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Features of the Triangular Trade:
The Triangular Trade is a slavery route that derived its name from the three triangular paths that were used to receive slaves and formed the shape of a triangle. This trade occurred during the transatlantic slave trade and developed from the long trade journeys taken by various European sailors. The Triangular Trade involved a huge range of people in addition to the sailors who used various ships and travelled along various paths. This trade was characterized by three different stages or phases that proved to be lucrative for many merchants. The three different phases act as the main features of the Triangular Trade as explained below.
The first phase of the triangular trade was characterized by the transportation of various manufactured products from Europe to Africa. Some of these manufactured products that substituted for African slaves included spirit, beads, cloth, metal items, cowrie shells, and…
Adas, M (1998), 'Imperialism and Colonialism in Comparative Perspective,' The International
History Review, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 253, viewed 29 February 2012,
Boddy-Evans, A (n.d.), The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade -- A Review of the Triangular Trade,
million Africans were abducted forcibly from West Africa alone and enslaved (Centre for lack & African Arts & Civilisation, 2002, 1). This paper endeavours to explore the "impact of the slave trade on West Africa." The historical injustices of the slave trade have undeniably affected West Africa detrimentally in the political, economic and social arenas. The gravity of such a negative impact is what leaders of nations historically involved in the slave trade are discussing as they determine what reparations can be made to the victims of this inhumane practice.
efore embarking on the political, economic and social fallout of the slave trade on West Africa, it is important to give a brief description of this blight in history. From the middle of the 15th century, the Portuguese initiated the slave trade. They were followed by the Spaniards, and at a lengthier period (1562) by the ritish. Then in rapid…
Akinjogbin, (1967) Dahomey and its Neighbours, 1708-1818. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
The Anti-Slavery Society (2002) "West African Slave Trade." www.anti-slaverysociety.addr.com
BBC News (August 6, 1999) "West Africa's Child Slave Trade." www.news.bbc.co.uk
Center for Black & African Arts & Civilization (2002) "Slave Trade in Africa." www.cbaac.org
Life had not been easy for the prisoners that survived, as they had been taken over and prepared for their lives as slaves. The operation of preparation had been called "seasoning" and it involved a sort of training process which would make blacks good slaves for the American world.
The main African centers had been found in Senegambia, Sierra-Leone, Oyo, Dahomey, and Benin. The trip from inland towards the ports in which the European awaited for the slaves had also been unforgiving for the prisoners. Captives would have to travel for hundreds of miles while they were tied up in order to prevent them from running away. Many of them died on their way towards the ports.
The time it took for ships to get from Africa to America varied between forty days and six months. The conditions onboard ships had been horrible and prisoners had been packed by ship…
Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harold. "The Africa-American Odyssey." Prentice Hall, 2005.
Doudou Diene. "From Chains to Bonds: The Slave Trade Revisited." Books/UNESCO, 2001.
Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harold. "The Africa-American Odyssey." Prentice Hall, 2005.
Harmony to Holocaust
The Portuguese reached the Gold Coast of Africa in 1439. At first, they were impressed with the culture they found. As they worked their way down the coast "[t]hey found people of varying cultures. Some lived in towns ruled by kings with nobility and courtiers very much like the medieval societies they left behind them." (Obadina). Many years later, a visitor from Holland was equally impressed and records his impressions of Benin City in 1600: "As you enter it, the town appears very great. You go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam... The houses in this town stand in good order, one close and even with the other, as the houses in Holland stand..." (qtd. In Obadina). Clearly, at this early stage, the Europeans had a fairly positive view of the…
Beard, Oscar L. "Did We Sell Each Other Into Slavery." Hartford-Hwp.com Web Site.
24 May 1999. 5 May 2003. http://www.hargord-hwp.com/archives/30/145.html.
Hooker, Richard. "The Forest Kingdoms." Washington State University Web Site. 6
June 1999 5 May 2003. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CIVAFRCA/FOREST.htm
Slavery has existed since the beginning history, and references can be found throughout the Old Testament and other ancient writings from around the globe. Slaves were often the spoils of wars and battles for the victors, and usually were a different ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from those who enslaved them (Slavery pp). In the majority of cases, intermarriage, granting of liberty, and the right to buy one's own freedom have caused slave and slave-owning populations to merge throughout the world (Slavery pp). Slavery is almost always practiced for the purpose of securing labor and in the strictest sense, slaves have no rights (Slavery pp). The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised," thus, a slave is someone who cannot leave an owner, master, overseer, controller,…
Niger: IRIN -- Focus on Slavery.
http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=17957& ; SelectRegion=West_Africa
Obadina, Tunde. "Slave trade: a root of contemporary African Crisis."
