Trial Of Socrates Essays (Examples)

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Socrates Was Not an Enemy to the

Words: 1560 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92846544

Socrates as Not an Enemy to the State

as Socrates an enemy of the state? There are two appropriate answers -- "yes" and "no." But first a definition of "enemy" is needed. In Mark Twain's short story "The Mysterious Stranger," Satan explains why there will always be war. It is because "a loud little handful" at first instigates it then, "…the great, big, dull bulk of the nation will rub its sleepy eyes and try to make out why there should be a war… [and later] statesmen… [will] blame…the nation that is attacked" -- in other words, as long as the "enemy" is identified, there will always be war. Therefore, an "enemy" is not just someone to distrust or despise, or someone who threatens the peace and safety of a community, but someone to blame. In the case of Socrates and his trial, the court apparently found Socrates to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited (In addition to Dr. Urban)

Ahbel-Rappe, Sara. Socrates: A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Continuum International

Publishing Group, 2009.

Cooper, John Madison. The Trial and Death of Socrates: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Death

Scene from Phaedo. Cambridge, MA: Hackett Publishing, 2000.
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Socrates' Speech in Plato's Apology It Is

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13534290

Socrates' speech in Plato's Apology. It is this author's opinion that Socrates' position that the unexamined life is not worth living has validity. We will see that this is the case as we examine Socrates' spontaneous oration regarding virtue and how it can not be learned. Obviously, if the lives of these youths had been virtuous, then it might have been possible for them to learn this character trait and to prove Socrates wrong. This is the case because only when someone examines their life do they shake off their bigotry and raise their awareness to a higher level.

As alluded to in the introduction, Socrates is correct that the unexamined life is not worth living. This is because only those people who struggle to resolve the contradictions in their life have an existence that is real. Those who do not are at best ignorant and at worst bigots who…… [Read More]

References

Bloom, Allan, narr. "Allan Bloom on Plato's Apology of Socrates 1 ." Mr. Allan Bloom. You Tube, 23

Feb. 2009. web. 22 Feb 2012. .

Bloom, Allan, narr.. "Allan Bloom on Plato's Apology of Socrates 2 ." Mr. Allan Bloom. You Tube, 23

Feb. 2009. web. 22 Feb 2012. .
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Socrates Trial Socrates' Defense and

Words: 1669 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8792108

As someone might say today, the lack of knowledge as a result of not willing to search for it is no excuse. How can anyone be sure to do right since the truth remains hidden? Socrates thinking was aimed at making his fellow humans who were willing to listen to him aware of the dangers of doing wrong by not being willing to question the truth or what it was known as the truth.

ne cannot help and wonder what would have happened if Socrates had accepted the jury's forgiveness in exchange for giving up his beliefs. Certainly, a life long work would have went to pieces and be destroyed. His credibility in front of his contemporary disciples, like Plato and all those who followed them would have been for ever shattered. Even if they understood his fear in front of what appears to be the most frightful opponent of…… [Read More]

One cannot help and wonder what would have happened if Socrates had accepted the jury's forgiveness in exchange for giving up his beliefs. Certainly, a life long work would have went to pieces and be destroyed. His credibility in front of his contemporary disciples, like Plato and all those who followed them would have been for ever shattered. Even if they understood his fear in front of what appears to be the most frightful opponent of mankind, death, they would have never accepted his denying everything he believed in prior to his trial. His choosing the jury's clemency would have proven that life was worth living under any circumstances, in his point-of-view. Instead, he believed in the higher power that inspired him to accept death as a gift he proffered instead of living the rest of his life not being able to search for the truth anymore. Living in the prostrating state of ignorance and being satisfied with it was not eligible choice for the man who changed the philosophic system of thought and is still inspiring the minds of those who are thirsty for knowledge and eager to find guidance, even in a mentor that died over two and a half millennia ago.

Grube, G.M.A. Cooper J.M. Plato.2000. The Trial and Death of Socrates: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Death Scene from Phaedo. Hackett Socrates. 2005. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved: mar 4, 2009. Available at   http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/socrates/  #4

Phillips, J. 1991. The Wisest of the Greeks. Retrieved: mar 4, 2009. Available at  http://human.cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp/philips/Socrates.htm
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Socrates the Main Themes of Plato's Apology

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Socrates

The main themes of Plato's Apology are the great irony of many of Socrates' claims, his use of the Socratic method of teaching, and his surprising strategy of questioning the fundamental validity of his trial itself, rather than putting on a vigorous and elegant defense of his actions as was expected by both his supporters and detractors, and likely by the people of the jury. Plato's Apology is a detailed account of the 399 BC trial of the great philosopher Socrates, in which Socrates was on trial for his life after being accused by Meletus, an ambitious young Athenian, and others of the upper class of being "a doer of evil, and corrupter of the youth, and he does not believe in the gods of the state, and has other new divinities of his own" (Plato, Apology). Ultimately, Socrates' defense led to his death, by his own hand, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato. Apology. 30 March 2004.             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
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Socrates the Charges Against Socrates

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49761916

Socrates argues that the accusation is absurd, as the accusation implies that he is solely responsible for the state of the youth. Socrates uses the allegory of a horse trainer to explain that he is a trainer, rather than corruptor, of the youth (Cavalier, "Ancient Philosophy").

Socrates' second argument in his defense is that, had harmed the youth, the philosophy that evil begets evil would dictate that the youth would harm him in turn. Being a believer in this philosophy, Socrates would be harming himself knowingly by harming the youth.

egarding the charge of impiety, Socrates argues that he is in fact a guardian of the piety of the City. He has devoted his life to understanding divinity and in service of the gods. However, being disturbed by hearing the truth from Socrates, those indicted by his very piety accused him of impiety.

All of the accusations against Socrates therefore…… [Read More]

References

Cavalier, Robert. "Ancient Philosophy."  http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80250/part2/ApologyAnalysis.html 

Plato. Apology. Retrieved from             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
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Socrates Defense What Is Socrates'

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64779866

Furthermore, many laypeople can have great stores of knowledge, and may have learned to train horses better than professionals -- and to be better teachers and philosophers, from personal experience. In fact, given that philosophy is the study of life, one could argue that ordinary people are the best teachers of the discipline. This is one of the principles of the democratic Athenian system, that everyday people can govern and teach themselves. Socrates, an advocate of philosophers 'leading' others through teaching and through government leadership in a philosopher-kingdom, stands opposed to such ideals and ideas in his teachings.

Socrates has a strong point, however, when he notes that Meletos has not lived up to Athenian democratic ideals. Rather than trying to teach Socrates the right way of thinking, and engaging in a dialogue with Socrates, Meletos brings a case against Socrates in the law-courts -- simply because he disagrees with…… [Read More]

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Socrates and the Law

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Socrates

In Plato's Crito, Socrates engages the title character in a dialogue about the nature of law, justice, and ethics. Crito wants to break Socrates out from prison, making various arguments in favor of the escape. For one, Crito tells Socrates that it is not ethical to abandon his children if he can help it. Second, Crito repeatedly refers to his own honor and ego, not wanting to be viewed as having failed his friend. Third, Crito claims that Socrates is popular abroad and that his escape would make others happy. Crito's argument is classically utilitarian in nature. The problem is, Socrates is not a utilitarian. Socrates' position is that justice is unequivocal. He has accepted his fate, and did the moment of the trial. Socrates categorically refuses to escape from prison, because doing so would represent an unjust act. Therefore, Socrates firmly believes that a citizen of the state…… [Read More]

References

Plato. Crito. Trans. Jowitt, B. Retrieved online:  http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/crito.html
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Socrates if the General Consensus

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His humility, focus on love and virtue, and selfless devotion in the face of persecution make him an example of "practicing what you preach" (Woods). He "embraced poverty" and refused to accept money for his "teachings" (Nails). Moreover, Socrates could be considered more "innocent and wide-eyed" than Jesus because he refused to believe that anyone had evil intentions, only that evil actions sprung from ignorance. He also believed that people were born virtuous, and therefore did not worry so much about the upbringing of his own sons.

Socrates had various other unusual beliefs that set him apart, and that he stuck by in deed as well as word. For example, he believed in the superiority of oral communication for accurately conveying information; as a result, he never authored any writings, leaving it to Plato and others to attest to the history of his philosophy. In addition, he was highly eccentric…… [Read More]

References

Biography Online. Biography of Socrates. 2009. 05-03 2011 .

Nails, Debra. Socrates. 2009. 05-03 2011 .

