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Tuberculosis Essays (Examples)

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Diagnosis and Treatment of TB
Words: 1771 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44261432
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Tuberculosis

Causative agent

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans. The most common causative agent of the disease is a bacterium a mycobacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium was first discovered by obert Koch in 1882. The physiology of this bacterium is aerobic and hence requires very high oxygen levels. This is primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system which infects the lungs. The most common methods used to diagnose tuberculosis are acid-fast stain, tuberculin skin test and chest radiations. M. tuberculosis requires oxygen in order for it to grow. Due to the presence of mycolic acid, M.tuberculosis has an waxy coating on its surface which is unusual making the cells impervious to Gram staining It can not retain any bacteriological stain as a result of a high lipid content on its wall therefore acid-fast staining or ziehl-Neelsen staining are used. Despite this M.tuberculosis is still…

References

Mandal, A. (2014). History of Tuberculosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from  http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx 

Knechel, N. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical Features, and Diagnosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from  http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/29/2/34.short 

Mathema, B., Kurepina, N., Bifani, P., & Kreiswirth, B. (2006). Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights. Retrieved October 18, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592690/

Community and Public Health Partnerships in Diverse Settings
Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3724013
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Public Health Partnerships in Diverse Settings

ho was the population of interest at that moment in time? In the article by Carthon, the African-American population in Philadelphia was in focus. At the turn of the last century, 1900, the statistics clearly showed that a much higher percentage of African-Americans ("blacks" is used in the references) were dying due to tuberculosis (TB) than Caucasians ("whites") (Carthon, 2011, 32). In fact the statistics showed that about 447 blacks per 100,000 were dying (from TB) at that time compared with just 197.3 whites per 100,000, Carthon explains.

hat was the environmental context within which the population lived at that time? hy were blacks more susceptible to TV than whites in the early 20th century? Carthon suggests that blacks tended to have jobs that had a "high exposure to dust, such as marble, stone, plaster, wood, and textile work." Clearly the black worker exposed…

Works Cited

Community Coalitions and Public Health

Carthon, J.M.B. (2011). Life and Death in Philadelphia's Black Belt: A Tale of an Urban

Tuberculosis Campaign, 1900-1930. Nursing History Review, Vol. 19, 29-52.

UK Urban Health Issue
Words: 3578 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9138501
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incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.

First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…

References

A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.

Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.

Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896

City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.

Developing Health
Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2012282
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Nurses Do? Many people, tropical countries Third World, die preventable, curable diseases. . . . Malaria,

Of the many challenges related to providing adequate health care in nations that are still developing, one of the most prominent is the fact that in many instances cases of both preventable and curable diseases (such as tuberculosis) are not sufficiently reported (WHO, 2012, p. 1). Without reporting that an individual is infected or even possibly infected by this particular malady or others, it is extremely difficult to provide the sort of remedy that could prevent such a disease from being fatal. In developing nations, there are a number of places in which communication is strained due to the fact that these locations are remote or are in parts of the world in which advancements in information technology (such as mobile devices and the internet) have not fully penetrated. Thus, one of the critical…

References

Crisp, N., Chen, L. (2014). Global supply of health professionals. New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved from  http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1111610?query=featured_global-health 

World Health Organization. (2012). "Global tuberculosis report 2012." World Health Organization. Retrieved from  http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/gtbr12_main.pdf

air traffic
Words: 28110 Length: 102 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 54322150
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air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).

In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…

References

Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2  (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at:  http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html  (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Cuban Case Study Mrs Demetilla Hernandez a
Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 52134499
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CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.

CUBAN CASE STUDY

As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?

Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.

Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez

in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?

People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…

References

Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.

Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among

Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved:  http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268 .

Effectiveness of the United Nations a Historical Look
Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84231360
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United Nations - the UN has been effective

The UN has succeeded in some of its international responsibilities but has failed in others; and according to the UN Charter the UN may not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state

The UN has achieved many "remarkable accomplishments" (Encarta.msn.com)

The UN has negotiated 172 peace settlements that ended regional conflicts

The UN has participated in more than 300 international treaties

The UN's "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (adopted in 1948) has been helpful in raising the consciousness of the need for human rights

Over 3 million children a year have been saved from polio, measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis thanks to immunization programs by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)

The UN promotes worker's rights and improves agricultural techniques in developing countries

TO: UN has success in Libya (Christian Science Monitor)

The UN Security Council unanimously awarded Libya's seat…

Works Cited

Background on the United Nations 2008. Accomplishments of the United Nations. Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://encarta.msn.com.

