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deadly disadvantages involved when contemplating dismantling all TSA employees and technologies -- scanners and other personally meddlesome tools -- and going exclusively with air marshals. This paper points to the several obvious disadvantages involved with simply cutting TSA out of the picture entirely and allowing passengers to board planes without carefully screening them -- in the belief that since terrorists will know there are air marshals aboard every plane they won't try to hijack commercial airliners.
The First Disadvantage to Removing TSA from Airports
Millimeter ave ScansIn the first place removing TSA entirely as a bold move to protect privacy -- and going entirely with air marshals -- is not a solution, it's a knee-jerk reaction. Removing TSA from responsibility for airport security would be politically, socially, and ethically risky. Meantime, as of July 2013, the TSA has already removed the "virtual strip search" technologies "backscatters" from most airports (Ahlers,…
Ahlers, M.M. (2013). TSA removing 'virtual strip search' body scanners. CNN. Retrieved
June 16, 2014, from http://www.cnn.com .
Hilkevitch, J. (2012). O'Hare to get less intrusive body scanner. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 16, 2014, from http://articles.chicagotribune.com .
Tawfeeq, M., Basil, Y., Fantz, A., and Morgenstein, M. (2014). Terrifying execution images
Integrating the ransportation Security Administration's (SA) newly proposed full-body scanners with its vast information systems certainly presents a difficult and arduous task. Without doubt, the extensive scrutiny of airline passengers does have its benefits, though this process also comes with some significant disadvantages. Many controversies have recently arisen involving personal privacy and health issues. While the technology is certainly innovative, the risks associated with it need to be effectively managed in order for its implementation to be successful.
he historical background surrounding the United States' implementation of full-body imaging originated from the call for increased SA intervention as a result of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (Weisblott, 2011). However, the first plans for such devices began much earlier and the original model for this technology was actually developed in 1992 by engineer Dr. Steven Smith (Smith, 2009). Although, many subsequent developments and copyright transfers have since…
Tessler, J. (2009). Airport Full-body Scanners have Benefits, and Limits. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The Denver Post: http://www.denverpost.com/nationalpolitics/ci_14097796
Transportation Security Administration. (2010). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www.tsa.gov/what_we_do/layers/secureflight/faqs.shtm
Weisblott, M. (2011). Are Full-body Scanners at Canadian Airports Really Just a Marketing Stunt? Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://ca.news.yahoo.com/blogs/dailybrew/full-body-scanners-canadian-airports-really-just-marketing-20110117-113012-227.html
Aviation Security after 911
In recent times, airport and aviation security have become an important aspect of aviation industry. Significant changes in airport and aviation security have been witnessed after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Notable changes include new airport security procedures, implementation of advanced screening and scanning technologies. New airport security measures include arrival of passengers two hours before their flight if traveling in domestic flight and random screening of luggage. Such measures had been introduced in order to promote aviation security in order to prevent terrorist activities. Advanced screening and security were needed to combat the threat of terrorism and therefore, to avert such attacks, transportation security agency was formed during the Bush administration. The goal of aviation security is to provide maximum security and safety to air passengers and employees, to capture terrorists and to ensure that 9/11 attacks do not occur again. The goal of this paper…
DiLascio, Tracey M., Points-of-View: Airport Security & Body Scanners, 2010.
Nicholson, William C., ed. Homeland Security Law and Policy (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher). 2005.
Seidenstat, Paul. "Terrorism, Airport Security, and the Private Sector," Review of Policy Research, 21(3), 275 -- 292. 2010.
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, when members of al-Qaeda hijacked passenger planes and flew them into various targets in the United States, the Transportation Security Administration has aggressively expanded its surveillance and security operation, to the chagrin of privacy activists and much of the general public. This expanded surveillance has taken the form of a more aggressive No-Fly list, new scanners, and an increased use of full-body pat-downs. Although as of yet no lawsuit has successfully challenged the TSA's expanded surveillance powers, the fact remains that these powers appear to violate reasonable standards of personal privacy, if not personal privacy laws themselves. When examining the variety of procedures and devices put in place following the attacks of September 11th (and others), passenger claims of inappropriate searches, and the legislation behind some of these expanded powers, it becomes clear that the TSA has likely violated individuals' privacy…
Daly, E. (2010). Personal autonomy in the travel panopticon. Ethics and Information
Technology, 12(2), 97-108.
Democracy Now. (2012, March 28). Lawsuit seeks halt to tsa's use of full-body scanners at airports amid safety concerns. Retrieved from http://www.democracynow.org/2012/3/28/lawsuit_seeks_halt_to_tsas_use '
Johnstone, R.W. (2007). Not safe enough: Fixing transportation security. Issues in Science and Technology, 23(2), 51-60.
Is TS crossing the boundaries of merican Civil Liberties
Transportation Security dministration (TS) is the agency of U.S. Department of Homeland Security, consisting of 50,000 security officers, inspectors, directors, air marshals and managers that cater to the nation's transportation system protection (Transportation Security dministration). Their job is to oversee the Nation's travelling public's security, by striving towards making all modes of transportation safe. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the recent policies laid down by TS, how effective the past policies of the agency have proven to be and debate upon the negative and positive impacts they have had over the merican nation. Further discussion will be due on its compliance with the merican Civil Liberties Laws and whether any past or current policies laid down have crossed the limits laid down by these laws with comparison based on the timeframes discussed.
fter a series of terrorist…
Another major policy that TSA implemented is TSA VIPR's Program (Visual Intermodel Prevention and Response). This program involved teams of Federal Air Marshals, Surface Transportation Security Inspectors, Transportation Security Officers, Behavior Detection Officers and Explosive Detection Canine teams screening every individual on train stations, airports and bus stations. The measure was a complete violation of the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution that states that the government cannot carry out any sort of search without any probable/solid reason (Stanley, 2011). The policy crosses the boundaries of ACLU terms laid down.
The current measure introduced by TSA is TSA Pre-check Program. Pre-check / Trusted Traveler Program is an expedited screening program where travelers eligible for this screening (Global Entry/GE, NEXUS, SENTRI members, Delta Skymiles and American Advantage frequent flyer program members (U.S. Department of Homeland Security)) would need to provide nine digit Trusted Traveler Member number (PASS ID) when booking for travelling. A complete detail of the program will be a part of this thesis. The one important claim that comes out of the analysis of this program is that this security measure is running in the right direction, with no violation against ACLU principles. TSA Pre-check has expanded in numerous airports of the nation and this pre-screening process has been successful so far.
Moreover, the transition of TSA towards less invasive silhouette outline body scanner images instead of SPOT and VIPR has been appreciated due to the fact that these scanners are millimeter wave body scanners which replace the nude images of bodies with just generic outlines of the human form
TSA Ethical Lapses at Airports
TSA is undoubtedly one of the most crucial jobs in the world and needs a lot of expertise to carry out. There is an implication of associated ethical aspect with the job, which is a very crucial aspect. This paper takes into consideration, the ethical function of this job and discusses, several facts associated with it.
Competitiveness is involved in almost every industry nowadays, and this making every industry tougher to survive in. Airlines industry has seen a lot of boom in the past few years (Miller). In such a competitive industry, it is however very important to survive with ethics and ethical implications. Every airline company has a set of rules which are laid, keeping in mind the ethical implications, which is for the wider benefit of the society (Miller). Ethical value is included in just about every industry these days, and this making…
Miller, Y. (2010, February 2). Airline Ethics. Retrieved January 17, 2015, from
Mehmood, S., Shoaib, S., Aslam, A., & Shah, M. (n.d.). Ethical issues arising from Full Body Scanners at airports. Retrieved January 17, 2015, from
" (Grigg, 19) That Muslim passengers trigger these bouts of anxiety is unfortunate. The panic that is current many years after 9/11 shows that the terrorists have succeeded in terrorizing the society.