Thus, the ideas of mercantilism contributed directly to colonialism and a host of colonial wars and conflicts. No mercantilist state was averse to expanding into the markets of any other nation. ather the goal was to contain as much of the production and trade within one's own borders. War was a natural consequence of each nation attempting to control as much of a finite supply of wealth as it possibly could. The nation that most successfully exploited these policies became naturally the most powerful. Spain with its huge resources of gold and silver failed in the control and production of other resources. France failed to maintain control over the territories necessary for production. Holland lacked sufficient native resources to establish effective control over enough territories to fully ground a mercantilist empire. Great Britain succeeded because it followed the mercantilist credo and was able to take control over each stage of…
(1999). 4: Colonies, Enterprises, and Wealth: The Economies of Europe and the Wider World in the Seventeenth Century. In Early Modern Europe: An Oxford History, Cameron, E. (Ed.) (pp. 137-170). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ekelund, R.B., & Tollison, R.D. (1997). Politicized Economies: Monarchy, Monopoly, and Mercantilism. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
Inikori, J.E. & Engerman, S.L. (Eds.). (1992). The Atlantic Slave Trade Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Magnusson, L. (1994). Mercantilism: The Shaping of an Economic Language. New York: Routledge.
forced labor and slavery develop in tropical colonies? How was slavery in the Americas different from slavery in earlier societies?
Forced labor in the tropical colonies was created to support the production of 'cash crops' such as sugar cane. The harvesting of these crops was hard, back-breaking work. "Sugar was far more difficult work than cultivating cotton, tobacco, or rice. So many slaves died within a few years of their arrival in the sugar islands, sometimes only months, that a steady fresh supply was always needed" (Davis 2012). Only slavery could provide an efficient means to render such crops profitable. "Before long, British and French plantations in the West Indies began to dominate. British west coast ports such as Bristol and Liverpool thrived on the sugar cane industry and refineries and packaging factories were set up" (Sugar cane and the slave trade, 2012, Plant Cultures). The slave trade was called…
Davis, Ronald. "Slavery in America." [8 Jun 2012]
Sugar cane and the slave trade. Plant Cultures. [8 Jun 2012]
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…
Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolina: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10
"Nat Turner's Rebellion," Africans in America, PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html
Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers.
Cullen, Joseph P. "Bacon's Rebellion," American History Illustrated, Dec 1968, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p.4
Brauer, J.C. (1954). The Nature of English Puritanism: Three Interpretations." Church History. 23 (2): 99-108.
Coon, D. (1976). Eliza Lucas Pinckney and the eintroduction of Indigo Culture in South Carolina. The Journal of Southern History. 42 (1): 61-76.
Daniels, B.C. (1991). "Did the Puritans Have Fun? Leisure, ecreation, and the Concept of Fun in Early New England." Journal of American Studies. 25 (1) 7-22.
Governors of Massachussettes. (1768). "Massachusetts Circular Letter to the Colonial Legislatures." Yale University's Avalon Project. etrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/mass_circ_let_1768.asp
Judgments and Decrees National Archives, ecords of District Courts of the United States, ecord Group 21. (1773). "Dowry Gift of Slaves: Ann Taylor vs. Thomas Hart Jr.." The National Archives Documented ights. etrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/documented-rights/exhibit/section1/detail/dowry-gift-transcript.html
Lambert, F. "I Saw the Book Talk': Slave eadings of the First Great Awakening." The Journal of Negro History Vol. 77, No. 4 (Autumn, 1992), pp. 185-198. etrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3031473?uid=3739600&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=47699031113437
Brauer, J.C. (1954). The Nature of English Puritanism: Three Interpretations." Church History. 23 (2): 99-108.
Coon, D. (1976). Eliza Lucas Pinckney and the Reintroduction of Indigo Culture in South Carolina. The Journal of Southern History. 42 (1): 61-76.