Boot, Max. 2000. Paving the Road to Hell: The Failure of U.N. Peacekeeping. Foreign Affairs.

Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://www.foreignaffaird.com. (March): 1-3.

Charbonneau, Louis. 2012. Analysis: U.N. confronts failure of diplomacy in Syria. Reuters.

Progress in Fighting TB
Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 95899717
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Cegielski, J., Griffith, D.E., McGaha, P.K., Wolfgang, M., Robinson, C.B., Clark, P.A., & ... Wallace, C. (2013). Eliminating uberculosis One Neighborhood at a ime. American Journal Of Public Health, 103(7), 1292-1300. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300781

his article covers the rate in which people have at least residual amounts of tuberculosis and how to best address the spread of B from one neighborhood to another. he article covers how local health departments track and deal with B (and similar diseases) as they arise and come up.

de Sa, L., Luiza Castro Gomes, A., do Carmo, J., de Souza, K., Palha, P., Alves, R., & de Andrade, S. (2013). Health education in tuberculosis control: the perspective of Family Health strategy professionals [Portuguese]. Revista Eletronica De Enfermagem, 15(1), 103-111. doi:10.5216/ree.v15i1.15246.

his study covers the concept of teaching and preparing future health professionals to assist with B prevention and treatment for future years and generations.

Hargreaves, J.R.,…

This article describes that tuberculosis, often referred to as TB, is spread via the air we breathe and this can cause it to be challenging to control. A study was conducted of nearly 1,400 students in which one student and some of his immediate family members contracted the disease. No deaths occurred but the event was certainly a test case.

Trends in tuberculosis - United States, 2010. (2011). MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 60(11), 333-337.

This report from the United States talks about the trends and patterns relating to TB as they were in 2010 with the United States being the focal point but other countries being covered and mentioned as well. There is a differentiation in statistics between native-born Americans and immigrants as that obviously has a bearing on infection rates due to the conditions of the source countries.

Magic Mountain by Thomas Mann
Words: 1478 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85178367
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Magic Mountain

Thomas Mann's the Magic Mountain

Madame Claudia Chauchat's point-of-view of her ailment -- "no delicate child of life," is she!

Thomas Mann as a novelist is uniquely gifted in his ability to convey philosophical insight through the deployment of a different characters' specific perspective in the context of a town, family or hospital community -- even the ailment afflicting the hospital community itself, in the case of The Magic Mountain. Even when the character in question, such as Claudia Chauchat, herself lacks a level of profound self-knowledge and insight, because of her location in the particular community of the sanatorium in question at the heart of the novel, the reader is still capable of being upon the receiving end of profound insights upon the contrasting nature of health and illness from Mann's point-of-view. "e don't have much time in life," exclaims the main protagonist at the onset of…

Works Cited

Mann, Thomas. The Magic Mountain. Translated by John Ford. New York: Knopf, 1995

Health of Farm Workers Farm
Words: 2713 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 29443252
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This is related to the fact that the use of pesticides is very poorly regulated. (Protect Farm orker's Health) the use of pesticides has become an area of research and concern by the health authorities. This aspect has been well documented but experts are of the opinion that there are "...insufficient studies examining the effects of multiple pesticide exposure." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005)

2.2.3. Access to health benefits and care

The general consensus from the literature on the subject is that migrant and seasonal farm workers and their families are "…overwhelmingly uninsured." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005) the 2005 study of the health of migrant farm works by Rosenbaum and Shin indicates that in 2000, "…85% of migrant and seasonal farm workers were uninsured, compared to 37% of low-income adults nationally." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005) the study also found that both migrant and seasonal farm workers had less access to health…

Works cited

Health Problems among Migrant Farmworkers' Children in the U.S. ERIC Digest.

September 27, 2008.

ILO warns on farm safety Agriculture mortality rates remain high Pesticides pose major health risks to global workforce. September 27, 2008.