Legally search and security ought to be non-discriminatory and legal for which amendments have to be made in the law. Facility to cause an absolute search of people and cargo must be present at airports and there must be training to the personnel of the airport and flight to conduct searches within legal limits.
To Stop the Illegal Searches:
That being the present state of paranoia, the problem is likely to be enhanced with the death of Bin Laden and fear of escalated violence against U.S. targets. This would put the people into greater control and total removal of privacy rights. Earlier the mention of the impediments in the Fourth Amendment that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures must…
Daily Mail. They were staring me up and down: Woman claimed TSA security staff singled her out for her breasts. Daily Mail, 26 November 2010, pp: 7-8.
DeWitt, Joce. New TSA procedures stir controversy: Passengers will notice a change in airport security while traveling this holiday season as a result of the new scans and pat-downs. 2 December, 2010
Douglas, Carol Anne. et al. United States: Airport Security Officials Pat Down, Strip Search
Has TSA Gone Too Far?
Transportation Security Administration is one of the most important functions of national security plans as it acts as frontline which any threat to national security might face. After 9/11, this security tool has been criticized greatly for its ineffectiveness. Authorities have been devising strategies of enhancing its productivity and have been equipping it with various tools of detecting and preventing acts of terrorism. One of the recent strategies adopted by TSA is full body scanning of passengers travelling through airlines, by security officials. This particular measure has been criticized heavily by public as well as mass media as it is accused of hampering personal liberty in the name of security checks. Considering the opinions of general public and the outcomes of this practice, it is an established fact that the effectiveness of this security strategy is outweighed by the harm that it has…
Brown, David. H. Full Body Scam: The Naked View of Current Airport Security . 2011
Keefer, Philip and Loayza, Norman. Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness. 2008
Muller, John. And Stewart, Mark. G. Terror, Security, and Money: Balancing the Risks, Benefits, and Costs of Homeland Security. 2011
Stancombe, Brittany R. Comment: fed up with being felt up: the complicated relationship between the fourth amendment and tsa's "body scanners" and "pat-downs." 42 Cumb. L. Rev. 181. 2012
Criminal Justice Administration and TSA
Selecting and Training TSA Inspectors
Last year, the Department of Homeland Security (2010) released a publication entitled "Transportation Security Administration's Management Of Its Screening Workforce Training Program Can Be Improved." The publication recommended that TSA could improve management of its training program by "developing and documenting standard processes to:  Use Officer test results to evaluate training program results;  Assign on-the-job training responsibilities; and  Evaluate workforce and training needs to ensure that officers have the tools and time necessary to complete training requirements" [brackets added] (Department of Homeland Security, 2010, p. 4). A criminal justice administrator could use the recommendations above by the Department of Homeland Security in implementing an effective program for selecting and training TSA Inspectors.
In addition, Cronkhite (2008) suggests that in hiring and training employees, the administrator must hire "a fair representation of the community for which a criminal…
Aamodt, M.G. (2009). Industrial/Organizational psychology: An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Berinato, S. (2006). Transportation Security. CSO: The resource for security executives. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Z2AEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA40&dq=TSA+turnover&hl=en&ei=X2waTrqmCqXKiALvmazSBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=TSA%20turnover&f=false
Cronkhite, C.L. (2008). Criminal justice administration: Strategies for the 21st century. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett Publishers.
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2010). Transportation security administration's management of its screening workforce training program can be improved. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xoig/assets/mgmtrpts/OIG_11-05_Oct10.pdf.
Policy Recommendation for Collaboration and TSA Privatization
The objective of this study is to evaluate the benefits of collaboration between the federal government and non-profit organizations. The study cites different examples of collaborations across the world and their achievements. Moreover, the paper investigates whether it is beneficial to privatize the TSA (Transportation Security Administration) since the organization has performed below the international standards in the last few years. Finally, the study recommends the best policy option for the MRCC (Mt. Rossmoor Community College) in order to increase the number of students' enrollment and revenue in an academic year.
In the contemporary public administration environment, public organizations are currently entering the era of collaboration where various public sectors form an alliance to address issues and challenges that hinder them serving people better. Moreover, they are entering into the collaborative ventures to protect the U.S. national and foreign interests. The public sector…
Wilson, C.E. (2012). The collaboration of Nonprofit Organizations with Local Government for Immigrant Language Acquisition. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. 42(5) 963-984.
Witesman, E.M. & Fernandez, S. (2012). Government Contracts with Private
Organizations: Are There Differences Between Nonprofits and For-profits? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. 42(4) 689-715.
The Transportation Security Agency (TSA) is actually part of the Department of Homeland Security. It came into being after 9/11 and its primary focus is on air travel: it screens luggage and passengers at air ports to help prevent another terrorist hijacking like that on 9/11. I chose this agency because I can remember there being a time when one could go to the airport without being frisked, and that time is now gone. Three interesting facts about the TSA are that 1) it actually oversees all four modes of land-based transportation and provides support in the regulation and oversight of maritime security as well, 2) “in 2016, TSA officers detected 3,391 firearms in carry-on bags at airport checkpoints around the nation,” and 3) TSA has a pre-check that allows travelers to get through security quickly (TSA, 2017).
While these points are of course interesting, some critics of the TSA…
Gatehouse Media Ohio. (2019). Investigation begins into Ohio pipeline explosion. Retrieved from https://www.dispatch.com/news/20190122/investigation-begins-into-ohio-pipeline-explosion
Leff, G. (2017). New test: TSA failing to detect 95% of threats. Retrieved from https://viewfromthewing.boardingarea.com/2017/07/03/new-test-tsa-still-failing-detect-95-threats/
TSA. (2017). 10 things you might not know about TSA. Retrieved from https://www.tsa.gov/blog/2017/10/13/10-things-you-might-not-know-about-tsa
History of SA
On March 9, 1972, a rans World Airlines jet bound for Los Angeles took off from JFK International Airport in New York. Moments into the flight, the airline received an anonymous phone call warning there was a bomb on the flight. he aircraft returned to JFK where passengers were evacuated and a bomb-sniffing dog named Brandy was brought aboard to search. Brandy found the explosive device just 12 minutes before it was set to detonate. hat same day, then-President Nixon directed the Secretary of ransportation to use innovative means to combat the problems plaguing civil aviation. he result was the creation of a unique federal project - the FAA Explosives Detection Canine eam Program - designed to place certified teams at strategic locations throughout the nation so that any aircraft receiving a bomb threat could quickly divert to an airport with a canine team.
The U.S. Constitution's fourth amendment was supposed to protect against this type of unlawful invasion of personal freedom, but due to the exaggerations of the terrorist threat by media and politicians we are stuck with a despicable and ugly organization. There has been much debate about this problem but Macsata (2010) explained how this is a violation when he wrote "Benjamin Franklin once said, "He who sacrifices freedom for security deserves neither."
Apparently, members of Congress agree with our founding fathers, as they are lining up against TSA's new security measures. On November 18th, Rep. John J. Duncan, Jr. told the Knoxville News Sentinel, "The American people should not have to choose between having full-body radiation or a very embarrassing, intrusive pat-down every time they fly, as if they were criminals." Rep. Duncan also called into question the lucrative nature of the contracts being secured by some of the private companies represented by former U.S. Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff."
The TSA is also a massive waste of money and resources. Fighting terrorism can be done at a much cheaper and effective manner than the TSA is currently conducting itself. Many mistakes have been made, but when the TSA admits that they have wasted tons of resources, a
Aviation Security Since 911
How has aviation security improved since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001? hat do reliable sources in the literature say with reference to safety and security in 2015? And how effective is the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at keeping air travelers safe? This paper covers those issues and in particular provides a number of good sources commenting on the quality (or lack of quality) displayed by the TSA employees.
Generalizations about aviation security in the Post-911 era
For most people who travel by air, the screening at the airports in 2015 is certainly more thorough than it was prior to 911, but there are continuing problems with TSA, as will be documented in this paper. But at the beginning of this paper it is worth reviewing the "Mission" of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in terms of what the U.S. Government wants the public to…
Blackburn, M. (2012). The TSA Is Coming To A Highway Near You. Forbes. Retrieved August 20, 2015, from http://www.forbes.com .