Woods, Cathal. Socrates as Philosopher. 2008. 05-03 2011 .
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Socrates Said That the Unexamined

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His view is Asian in that it mirrors the view that meaning is found by searching within, that imposing a specific doctrine is not the way to find enlightenment, and that a teacher is a guide rather than a figure of authority. Such ideas are expressed in Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, and other Asian philosophical and religious systems. Socrates takes a very self-effacing position in keeping with the way he subordinates himself to the need of society and so does not challenge the death sentence pronounced against him, nor does he escape when he can because he believes more in the right of the social order to exert its authority over him than he does in his personal welfare. The sublimation of the personal in service of the greater good is also an Asian element that Socrates expresses in his own way, and the way his followers argue with him…… [Read More]

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Socrates Plato St Augustine Kant

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76880643

For instance Plato believed that rulers should only rule based on truth and reason and that the way to best live life itself was also based on truth and reason. This is something I agree with very strongly. When it comes to the Iraq war, for example, I feel that America's current leaders decided to start the war based not on truthfulness and reason, but for baser motives, such as coercion and a desire to expand their geographical and financial power. I strongly disagree with the war and neither Socrates nor Plato would have felt the war was justified, based on their ideas of truth, reason, and (for Plato) virtue. Plato believed that truth and reason led to virtue, and that therefore people who lived good lives were truthful, reasonable and virtuous. Like Plato, I agree that living a good life must be based on a foundation of truthfulness, about…… [Read More]

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Socrates and the Apology

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Socrates and the Apology

One of the main charges against Socrates revolved around the fact that he was a natural philosopher. This was so problematic as it was in opposition with the views set forth by this early society: these views believed that the society was created via the gods and a great many narratives were developed around the idea of the gods, and what they were capable of and how they impacted the natural world and how it was viewed. Philosophy, particularly Socrates' variety of natural philosophy, was viewed as being in direct opposition to these traditional viewpoints. Another charge against Socrates was one which aligned him with the Sophists. The sophists were a group of public speakers who had uncovered certain methods of persuading others that permitted them to adopt a particular viewpoint even if that viewpoint was not the best or truest one. These individuals travelled, often…… [Read More]

References

Mit.edu (2013). The Apology. Retrieved from             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
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Plato's Apology and Socrates' Trial

Words: 3029 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90454845

To wit, in Socrates' day, there were no official government prosecutors (commonly referred to in modern America as "District Attorneys"); in effect, any citizen could bring an indictment against any other citizen, and call for a trial. And that's basically what happened to Socrates.

Here in America, in 2006, notwithstanding what Vice President Cheney said, President George . Bush stated, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me." Bush was responding to a reporter's question on August 21; Bush was asked if he believed, according to http://mediamatters.org, that the "Democrats advocating for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq 'embolden Al Qaeda types' as...Cheney similarly stated. Bush's answer was, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me... [although] leaving [Iraq] before the job would be done would be to send a signal to our troops that the sacrifices they made were not worth it...this has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, R.E. (1980). Socrates and Legal Obligation. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis

Press.

American Sociological Association. (2006). "Statement...on Creationism and Related Religious

Doctrines in U.S. Science Education." Retrieved 18 Oct. 2006 at   http://www.asanet.org  .
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Plato the Apology of Socrates the Charges

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Plato, The Apology of Socrates

The charges against Socrates, as given in Plato's Apology, are twofold. This is how Socrates himself phrases it:

And now I will try to defend myself against them: these new accusers must also have their affidavit read. What do they say? Something of this sort: - That Socrates is a doer of evil, and corrupter of the youth, and he does not believe in the gods of the state, and has other new divinities of his own. (Plato 2009).

In other words, the first charge is that Socrates has corrupted the youth of Athens, and the second charge is that of impiety towards the official gods of Athens. Socrates in his defense begins by cross-examining his accuser, Meletus. On the first charge he asks whether Meletus thinks his corruption of young minds was intentional: when Meletus says it was, Socrates notes that Meletus has never…… [Read More]

References

Plato. Apology. (B. Jowett, Trans. 2009) Retrieved from             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
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Plato a Student of Socrates

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2634172

This aspect of the work also confirmed a clear belief that Socrates held, that nothing bad could happen to a good man. Socrates believed this to be a fundamental truth and he believed that he was a good man. As such he was at peace with whatever was going to happen to him as a result of the trial. In this particular passage it is also clear that Socrates believed that death would be a better reality for him because he would not have to be uncomfortable any longer or have to deal with being misunderstood.

The third dialogue Crito involves a conversation with a loyal pupil who visits Socrates in prison the night prior to the day he died; the pupil attempted to convince him to escape the confines of the prison which had already been arranged by a group of friends (exroth, 1986).. When Crito attempts to get…… [Read More]

References

Plato. "The Trial and Death of Socrates: Four Dialogues"

Rexroth, K. (1986) Classics Revisited. New Directions: New York. Publication Year: 1986. Page Number: 51.
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Socrates Some 2500 Years Ago

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In an attempt to emphasize the extent to which finance manages ignore ethical consideration is by adhering to the following misconceptions in financial decision-making according to the author:

Ethical considerations are idiosyncratic personal views and have no place in business decision-making.

Ethical considerations are only relevant if they create risks.

Sustainability of long-term investment is safeguarded by existing financial metrics.

The most important influencing variables are, according to the author, not always those set forth by watchdog agencies, rather by other influencing factors that are more internal and not usually committed to paper policy or disclosure statements. These internal factoring decision-making regimens are as follows:

The manner in which a financial manager gathers relevant data about a prospective business.

Does the manager rely solely on financial press information or on social and environmental risk information of both?

What financial information does the financial manager request from analysts when assessing a…… [Read More]

References

Berger, Charles (August, 2004). Disclosure of Ethical Considerations in Investment Product

Disclosure Statements: A Review of Current Practice in Australia. Working Paper. Victoria, Carlton: Australian Conservation Foundation.
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Socrates vs Buddha Comparisons and

Words: 1646 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55426074



How the respective societies responded to the various ideas?

Socrates would have a dramatic impact upon society, as the various ideas he presented would become a part of the moral code that is often cited, as a part of basic sociology. A good example of this can be seen with social contract theory. This simply states that humans are motivated by conscious / unconscious actions and the experiences, they have from different events. The ideas of good and justice can be directly seen with how humans react to various situations they face, either consciously or unconsciously. The underlying positive or negative experiences will shape how someone views the world around them. Those who can associate goodness and justice, to their actions will have the most positive effect, on the individual and within society. Over the centuries, this sense moral goodness has become a part of the moral standards within Western…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Buddhism. n.d. 198 -- 199. Print.

Buddhism. n.d.. 193 -- 201.Print.

"Social Contract Theory." IEP, 2004, Web. 13 Jul. 2010

Brown, Ju. "Buddhism." China, Korea, Japan Cultures and Customs. Charleston, SC: Book Surge, 2006. 34 -- 36. Print.
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Euthyphro Socrates Euthyphro Discuss Concept Piety Holiness This

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56687407

Euthyphro, Socrates Euthyphro discuss concept piety/Holiness. This essay test ability recognize engag

The concept of holiness is central to the Platonic dialogue that takes place between Euthyphro and Socrates in Euthyphro. This topic is of immense interest to both of the aforementioned participants due to the fact that they are both headed for a legal trial. Socrates has been brought up on trial for charges that he is corrupting the youth; Euthyphro is taking his father to task for the charge of murder. Socrates is particularly concerned with the latter's trial due to the notion of piety which Euthyphro professes guides him in his work in which he will prosecute his father. Part of the accusations against Socrates involve the fact that he is acting like a "poet" (Plato, 380 B.C.E), meaning, of course, that in his teachings to the youth there is an irreverence in which he disavows current…… [Read More]

References

Koukl, G. (2002). "Euthyphro's dilemma." Stand To Reason. Retrieved from http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5236

Plato. (380 B.C.E.) Euthyphro. www.classics.mit.edu. Retrieved from    http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/euthyfro.html   

Slick, M. (1995). "What is the Euthyphro dilemma?" Christian Apologetics And Research Ministry. Retrieved from http://carm.org/euthyphro-dilemma
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Euthyphro Socrates Euthyphro Discuss Concept Piety Holiness This

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89970220

Euthyphro, Socrates Euthyphro discuss concept piety/Holiness. This essay test ability recognize engag

The principle tenet discussed in the Socratic Dialogue Euthyphro, which centers on a discussion between Euthyphro and the great Greek philosopher, is piety or holiness. This topic emerges in the dialogue because it is of immense importance to the future of both men. They meet on the porch of King Archon, and quickly ascertain that each is there for a legal trial. Socrates discloses the fact that he has been charged with corrupting the youth principally because his accuser believes he is slandering the gods by disavowing their piety or by creating new ones (which is disrespectful to the established ones). Euthyphro is there to bring his father up on charges of murder. Since he professes to be extremely well versed in the conception of piety and holiness, Socrates asks him to discuss this topic (Plato, 380 B.C.E.).…… [Read More]

References

Plato. (380 B.C.E.) Euthyphro. www.classics.mit.edu. Retrieved from    http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/euthyfro.html   

Rahimi, S. (2008). "Swinburne on the Euthyphro dilemma. Can supervenience save him?" Forum Philosophicum 13: 17-29.

Sharpe, M. (2010). "Uncovering Euthyphro's treasure: reading Plato's Euthyphro with Lacan. Helios. 37 (1): 23-48.
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Greek Philosopher Socrates Has Made

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Such a lifestyle is unrealistic and one that is not plausible for most members of society. Instead, what is necessary is a life where one acquires the social and emotional skills necessary to allow one to recognize what is morally right and then to live one's life in accordance with such recognition. This process does not require a constant introspective vigilance like the one that Socrates proposes. Most men are not philosophers like Socrates and are busy with their day-to-day lives. They do not have the time or inclination to spend their days contemplating their existence. As long as they live a good life, their lives are no less meaningful. In the end, Socrates would likely agree.