Overview of America's Farmworkers. September 27, 2008.

Ray Technology in Medicine How
Words: 1960 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94082880
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Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…

References

Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.

Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.

Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,

1993, p89).

A Homeless Man TB Case Study
Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 32741471
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risk of progression when a person is exposed to the tuberculosis bacilli to the formation of active illness is a two-stage process that is directed by both endogenous and exogenous risk factors.

Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly, endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre, & Mathai, 2013, p. 1).

Certain risk factors that have been well-established such as HIV, young age, and malnutrition could exist alongside certain emerging variables like alcohol, indoor air pollution, tobacco smoke, and use of immunosuppressive drugs making the risk for contracting the disease that much higher. Joel is a heavy smoker, homeless, and an alcoholic. It is highly likely he is malnourished and is exposed to…

References

Collinson, S. (2014). Homeless with TB? Housing Should Be Part of the Treatment, not Part of the Problem. Journal of Social Inclusion, 5(2), 1. Retrieved from https://josi.journals.griffith.edu.au/index.php/inclusion/article/view/547

Kurbatova, E., Cegielski, J., Lienhardt, C., Akksilp, R., Bayona, J., & Becerra, M. et al. (2015). Sputum culture conversion as a prognostic marker for end-of-treatment outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a secondary analysis of data from two observational cohort studies. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3(3), 201-209.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2213-2600 (15)00036-3

Narasimhan, P., Wood, J., MacIntyre, C., & Mathai, D. (2013). Risk Factors for Tuberculosis. Pulmonary Medicine, 2013, 1-11.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/828939 

Onozuka, D., & Hagihara, A. (2014). The association of extreme temperatures and the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan. Int J Biometeorol, 59(8), 1107-1114.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-014-0924-3

The Ethics of Controlling Disease Spread
Words: 1071 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96833020
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Medical Ethics

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing

MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?

While it is definitely not a good thing that…

References

Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050 

Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428220/ 

Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. About.com Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from  http://std.about.com/od/prevention/f/contacttracing.htm 

McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from  http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323978104578332461533970412

Magic Johnson and HIV Science Knows That
Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88093176
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Magic Johnson and HIV

Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:

Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).

Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).

Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).

Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…

Works Cited

Aidsinfonet.org. Fact Sheet 801: "Vitamins and Minerals." Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view.801. 2012.

Cancer.org. "Kaposi Sarcoma: What is Kaposi Sarcoma?" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from  http://www.cancer.org . 2009.

Mayo Clinic. "HIV / AIDS" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from  http://www.mayoclinic.com . 2011.

Medical News Today. "What is Tuberculosis? What Causes Tuberculosis?" Retrieved June 24,

Poe's the Fall of the
Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 90733460
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According to Dougherty, it is generally accepted that death is the "indefinite object" (Dougherty) of "The Fall of the House of Usher" but if we take a moment to read the poem that rests in the text, we might discover "evidence of a more culturally and historically specific source for Usher's terror" (Dougherty). This source, in Dougherty's opinion, is a "wild and mournful interlude" to the tale that "so powerfully impresses the narrator, Usher dreams nostalgically about an ancient ruler who sits at a glorious throne" (Dougherty). The lord in the poem seeks pleasure and needs reassurance of his superiority. Dougherty notes that many critics maintain that the poem is a "microcosmic account of Usher's one great story" (Dougherty) but Dougherty believes that the poem reflects a microcosm of a "white colonial nightmare about the impending destruction of the southern slavocracy" (Dougherty).

Dougherty believes that the "experience of violent slave…

Works Cited

St. Armand, Barton, Usher Unveiled: Poe and the Metaphysic of Gnosticism." Edgar Allan Poe Society Online. Information Retrieved March 10, 2009. http://www.eapoe.org/pstudies/PS1970/P1972101.htm

Dougherty, Stephen. "Foucault in the House of Usher: Some Historical Permutations in Poe's Gothic." 2001. Information Retrieved March 10, 2009. GALE Resource Database.  http://www.infotrac.com 

Hoffman, Daniel. "The Fall of the House of Usher': An allegory of the Artist." Readings on Edgar Allan Poe. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Magistrale, Tony. American Writers. Parini, Jay. et al.New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 2003.