Federal Aviation Administration. (2014). Mission. Retrieved August 21, 2015, from http://www.faa.gov .
Jacobson, A. (2009). Why have 67,000 TSA Employees Left Their Jobs? PJ Media.
August 20, 2015, from http://pjmedia.com .
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…
Aclu.org. (2003, August 25). The Five Problems With CAPPS II. Retrieved from Aclu.org: https://www.aclu.org/national-security/five-problems-capps-ii
Alpha.org. (2011, Fall). Aviation Security. Retrieved from alpa.org: http://www.alpa.org/portals/alpa/pressroom/inthecockpit/ALPAIssueAnalysis_10YearsAfter9-11Attacks.pdf
Browne, D. (2009). Flying without Fear: Effective Strategies to Get You Where You Need to Go. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Elias, B. (2009). Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global. New York: CRC Press.
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…
The DHS is consistent with the larger social trend on a global scale concerning institutional security measures insofar as Risley (2006) reports that "the securitization of an ever-expanding number of realms is a distinguishing feature of the contemporary political landscape." (1) This is to argue that in addition to the events such as 9/11 which can be seen as a clear catalyst to the changes in structure which have been underway since the end of 2001, there is also something of a broader sociological pattern which is reflected in the merger undertaken in the national security sector. The diminishing lines between commerce, governance and military engagement are perhaps best reflected in this parallel between the security community and the corporate world. The sociological implications are therefore rather significant in coming to understand why certain changes have been sought and in producing reasonable expectations as to what these changes may produce.…
Ball, H. (2005). U.S. Homeland Security. ABC-CLIO.
LeClerc, P. (2006). Review: The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online.
Noakes, J.A. (2000). Official Frames in Social Movement Theory: The FBI, HUAC, and the Communist Threat Hollywood. The Sociological Quarterly, 41(4), 657-680.
Risley, S.H. (2006). The Sociology of Security: Sociological Approaches to Contemporary and Historical Securitization. Annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Online at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p105192_index.html
Despite the fact that full body scanners may be the most technologically advanced equipment we could realistically put in an airport, they still have their shortcomings. Full body scanners can't see inside your body. Generally, the machines also can't find items stashed in a body cavity. This means that a determined terrorist could potentially store bomb materials or weapons inside their body, specifically in their anus. Since such a low dose of electromagnetic energy is beamed inside the people who enter the scanners, the images are only skin deep. So just how drug traffickers smuggle drugs inside their bodies, terrorists could do the same but with far more dangerous materials. As America witnessed with the failed shoe bomber, it does not take a great deal of free space to hide materials that could overthrow or take a plane down. For instance, C4 explosive, which is military grade, can be…
Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tsa.gov/approach/tech/ait/index.shtm
Brain, M. (2012). How Airport Full-Body Scanners Work -- and the huge national debate around the TSA right now. Retrieved from http://blogs.howstuffworks.com/2010/11/17/how-airport-full-body-scanners-work-
Eaton, K. (2009). Full-Body Scanners at Airports: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
Against the Expanded Use of Full-ody Scanner in Airports
The use of full body scanners in airports is a method that is too invasive because it actually produces pictures of the individual's body and as well the method is time consuming and expensive and as well there are viable alternatives available.
Cost, Risk, Passenger Inconvenience, and Privacy Concerns
Jim Arkedis a reporter for 'The Hill' relates that body scanner in 2011 cost approximately $700 million. In addition Arkedis is reports that a viable alternative is that of 'smart-screening' or construction of a security net that screens passengers for those which are potentially dangerous which would assist in "balancing risk, passenger inconvenience and privacy concerns." (2010) According to Arkedis, smart screening would further save money. Arkedis reports, "it is time to let the selectee list think for itself.
. Alternatives Exist to Combat Terrorist Acts
With technological innovation, the…
Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT) Innovation & Technology (2012) Transportation Security Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.tsa.gov/approach/tech/ait/index.shtm
Nusca, A (2011) TSA violated law when installing full body scanners, court says. ZD.Net Retrieved from: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/tsa-violated-law-when-installing-full - body-scanners-court-says/52526
TSA Full-Body Scanners: Protecting Passengers or Padding Pockets? (2011) Gizmodo. Security. Retrieved from: http://gizmodo.com/5689759/tsa-full+body-scanners-protecting-passengers-or-padding-pockets
TSA in Court to Defend Full-Body Scanner Policies (2012) Jaunted. Retrieved from: http://www.jaunted.com/story/2012/8/8/16633/06025/travel/TSA+in+Court+to+Defend+Full-Body+Scanner+Policies
Air Cargo Security
Since the events of 911, airport security has been an important issue. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)" is responsible for ensuring the security of all modes of transportation, including cargo placed aboard airplaines and particularly focuses on passenger-carrying planes" (TSA). The TSA is part of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the latest information available, the TSA employs 620 Cargo Transportation Security Inspectors who are exclusively dedicated to the oversight of air cargo. One hundred twenty of these are canine teams. The numbers of security inspectors and canine teams has increased significantly since 2006 (TSA).
Obviously, no one wants to see another tragedy. Terrorism continues to be a threat and security measures must try to keep pace with ever-changing strategies that terrorists try to employ. There has been much in the news about passenger screening, x-ray technology, and rights to privacy. Passengers do not present the…
Beesley, A. (2010). Call for tighter security on air cargo worldwide. Irish Times 11/6/2010.
Dutton, G. (2010). Industry braces for 100% air cargo screening. World Trade 23(5), pp.
Harris, D. (2010). Air cargo security. Good Morning America (ABC), 10/31/2010.
Transportation Security and Intrusiveness of Security Screenings
America's land, seaways, and air transportation systems are structured in such a manner that enhances efficiency and enables easy access, the two features that also at the same time make these transportation systems susceptible to attacks. The expenses and difficulty of protecting the entire transportation systems from attacks raises a critical issue for legislators and other policymakers in the government: in that how much money and effort should be utilized towards preventing attacks in the country compared to the alternative of pursuing and defeating terrorists wherever they are. While completely proofing the entire transportation sector from attacks is an almost impossible task, strategies can be formulated to significantly reduce the risk of attacks. The emphasis by policymakers should be put in coming up with the resources to build a prevention, protection, and rapid response system that can greatly reduce the likelihood and consequences…
Accardo, J., & Chaudhry, M. A. (2014). Radiation exposure and privacy concerns surrounding full-body scanners in airports. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 198-200.
Alberto, V., & Bogatz, D. (2015, November 10). Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening
System ("Capps Ii"): National Security V. Civil Liberties. Retrieved from maxwell.syr.edu: ww.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/campbell/events/AlbertoBogatz.pdf
Bajoria, J. (2010, December 28). The Debate Over Airport Security. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/border-and-port-security/debate-over-airport-security/p23673
acial profiling cases have always been an integral part of the American Civil Liberties Union's (ACLU) docket. Cases involving racial profiling have become increasingly high profile, if not actually more prevalent, since September 11 created mass witch hunts against Muslims and Muslim-Americans. According to the ACLU (2011), "acial profiling continues to be a prevalent and egregious form of discrimination in the United States. This unjustifiable practice remains a stain on American democracy and an affront to the promise of racial equality."
Cases involving racial profiling or accusations thereof range from those that deal with individual cases (such as drivers being pulled over for no reason other than they were black) and collective cases. Collective cases include recent ones involving an ACLU=led lawsuit against the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). The lawsuit was successful, resulting in "the first time ever" that an agency within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security was…
ACLU (2005). "In Landmark Racial Profiling Settlement, Arizona Law Enforcement Agents Agree to Major Reforms." ACLU. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/landmark-racial-profiling-settlement-arizona-law-enforcement-agents-agree-major-refor
ACLU (2011). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
In September 2002, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) formed the Pipeline Security Division to manage pipeline security at the federal level. The Department of Transportation also operates the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. These homeland security teams help to prevent disaster and offer protocols for response. However, pipeline security requires astute public-private partnerships. According to the TSA, virtually all of the country's critical pipeline infrastructure is owned and operated by private entities (Transportation Security Administration, "Pipeline Security"). Pipeline security is a matter of financial importance to industry stakeholders, but also integral to national security and environmental integrity.