The importance of Socrates' statement is that he remained true to his beliefs to the very end. He had spent his life questioning everything including those in authority and, in the process, he…… [Read More]

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Philosophy Socrates and Oedipus A

Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95785600

He prided himself on being a king that put the needs of his people above his own, struggling to keep his own feelings under wrap and focus instead on what his people needed. This desire to help the people led him to seek a cure for the plague, which was destroying people in masses. He sent Creon to Delphi, Apollo's place of revelation, to find out what could be done to save the city. Creon was told that the state must avenge the death of the former king Laios. After doing a little sould-searching, Oedipus learns that he was the killer of Laios, who was his father.

Oedipus takes full responsibility for the crime. "Citizens and alien alike must never shelter me or speak to me," he said. "I must be shunned by all. And I myself pronounced this malediction upon myself" (Sophocles, 42).

Like Socrates, Oedipus is visited by…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grube, G. (2002). Plato, Five Dialogues. Hackett Publishing Company.

Kaufmann, Walter. (1992). Tragedy and Philosophy. Princeton University Press.

T.C. Brickhouse and N.D. Smith (1989). Socrates on Trial. Waterhouse Press.
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Socratic Argument in the Apology Socrates Is

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Socratic Argument

In the Apology, Socrates is being placed on trial by three of his rivals for different activities that he is accused of being involved in. The most notable include: corrupting the youth of Athens and not supporting the same religious beliefs as everyone else. During the trial, his enemies are utilizing these charges to demonstrate how he knowingly engaged in these actions. They are demanding that he apologize for the crimes that he committed and begin to conform to the most common practices in contemporary society. (Plato, 2000) ("The Apology," 2012) ("Analysis of the Apology," 2010)

However, Socrates uses this as a forum to ridicule these individuals, question the legitimacy of the trial and to defend himself. This is problematic, as these cavalier attitudes will eventually lead to him being found guilty and sentenced to death. To fully understand what is taking place requires carefully examining his key…… [Read More]

References

Analysis of the Apology. (2010). CMU. Retrieved from   http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/cavalier/80250/part2/ApologyAnalysis.html  

The Apology. (2012). Spark Notes. Retrieved from:  http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/apology/analysis.html 

Plato. (2000). The Trial and Death of Socrates. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing.
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What Is the Highest Good That Socrates Holds Out to His Audience in the Apology

Words: 1308 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62221229

Good Life / the Good Death:

Ideas of the Greater Good and Highest Pursuit in Plato's Death of Socrates / Apology

When Plato was still a boy, he witnessed the trial and execution of Socrates. Historians tell us that during the trial he attempted to speak out in defense of the great philosopher. "Plato mounted the platform and began: 'Though I am the youngest, men of Athens, of all who ever rose to address you' -- whereupon the judges shouted out, 'Get down! Get down!' " (Laertius) Perhaps in his youth Plato would indeed have known very little, and had no great wisdom to add to the debate. If this is true, then according to Socratic ideas he would certainly have been the best advocate of all, for Socrates' entire defense lay upon the point that the truest wisdom lay in recognizing one's ignorance, and that the ultimate truth in…… [Read More]

Bibliography.

Kalkavag, Peter. "Who Is Socrates? -- Thoughts on Plato's Apology." GB Quarterly, Winter 2000. http://arachnid.pepperdine.edu/goseweb/GBQuarterly/winter00/whoissocrates.html

Plato. Apology (Also known as The Death of Socrates) Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Project Gutenberg, 1999. http://unseelie.org/books/plato.socrates-apology

Laertius, Diogenes. "LIFE OF SOCRATES" Trans. Robert Drew Hicks. 1925. http://www.litfinder.com/search/worx.asp?R=777168374&act=A70&rothST=socrates%20apology
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Plato and Its Analysis

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Socrates and the Republic

The Republic represents Socrates' true apology, as this is the only work in which he has effectively handled the subject he was coerced into facing, following the allegations of Athens against him; the subject is his relationship with the political realm (loom, ).

The great philosopher of Athens was blamed for being unjust in his actions -- firstly, by disbelieving in the people's gods, and secondly, for corrupting Athens' youngsters. The above charges aren't merely in relation to the citizen Socrates, who is coincidentally a philosopher; rather, their intention was condemning philosophy itself, in favor of both the citizens and the politicians of Athens. From Athens' perspective, there appears to be an element in Socrates' thinking and mode of life that raises doubts regarding the gods of Athens, who were deemed as the guardians of the city's laws; this, therefore, renders the philosopher a bad resident,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bloom, Allan. THE REPUBLIC OF PLATO. Basic Books, 1991.
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Plato and the Apology Philosophy

Words: 1790 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71652917

A philosopher makes "logoi," discusses, and cross examines about virtue, is short of wisdom, and is aware of it. However, in as much as one is a philosopher, one desires wisdom and searches for it. In historical Greek, this notion is virtually a tautology, prompting Socrates to hold that the wise no longer philosophize. Socrates believes that philosophy is gathering knowledge; however, going by valid evidence, philosophy is the process of acquiring knowledge (Reeve 899).

Socrates is viewed as inventing another mission for philosophy because of the manner in which he practiced it. He thinks that he is acting in line with divine wishes. His reiteration that he is acting under divine orders qualifies him as a prophet. Divine orders are not philosophical knowledge to be debated and modified. It calls for unquestionable loyalty and demand direct honor to command. At this point, if Socrates is not a prophet then…… [Read More]

Works cited

Fagan, Patricia and Edward John. Reexamining Socrates in the Apology. Evanston:

Northwestern university press, 2009.

Plato. The apology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.

Reeve, C. Socrates in the apology: an essay on plato's apology of socrates. S.I.: Hacket
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Apology the Great Story the

Words: 1123 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51590467

Argument and law are merely art forms in the mind of Socrates and picking a side and arguing for it is much like doing a crossword puzzle or any other exercise in modeling thought patterns.

Purpose and intent mean so much more than the act itself according to Socrates. Disagreements are merely examples of rhythms in thought patterns much like music. Debate and discourse for Socrates was practiced to achieve the ultimate in knowledge: complete ignorance about the truth.

Charge 3: Disrespecting the Gods

For the Ancient Greeks, their Gods were ideals to look up to rather than actual personifications of deities. Each God played a significant role in one's make up and were parts of an individual's psychological makeup. Socrates is seen therefore disrespecting Greek culture and society's rules. This charge would be very much like today's obstruction of justice, where a very general and intentional broad application can…… [Read More]

References

Apology Paper Information Sheet. Provided by student.

Apology Background Information. Provided by student.

Plato. The Apology. Viewed 25 June 2013. Retrieved from             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
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Contemporary Inheritance of Greek Political Thought in Plato's Apology

Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34935140

Plato

It is possible to read Plato's Apology as the best extant textual representation of the legacy of Athens in the fifth century CE in law and politics. The fact is that the Athenians, although they voted to put Socrates to death, might very well agree on principle with this evaluation. The Apology is, after all, a representation of the Athenian system of trial by jury, and it is worth recalling that this judicial system was considered to be a founding myth of Athens itself. Earlier in the century, roughly a decade before Socrates was born, the tragedian Aeschylus in the Oresteia would represent the mythological and divinely-sanctioned origins of the Athenian jury trial, as a replacement for the endlessly bloody cycle of the lex talionis, when the goddess Athena invites a group of Athenian citizens to sit in judgment on Orestes, who killed his mother in revenge for her…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Plato. The Apology. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Internet Classics Archive, 2009.             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
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Myth of the Cave ' Why

Words: 2081 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42184922

Existentialism takes the human subject -- the holistic human, and the internal conditions as the basis and start of the conceptual way of explaining life. Taking idealism From Descartes, Kant, and Hegel, then building upon it, existentialist thinkers strip away the external and look at questions that surround human existence, and the conditions of that existence, rather than hypothesizing or dreaming of different forms of being. Thus, the inward philosophical emotions, angst, dread, self-doubt, self-esteem, etc. are experiences of the historical process, and the process of learning and moving through "existence" into a less fragile, more concrete, way of self-actualization. The existentialist concept of freedom is the manner in which internal values are set and interact with external historical trends. ather than humans being primarily rational, they make decisions when and if they find meaning (Solomon)

Existentialism asserts that people actually make decisions based solely on the meaning to them…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ankrom, S. "Existentialism." 27 January 2009. About.com. November 2010 .

Beiser, F. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel and 19th Century Philosophy. Cembridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Brickhouse, T. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Plato and the Trial of Socrates. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Cross, E. "Branches of Philosophy." September 2009. Elliottcross.com. November 2010 .
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Ancient European History

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Ancient European History

The image of the Greek philosopher, a man who addressed issues both of cosmic significance and of political moment, is embodied in Socrates, a man known largely by the writings about him from his students, such as Plato, and from the satire of him written by Aristophanes. The images of Socrates as presented by these two writers are quite different, with the student Plato reflecting admiration for Socrates, while Aristophanes expresses a contrary view somewhat closer to that taken by the accusers who brought Socrates to trial.