Daniels, B.C. (1991). "Did the Puritans Have Fun? Leisure, Recreation, and the Concept of Fun in Early New England." Journal of American Studies. 25 (1) 7-22.
Governors of Massachussettes. (1768). "Massachusetts Circular Letter to the Colonial Legislatures." Yale University's Avalon Project. Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/mass_circ_let_1768.asp
Just War" Theory
The idea of a 'just war' is a conundrum. How can one group of people consider their actions 'right' or 'just' to apply military force against an another group. When can one group's actions, which will create devastation, economic difficulty, and death to thousands of people, be considered 'right?' In a civilized society, the concept of a 'just war' has become the centerpiece of many discussions, and has acted as a gate keeper, restraining hawkish tendencies of nations who pride themselves in freedom, and individual liberty. In order for a nation to engage in an activity which creates harm for another group, there must be a justifiable reason.
Just-war theory deals with the justification of how wars are fought, and attempts to give answers for why. Often the justification is based in either theoretical (ethical arguments) or in long standing historical hostilities between peoples. The theoretical aspect…
Arner, L. History Lessons from the End of Time: Gower and the English Rising of 1381. CLIO, Vol. 31, 2002
Augustine, The City of God (New York: Random House, 1950), Books 1, 3, and 4.
Holy Bible, King James Editions. Philadephia: WW Kirkbride and Co.1969.
Mosely, Alex. Just War Theory. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 30 March 2004. Website: http://www.iep.utm.edu/j/justwar.htm
mandatory attached reading material cite reading material sources. Please 200 words answer 1) How EU address interest royalty payments made companies member states? 2) What main principles EU Directive? 3) What a "beneficial owner" OECD's Article's 10, 11, & 12? 4) Describe a triangular transaction EU exemptions prove helpful a situation.
How does the EU address interest and royalty payments made between associated companies of different member states?
One of the critical aims of EU statutes regarding interest and royalty payments is to avoid potentially crippling double taxation. To ensure this, a resident of one member state (state A) who receives interest income from a source based in another state (state B) is exempt from taxation from state B. (Module 10: Sources of Investment Income 2). In general, "interest will be deemed to arise in the country of residence of the payer unless the debt on which the interest arises…
Council directive. (2003). EU. Retrieved:
De Bie, Erik. (2011). Successive supplies of goods -- which transaction is VAT exempted?
The Association of Corporate Counsel. Retrieved:
However, the population was not self-sustaining and therefore depended on a continual influx of new laborers (p. 2). The result was to dramatically alter the world's demographic features, and not only those of the Americas and Africa. The plantation complex was also an offshoot of feudalism; its structure resembled medieval feudal societies in which a land-owning master exerted authority over his subjects but who was at the same time subject to his own political master. Finally, Curtin shows how the creation of highly specialized goods transformed the global market system, encouraging or even forcing nations from all corners of the globe to participate in a massive network of trading. In the early days of the plantation complex, Europeans used silver mined in South America to purchase goods from India which were in turn used to purchase slaves in Africa; those slaves were imported as property to the plantations in the…
They were not informed of the reason for the code. They were asked "(a) How similar do you think this person is to you? (1 _ not at all similar to 11 _ very similar) and (b) How much do you think this person will like you? (1 _ not at all to 11 _ very much)" and other like preliminary questions to see if subliminal likes were noticed and present (Jones, p. 672).
Students were then asked to remember their "partner's" code number and dismissed.
First, the birthday-association manipulation was modestly associated with anticipated liking, _ _.15, t (107) _ 1.64, p _.10. Second, a multiple regression analysis showed that anticipated liking did predict partner liking, even after controlling for birthday association, _ _.61, t (107) _ 8.23, p _.001. Finally, the same regression analysis showed that the birthday-association effect was eliminated after controlling for anticipated liking, _ _.04,…
Berg, J.H. And McQuinn, R.D. (1986). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 50, No. 5.
Fry, R. (1999). Biology of love. The Health Report. 6 Sep 1999. The effect of love on the chemical state of our brains. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s49793.htm.
Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. www.biopsychiatry.comAbstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.
Geher, G. (2005). Motivational underpinnings of romantic partner perceptions: Psychological and physiological evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 22, No. 2, 255-281.