Pipelines transport about 75% of all crude oil, and 65% of its refined petroleum products, natural gas, and other liquids in the United States (Parfomak "Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs," Transportation Security Administration, "Pipeline Security"). The full extent of the pipeline network in the United States, including the pipelines…
Fielding, Adrian. "Pipeline Security and Monitoring: Protecting the Industry." Pipelines International. March 2012. Retrieved online: http://pipelinesinternational.com/news/pipeline_security_and_monitoring_protecting_the_industry/067023/
Fielding, Adrian. "Pipeline Security: New Technology for Today's Demanding Environment." Pipeline and Gas Journal. Vol. 239, No. 5, May 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.pipelineandgasjournal.com/pipeline-security-new-technology-today%E2%80%99s-demanding-environment
Parfomak, Paul W. "Keeping America's Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress." CRS Report for Congress. Jan 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41536.pdf
Parfomak, Paul W. "Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs." CRS Report for Congress. Feb 18, 2010. Retrieved online: http://pstrust.org/docs/CRSRL33347_000.pdf
September 11, a whole new range of advanced security equipment and protocols has been put in place. However, many of these systems and procedures remain inconsistent from airport to airport. One of the most critical ways of promoting faster passenger throughput without sacrificing the main goals of security is consistency and standardization among American airports, with an ultimate goal of working more tightly with global partners to create a consistent international travel security experience. If passengers know what to expect at each airport, the screening procedures can become more streamlined. Even if shifts in global threat alerts do often change the details in the procedures, passenger throughput does not need to be adversely affected if the overall protocols and goals remain the same. It may also be important to ensure that employees receive ample time and training in using any new equipment that is introduced, and that all equipment glitches…
Elias, B. (2007). Air cargo security. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved online: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL32022.pdf
McNeil, J.B. (2010). Air cargo security. Retrieved online: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/06/air-cargo-security-how-to-keep-americans-secure-without-harming-the-economy
Transportation Security Administration (2006). TSA issues new regulations to substantially strengthen air cargo security. Retrieved online: https://www.tsa.gov/news/releases/2006/05/17/tsa-issues-new-regulations-substantially-strengthen-air-cargo-security
United States Department of Homeland Security (2015). Cargo screening. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/cargo-screening
detect me not Explosive detection: An overview
Not all explosions are created alike. In general, explosives are classified into two categories: as either low or as high explosives, depending upon their rates of decomposition. Low explosives burn; in contrast, high explosives detonate (Chapter 12, 2011, FAS). Detonation is a different phenomenon from burning. During detonation of a high explosive, the initial reaction is initiated by a shock that generates compression, heat, and finally chemical decomposition. Every component of a high explosive has its own equation of state (EOS) with a unique relationship of pressure, density, and internal energy (Walter 1996). When the temperature of a substance increases, molecules of the different components travel faster and hit the surface of the exterior of the bomb casing with greater and greater force, finally causing an explosion when the interior surface of the casing can no longer resist (Moorcraft 2001). The speed…
Chapter 12: Military explosives. (2011). Navy Documents.
Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/docs/fun/part12.htm
Frank, Thomas. (2010). TSA takes explosive screening to bags. USA Today.
Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/2010-02-16-TSA-swabs_N.htm
43 in 2009. Yet current airframe and power plant mechanics are inclined to move to the computer and automotive sector for better work environment. Analysts advised the creation and use of informational recruiting tools to attract these potential workers. in-house training programs on long-term career growth and a sense of commitment to the company would be one form. Another could be employee-retention programs on leadership, technical, and management training courses. Other tools and strategies could be flexi-time, relocation benefits and an improved work environment. Recent mergers and consolidations within the industry are meant to retain employees and serve a wide range of customers. The technology-driven industry requires mechanics with the necessary technological competence in order to provide the wide range of services required by customers. A resourceful information management system could integrate e-business tools and advanced technology into standard business practices. This integration would bring about more efficient and cost-effective…
Airguide Online (2006). North America. Airline News: Pyramid Media Group, Inc.
Retrieved on December 28, 2008 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOQXQ/is_2006_Oct_2/ai_n27005685?tag=content;col1
Air Safety Week (2008). Controllers declare "staffing emergency" in Atlanta,
Chicago, New York and Southern California. Access Intelligence, LLC: Gale, Cengage
POST-9/11 Management OF U.S. AILINE INDUSTY
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Airlines in the United States have a long, complicated history in terms of management strategy that includes alterations due to technological advances, bankruptcies, economic downturns, deregulation and even presidential intervention, but none of these forces had the power to both destroy and restructure the industry like the events of September 11, 2001.
The 9/11/01 attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the way the U.S. airline industry operated both publically and internally. One area that suffered significantly from these attacks, and brought about the need for major overhaul within the industry itself was strategic management strategies and practices within the airline industry in its entirety. The 9/11 attacks on America brought about the need for immediate change in…
Allvine, F., Dixit, A, Sheth, J., and Uslay. (2007). Deregulation and competition: lessons learned from the airline industry. Print. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Alvesson, S. And Karreman, D. (2009). Critical performativity: the unfinished business of critical management studies. Human Relations, 62.4. pp. 537-560. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Belobaba, P. (2002). The airline industry since 9/11: overview of recovery and challenges ahead. MIT Global Airline Industry Quarterly. March 2002:1. pp. 1-11. Web. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Besant, C. (2002 September 1). Chaos followed 9/11 in the aviation industry. Turnaround Management Association Journal of Corporate Renewal, 12:1. pp. 1-3. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Tourism Demand esearch & Analysis
International Tourism Demand Estimation
Tourism Attraction Sales
Tourism Attraction Sales
Tourism & Employment
Tourism may be defined as, "The sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors," (McIntosh and Goeldner, 1990, p. 4).
From the above definition, it can be seen that the development of tourism in any area involves multiple players. In addition, tourism is made of up numerous activities, services, and industries that contribute to the tourists' experience. These include the provision of transportation and accommodation; eating and drinking establishments; entertainment facilities; and shops, among others (McIntosh and Goeldner, 1990). Edgell (1990, p. 12) adds that,
"The full scope of international travel and tourism, therefore, encompasses the output of segments of many industries.…
Barry, K., & O' Hagan, J.(1972). An econometric study of British tourist expenditure in Ireland. Economic and Social Review, 3, 143-161.
Blake, Adam, Durbarry, Ramesh, Sinclair, M. Thea, Sugiyarto, Guntur, "Modeling Tourism and Travel Using Tourism Satellite Accounts and Tourism Policy and Forecasting Models." Online at www.nottingham.ac.uk. Accessed 09/12/2011
Crouch, G.(1994a). The Study of International Tourism Demand: A Survey of Practice. Journal of Travel Research, 32, 41-55
Deaton, A., & Muellbauer, J. (1980b). An almost ideal demand system. American Economic Review, 70, 312-326
Has airport security improved since 9/11/2001
There are certain historical moments which change everything: 9/11 is one of them. In addition to the seismic policy and personal effects of the tragedy, airport security and attitudes towards airport security have undergone substantial reforms. New screening methods of passengers in airports cost about $4 billion per year and security is now handled by the government in the form of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), within the Department of Homeland Security, versus the private entities which used to handle security previously for the major carriers (McClure 2005). Security has clearly grown more visible and tighter but the question arises: is it truly safer to fly in the post 9/11 world? "Before 9/11, airport security consisted of a ticket agent asking if you packed your bag yourself, if it had been in your continuous custody since you packed it, and whether you…
Johnston, W. (2007). Not safe enough: Fixing transportation security. Issues in Science and Technology. Retrieved from: http://issues.org/23-2/johnstone/
McClure, G. (2005). Has Airport Security Improved Since 9/11? Today's Engineer.