The political expression of rationalism is evident in Plato's The Apology as Socrates makes a speech to the court that is judging him. The speech depicts the conflict between the power of the state and the integrity of the individual. The court gives Socrates a way out if he recants his teachings, but he refuses. Socrates represents the primary social…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato. The Trial and Death of Socrates. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett, 1975.

Rouse, W.H.D. (tr.). Great Dialogues of Plato. New York: Signet, 1984.
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Compare and Contrast Either Utilitarianism or Libertarianism With Plato or Aristotle or the Bible

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70297314

Utilitarianism and Plato

Philosophy is an ancient process. Since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome, people have taken it upon themselves to question the reality of their worlds and to postulate what it is that causes people to behave the ways that they do. The philosophical theory of utilitarianism has gained popularity in recent years because of the way that it explains government and the need for laws and authority. However, philosophy going back to the time of Plato dealt with many of the same questions currently posed by Utilitarianism. The theory of Utilitarianism and the writings of the great Plato can be seen to differ in the following ways: in the background metaphysical understanding of the universe and humanity's place in it, the theory of human nature that each supposes, the defect in human nature that allows beings to be unhappy or unfulfilled, and in the ways the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kupperman, J. (2010). Theories of Human Nature. Hackett: Indianapolis, IN.

Mill, J.S. (2002). Utilitarianism. Hackett: Indianapolis, IN.

Plato (2009). Great Dialogues of Plato. Perfection Learning Prebound.

Plato. The Apology.
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Cyber-Citizen USA Cyber-Citizen USA the

Words: 5130 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35659370

The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.

At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.

Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke…… [Read More]

References

Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.

Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.

Ashley, Col. (S) B.K, USAF (2004). The United States Is Vulnerable to Cyberterrorism. Signal Online. Retrieved from: http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/templates/SIGNAL_Article_Template.asp?articleid=32&zoneid=10

Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 409 F.2d 718, (U.S.App. LEXIS 12867 2d Cir. N.Y., 1969).
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Death Penalty Capital Punishment Also Known as

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11168980

Death Penalty

Capital punishment, also known as the Death Penalty, is a legal penalty enacted against a person who has been found guilty, via the judicial process, of committing a capital offense. his paper seeks to briefly introduce the history of the death penalty, and introduce current thought for and against the use of the death penalty in the United States.

he earliest record of an established death penalty law is found in the Code of King Hammurabi of 18th century BC Babylon, which allowed the death penalty for 25 crimes.[footnoteRef:1] One famous ancient examples of the death penalty can be found in the rial of Socrates who was sentenced to death, by consumption of hemlock, in a Greek court. In the United Sates, the first recorded legal execution was carried out by British soldiers in 1776 against Nathan Hale, a revolutionary War Solider, who was hung for treason. Hanging…… [Read More]

The rightness or wrongness of the death penalty has been a long held civil debate. Those who favor the death penalty ultimately believe that the death penalty is justified, i.e. It offers the victims and the state retribution for the crime committed. Since the punishment fits the crime it is fair and offers victims closure and a sense of justice. In addition, many believe that it is an effective deterrent to would-be killers. The belief that capital punishment deters crime was an underlining reason that criminals were crucified by Roman soldiers or drawn and quartered by English executioners. They believed that if the punishment was horrible enough, the criminal will think twice before committing a capital offense. Opponents believe that crimes worthy of capital punishment are committed under an array of circumstances unaffected by the sentencing standard.

Those who oppose the death penalty are often motivated by humanitarian issues. No doubt the humanitarian issues that are raised are numerous. They range from the question of cruel and unusual punishment, to disproportionate death penalty demographics for poor or minority defendants. One issue of great interest for those who support a moratorium on the death penalty is the increasing recognition that the court system is fallibility. Craig Haney, Professor of Psychology at the University of California, points out the many things that can, and do in fact, go wrong in death penalty cases which, in his opinion, creates a situation where defendant are not 'death worthy.' He cites cases where death row inmates are exonerated and notes that these cases are striking to public opinion and causes a second-look at the system. However, he moves forward with a more nuanced argument that defendants who are guilty of a crime endure many judicial errors which cause them to face harsher sentence than legally necessary. He writes, "The failure to follow these minimal standards is likely to continue to produce miscarriages of justice at the penalty phase stages of capital cases, resulting in wrongful condemnations that would have resulted in life sentences had competent counsel handled them."[footnoteRef:2] [2: Craig Haney, Exoneration and Wrongful Condemnations: Expanding the Zone of Perceived Injustice in Death Penalty Cases, Golden University Law Review [Vol 37], 9/17/2006, p.172]

The debate regarding the death penalty is both somber and complex. Both sides offer compelling arguments and ask thought provoking questions: How thin is the line between retribution and revenge? How can a punishment be both a) not "cruel and unusual" and b) severe enough to be a deterrent? Is the humanity of society compromised when an innocent man is executed? Is life in prison true justice for a criminal who has committed the most horrendous crimes in society? The answers may be allusive but the search in none-the-less noble.
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Introductory Philosophy

Words: 2483 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96578881

Socrates

In Euthyphro, Socrates' questioning centers on discovering the true definition of piety -- but it is geared towards arriving at a sense of reasonable judgment (after all, he himself is about to go before the judges, and he would like to receive a judgment that is reasonable from them). hat he meets in Euthyphro is willfulness and subjectivity. Socrates attempts to show why it is important to remain objective about the law and to what extent we can judge others: in fact, it is Socrates who is searching for an objective standard -- an absolute outside himself by which he may judge: "Tell me what is the nature of this idea, and then I shall have a standard to which I may look, and by which I may measure actions" (6e). Euthyphro happily engages in the dialogue and states that "piety, then, is that which is dear to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato. "Euthyphro." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 14 May 2012.

Plato. "Apology." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 14 May 2012.

Plato. "Crito." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 14 May 2012.

Plato. "Gorgias." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 14 May 2012.
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Philosophy Isolation in Philosophical Tales

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52884703



Unfortunately, Philoctetes' talents led him down the path of war (Lloyd-Jones, 1994). He was a witness and participant to bloodshed, plunder and rape. Eventually, he became so disgusted with himself that he decided to punish himself for his sins by allowing a poisonous snake to bite him. As a result, he was shipped off to the isolated island of Lemnos, where he was physically isolated from the rest of the world for nine years. During this time, all he could do was think about his life and his crimes, which was sort of a self-punishment for his sinful existence.

I think that this type of physical isolation can be very damaging to a person. Today, many prisoners are kept in solitary confinement for days, completely cut off from all social activities and human contact. Isolation in prison means 23 hours a day in a concrete cell no larger than a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kaufmann, Walter. (1992). Tragedy and Philosophy. Princeton University Press.

T.C. Brickhouse and N.D. Smith (1989). Socrates on Trial. Waterhouse Press.

Lloyd-Jones, H. (1994). Sophocles II. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

MIND. (2007). Not Alone? Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.mind.org.uk/About%2BMind/Mind%2Bweek/isolationsummary.htm .
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Plato's Apology

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Plato's Apology

Discuss the main points of Plato's the Apology

The Apology is based upon series of speeches that were made by Socrates in 39 BC. He was standing trial for corrupting the youth of Athens by not believing in the gods of the city. This is because he would often question various ideas in order to have a greater sense of understand and enlightenment. As a result, there were several main points that he argued in his defense to include: showing his accusers as self-righteous hypocrites, he is obeying the laws of a higher power and the jury / judges was overly influenced by his opponents. ("The Apology")

In the case of showing his accusers as self-righteous hypocrites, Socrates directly questions Meletus (the primary witness) by demonstrating that they are not helping the youth of Athens with these proceedings. Instead, the trial and the charges levied against him are…… [Read More]

References

"Analysis of Plato's Apology." CMU, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012

"The Apology." Spark Notes, 2012. Web. 7 Oct. 2012

Gill, N. "What was the Charge against Socrates?"About.com, 2012. Web. 7 Oct. 2012

Plato. The Apology. Wauconda, IL: Bolchzy, 1997. Print.
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Philosophy -- Plato's The Apology The Apology

Words: 1808 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54958543

Philosophy -- Plato's "The Apology"

"The Apology" is Plato's recollection of Socrates' trial, conviction, sentencing and last words to the jury. The Apology is divided into three parts. The first part, Socrates' principal speech to the jury, is his argument against old and new accusations. The second part, Socrates' "counter-assessment," is Socrates' rebuttal of the prosecutor's recommendation of the death penalty. The third part, Socrates' final words to the jury, consists of his speeches to the jurors who voted for his conviction and to the jurors who voted for acquittal.