Silicosis Is a Possibly Deadly
Words: 2245 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34993030
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Transcription aspects (NFkB and activator pro- tein-1) might then be launched causing the manufacturing and launch of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), proteases, and arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene-B4, prostaglandin E2). When alveolar macrophages including silica die launch silica bits that are then re-engulfed by various other alveolar macrophages, they end up causing a cycle of injury. This cycle is accompanied by the motion of neutrophils and lymphocytes to the locations of injury leading to additional inflammatory modifications. Inflammatory cytokines consisting of interleukin 1 (IL-1), growth necrosis aspect-, arachidonic acid metabolites (eg, leukotrienes), and chemokines such as IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, MIP-1, MIP-1, and monocyte chemoattractant proteins all seem associated with this inflammatory process. In addition, macrophage- obtained fibrogenic aspects such as platelet-derived development elements, transforming development elements (TGF) - and - epidermal development aspect, and insulin-like development factor-1 are launched as the body starts reparative measures. A continuous…

References

Muetterties M, O'Halloran Schwarz L, Wang R. Sandblasters. In: Greenberg M, editor. Occupational, Industrial, and Environmental Toxicology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 2003.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report 2002. Publication No. 2003-111; Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2003.

Cassel SL, Eisenbarth SC, Iyer SS, et al. (June 2008). "The Nalp3 inflammasome is essential for the development of silicosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (26): 9035.

Rees D, and Murray J. Silica, silicosis and tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2007; 11: 474 -- 84.

Public Health Threats in the 21st Century
Words: 1571 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69466037
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Conclusion

This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…

References

CDC tuberculosis guidelines. (2014). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 25, 2014

from  http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/guidelines/default.htm .

Gorin, S. (2000, February). A 'society for all ages': Saving Social Security and Medicare. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 69.

Israel, B.A. & Parker, E.A. (2006, October). Community-based participatory research: Lessons

Annotated Bibliography for Prisons Conditions
Words: 1321 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 36753201
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Aleinikoff, . (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795

his paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. he author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." his is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location.

Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American…

This article shares the extent of prison conditions in an American prison named Pelican Bay State Prison in California. July 1, 2011, prisoners there started a sustained hunger strike. The reason being the majority of them were kept in complete solitary confinement, experiencing conditions considered torturous like extreme sensory deprivation for over five years. Some were kept in isolation for two decades. They asked for basic things during their strike like a phone call once a week, warm clothes to go outside in, supply of decent food, and a chance at escaping solitary confinement. {risons like this show how bad the American prison system can be.

Sarang, A., Platt, L., Vyshemirskaya, I., & Rhodes, T. (2016). Prisons as a source of tuberculosis in Russia. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 12(1), 45-56.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijph-07-2014-0022 

This study examines the poor conditions of Russian prisons that leads to a prevalence of tuberculosis. They analyze the poor prevention, treatment, and management of tuberculosis through collecting data from qualitative interviews with participants that are former medical specialists and prisoners in the region of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. They also show aside from poor management of tuberculosis infection; HIV infection are poorly managed revealing a poor prison health system in Russia. The study highlights the need for reform of the health system as well as the most common serious infections in Russian prisons. The most common being Tuberculosis and HIV.

Public Health information
Words: 2455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584020
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What are Bacteria and Viruses?

The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Causes

Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…

Edgar Allen Poe Romanticism of
Words: 1927 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11954279
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While Poe relates these as true stories, as opposed to the works of his own imagination, one can't but read them also as the fantastical longing of husband wanting to deny death's ability to separate him from his beloved wife.

After Virginia died, Poe went on a frenzied search for a female replacement. Not that any woman could have truly replaced Virginia in his eyes, but only that he found himself quite incapable of maintaining himself without a woman's influence. Poe pursued and was briefly engaged to poetess Sarah Helen Whitman, however the engagement dissolved largely due to Poe's growing reputation as a drunk. After Whitman, Poe passionately pursued Annie ichmond, though for her marriage to another man, their relations remained platonic. At the same time Poe was writing impassioned love letters to ichmond, he formed yet further platonic bonds with Sarah Anne Lewis, and poetess Susan Archer Talley. Finally,…

References

Bio. True Story. (2010). Edgar Allen Poe Biography. Retrieved December 11, 2010, from  http://www.biography.com/articles/Edgar-Allan-Poe-9443160?part=0 

Bloom, H. (1985). Edgar Allen Poe: Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House

Publishers.