Retrieved from: http://www.todaysengineer.org/2005/jun/security.asp
Secure Flight Program. (2014). TSA. Retrieved from:
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…
"Bilateral and Regulatory Issues Facing the Air Cargo Industry." (n.d.). Chapter 6. Retrieved
April 17, 2015, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/chapter_6_-_bilateral_and_regulatory_issues.pdf
Elias, B. (2010, December 2). Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41515.pdf
"Evaluation of Screening of Air Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft." (2010, September).
Administrative Search Exception
Administrative Search Exemption
Administrative search exception: Why it applies to airport searches
The 'administrative search exception' has often been called the TSA's attempt to circumvent the Fourth Amendment. However, "while the new TSA enhanced pat downs may violate the Fourth Amendment on the surface, what most people are not aware of is that the 9th Circuit Court of the United States ruled on the search of passengers in airports back in 1973, which effectively suspends limited aspects of the Fourth Amendment while undergoing airport security screening" (Frischling 2010). The U.S. Supreme Court case which established the exclusionary rule as a rule of law (the idea that 'fruit of the poisonous tree' evidence obtained illegally could not be used against a defendant in a court of law) was not found to be applicable in this particular category of searches. The U.S. Supreme Court had already established in 1968…
Frischling, S. (2010). How The TSA Legally Circumvents The Fourth Amendment. Flying with Fish. Retrieved from:
Skean, B. (2002). NIU's Northern Exposure Airport exceptions to the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement. Retrieved from: http://www.dcbabrief.org/vol140202art5.html
Terry v. Ohio. (1968). LII. Retrieved from:
911 tragedy, many politicians and airline industry representatives began to search for improvements to the Airline Traffic Control system, or ATC. These improvements were deigned to increase security and safety for all flight personnel, as well as for all passengers. This paper will outline some of the changes made to the ATC systems, and will discuss the benefits of each new policy or procedure.
One of the most significant changes to ATC has been the implementation of key technology, deployed at the headquarters of NOAD, located in Colorado Springs. This technology, known as Explorer, enables the NOAD team to monitor all commercial aircraft flying across the country at any given time. Previously, the technology had been used solely to monitor for incoming missiles, or military planes (Carr and Cone, 2002). The FAA also added a staff of air traffic controllers to the NOAD base, as well as in many busy…
Belger, M. (2004, June). Written testimony to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from Global Security. Web site: http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/congress/9-11_commission/040617-belger.pdf .
Carr, D. And Cone, E. (2002, April). When air traffic control became national defense. Baseline, 3, 163.
FAA. (2002). Part 6: air traffic services. 2002 Security Updates. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from FAA.website. Web site:
Tourette Syndrome in Children
hat is Tourette Syndrome?
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is an inherited neurological disorder generally associated with tics. Tics are defined as either involuntary body movements, or involuntary vocal sounds that are usually repetitive. The occurrence of TS in children is about 1 of every 2000 children, with an increased occurrence in boys as opposed to girls. The syndrome itself is named for the French neurologist Dr. George Gilles de la Tourette, who diagnosed the first patient with the illness in 1885.
How do you know if you have it? (Symptoms and Diagnosis)
Diagnosis specifics vary from one source of information to the next. Some publications, such as the website for the Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children, suggest waiting until the tics are present for at least one year, and that multiple tics must be shown - vocal and physical (though not at the same time). Other sites…
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm3Apr 2002
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm3Apr 2002
Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. "Tourette Syndrome's Frequently Asked Questions" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tsa-usa.org/wrapper.php.3/00/Faqs.html
Tourette-Syndrome Online. Craig Whitley, Ed. "Facts About Tourette Syndrome" 3 Apr 2002. http://www.tourette-syndrome.com/tourette-syndrome-facts.htm
Queuing Theory and Wait Times
Queuing, otherwise known as waiting in line, is something that most people feel they know how to do, yet struggle with in practice. Efficient queuing is critical for businesses. For airlines and other businesses which provide time-dependent services, queuing is necessary to ensure efficiency. For the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), queuing is also a matter of safety. To ensure all passengers are appropriately screened, the TSA must ensure that flyers are able to wait in an orderly line and receive appropriate direction. Yet when people are forced to wait in line, they are often angry and agitated. This is especially true in situations such as an airport in which passengers may be worried about missing flights or have gotten up very early in the morning, endured a hectic commute, or face other pressures regarding their flight. Waiting in line is yet another inconvenience.
Depending on the airline involved, domestic flights may not use cargo containers for luggage but international flights generally do.
There are two logistical purposes for using the containers. First, packing individual bags into shaped containers saves space because the containers are designed to fit the internal dimensions of the aircraft cargo hold compartment. Second, the use of containers makes moving luggage around much easier than transporting luggage piece by piece, in addition to being less hard on the bags. Once the luggage containers are filled, they are transported by specialized vehicles and conveyed along a belt loading truck into the cargo hold.
There is also a third purpose for using cargo containers within the cargo hold areas: security against terrorism. Specifically, the cargo holds are designed to contain the destructive force of explosive blasts such as where a bomb inside luggage is not detected by other security processes.…
However, the reviews published by customers have also tended to shine a positive light on the personnel at the airport, nothing that the staff seems to be particularly well-tuned to the needs of passengers even during such infrequent but challenge system-wide failures.
Major success factors
Major success factors will be the reduction or outright prevention of security breaches, the retained convenience of flying, the prevention of system failures, the maintenance of schedule, the acceptance on the part of employees of changing security culture and the overall ability of the airport to remain within the parameters of federal compliance.
Major risk factors
The primary risk factor is in changing the airport's security to a reliance which is more heavily it based, with the understanding the employees must adopt the change or the overall security of the facility will be compromised.
Airport Fact. (2009). Naples Muni Airport (APF) Real Time…
Airport Fact. (2009). Naples Muni Airport (APF) Real Time Status. APF KAPF Flight & Airport Guide. Online at http://www.airportfact.com/c429-APF-KAPF-naples.html
American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE). (2003). Airport Report. www.aaae.org.Online at https://www.aaae.org/news_publications/airport_report/airportreporthtmlformat.cfm?Header=no&ReportID=39
Bosco, C. (2001). Naples Airport Authority Defers Enforcement of Stage 2 Ban. National Business Aviation Association, Inc. (NBAA). Online at http://www.nbaa.org/news/pr/2001/20010321-016.php
Desmet, M. (2008). Airports serving Southwest Florida. Naples News. Online at http://www.naplesnews.com/news/2008/jan/10/airports-serving-southwest-florida/
America still welcomes terrorists, criminals, & other foreign menaces
The September 11 attacks have changed the ways Americans view the security and violence situation within their territory. Dramatic changes have been made in connection with security in the ports (land, sea and air); immigration laws; buying residency and citizenship, as well as visas. However, many experts assert that the security situation has worsened from where it had been before 9/11. Instead of reducing bureaucratic procedures and the loopholes associated with it and increasing the efficiency of the present workforce through accountability and checks and balances, the government has done exactly the opposite. This research paper is primarily focused on terrorism, and how we continue to allow it to happen to us. How the September 11 terrorists exploited U.S. immigration laws. How government officials sell residency & citizenship papers. How people from other countries are rushed through airport without proper screening…
Bill Sammon, Jerry Seper. U.S. To Offer Visas for Help against Terror. The Washington Times, November 30, 2001
Michael Janofsky. 9/11 Panel Calls Policies on Immigration Ineffective. New York Times. April 17, 2004
Pascal Riche. At American Borders: Smile; you're on File. Liberation. January 6, 2004.