Socrates' Principle Speech

Socrates first takes on the people who have slandered him over the years with "lying accusations" against him: that he is "a student of all things in the sky and below the earth" (Plato, Grube, & Cooper, 2000, p. 22) which is a physicalist or atheist; that he "makes the worse argument the stronger" (Plato, Grube, &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato, Grube, G.M., & Cooper, J.M. (2000). The trial and death of Socrates, 3rd edition. Hackett Publishing Company.
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Plato's Apology

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40885879

Plato's Apology contains the story around the trial and death of the philosopher Socrates. The work has been studied by many a scholar for its information about the philosopher as well as some of the systems of Greek culture and law at the time. Socrates uses his trial to make several statements about his life, how he lived it, and how he feels about meeting his death. Hence, although Socrates' accusers reach their goal of removing Socrates from society, the philosopher does not see this as defeat. Instead, he takes pleasure in the fact that he has had a good, long life filled with adventures and connections that brought him satisfaction and joy. In Plato's Apology, one can therefore identify the basic structure of the Athenian legal system at the time, the nature and substance of the accusations against him, and his response to these in terms of relying only…… [Read More]

Reference

Navia, Luis E. (2007). Socrates: A Life Examined. New York: Prometheus Books.
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Ideal Educational Philosophy

Words: 1552 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48220479

Educational philosophy that I would most support more than anything would be one which supports the benefit of learning by doing. I believe wholeheartedly in the power of experience being the best teacher. I realize that this might mean that my students or any students might fail repeatedly before they succeed at something, but I've always believed that failure is an excellent teacher. Furthermore, learning by doing might cause students to struggle more, in grasping concepts and in trying to understand ideas, but I still believe that struggle is one of the more beneficial and instructive lessons, and that it can teach lasting and memorable lessons.

However, this will mean at times that one will have to provide students with a certain level of introduction so that they have the backbone and scaffolding to make discoveries and to learn the most meaningful lessons possible. As Locke illuminates, one of the…… [Read More]

References

Burgess, B. (2011, August 8). The Educational Theory of Socrates. Retrieved from newfoundations.com: http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Socrates.html

Goodyear, D. (2013). John Locke's Pedagogy. Retrieved from eepat.net:  http://eepat.net/doku.php?id=john_locke_s_pedagogy 

Stanford.edu. (2010, June 27). Jean Jacques Rousseau. Retrieved from Stanford.edu:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/#Edu
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Plato -- Life and Works Plato Was

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12593436

Plato -- Life and orks

Plato was born in Athens circa 425 BC, just after the onset of the Peloponnesian ar between Athens and Sparta. He lost his father at an early age, but through his mother's marriage to a friend of the leading statesman and general of Athens at the time, Plato became affiliated with some of the most influential circles of a city enjoying a Golden Age. The early historian, Diogenes Laertius states that Plato's birth name was Aristocles and that he was nicknamed Platon, which was the Greek term for "broad," which could have both referred to Plato's intellectual capacity or his forehead/stature (Diogenes Laertius). Plato was reared in the house of his step-father, learning first the works of Cratylus, Parmenides and Pythagoras, and then learning under Socrates, who was friends with Plato's uncle Charmides. Thus, the meeting between Plato and Socrates is not surprising as they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Diogenes Laertius. Life of Plato (trans R.D. Hicks). 26 Oct 2013. Web.

O'Connor, J.J., Robertson, E.F. "Plato." University of St. Andrews. 26 Oct 2013.

Web.

"Plato Biography." The European Graduate School. 26 Oct 2013. Web.
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Great Philosophers

Words: 812 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77822312

Euthyphro, Socrates meets his friend Euthyphro outside the court of justice and explains how he (Socrates) has been called there to answer charges brought by Meletus. The discussion turns to the question of piety, and Euthyphro, who is considered an educated man and wise in the field of religion, states that piety is what is loved by the gods. Socrates seeks his assistance in defining piety so he can use what he learns from Euthyphro when he goes to court. The issue throughout is whether the gods love something because it is pious, or is a thing pious because the gods love that thing? Euthyphro's original position is that whatever pleases the gods is pious, but Socrates points out that the gods often disagree on what pleases them, which makes their opinion difficult to cite for proof of piety. The two discuss the matter until they approach an answer, finding…… [Read More]

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Philosophy Gr Dialogues Plato the

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48512785

The definition of harmony of the fourth book is thus commensurate with the justice of the first book of "The Republic" -- the unity, harmony, and perfection of the ideal forms of the heavens are mirrored in a unified and harmoniously operated state, in the Platonic view as expressed by Socrates. But Socrates, as he speaks to his fellow Athenians in a law-court, making a plea for his life, is far more elementary in his definition of justice -- he argues he is not guilty of the charges of atheism and of corrupting the Athenian youth and rebuts the allegations in a fashion to suggest that it would be unjust, on the terms of the existing law, to convict him.

Likewise, the philosopher refuses to escape the confines of his prison because he argues it would be unjust of him to live in Athens under the protection of its laws,…… [Read More]

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Plato's Republic

Words: 765 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79793357

Utopia as outlined and defined in Plato's epublic. The writer examines the epublic's description of a perfect state and then applies its elements to the trial and execution of Socrates. The question becomes "Would Socrates have been tried and executed if Plato's perfect utopia state had been in place at the time?" This paper explains why Socrates would have been spared and respected had that been the case. There was one source used to complete this paper.

Before one can answer the question, "If the utopia outlined in Plato's The epublic had been in place in 399 B.C., would Socrates have been tried and executed?" one must have a clear understanding of the perfect state as described in Plato's books.

Plato's epublic works to provide society with a blueprint for a perfect and successful society. While many of its elements seem to be inconsistent with reality and daily life the…… [Read More]

Reference

Plato's Republic

Basic Books; 2nd edition (September 1, 1991)

ISBN: 0465069347
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Heraclitus With Support From Plato's Dialogues and

Words: 977 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81070767

Heraclitus with support from Plato's dialogues and eneca's Letters. It has 2 sources.

No matter what one aims at accomplishing in his or her life s/he is still bound by the universal laws that demand actions, whether voluntary or involuntarily, of every one.

Heraclitus says, "the many do not comprehend everyday things, nor do they understand them when they are taught, but they think they do and cling to their opinions." These words strongly relate to the fact that people often gain knowledge about the world for their own good and for the purpose of putting themselves in harmony with what the universal laws expect of them, but also do not manage to adhere to what they learn. Often individuals find themselves in situations where they cannot really overcome the universal desires of human beings. This refers to certain animal instincts that emerge from within even though man may attempt…… [Read More]

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Plato's and Xenophon's Works Both

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10134384



One of the points clarified in this way is then, as mentioned above, ocrates' apparent stubborn foolhardiness in refusing to refute the court's decision. Xenophon notes that ocrates found death desirable over life. This is a point that ocrates himself also addresses in Plato's work, when he considers the possibilities of life after death. ocrates appears to consider both complete annihilation and the migration of the soul as preferable to his current life: annihilation would be like a restful and dreamless sleep, while the soul's migration would result in reuniting with old friends. Both of these possibilities are highly desirable to ocrates.

Unlike Plato, Xenophon places ocrates' ideas surrounding death at the beginning of his work. This places the rest of the philosopher's actions into perspective right at the beginning of the action. In Plato's work, on the other hand, the reader only receives this revelation when ocrates reacts to…… [Read More]

Sources

Plato. Apology. Trans. By Benjamin Jowett.             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html            

Xenophon. Apology of Socrates. Trans. By H.G. Dakyns. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1171/1171-h/1171-h.htm
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Euthyphro and the Apology

Words: 994 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68783751

Euthyphro's fourth and fifth definition of holiness and Socrates criticism of them. hat is Socrates and Euthyphro's view of the gods, in contrast to Euthyphro's initial characterization of the gods at the start of their conversation? Finally relate the discussion of the fifth definition of holiness to the claim Socrates makes about the relationship to 'the god' in the Apology.

At first, over the course of his fourth definition Euthyphro advocates that he would turn in a relation of his, if that relation committed an ill act, because he would strive in all things to obey the will of the gods. Then, finally, in his fifth definition Euthyphro states that "let me simply say that piety or holiness is learning, how to please the gods in word and deed, by prayers and sacrifices. Such piety is the salvation of families and states, just as the impious, which is unpleasing to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato. "The Apology." MIT Classics Archive.             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html             [1 Mar 2005]

Plato. "Euthyphro." MIT Classics Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/euthyfro.1b.txt [1 Mar 2005]
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Philosophy Plato's Works on Euthyphro

Words: 1521 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 710226

The question arising from this claim is whether evidence exists to prove that there exists an infinitely good, powerful, and wise God where morality naturally emerges. Humes argues that is hard to imagine that an all-good, powerful God exists in this world full of pain and misery. From these claims, one can argue that this insight, or God, has both evil and good, as is present in man if man is in God's image and likeliness.

Immanuel Kant: from the Critique of Pure Reason, the Good Will and the Categorical Imperative, the Postulates of Practical Reason

Kant believes that the vigorous application of same methods of reasoning can yield to an equal development in dealing with the issues of moral philosophy. Kant proposes a list of categories of Freedom in Relation to the concept of good vs. evil. Kant uses logical distinction as the basis for the catalog. Even though…… [Read More]

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Validity of Plato's Theory of

Words: 1645 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47065819

However, many times, viewing an object in relation to other objects does indeed transcend the permanence of the meaning and create new meaning. Therefore, our knowledge of what we are convinced is real can change, which highlights the question of whether or not our original knowledge was real before it changed; or if knowledge can ever be real. Socrates posed these questions initially, pondering the ability to agree that something "is" no matter what it might eventually be or not be.

Brumbaugh thus presents the following three principles that comprise this argument:

"1. e only contact these objects through subjective images. e never perceive them directly.