State Domination and Financial Markets
The Chinese government has characterized its involvement in economic development as "serving rather than supervising the private economy" since 2008 (Xinhua, 2009). ith this shift in focus a number of changes to Chinese management can be expected. The paternalistic approach will remain, as it is part of Chinese culture, but there will be further estern influences, particularly with respect to the desire outcomes of management behavior.
In their efforts to serve business, the Chinese government will inevitably work harder to attract foreign investment and to allow business to set the terms by which they can seek investors. This will shift the desired outcomes of management behavior towards those sought by a wider range of investors, both domestic and foreign. Asia Aluminum provides an example of this, as foreign investor outcry over the bond scandal forced the company to consider other options. Management at that point…
Gang, Fan. (2005). China is a Private Sector Economy. Business Week. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948478.htm
Zhu, Cherrie Jiuhua. (2005). Human Resource Management in China. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=mOBwfLzp7boC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=china+management+economic+reform&source=bl&ots=NRJMQ-pIY-&sig=rIgeR5smWqFufALsTdK5P8AHZxY&hl=en&ei=uHktSuLtHo6fsgb2m6meDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10
Green, Stephen. (2003). 'Two-thirds privatization': How China's listed companies are -- finally -- privatizing. Royal Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://se1.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=ISN&fileid=0C55BCE1-85E3-F567-3F79-E6B47296364E&lng=en
Foley, John & Beales, Richard. (2009). A Hard Lesson for Foreign Investors in China. New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/02/business/worldbusiness/02iht-views03.1.20523651.html
Opium Can Be Described as "a Cancer" In Afghanistan
In 2014, an estimated 224,000 hectares (or between 200,000 and 250,500 hectares) of land in Afghanistan was utilized for cultivation of opium poppy -- a 7% increase from the previous year. Also, as per 2014 estimates, 98% of all opium farms in the country were found in Eastern (9%), Western (22%) and Southern (67%) Afghanistan. Southern Afghanistan's opium farms were concentrated in the provinces of Kandahar, Day Kundi, Zabul, Hilmand, and Uruzgan; Western Afghanistan's farms were concentrated in the provinces of Badghis, Nimroz, Farah, and Hirat; and Eastern Afghanistan's opium farms were concentrated in the provinces of Laghman, Kapisa, Nangarhar, and Kunar. The aforementioned provinces are the most vulnerable, with high to extreme security risk, according to the UNDSS (United Nations Department of Safety and Security). Furthermore, they are also largely inaccessible to non-government organizations and the UN. Day Kundi represents…
AHMED, A. (FEB. 15, 2016). Tasked with Combating Opium, Afghan Officials Profit from It. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/16/world/asia/afghanistan-opium-heroin-taliban-helmand.html?_r=0 on 5 March 2016
Azami, D. (26 February 2013). Why Afghanistan may never eradicate opium. BBC World Service. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-21548230 on 5 March 2016
Buddenberg, D. & Ruttig, T. (11 January 2016). On the Cultural History of Opium -- and how poppy came to Afghanistan, Afghanistan Analysts Network (AAN). Retrieved from https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/on-the-cultural-history-of-opium-and-how-poppy-came-to-afghanistan / on 5 March 2016
CHELALA, C. (MAR 1, 2013). Opinion: Afghanistan's legacy of child opium addiction. The Japan Times. Retrieved from http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2013/03/01/commentary/world-commentary/afghanistans-legacy-of-child-opium-addiction/#.VtsHc1R96M9 on 5 March 2016
Slavery pattern in North America took a funny trend since initially the blacks had some social positions and had a voice in the running of the community. his however later changed and the North also started to own slaves at a higher rate. here are several factors that led to this change in events in the north that made it to fancy slavery just as much as the South was with its plantations.
It is worth noting the background of the slavery trend in order to fully comprehend the drastic shift in slavery from the class servitude to racial slavery which was predominantly in the late 17th century and early 18th century. he black laborers and white laborers from the working class used to work on the same level and the Europeans used to be allowed to have slaves from the non-Christians population regardless of the color. he class determined…
The Emancipation Proclamation was a categorical document that sought to spell out the status of the U.S.A. As concerns slavery. It was to declare the people who had hitherto been held as slaves, free and forever would remain free and be protected by the executive and the military and the naval authority of the U.S.A., as well as being granted the freedom and not suppressed just like any other American who was not a slave there before. It however had the exemption states in the south where the slaves were not immediately emancipated but the proclamation was a beginning to the quest for the freedom of the slaves.