Steven A. Camarota. How the terrorists get in. Public Interest, 2002.
here are 2855 locations in NYC alone that sell you coffee cups. o list all these stores -- sometimes duplicated -- would take a volume alone. he following is therefore a summary of some key places that sell coffee cups -- otherwise called mugs, the general price of these (usually ceramic) coffee cups; the details of these coffee cups; and descriptions of outstanding logos and/or designs.
As the Huff Post New York (2012) remarks: "Coffee cups in New York are as varied as the Big Apple" (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/07/13/coffee-cups-in-new-york-a_n_230644.html). For the first three decades it was the iconic polystyrene or paper Greek-themed "Happy to Serve" coffee cup that has now been converted into ceramic. In the mid-1990s, the environmentally friendly Starbucks-style cup rushed into style usually accompanied with sipping lids and cardboard sleeves. All of these are free; you paid for the drink of course. You find these cups…
TSA screener at JFK 'hurled hot coffee at American Airlines pilot who told her to stop swearing' Mail online. dailymail.co.uk http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2124997/TSA-screener-JFK-hurled-hot-coffee-American-Airlines-pilot-told-stop-swearing.html
Nyc Coffee Cups
The at-will doctrine has its negatives and its positives. The positive for the at-will employee is that it puts no contractual obligation between employee and employer. Either is free to quit the relationship at any time: the employee may quit, or the employer may fire the employee without notice or having to supply a reason. Of course, like with any rule there are exceptions; for instance, any employer cannot fire an employee for reasons of race, creed, ethnicity, etc. And recent interpretations of the National Labor Relations Act by the National Labor Relations Board have essentially seen to it that employers may not fire employees because of criticisms made by the employee of the workplace via social media (Riddle, 2016; Cavico, Mujtaba, Muffler, Samuel, 2013). The negative side of the at-will doctrine is that it can impair or limit employer-employee relationships. It inspires little loyalty in the sense…
Airports need to also have a well-trained MANPAD threat response team that is familiar with combating MANPAD type weapons and tactics. This team needs to have the ability to respond quickly and effectively to any terrorist threat, with emphasis on MANPAD threats and attacks. Even after a MANPAD attack occurs, those in the aircraft as well as those on the ground need to understand how to respond effectively to reduce the possibility of further damage or attacks.
2 ?" Examine the issue of planning the airport of the future in terms of minimizing the MANPAD threat. It is far easier to build systems into new designs than it is to attempt to modify existing ones.
Since large airports are relatively costly and require permanent structures, it is much easier to build anti-MANPAD systems and strategies into new airports than it is to attempt to modify older, existing airports. Existing airports…
Federal Aviation Administration. (2007). National Strategy for Aviation Security.
Federal Aviation Administration. (2007). Aviation Transportation Security Plan.
Transportation Security Administration. (2006). Recommended Security Guidelines for Airport
Planning, Design, and Construction.
Beginning in October of 2005, organizational arrangements for emergency management functions on a federal level were put into place, in the reorganization begun by Secretary Chertoff.
Pros and Cons about the Homeland Security Program
There are good things about the Homeland Security Program in the U.S. A list of positives would include the fact that some safeguards must be implemented in order to keep the country safe. Local and national law enforcement efforts to this effect might keep thousands or millions of people in the U.S. from being wounded or killed. Counterintelligence efforts, legal or otherwise have turned up some plots by terrorists to wreak havoc, though the equal potential for abusing this privilege is omnipresent. Likewise, the prosecution of terrorists has instilled an awareness and deterrence of like crimes, though the potential for abuse has been raised as a legal issue. The people have come to rely on the…
Center for Defense Information. (2001). Organization for Homeland Security: issues and options. CDI Terrorism Project. 21 Dec 2001. Retrieved April 29, 2008 at http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/homelandsecurity.cfm .
Committee on Homeland Security. (2007). Homeland Security failures: TWIC examined. U.S. House of Representatives. 31 Oct 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2008 at http://homeland.house.gov/hearings/index.asp?ID=98 .
Grant, a. (2007). Remarks at the 2007 Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Law Enforcement Conference. U.S. Department of State. 15 Jun 2007.
Hall, M. (2004). Ex-official tells of Homeland Security failures. U.S.A. Today. 12 Dec 2004.
Finally, it was my turn and -- but then I woke up.
When I told this dream to a friend, he said, "Sounds like you have a bad conscience!" This was an interesting interpretation of my dream, I thought. He said that he had been dreaming the night before of snow mobiling all over the mountains and he said it had been such fun that he had not wished to wake up. I thought that he must possess a very good conscience if he could dream about such nice things.
I got to thinking about what my friend said to me, and I decided that perhaps he was not so far off the mark. Perhaps my conscience was not very clear. After all, some things had been troubling me, and I knew I had not been behaving as well as I should have. Therefore, perhaps it was not such a…
This is where incentives come in to play. agner quotes Rudolf Hickel who distinguishes between an entrepreneurial state and a tax state (our present state of affairs). Hickel and Schumpeter both see the tax state as acting outside the normal laws of contract and property to confiscate wealth. The entrepreneurial state is just the exact polar opposite of this. Corporatist principles that have been incorporated into this system. Corporate structures were in their infancy in 1787 when the U.S. Constitution was written, hence the lack of corporatist principles (ibid, 56-57). e must now incorporate the wisdom of two centuries of follow on experience.
These corporatist principles would turn a government entity like a city into a private corporation with stockholders that would provide services. In this view, government has created some markets. It is in the market already. Therefore, for us to bring the entrepreneurial state, we need to introduce…
Barth, A. (1991, Feb ). The roots of limited government. Retrieved from http://www.fff.org/freedom/0291c.asp .
Domesticating the leviathan. (2007). Retrieved from http://homepage.mac.com/npayne/leviathan.html.
Johnson, K. (2011, November 9). Tsa's expansion is questioned. Retrieved from http://www.joplinindependent.com/display_article.php/wildblue1320890017 .
Standt, N. (2010). Taxation without representation. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University School of Wagner, R.E. (1993). Parchment, guns and constitutional order. Northamton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.
Orlando Airport Might Join Ranks of Those Hiring Private Screeners
Orlando International Airport has been in the news a lot lately as they are one of several airports in the United States at the forefront of the airport scanner and security pat down issues. Most people have heard of the issue, but for those who have not, it is quite simple: increased security needs at the airport have created a need for new and improved technology, and the new airport security screeners have been implemented in response to this issue. These scanners make an image of the outline of the body, much like an X-ray. If somebody has something stashed under their clothing, the scanner would show it. There are split opinions on the validity and fairness of these scanners.
Some people are saying that the scanners are violating their rights. They say that they are near pornographic in nature…
Powers, Scott. "Orlando airport might join ranks of those hiring private screeners." Orlando Sentinel 6
Dec. 2010: n. pag. Web. 11 Dec 2010. .
Rather than violating the rights of medical practitioners, is it not a better idea simply to break the trusts that make health care so unaffordable? I agree there should be real reform -- but we should not be satisfied with phony reform.
Rand Paul's policy on health care puts the issue in a singular light. First, he draws distinction between real health care reform and phony reform. Real reform, he states would emphasize free market economics and would allow consumers to buy health insurance from providers from a wider spectrum rather than from the artificially manipulate market that we see today. As Paul says, state and federal laws place restrictions and exactly who can buy what from where -- and this is the real heart of the problem because it allows health insurance companies to charge higher and higher premiums and places greater and greater restrictions and demands on medical…
Tenant, Michael. "Rand Paul. Right to Healthcare is 'Slavery'." The New American.
2011. Web. 3 Apr 2012.
Paul, Rand. "Can Healthcare Reform Affect the Economy?" Rand Paul U.S. Senate.
2009. Web. 3 Apr 2012.
Of course, not all of the counterterrorism methods will work, and there will certainly be changes, alterations, and even the disbanding of some of the things the government has done to help prevent further attacks.