2. These objects contain a number of properties that are mixed together. Any description of the object that doesn't separate out these properties cannot explain what makes the object act the way it does. For example, if all you know about [an] & #8230;…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Banach, David "Plato's Theory of Forms," St. Anslem College, Department of Philosophy, http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/dbanach/platform.htm

Brumbaugh, Robert Sherrick. Plato for the Modern Age. University Press of America, 1991

Plato, Meno, 380 B.C.E Transl. Benjamin Jowett  http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/meno.html 

Plato, Phaedrus 360 B.C.E Transl. Benjamin Jowett  http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/phaedrus.html
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Crito Is a Short Dialogue

Words: 904 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24935369

If somebody has been accused of something that is punishable whether civilly or criminally, he will do everything just to be able to surpass the trial, even resorting to escape.

Concerning the value of the law, Socrates has shown his strong standpoint about respect to its decisions. For him, if one has the ability to choose whether to obey a law, then it is a way of destroying the power of the law. He considered disobeying the law as unjust because the people and the law should go together. The law will not exist without the people and vice versa. If he will escape, then, he will disobey the law. He believed that this will bring him in a wobbly position in his life after death. Again, if we are going to read the New Testament, the duties towards state authorities is mentioned in Romans 13:1-7,

Everyone must obey state…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Beck, Sanderson (n.d.). "Confucius and Socrates: Teaching Wisdom." Retrieved November 30, 2006 at http://san.beck.org/C&S-Contents.html

Jowett, Benjamin (n.d.). "The Crito." Exploring Ancient World Cultures. Retrieved on November 30, 2006 at http://eawc.evansville.edu/anthology/crito.htm

Plato, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo" (n.d.). Retrieved on November 30, 2006 at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Aabo%3Atlg%2C0059%2C003&query=43a

The Holy Bible.
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Philosophy Rejecting the Law and

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92182588

This means that if someone has a problem with a law, there is an opportunity for that person to take action that can result in the law being changes. This is an opportunity that Socrates had. As noted, he was aware that he was disobeying moral laws. However, he also acted as if the laws did not exist and failed to recognize the reality of them. In doing so, he lost his opportunity to change them. In doing so, he also rejected the fact that he does exist as part of a larger system and ignored the fact that the laws still exist for everyone else, regardless of whether he accepts them. In considering Socrates' opinions on the laws, it seems that if he felt strongly enough to reject them, he should have felt strongly enough to take some action to change them. This is Socrates problem, where he both…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato. "Apology." In Five Dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo. Trans. G.M.A. Grube. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1981.
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Phaedo by Plato

Words: 1653 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15587406

Phaedo, a dialogue written by the famous Plato, depicts the death of Socrates. Socrates, a great philosopher, was the center focus of Plato during Socrates' final days. It was the previous dialogue of the seven that Plato penned during this period which comprised of: Theaetetus, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Statesman and Sophist. Socrates instructed Plato. After his death, Plato went on to reconstruct his dialogues. These dialogues described the principles Socrates had in respects to immortality of the soul. Phaedo, Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito are recognized as the tetralogy as they discuss the trial and subsequent demise of Socrates. Phaedo, is the longest of the tetralogy and also deliberated to have the most in depth dialogue and has become quite significant to most philosophers. In Phaedo four arguments describe how the soul can be immortal with the fourth argument presenting what most deem the most convincing and the most sound. However,…… [Read More]

References

Frede, D. (1978). The Final Proof of the Immortality of the Soul in Plato's Phaedo 102a - 107a. Phronesis: A journal for Ancient Philosophy, 23(1), 27-41.

Gallop, D. (1975). Phaedo. Oxford [Eng.: Clarendon Press.

Keyt, D. (1963). The Fallacies in Phaedo 102a-107b. Phronesis: A journal for Ancient Philosophy, 8(1), 167-172.

O'brien, D. (1967). The Last Argument of Plato's Phaedo. I. The Classical Quarterly, 17(02), 198.
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Meno and Phaedo the Role

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72813348

This then leads Plato to a consideration of how morality can be applied to reason.

The basis of morality -- or virtue -- for the philosopher is happiness. eason dictates that the greatest joy (or the highest good) is in living according to the dictates of virtue. Hence, if an individual wishes to be ultimately happy, regardless of external circumstances or emotion, will engage in moral actions. As such, both wisdom and virtue work together to attain happiness. Indeed, wisdom is therefore virtue, as it encourages the pursuit of happiness by means of moral action.

It is then the culmination of this wisdom as virtue that enables Socrates to meet his trial and death with a demeanor of calm and poise. Socrates' soul is ordered by means of his philosophy of reason and morality; his reason rules his emotions and his passions. Hence he is able to be kind and…… [Read More]

References

Kemerling, Garth. Plato: Immortality and the Forms. 2002. Retrieved from:  http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2f.htm 

Plato. Meno, Transl. By Benjamin Jowett. Retrieved from  http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/meno.html 

Plato. Phaedo, Transl. By Benjamin Jowett. Retrieved from  http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/phaedo.html 

Weiss, Roslyn. Virtue in the Cave: Moral Inquiry in Plato's Meno. Oxford University Press, 2001.
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Meno and Phaedo

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5727422

Meno & Phaedo

Eternal Souls

One of the most important components of Plato's dialogue known as Meno was the elucidation of the concept of the theory of recollection. This theory is so eminent within this work partly due to the fact that Socrates would refer to this notion, and to others that were engendered due to thought and study on related to this subject, in subsequent dialogues, the likes of which include Phaedo.

The crux of Plato's argument about recollection and its importance in the discussion of virtue is that the soul has actually been bestowed with all of the knowledge that it will ever attain before a person is born. Therefore, all someone has to do to access this knowledge is to recall that which he or she already knows about the subject by gently prodding it out of him or her. The following quotation explicates this concept rather…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nails, Debra. "Socrates." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2010. Web http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2010/entries/socrates.
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Science v Society the Politics

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28472548

The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.

hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story behind the Global Warming Scam." http://www.kusi.com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742.html

"Gore's Grave New World." http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world.html

Henderson, Mark. "Why Global Warming is Not Natural." http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article516179.ece

Oreskes, Naomis. "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
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Idealism the Teacher Smiles Full of Joy

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87845400

Idealism

The teacher smiles, full of joy at the opportunity to teach. As an idealist, he or she embodies the optimal instructor, hearkening to the model of the ancients like Socrates. Classics of philosophy and literature form the basis of the teacher's educational philosophy. Educated at one of the best universities in the nation if not the world, the idealist educator uses his or her educational credentials to pass on wisdom to new and younger students. Serving through example, the educational idealist teaches in the vein of the ancient wisdom philosophies.

Classics, such as the texts of ancient Greece, Rome, India, and China, serve as the fundamental models for teaching. The teacher is at once an authoritarian figure and a friend: one who is hip to the current social norms but also strictly versed in the classics. ith one foot in the world of progressivism and the other in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dolhenty, Jonathan. (2003). "Philosophy of Education: An Example of Applied Philosophy." The Radical Academy. Online at .

'Idealism, Philosophy, Terms And Concepts." (2003). AllRefer.com. Online at .

Kurtus, Ron (2001). "Philosophies of Education." Online at .
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Philosopher Graphic Organizer Philosopher Plato

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33691202

Additionally, Aristotle furthered the field of educational philosophy by creating subjects and a logical inquiry process, insisting that education be moral or ethical, and defining it as intertwined with politics to such a great extent that the best and most necessary education is a state-sponsored education (Chambliss 2008).

Influence Toward My Educational Philosophy:

Practically, Aristotle's creation of subjects and his primitive research, which set the foundation for further research, influenced my educational philosophy by insisting the importance of a pragmatic education and establishing the tools for that education -- research. Aristotle's contribution, therefore, shaped my understanding of the purpose of education -- a means toward intellectual inquiry. Furthermore, Aristotle's combination of ethics with morality and politics has shaped the teacher's oath stating that he or she should do no harm, in addition to contributing to what I understand as the goal of education -- to further the goodwill of human…… [Read More]

References

Chambilss, J.J. (2008). Aristotle: Education for a Common End. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from State University.com's Education Encyclopedia

Web Site:  http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1763/Aristotle-384-322-B-C-E.html 

Dillon, Ariel. (2004). Education in Plato's Republic. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from Santa Clara University

Web Site: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/dillon/education_plato_republic.html
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Oresteia Story as Trilogy of Events Written

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23456101

Oresteia story, as trilogy of events written by Aeschylus, revolves around revenge.

In the first sequel, Agamemnon, Clytemnestra murders both her husband Agamemnon and his concubine, Cassandra, a priestess of the Greek god, Apollo. Cassandra had received prophecy of her imminent murder as well as future events that will befall the House of Atreus, but she had been restrained by Apollo from publicizing her vision since she had rejected his advances. Aegisthus's cousin and Clytemnestra's adulterer now assumes the throne with the chorus reminding the audience that avenge will soon ensue. In sequel two, The Libation Bearers, Agamemnon's children Electra and Orestes kill Clytemnestra to avenge the death of their father. He flees the palace with the Furies, deities that avenge patricide and matricide, chasing him and the Chorus informing us that the cycle of revenge will continue.