The South and their leaders believed that each state had a right just like the nation to manage its domestic affairs without external influence and one of these is the issue of slavery, that each state must be given the chance to decide whether slavery is good for their state or not, actually he advocated for the autonomy of each state to decide their internal matters independently without external influences, (National Park Service, (2007).
4. From the early colonial period to the Civil War, enslaved people -- who were descended from many African nationalities and ethnicities -- managed to construct a broadly common culture and ethnic identity of their own. Explain how they did this, what cultural resources they drew on, and what the main forms of this culture were. Evaluate the importance of the emergence of African-American culture under slavery to the history of African-Americans and to the U.S.
Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.
It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…
This as an important moment in the history of the Cold War because it marked the start of a new series of talks between the Palestinians and the Israeli side. This moment also proved the importance of the State Secretary in relation to the issues of foreign policy and the international community.
At this moment, some of the most important cabinets in the executive concern issues such as internal affairs and job security. These are essential portfolios from the perspective of internal and external factors. The homeland security refers in particular to aspects which take place inside the borders of the U.S. And tackle the threats that are visible on the U.S. territory. There are several departments inside the Homeland Security portfolio. These concern issues of counterterrorism, border security, immigration, or cybersecurity
. Counterterrorism measures are crucial at this moment, especially given the national security advisory which changed to orange…
Department of Homeland Security. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
Department of Homeland Security. Counterterrorism. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/files/counterterrorism.shtm
Department of Labor. On the Recovery Act. 2009. Accessed from http://www.dol.gov/recovery/
Department of Defense. Travels with Gates. 2010. Accessed from http://www.defense.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Another reason why corporations choose to hold cash balances in a centralized repository is that the variety of accounts can be better managed as a mutual fund more complex investment structure than would be the case if the subsidiary alone managed the funds. A greater quality of information is available for example in the leading financial centers globally that would otherwise not be the case in more remote regions, making it possible to make more informed and correct decisions (Mitsos, 1997). The accuracy, efficiency and speed of decision-making based on more efficient use of information has led to more advanced forms of cash management than would have been the case on a per-subsidiary level (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Lastly, by having a centralized depository of cash for all subsidiaries, firms can hold less accumulated total cash, freeing up financial resources for other investments (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Companies become more efficient at…
Elliott, Graham, & Bewley, Ronald. (1994). The transmission of monetary policy: The relationship between centralized depositories and Monetary policy. Economic Record, 70(208), 19.
Fresard, L., & Salva, C.. (2010). The value of excess cash and corporate governance: Evidence from U.S. cross-listings. Journal of Financial Economics, 98(2), 359.
Hill, C.W.L. (2011). International business: Competing in the global marketplace (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Nicholas Mitsos. (1997, November). Virtual Group Treasury. TMA Journal, 17(6), 24-30.
The emergence of non-commercial still photography, in the form of an art is comparatively recent that may probably be dated from the 1930s. Just as poets use similar language as journalists, lawyers and curators, in the same manner, the ordinary realism of photography, including the medium of mug shots and real-estate ads, can be the material of visual poetry. In this context, the American photographer alker Evans was among the first to identify this potential (Masters of Photography).
In the 1930s, alker Evans contribution in the development of American documentary photography was significant. His each succeeding generation of photographers was greatly influenced by his precisely & comprehensive, frontal portrayal of people and artifacts of American life (Masters of Photography).
He abandoned his early ambitions of writing and painting and turned to photography, and as a result he reached at a dry, reasonable and modest style of photography that…
Masters of Photography: Walker Evans. Articles. www.masters-of-photography.com
Capa, Cornell. Walker Evans. The International Center of Photography. Encyclopedia of Photography
Cosmo Polis. Walker Evans. Biography & Exhibition.
A www.cosmopolis.ch.No. 8, July 2000.
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
The machines were used to create vertical and horizontal movements which had not been done before. In other words, a god could be pictured using the machine as floating down onto the stage, or boats moving across it. Night or dawn could appear, or ghosts (Lawrenson 92). Most of these machine-plays were produced at the Theatre du Marais. There is a difference here, too. The French machine plays reached the public, whereas the English masques of the early century were performed mainly for royalty. Certainly the stage sets for court ballets and opera were more elaborate and special than the public designs since they were subsidized by the royal coffers.