Clearly, the nation has learned quite a bit from the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The people learned the country was vulnerable to attacks never before imagined. They learned that thousands of people could die in a few minutes at the hands of terrorists, and that the borders, the cities, and even the rural areas were susceptible to attack. They learned that weapons such as biochemical agents and other poisons could enter the water and food supplies and could kill thousands, or even millions. They learned that the country has to be increasingly vigilant to protect the citizens and their way of life. They also learned that Americans could stand together with pride in the face…
Chomsky, N. (2001). September 11. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Cordesman, A.H. (2002). Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Klinger, D.A., & Grossman, D. (2002). Who Should Deal with Foreign Terrorists on U.S. Soil? Socio-Legal Consequences of September 11 and the Ongoing Threat of Terrorist Attacks in America. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 815+.
Posner, Gerald. (2003). Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11. New York: Random House.
However, just how one is supposed to recognize future threats is difficult to determine. After all, if one imagines that excessive support in intervention, arms supply, technology, and financial backing is a key factor, combined with a strong religious motivation of the recipient nation, group, or organization, Israel or at the very least the Israeli right wing may one day be as dangerous as any Islamic threat may pose today.
Although much thought can be devoted to the necessary international, political and military strategies employed by the United States as a world power, it remains clear that of foremost concern to American families is their safety at home. Of course, war is never easy, particularly for those deployed in battle, or for their families. However, when a nation is attacked on its own soil it not only faces a "real damage," but it also suffers greatly in morale (Schweitzer, 2003).…
Camarota, Stephen. "The Open Door: How Militant Islamic Terrorists Entered and Remained in the United States, 1993-2001." Web site. Retrieved on April 25, 2005
After almost four years, the United States is still feeling the effects of the September 11 terrorist attacks. The ar in Iraq continues. Despite massive security measures that have been put in place since September 11, Americans continue to be vulnerable to terrorist attack.
This paper argues that allowing trained pilots to carry firearms will help protect air travelers from similar hijackings. More important, armed pilots would constitute an important layer in the fight to keep the United States secure from terrorists and other enemies.
First of all, the move to allow pilots to carry firearms has widespread support. In 2002, for example, the Lower House voted 310-113 in favor of a bill allowing commercial pilots to signed up for a firearms training program (Sowell, 45). Polls conducted among members of the general public have shown strong support for this measure. Furthermore, many pilots have voiced a strong…
LaPierre, Wayne. Guns, Freedom and Terrorism. New York: WND Books, 2003.
Lott, John R. "Airline Pilots Should Be Armed." Homeland Security. Andrea C. Nakaya, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Thomson Gale. 25 June 2005
Szyliowicz, Joseph. "Aviation Security." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 27: 47-63, 2004.
Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.
One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…
Barbera, J.A., DeAtley, C., & Macintyre, a.G. (1995). Medical aspects of urban search and rescue. Fire Engineering, 14888-92.
Currah, P., & Mulqueen, T. (2011). Securitizing Gender: Identity, Biometrics, and Transgender Bodies at the Airport. Social Research, 78(2), 557-582.
Edmonson, J.W., Keeton, M., & Vernon, M. (1995). Rescue command. Fire Engineering, 14848.
Fagnoni, C.M. (2006). Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Coordination between FEMA and the Red Cross Should Be Improved for the 2006 Hurricane Season: GAO-06-
Body Scanners: Are hey Safe?
anner, Lindsay, (November 18, 2010). "Gov't says full body scanners are safe." USA oday. http://www.usatoday.com/yourlife/health/medical/cancer/2010-11-18-scanner-radiation_N.htm. (Accessed 30 November, 2010)
here has been much debate over the ransportation Security Administration's airport security procedures due to the holiday travel season. Most of the recent debate has involved the invasiveness of the full-body pat down, or the detailed nature of the images taken by the new full-body scanners. But as these scanners begin to appear in more and more airports, we also need to make sure the scanners are safe for the people who pass through them, since they emit radiation.
he government insists that the new devices are indeed safe. anner, writing for USA oday, that a panel of independent experts has vouched for the safety of these devices, saying that they are not a threat as long as the radiation is kept within the…
The scientific evidence seems to indicate that the devices are safe, and people should not worry about passing through them. However, due to the concerns of other scientists more testing might be needed. As these machines are being installed in airports across the country, the Transportation Security Administration should make sure to train agents very carefully in how to use the machines properly, to make sure that the proper, safe doses of radiation are being used. Though a manual pat-down may seem invasive to some, it is fair to have it available to those who have concerns about the new machines.
Stephens, Ransom, November 19, 2010, "What full body scanner radiation means to you." The Examiner. http://www.examiner.com/science-society-in-national/what-full-body-scanner-radiation-means-to-you . (Accessed November 30, 2010).
METAL DETECTOS have long been mainstays of building security and concealed weapon or contraband detection in correctional institutions. The tragic events of September 11, 2001 focused more attention on the role of metal detectors, specifically in airport settings. Since assuming control of air travel security, the Transportation
Safety Administration has established more stringent uniform performance standards for all metal detectors used in U.S. airports (Fiorino). The TSA has also integrated explosive detection equipment into the passenger and cargo screening procedures, but metal detection and X-ay equipment remain the primary means relied upon by law enforcement authorities to address the increased threat of terrorism at the most likely targets. In other countries where terrorism is even more of an ongoing concern than it is in the United States, metal detectors have become a routine part of everyday life, such as in Israel where walk through metal detection equipment has been installed…
1. Brookfield Center. (May 2002) Hands-on Security Scanner.
Plastics Engineering; Vol. 58, Issue 5 (p. 22)
2. Dershowitz, Allan. Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in A Turbulent Age.
Boston: Little Brown, 2002
Terrorism in recent years has hit an all-time high. Affecting millions of people, radical groups and organizations see terrorism as a favored tactic or approach for bringing to fruition their extreme ideological agendas both domestically and internationally. Terrorism globally chose the United States and other western countries to target in their extremist agendas. The United States government became aware of terrorist efforts after the September 11 attacks. Since then the U.S. has devoted time and resources into developing a counterterrorism and intelligence framework in order to respond to any ongoing and future terrorist attacks/activity.
Counterterrorism refers to the processes that consist of the offensive measures taken to avoid, deter, forestall, and react to terrorism. The United States regarded counterterrorism missions as distinctive operations by clandestine, undercover, or low discernibility means. Counterterrorism presently is categorized as a fundamental task for the United States government. The government has fashioned or redefined distinct…
Jensen, T. (2014). National Responses to Transnational Terrorism: Intelligence and Counterterrorism Provision. Journal of Conflict Resolution. doi:10.1177/0022002714545221
Park, A., & Tsang, H. (2015). A Systematic Approach to Develop a Computational Framework for Counter-terrorism and Public Safety. tsas.ca. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from http://library.tsas.ca/media/TSASWP14-09_Park-Tsang.pdf
Park, A., Tsang, H., Sun, M., & Glasser, U. (2012). An agent-based model and computational framework for counter-terrorism and public safety based on swarm intelligence. Security Informatics, 1(1), 23. doi:10.1186/2190-8532-1-23
Walsh, P. (2015). Building Better Intelligence Frameworks through Effective Governance. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 28(1), 123. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08850607.2014.924816#.VQRQL47F9j8
The author of this report is asked to pick out a military or terrorist attack that has occurred since the World War II era and assess it from a case study and analytical standpoint. Specifically, there will be a focus on the failures and issues that occurred before and during the event. For the purposes of this report, the author has chosen the proverbial elephant in the room and that would be the 9/11 attacks on September 11th, 2001. The author of this report will conduct this study in four major sections, those being an overview of what happened, the pre-event and event actions that occurred, the missed indicators and the lessons learned. As with any scholarly research, any sources used for this report will be cited and given credit. While preventing terrorist attacks in general is exceedingly hard, 9/11 was entirely preventable and is a sterling example of…
Bradner, E. (2015). TSA screeners failed tests to detect explosives, weapons
CNNPolitics.com. CNN. Retrieved 28 June 2015, from http://www.cnn.com /2015/06/01/politics/tsa-failed-undercover-airport-screening-tests/
CBS,. (2015). Boston Bombings - News, Pictures & Videos - CBS News. Cbsnews.com.