In the final sequal, The Eumenides, the ghost of Clytemnestra pushes the…… [Read More]

References

Collard, Christopher. Introduction to and translation of Oresteia. Oxford University Press, 2002.

King James Version Old Testament. Nashville, TN: World Bible Society, 1983.
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Socratic Method Dialogue Tony Hi

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65412891

What about being in love, for example? The feeling you have for a girl could override everything else and make you blind to her mistakes, right? Or what about the love of a parent? My mom's not blind to my mistakes, but she forgives me for them because she's my mother.

Tony: You're making this really difficult, aren't you?

Mark: I guess friendship is really difficult to define. Can you think of other definitions to apply to friendship?

Tony: Let me think. What about understanding and support? Surely you get these nowhere as deeply or as often as in friendship. A friend would support you in whatever you're going through. A friend would understand all of your moods and share all your good and bad times. There is no better support than a friend, is there? Take for example the thing with Gary. I'm providing you with understanding and support,…… [Read More]

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Apology Plato Retells What Took

Words: 869 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13743440

In short, Socrates saw the elimination of ignorance as the first step that would lead people to become virtuous. As a result, he created a technique for testing knowledge by argument and questioning that became known as "the Socratic method."

asically, through an ironic mockery of words, Socrates mocks everyone present by mocking himself. He was the wisest man, he says, because he was the only one who understood he did not know anything. No one else would admit his ignorance. In terms of corrupting the youth, how could that be? It is absurd to say that only he was the only corruptor. This implied that everyone else supported the youth. Yet, just as there were few horse trainers, so there were few in the position to actually train the youth. Contrary to what Meletus stated, Socrates said that he was one of those trainers. Further, if Socrates voluntarily harmed…… [Read More]

Basically, through an ironic mockery of words, Socrates mocks everyone present by mocking himself. He was the wisest man, he says, because he was the only one who understood he did not know anything. No one else would admit his ignorance. In terms of corrupting the youth, how could that be? It is absurd to say that only he was the only corruptor. This implied that everyone else supported the youth. Yet, just as there were few horse trainers, so there were few in the position to actually train the youth. Contrary to what Meletus stated, Socrates said that he was one of those trainers. Further, if Socrates voluntarily harmed the youth, then since evil leads to evil, they would harm him, and no rational person voluntarily harms himself. However, if he harmed the youth involuntarily, then he had to be educated, not punished. Likewise, he turned the words around when talking about the gods. He said to Meletus: You say expressly that I believe in daemonic affairs, therefore in daemons; but daemons are a sort of gods, or the offspring of gods. Therefore, you cannot possibly believe that I do not believe in gods..."

The irony that Plato stated in the Apology was that these leaders of Athens who said they believed in free speech actually sentenced and killed a man for free speech. Unfortunately, two millennia later, there are many places in this world where one does not have the freedom to say what he or she believes. America is one of the most democratic countries in the world. Yet, people do not often take advantage of the ability of free speech. For example, by not being involved and critical about what is right and wrong about this country, especially with the presidential election coming up (regardless of who they support), citizens are failing to follow the full potential and, as a result, contributing to the diminution of democracy. It is everyone's right and duty to speak out for what he or she believes is best for the country. Otherwise, there is the possibility of one day losing the democracy that is at hand. Socrates was stating loud and clear that a strong civic life and growing democracy requires the active involvement of many people across society.

Plato. The Apology. Retrieved April 15, 2008.             http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
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Violence in Plato Euthyphro

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2581770

Violence in Plato: The Euthyphro

In the dialogue of the Euthyphro, Plato depicts an exchange between the titular young, aristocratic man who has decided to turn his father in for manslaughter and the Greek philosopher Socrates. According to Euthyphro, his father left a slave in a ditch to die when the slave was accused of killing another slave, causing the slave to die of exposure. Euthyphro defends his actions as pious while Socrates reacts with incredulity. This suggests that although the primary impetus of the dialogue is a condemnation of impious actions, Plato does not give much weight to the violent death of the slave. Euthyphro is portrayed as ignorant because he cannot come up with an acceptable definition of piety to Socrates and little regard is given to the death of the slave which prompted the drama to take place. Violence (or anti-violence) is not the primary preoccupation of…… [Read More]

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Rhetorical Theory

Words: 2889 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3958178

Plato: Life, Philosophies, And Influence

Time Period Plato Lived in.

Plato was born in 428 BC and grew up in a time of major political change in Ancient Greece. The Peloponnesian ar began a few years after he was born and continued until he was twenty. Plato would have been liable to serve in the military after 407 BC and it is thought that he probably served in the final years of the war (Luce 94).

During the final years of the war, open disloyalty to democracy grew. This led to a period where the group known as the Thirty Tyrants ruled Athens. This group included two of Plato's relatives, Critias and Charmides. hile Plato was tied to the group through family, it is believed that he was against their beliefs and actions. These actions included confiscating goods from wealthy citizens and putting many individuals to death (Irwin 85). At…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Appiah, A. Necessary Questions: An Introduction to Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.

Irwin, T. A History of Western Philosophy: Classical Thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Luce, J.V. An Introduction to Greek Philosophy. London: Thomas and Hudson, 1992.

Plato." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Retrieved October 23, 2002. URL: http://www.bartleby.com/65/pl/Plato.html
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What Is the Riddle of the Meno

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99536611

Meno

There is a saying that everything in Western philosophy stems from Plato, since his writings set a foundation for all the philosophers to follow. In fact, there are those who believe that he is the greatest philosopher of all times -- even surpassing Socrates. One of the finest works of Plato is called the Dialogues. This set of writings was completed after Plato experienced the courtroom trial and death of his mentor and teacher Socrates. In the Dialogues, the protagonist is always Socrates who quizzes others about the basic concepts of morals and politics. Plato's goal appears, many times, to try and confuse and trip people up with the questions in order to demonstrate the complexity and power of his mentor's work. A prime example of these Dialogues is called Meno, which includes the Riddle or Paradox of Meno.

Plato's Dialogues usually are separated into three chronological groups. The…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Magill, Frank. (Ed). Philosophy, Vol. 1. New York, Salem Press, 1961.
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Art of Classical Antiquity in the Ancient

Words: 1563 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18582454

Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]

References

Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop

"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online:  http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm 

"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html

"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
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Dwellings Body Home City The

Words: 1824 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73452688

If they can change the fundamental beliefs of the tribe, then they can control the natives more easily: "The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceably with his religion. e were amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart" (Achebe 152). Confronted with change, individual members of Ibo society react differently. Those who stand to gain from change -- the outcasts, the oppressed -- welcome it. Those who have risen to positions of authority by following the old way -- Okonkwo, for example -- resist change. The battle between the old and the new is highlighted by the arrival of Christian missionaries and colonial authority. Okonkwo and Obierika recognize that many of their clansmen…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Anchor, 1994.

2. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Dover Publications, 1990.

3. Plato. "Apology." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.

4. Plato. "Crito." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.
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Religion Discuss the Death of

Words: 2000 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89134144



This difference may be in part to the fact that many philosophies that coalesced into Greek philosophy saw God or (in some cases the Gods) as tricksters that played with the living, creating havoc and destruction for enjoyment and entertainment. The God of the Greeks was watching us all play, much as if her were attending a theater, but as the defacto director he has the power to play with the actors, restaging them to do either good or evil, depending on his whim. While the God of religion is here to guide, protect and punish us for our own actions within the confines of free will, a gift he has given us to allow us to choose the right.

The similarities between the two conceptions of God sort of end with the fact that both assume that he exists, and beyond that they vary extremely in the Greek tradition…… [Read More]

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Plato Was Born to an

Words: 1913 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40478973

They do not occupy space. Nevertheless, although the Form of a circle has never been seen -- -indeed, could never be seen -- -mathematicians and others do in fact know what a circle is. That they can define a circle is evidence that they know what it is. For Plato, therefore, the Form "circularity" exists, but not in the physical world of space and time. It exists as a changeless object in the world of Forms or Ideas, which can be known only by reason."

Forms have greater reality than objects in the physical world both because of their perfection and stability and because they are models of reality (Vincent, 2005). Circularity, squareness, and triangularity are all good examples of what Plato meant by Forms. An object in the physical world may be called a circle or a square or a triangle only to the extent that it resembles the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Field, G. (1956). The philosophy of Plato. Oxford.

Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. (1996). Plato. Grolier Interactive, Inc.

Harris, William. (2000). Plato: Mathematician or Mystic? Middlebury College.

J.O. Urmson and Jonathan Ree, (1991). The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers. London: Unman Hyman.
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Technology and Society

Words: 1396 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15414289

Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Consequently, for much of human history they have been viewed as being analogous avenues to gaining knowledge of the world, merely attacked from different directions; science must eventually prove with reason what is already accepted upon faith. However, a number of scientific observations and interpretations have come into direct conflict with established doctrines of the western, Christian Church. These scientific theories have caused many to question the validity of their faith, and many others to question the validity of science. Usually, the conflicts originate from formalized interpretations of Christianity rather than upon the fundamental basis of faith. In other words, science can neither prove nor disprove the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1995.