Both English and French theatre took over the new Italian techniques for changing scenery. The French theatre abandoned triangular prisms used in conjunction with painted backdrops. At the beginning, these were painted simultaneously and dropped over or pulled back to…
These initiatives are especially important now because unemployment remains high in the Northern Territory today (Mohatt, 1994), and a lack of educational and employment opportunities has resulted in a paucity of a skilled workforce by mainstream social standards that has contributed to an increased incidence in criminal activity throughout the region (Smith, 2001). According to one authority, "The notion of economic barriers such as job ceilings does not necessarily create disincentives toward schooling or create folk theories which make for ambivalence. Where subsistence living and mixed cash economies form a central part of people's lives, then these so-called economic barriers to school success are much less a factor in school failure in places such as the Northern Territories of Australia" (Mohatt, 1994 p. 183). Nevertheless, the Northern Territory has much to offer domestic and foreign visitors alike today, providing them with a unique glimpse into what is essentially another world…
Baker, R. (1999). Land Is Life: From Bush to Town the Story of the Yanyuwa People. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Chatelard, G. (2003). Conflicts of interest over the Wadi Rum Reserve: Were they avoidable? A socio-political critique. Nomadic Peoples, 7(1), 138.
Cowlishaw, G. (1999). Rednecks, eggheads, and blackfellas: A study of racial power and intimacy in Australia. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Hall, D., & Richards, G. (2000). Tourism and sustainable community development. London: Routledge.
66). St. Justinus' was influenced by St. Caster at Coblenz and churches Michaelstadt and Seligenstadt (Fegusson & Spiers p. 220). The columns and roofs are of cultural interest and the massive Gothic choir and its original seating still exist.
St. Justinus' has undergone changes over the years. In 1298 the relics of St. Justinus' were transferred to the mother church St. Margaret who in turn dedicated the church. In 1419 the Antoniter order made numerous altercations to the church including the building of the gothic chancel. In the early 18th century the church added an organ that is mostly intact today (The American Organist). In the 1930s and the 1980s St. Justinus' underwent restoration; today the church belongs to the parish of St. Josef in the Frankfurt district of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg (aedekers Frankfurt).
4. Krak des Chevaliers, Syria (AD 1144 -- 1250) -- 950…
Albright, W.F. (1936), "Archaeological Exploration and Excavation in Palestine and Syria, 1935," American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 40 (1): 154 -- 167
Baedekers Frankford: a city guide series. Prentice Hall Press, 1987. Print.
Bennett, M. The Hutchinson dictionary of ancient and medieval warfare. Chicago, Il: Helicon Publishing, 1998. Print.
Billings, Malcolm. The Crusades: Five Centuries of Holy Wars. New York: Sterling
The project site for the twin towers consists of approximately 200,000 square meters, an area that also includes low-level retail and parking podium areas (Poulos & Davids 2005). Like the Burj Dubai (Poulos & Bunce 2008), the foundation system for each of the towers in the Emirates Twin Towers complex buildings consists of a piled raft, founded on deep deposits of calcareous soils and rocks (Poulos & Davids 2005).
Based on what was determined to be relatively good conditions near the ground surface, a piled raft system was identified as being most suitable for the foundation of each tower based on the series of analyses conducted by the foundation project engineers (Poulos & Davids 2005). In each case, project engineers evaluated 18 different load combinations to assess loading as follows:
1. One loading set for the ultimate dead and live loading only;
2. Four groups of 4 loading sets for…
'Dubai Spire: The Mantle of the World's Tallest Building Will Soon Pass to the Burj Dubai, Now
Rising Up over the Gulf.' (2008, October). The Architectural Review, vol. 224, no. 1340,
Elsheshtawy, Y. (2004). Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaleidoscope in a Globalizing World. New York: Routledge.