Retrieved 28 June 2015, from http://www.cbsnews.com/boston-bombings/
Terrorism has been a hot topic in the news for over a decade. It has impact people on an international level with countries like France, England, and the United States experiencing attacks. Currently Isis, a terrorist organization, has generated chaos in the Middle East. Government have been destabilized and peace and security jeopardized. Atrocious acts of violence have occurred from child beheadings to rapes and torture. Terrorism threatens the social and economic development of any place it affects.
Furthermore, terrorism directly affects human rights. People lose freedoms and face subjugation from regimes of terrorist organizations. All of which have negatively diminish ones enjoyment of life as well as their human rights. International, national, and regional political leaders make promises and claims that counterterrorism measures will not encroach on human rights. Former President George Bush for example, preached on preserving human rights amidst counter terrorism efforts. However, living up to these…
Ahmed, S. (2015). The 'emotionalization of the "war on terror": Counter-terrorism, fear, risk, insecurity and helplessness. Criminology And Criminal Justice,15(5), 545-560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1748895815572161
Enders, W., Sandler, T., & Gaibulloev, K. (2011). Domestic versus transnational terrorism: Data, decomposition, and dynamics. Journal of Peace Research, 48(3), 319-337. doi:10.1177/0022343311398926
Feinberg, M. (2015). International counterterrorism -- national security and human rights: conflicts of norms or checks and balances?. The International Journal Of Human Rights, 19(4), 388. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13642987.2015.1027053
Fenwick, H. (2015). Counter-terror strategies, human rights and the roles of technology. International Review Of Law, Computers & Technology, 25(3), 107. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13600869.2011.617430?journalCode=cirl20
It is difficult to assess whether the creation of the Department of Homeland Security has been effective in protection national security. The most obvious issue is that there are a lot of variables at play, and "protecting national security" is a hopelessly vague concept that would have to be operationalized before making such an assessment, in any meaningful empirical way. The DHS was created in 2002 in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The prevailing sentiment at the time was that there were communication failures among different agencies that created gaps in national security, gaps that the terrorists exploited. Agencies that were rolled into DHS included the U.S. Customs Service, INS, the TSA, FEMA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the Secret Service. In that sense, DHS is an amalgam of existing resources, and the main benefit of its creation should have been improved interagency communication (DHS, 2016)
DHS.gov (2016). Website, various pages. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved May 13, 2016 from https://www.dhs.gov/
New America.net (2016). Deadly attacks since 9/11. New America.net. Retrieved May 13, 2016 from http://securitydata.newamerica.net/extremists/deadly-attacks.html
Honolulu International Airport (HNL) is one of the world's largest, oldest, and most beautiful airports.
As the principal aviation gateway of the city and county of Honolulu on Oahu in the State of Hawaii, HNL is also identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States. Total traffic now exceeds 21 million passengers a year and is rising (Honolulu International Airport, 2016).
Owned and operated by the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation, HNL covers 4,520 acres of fast and submerged land. The airport itself is larger than the major resort destination of Waikiki, which is located 10 miles to the south (Honolulu International Airport, 2016).
HNL has four active runways, including the 12,000-foot Reef Runway. When it was built, the Reef Runway was the world's first major runway built entirely offshore (Honolulu International Airport, 2016). The airport is served by 27 international and domestic carriers, two interisland…
S. Customs and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services were combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Overall, DHS incorporates 22 government agencies. The major agencies of DHS are the TSA, Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, ICE, FEMA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard (Borja).
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed on July 1, 1973 and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. Former drug enforcement related agencies are the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The parent agency of the DEA is the U.S. Department of Justice. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA's primary goal is to combat drug smuggling and use within the U.S. The DEA shares jurisdiction with the FBI and ICE and shares communications systems with the Department of Defense. DEA…
Borja, Elizabeth. "Brief Documentary History of the Department of Homeland Security
2001-2008." Department of Homeland Security History Office. 2008. Print.
"DEA History." Drug Enforcement Adminstration. 3 February 2011. Web.
S. faced during the Cold ar. And unlike in environmental and health issues, the debate on homeland security is one-sided, almost bi-partisan, both conservatives and liberals calling for gigantic security budget for homeland security and anti-terrorist activities. Friedman explains, "[b]oth parties see political reward in preaching danger. The massive U.S. national security establishment relies on a sense of threat to stay in business" ("The Terrible 'Ifs'" 38). The stakeholders financially benefitting from the colossal homeland security budget are allied with leaders of both political camps and thus are interested in perpetuating fear.
This is not, of course, to suggest that the Department of Homeland Security is unnecessary, or that there is no terrorist threat directed against the United States. The fact that terrorists were unable to strike at the United States in the American soil suggests that the law enforcement agencies have been successful in thwarting terrorist plots. It would…
Friedman, Benjamin. "HOMELAND SECURITY." Foreign Policy 149 (2005): 22-28. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 20 Feb. 2011.
Friedman, Benjamin. "The Terrible 'If.'" Regulation 30.4 (2008): 32-40.
Light, Paul. "The Homeland Security Hash." Wilson Quarterly 31.2 (2007): 36-44. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 20 Feb. 2011.
Niskanen, William a., "The Several Costs of Responding to the Threat of Terrorism," Public Choice 128 (2006): 351-356.
They compete with each other for business, seek to build both aviation and non-aviation revenue streams and they must also deal with enhanced security requirements. This places significant pressure on the airport sector. The response within the sector has been twofold. Some airports have become privatized, which allows major airport operators to utilize their expertise across a range of markets. The other solution is the development of public airports that serve as branches of their governments, attracting passengers and investment to the region. Both types of airports have strong, multifaceted strategic mandates and are among the vanguard of modern air transportation.
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent…
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent
Cidell, J. (2004). Scales of airport expansion: Globalization, regionalization and local land use. Center for Transportation Studies. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.cts.umn.edu/pdf/CTS-04-01.pdf
Frost & Sullivan. (2010). 16th APSA International Conference Airport Security Market Overview. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.slideshare.net/tony.ridley/an-overview-of-the-airport-security-market
All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad accident that caused significant damage; 3) big marine accidents, including any marine accident that involved a public vessel and a nonpublic vessel; 4) pipeline accidents involving a fatality or significant property damage; and lastly, 5) fatalities or major injuries that were caused by the release of hazardous materials (2004).
The creation of the NTSB showed that Congress was thinking that a single agency could come up with a higher level of safety than the individual model agencies that were all working…
Boeing. (2010). Making flying safer -- how Boeing helps to advance safety. Retrieved on September 19, 2010, from the Website:
Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). FAA regulations. Retrieved on September 18,
2010, from the Website,
An example of the effectiveness of using this protocol can be seen at the El Al cargo terminal in angkok, Thailand during 2003. What happened was El Al security identified, an unauthorized man taking pictures of the cargo area. Once arrested by security personnel, it was determined that he was planning on launching surface to air missiles, against the airline. ("Thwarted Attack Against El Al Flight" 2003) What this shows, is that when you have specific designated areas, you can be able to identify those people who are at the cargo terminal, to cause damage / disruptions. This is because the designated areas, will force everyone who works there and is conducting business, to go through a particular set of structures / procedures. Anyone who is not following these policies would raise security concerns. At which point, the odds increase dramatically that this person will be stopped and questioned.
Recommended Security Guidelines for Airport Planning. (2006). TSA
Thwarted Attack Against El Al Flight. (2003). Retrieved July, 9, 2010 from All Business website: http://www.allbusiness.com/middle-east/israel/644547-1.html
Li, J. (2006). Cargo Security at the World's Busiest Airport. Retrieved July 9, 2010 from All Business website: http://www.asiansecurity.org/articles/2008/jun/03/cargo-security-worlds-busiest-airport/