2. Cahn, Steven M. Classics of Western Philosophy: Fifth Edition. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999.

3. McClellan, James E., III and Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History: an Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Robert Frost Poems Stopping by

Words: 2878 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18310667

One study published in the American Psychiatric Association found that "PTSD has been shown to predict poor health not only in veterans of the 1991 Gulf ar but also in veterans of orld ar II and the Korean ar. Our study extends these findings in a group of active duty soldiers returning from recent combat deployment to Iraq, confirming the strong association between PTSD and the indicators of physical health independent of physical injury" (Hoge, Terhakopian, Castro, Messer & Engel, 2007). From this study one can certainly glean that PTSD has a somatic component to it, or at least there is a prevalence in which persons afflicted with PTSD also suffer from physical health problems. One can also assume that the somatic component was downplayed or overlooked in prior studies, as most treatments for PTSD do not seem to address the physical aspect of the disorder.

To elaborate on this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cooper, M. (2008). The Facts are Friendly. Therapy Today.net. Retrieved from http://www.therapytoday.net/article/15/8/categories/

Frost, R. (1923). Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening. New Hampshire. Retrieved from  http://www.ketzle.com/frost/snowyeve.htm .

Gelso, C., Fretz, B. (2001). Counseling Psychology Second Edition. Orlando, FL:

Harcourt, Inc.
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Constructivism Is an Important Learning

Words: 1992 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59271883

(rier, 1992)

Constructivism in all forms faces many obstacles and hurdles in getting fair application in the classroom of schools today for many reasons. One reason is that when constructivism is applied properly and fully to a classroom environment, the teacher may find him or herself in the "backseat" while the students steer the direction of the learning process. It removes much of the inherent hierarchal power of the teacher vs. The student in the classroom. Students are allowed a very high degree of autonomy. There is a strong tendency in our society to subordinate children and to keep children submissive to the dominant adult figures in their lives, and within the school it is completely unheard of to treat students as equals to the teachers. This is due to the belief of both teachers and parents that children are not equal to adults. The rationalist myth of "cold reason"…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brier, S. (1992): "Information and consciousness: A critique of the mechanistic concept of information," in Vol.1, no. 2/3 pp. 71-94 of "Cybernetics & Human Knowing." Aalborg, Denmark.

Dougiamas, M. (1998) "A Journey into Constructivism." Accessed Jan 21, 2004 at http://dougiamas.com/writing/constructivism.html

Glasersfeld, E.V., (1992) "Aspects of Radical Constructivism and its Educational Recommendations." Scientific Reasoning research Institute. Presented at ICMe-7, Working Group #4, Quebec. Accessed Jan 21, 2004 at http://www.umass.edu/srri/vonGlasersfeld/onlinePapers/html/195.html

Glasersfeld, E.V. (1992) "Why I Consider Myself a Cybernetician" CYBERNETICS & HUMAN KNOWING. A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics, Vol. 1 no. 1. Accessed Jan 21, 2004 from: www.flec.kvl.dk/sbr/Cyber/cybernetics/vol1/v1-1evg.htm
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Eye Opening Experience the Rime

Words: 1842 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50528583

Apart from taking an authoritative role in the Symposium, many people consider her to be behind the doubts of her existence. She passes her wisdom to Socrates who in turn passes it to his many friends. She distinguishes the difference that existed between good and beautiful in the context of love. She emphasizes the significance of the object of love even in beauty and birth.

Duchess of Malfi by John Webster

The story presents a penetration of the surface of the anarchy of life that does not guarantee a divine moral pattern. Instead, the outcome is a cycle of terror. The Duchess are yet to conquer the horror to realize spiritual victory. My first encounters with the book Duchess of Malfi was through the course CL/EN2051: English Literature Before 1800. The Duchess of Malfi takes place during the 16th Century at the Duchess' palace in Italy. Ferdinand and the Cardinal…… [Read More]

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Gorgias Encomium of Helen in the English

Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90839705

Gorgias, Encomium of Helen

In the English language in the twenty-first century, the term "sophistry" still exists to refer to a plausible-sounding but misleading argument, an evaluatively negative term to describe bad reasoning. Although the term derives from the original Sophists in Athens in the 5th century BCE, the modern usage of the term is inaccurate in describing the likes of the Sophist Gorgias. By examining Gorgias' "Encomium of Helen" and the related "dissoi logoi" fragment (sometimes attributed to Protagoras) we can see the real origins of sophistry in legal argumentation. In a society -- like that of Athens, or like most of the contemporary world -- that believes in jury trials as a means of obtaining justice, a work like Gorgias' "Encomium of Helen" represents the idea that even the most unlikely candidates deserve a good defense.

Athenian sophists like Gorgias were basically teachers of rhetoric. Because Plato frequently…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anonymous. "Dissoi Logoi." An Introduction to Classical Rhetoric: Essential Readings. Ed. James D. Williams. West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 54. Print.

Gorgias. "The Encomium of Helen." An Introduction to Classical Rhetoric: Essential Readings. Ed. James D. Williams. West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 64-66. Print.
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Rise of the Internet Has

Words: 14838 Length: 54 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12867971

Appoximately one in six students enolled in a college o univesity, o ove 3 million individuals, paticipated in one o moe online couse in 2004. This was despite the fact that a leveling off was expected.

Anothe epot fo 2005 by Sloan showed that 850,000 moe students took distance couses in the fall this yea than 2004, an incease of nealy 40%. Once again the slowing o leveling did not come. Many seconday schools ae putting consideable esouces towad online leaning, in expectation that this appoach will be moe economical than taditional classes and also expanding thei each.

In addition, a suvey by the consulting and eseach fim Eduventues found 50% of the consumes who planned to enoll in a highe education pogam stated they would instead like to take some of thei couses online. About 80% of online students ae undegaduates, but ae nomally olde and moe apt to…… [Read More]

references when there is a contingency change. The relative response strength is changed by differential reinforcement of alternative courses of action. It is then that behaviors change. It is possible to conclude that adult students' observations about educational technology will change when the contingencies toward participation are strengthened. The clientele of higher education, its students, now enroll in college with expectations of learning about and to learn with technology (Green 1999).

How students deal with change and their ability to accept it has much to do with their observed satisfaction of the course that implements the most up-to-date technologies.

Merriam and Caffarella (1991) say that the more that is known about adult learners and the changes they go through and how these changes motivate and interact with learning, the better educators will be able to develop learning experiences that respond and stimulate development. This is an essential factor in adult learning and requires additional research regarding the implications for quality educational programs. This present research acknowledges the influence of the adult learners' attitudes and observations toward change. However, so that the emphasis remains on learning styles, no data will be collected to measure change in attitudes and perspectives.

Tools for Measuring Distance Education Courses

It is essential that there is an evaluation of educational curricula to determine what is and is not efficient in relationship to learning style. Technological courses have altered the evaluation process due to the additional factors of equipment, cost and knowledge of using technology. It is critical to keep in mind, however, that educators control technology, since technology is only one of many different tools. Technology is easy to assess; one knows immediately if an software does not work. It is necessary for instructors to spend more time considering the educational experience that they want to create and what is not working properly in terms of education results. Are students interested and engaged? Are they communicating with one another? Do they find the information challenging and productive? Are they receiving enough feedback from the instructor? Ultimately, an effective evaluation tool will help the teacher recognize if the conditions for quality learning are present or need improving and that the instructors and students feel their use of technology was considerably helpful.
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Education and the Teacher-Learner Relationship From a

Words: 2523 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87176749

education and the teacher-learner relationship from a Christian-informed philosophical perspective. It begins with an explanation of the author's personal worldview, and then explores the various philosophical schools of education. Combining the two, the author explains how they have helped shape the author's approach to education. ather than relying on a single educational philosophy, the author intends to combine multiple philosophies in the classroom environment.

Describing the purpose of education is an interesting prospect because education is a cultural construct, and, as a result, what constitutes an education is dependent upon the surrounding culture. In a broad sense, an education is the instruction and learning that a person receives, in both formal and informal environments, which is aimed at preparing that person to live as an adult within the surrounding culture. When one views education as a means of adapting the individual to adult life in his or her own culture,…… [Read More]

References

Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, Th., & Brok, P. den. (2002). Teacher experience and the teacher-

student relationship in the classroom environment. In S.C. Goh & M.S. Khine (Eds.),

Studies in educational learning environments: an international perspective

(pp.73-99). Singapore: World Scientific.
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Karl Popper Is Arguably One of the

Words: 2263 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29453729

Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science (Thorton, n.d.). He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist. The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…… [Read More]

References:

Chaffee, J. (2012). The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas (4th ed.).

London, Greater London: Pearson.

Ormerod, R.J. (2009). The History and Ideas of Critical Rationalism: The Philosophy of Karl

Popper and Its Implications for OR. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 2009(60), 441-460.
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Problem With Modern Curricular Philosophy

Words: 4534 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94876598

History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development

The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…… [Read More]

References

Adrian, J. (1999). Mere or More?: Classical Rhetoric and Today's Classroom.

University of North Carolina SITES, 131: 11-21.

Aquinas, T. (1942). Summa Theologica. [Fathers of the English Dominican Province

Trans.]. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/FP/FP068.html