Histories of the Pacific
The real Pacific is not a static place as the Pacifics of the mind tend to be; and nor are the peoples who have acted upon it and within it the simple ciphers of exploiter and victim, powerless and powerful that some depictions would suggest. Nor can straightforward interpretations of linear progress towards "civilization" suffice, with their emphasis on great events as stepping-stones in the march towards modernity -- what one historian of Hawaii has called "narratives that chronicle Hawaiian history after Western great men reached Hawai'i's shores, foregrounding events and actors that, to Western observers, marked the evolution of Hawaii from primitiveness to progressing civilization" (uck, 13). The key to avoiding such caricatures is in understanding the significance of the act of representation: "Native and stranger each possessed the other in their interpretations of the other" (Dening, 281). The events and encounters that have played…
Bennett, Will, "Hidden Painting Debunks Myth of Captain Cook's Death in Hawaii," Daily Telegraph (London), 13 July 2004, at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml
Bligh, William, A Voyage to the South Sea, Undertaken by Command of His Majesty, for the Purpose of Conveying the Bread-Fruit Tree to the West Indies, in His Majesty's Ship The Bounty (London, 1792), in George Mackaness (ed.), A Book of The Bounty (New York: Dutton, 1952).
Buck, Elizabeth, Paradise Remade: the Politics of Culture and History in Hawai'i (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1993).
House music also influenced the development of b-boying, or breakdancing, which took house dance moves and made them more aggressive. Close physical posture and movement without physical contact in b-boying can be seen in capoeira. Like capoeira, house dance styles varied by region. For instance, in Chicago and Detroit, jacking was a major element of house dance. Jacking was a dance move that focused on torso movements and created a rippling effect, and the dance known as "The Farmer" also originated in this type of house music (Mirani). Jacking was influenced by the heavier sounds of techno and acid music. On the East Coast, house music was highly influenced by hip-hop music. Dance moves that originated on the East Coast include "Loose Legs," the "Train," skating, and Jamaican skanking (Mirani). On the est Coast, house music was more commercial and dance moves were influenced by b-boys.
In addition to the…
Brown, James. "Shared Characteristics of Music & Dance: Capoeira and Dance Music." Prezi.
20 April 2013. Web. 26 April 2013.
"Capoeira Instruments." Capoeira World. Web. 26 April 2013.
"History of Capoeira." 1999. Web. 26 April 2013, from http://www.capoeira.htmlplanet.com/
Sine, Cosine, And Tangent
When using trigonometric functions, the three sides of a right triangle (opposite, adjacent and hypotenuse) are identified in relation to a chosen angle. The trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and tangent) are then defined in relation to the three sides of the right triangle.
The word "sine" comes from the Latin word "sinus," which means a bend or gulf, or the bosom of a garment. (Gelfand) The term was used as a translation for the Arabic word "jayb," the word for a sine that also meant the bosom of a garment, and which in turn comes from the Sanskrit word "jiva," which translates to bowstring.
Originally the word "sine" was applied to the line segment CD on a figure, which meant it was half the chord of twice the angle AO. A sine resembles a bowstring in this regard. The ratio of the sine CD to the…
Moyer, Robert. Schaum's Outline of Trigonometry. McGraw-Hill Trade, 1998.
Kay, David. Trigonometry (Cliffs Quick Review). John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
Gelfand, Israel. Trigonometry. Springer Verland, 2001.
History of Trigonometry: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Mathematics/Trigonometry/history/History%20.html
Northwest Passage- 1492-1600 when Europeans encountered the new world
After the Portuguese and Spanish took control of the South's sea pathways, the English and French began seeking a northwestern route to Asia. However, by the 17th century, they lost hope of ever making their way across North America's northern part after many generations of sailors failed to find a way. Nevertheless, early 15th and 16th century explorations and colonization increased knowledge regarding the world by a significant amount. Cornelius Wytfliet, the cartographer from Flanders created a world map that continued to depict the mythical "Straits of Anian" -- a province in China connecting the Atlantic and the legendary Northwest Passage, which finds mention in the edition of traveler, Marco Polo's work dated 1559. European powers' endeavors to make their homes in the Americas succeeded, ultimately, in the 17th century, when the English and the French successfully contested the…
Concepcion Saenz-Cambra. (2012). The Atlantic World, 1492 -- 1600. Concepcion.
David W. Galenson. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis. Economic History Association, 1-26.
weli, R. v. (2008). Slave Trading and Slavery in the Dutch Colonial Empi. In Rik van weli. New West Indian Guide.