Oxford university Press, 1999, 246 pp;

Stanley G. PAINE, "Fascism. Comparison and definition', Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980;

Arthur O. LOVEJOY, "The meaning of Romanticism for the Historian of Ideas," in Franklin L. BAUMER (ed.), "Intellectual Movements in Modern European History,"New York: Macmillan, 1965;
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Nineteenth Century and the Early Part of

Words: 2023 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56366949

nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well. The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…… [Read More]

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Do Heidegger's Political Views Influence His Metaphysical Views

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66357234

Heidegger and Hitler

Proponents of Heidegger's metaphysical viewpoint are reluctant to identify a relationship between it and the opprobrious Nazi regime which Heidegger supported from 1933 to 1945. Critics of Heidegger, however, view the relationship between his metaphysics and his politics as significant. One might well ask, therefore, whether the relationship is real or only apparent -- whether the tenets of National Socialism are found in Heidegger's philosophy, or whether the fact that the two came from one man is merely a coincidence that ultimately means little.

Yet, by the formula of his own analysis (set forth in Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event), one can see that Heidegger's metaphysics cannot be separated from his politics anymore than he himself can be separated from the environment and context in which he came to maturity. But while some scholars view Heidegger's political views as having an impact on his metaphysical views,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Farias, Victor. Heidegger and Nazism. PA: Temple University Press, 1987. Print.

Gillespie, Michael Allen. Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History. IL: University

of Chicago Press, 1984. Print.

Heidegger, Martin. Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event. IN: Indiana University
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Evolution of Canada's Military

Words: 815 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3364565

Boer ar

A Discussion of how the Boer ar helped to Shape Modern Day Canada

The Boer ar was not a Canadian war. Rather, it was a war started and perpetuated British influence and Canada's participation was mandated by British dominion. As a result of their colonization, Canada had little influence over strategies or direction of the war. At the time Canada was a self-governing colony which had no control over its foreign policy. Canada's military contribution to this war was very important but it was still Britain who had control over Canada's military. However, Canada's participation in the war was as a turning point in the country's history in which its fostering of its own command over its military eventually led it on an eventual path to independence. This essay will provide a brief overview of how Canada increased its sovereignty over its forces and its importance to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

CBC. (2001). The Boer War. Retrieved from Canada - A People History:  http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP11CH2PA3LE.html 

Morton, D. (N.d.). Epilogue. Retrieved from Images of a Forgotten War:  http://www3.nfb.ca/ww1/independence.php 

The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2012). Canadian Expeditionary Force. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/canadian-expeditionary-force

The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Museum. (2010). Boer War. Retrieved from Canadian Military HIstory: http://www.lermuseum.org/en/canadas-military-history/boer-war/
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Grant and Wilson I Propose That Doing

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24623211

Grant and ilson

I propose that doing a comparison of Presidents Ulysses S. Grant and oodrow ilson would allow for a comprehensive understanding of how the leadership styles of these two men shaped the United States of America during their respective administrations. They will be compared in terms of their public and political leadership, how they functioned as Chief Executive and the leader of the Executive Branch, and how they functioned as Chief Legislator including their relationship with Congress.

Public and Political Leader:

During his initial run for office, Grant was a very popular man with the American public. He was considered a hero of the Civil ar. His accomplishments included expansion of Republicanism into the south which yielded the first elections of black Congressmen. However, his administration was marred by corruption and he has gone down in history as one of the least effective presidents politically (ilentz 2010).

Like…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Blackmon, Douglas A. (2009). Slavery by Another Name: the Re-Enslavement of Black

Americans from the Civil War to World War II. Anchor Books. 357-58.

Cooper, John (2009). Woodrow Wilson: A Biography.

Link, Arthur (1945). "The Baltimore Convention of 1912." American Historical Review. 50(4):
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Hobsbawm's Age of Extremes Eric

Words: 3076 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52350498

He writes, "The rise of the radical Right after the First World War was undoubtedly a response to the danger, indeed to the reality, of social revolution and working-class power in general, to the October revolution and Leninism in particular" (Hobsbawm 124). The right-wing backlash against labor unions was crucial in setting up the rise of those fascist leaders who would be responsible for initiating the Second World War. As such it was partially responsible for creating the conditions for violence, but also, later, for unification between anti-fascist forces to defeat them. Socialist resistance to fascism was always strong, starting out peacefully until "resistance to fascism which did not envisage the use of arms could not succeed" (Hobsbawm 152). They were not that successful and went against the Stalin's Soviet view of a symbiotic alliance between capitalism and communism against fascism. Yet paradoxically, it was the strength of communism coming…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914-1991. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.
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Weimar Republic Is Significant Not

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18609208



After the initial frustration of the reparations crisis subsided in 1923, cooler heads prevailed for a time and the Weimar Republic started to address its immediate economic problems. The Weimar solved the fiscal crisis by replacing the devalued and disreputable rentenmark with a new currency, the reischmark. (146) The Dawes Plan eased reparations anxiety by bringing in American bankers to loan Germany hard currency to support the reischmark while overseeing the payment of reparations in reischmarks. (146)

Structurally, the Weimar government encouraged free trade and sought to restore Germany's historic trade surplus by favoring the production of goods for export, which eased unemployment greatly. (149) Germany's economic recovery was also aided by loans from investors in the United States, which underwent an extended boom throughout the 1920s owing partly to the economic gains it made during Germany's wartime absence from world trade. (158) By 1929, Germany had made enough economic…… [Read More]

Conclusion

Considering the enormous challenges facing it, it is somewhat of a miracle that the Weimar Republic endured for as long as it did. However, it is not so puzzling if one recognizes that during the Weimar period, the political situation tended to reflect the economic conditions. In this sense, it is not hard to imagine a stable moderate-left coalition emerging after five more years of economic prosperity. However, considering the fragile economic foundations and persistent political threats, the Weimar had a very small margin for error, a margin exceeded for it by the Great Depression.

Orlow, Dietrich. A History of Modern Germany. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.
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Klee Paul Klee Painted Twittering

Words: 301 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30369660

During this time, film became a striking new media that represented both technological advancement and artistic expression. Film and motion pictures were in fact one of the most important technological and cultural developments in 1920s Germany. In addition to film, revolutions in the transportation and communications industries were sweeping across Europe. The advancement in automobile technology encouraged the planning and development of some of Germany's first major urban and suburban freeways.

Berlin was a socially liberal city during the early 1920s, sharing much in common with other European capitals like Paris in the tolerance for sexual expression and homosexuality. Women's suffrage and feminism were also major issues of social justice, as were labor rights. Germans during the 1920s also cultivated a fascination with the occult. Esoteric symbolism made its way into the arts as an embrace of alternative spirituality. Unfortunately, Hitler and the Nazi party distorted occult symbolism and esotericism.… [Read More]