Poe, E.A. (1983). The Unabridged Edgar Allen Poe. Philadelphia: Running Press.

Prokaryotes Consist of Millions of Genetically Distinct
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prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.

3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance.  http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/ 

4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.

Impact of AIDS in South Africa
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ADS in South Africa

Those of us living in the United States became used to the face of ADS a generation ago. We learned to recognize the particular gauntness that characterized those who had been struck by it, and who would soon be taken away by it. And then, after years of people dying from this disease, we learned that people who had this terrible disease could be healed; not cured, for they still contained the viruses within their bodies, but they could live lives that were happy and meaningful - and long. The terror of ADS subsided, becoming one of only many of the perils of modern life rather than one of the predominant ones.

But the trajectory of ADS in South Africa (as well as in other parts of the developing world, has been very different. Even in the first years of the disease the manifestations of it…

In already unstable societies, this cocktail of disasters is a sure recipe for more conflict. And conflict, in turn, provides fertile ground for further infections (http://www.nkosi.iafrica.com/aids_sa/).

AIDS is both the enemy in South Africa and a potential aid to other enemies. One of the reasons that AIDS has been successfully fought in the United States and Europe is the wealth of these nations; this has certainly been their primary advantage. But they have also benefited in the fight against AIDS from a high degree of social stability; public health measures can only be effective when used in a stable society.

One of the terrible ironies of AIDS in South Africa is that the nation does not have strong enough social structures to allow (at least so far) for the necessary public health measures to be taken. And as AIDS takes a greater and greater toll, the necessary social structures will only become weaker and weaker.

MDG for CA'te D'ivoire
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Prospects of a brighter future for Cote d'Lvoire

Cote d' Lvoire has finally recovered from a decade old socio-political crisis which plagued it from 2002-2011. This crisis hindered the almost all efforts in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDG indicators have shown a decrement in performance over the past years. Now growth is on its way and relations are being established with international financial institutions. The MDG goals will be attained by the latest 2012-2015 via the National Development Plan which has been enforced by Ivorian government (World Bank, 2011).

Situation of the MDGs in Cote d'Ivoire

The case for MDG's in Cote d'Lvoire

Birth of MDG indicators: A short introduction

According to MDG's, it's clear that there has been delay in eradication against poverty and education sector, gender discrimination in education, lack of women empowerment, child and mother health to name a few. The only work done…

References

AfDB (2011).The Middle of the Pyramid: Dynamics of the Middle Class in Africa. Market Brief, 20 April 2011, AfDB.

AfDB, OECD and UNECA (2010). African Economic Outlook 2010. Paris: OECD.

AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA (2011).African Economic Outlook 2011. Paris: OECD.

Berg, Andrew, Pedro Conceicao, Ayodele Odusola et al. (2012).Enhancing Development Assistance to Africa: Lessons from Scaling- Up Scenarios. New York: IMF.

Nursing Things
Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40396675
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Healthcare

International health care funding programs are collaborative, multinational, cross-disciplinary endeavors with a broad philanthropic outlook and scope. There are dozens of different international health care funding programs, all of which depend at least in part on private funding sources due to the prevalence of the neoliberal economic, political, and social justice model (Pfeiffer, 2003). Two of the most significant international health care funding programs include the Global Fund, which focuses on AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria to provide funding, consultation, leadership, research, coordination, and policy standardization; and the Commonwealth Fund, which is a fully private foundation dedicated to equitable access to healthcare resources. Both the Global Fund and the Commonwealth Fund perform similar functions as international health care funding programs. They provide services, support, human resources, and infrastructural support to primary health care delivery in the developing world but also in any region of need. Although utilization of the Global…

References

Anderson, G.F., Frogner, B.K., Johns, R.A. & Reinhardt, W.E. (2006). Health care spending and use of information technology in OECD countries. Health Affairs 25(3): 819-831.

Pfeiffer, J. (2003). International NGOs and primary health care in Mozambique: the need for a new model of collaboration. Social Science and Medicine 56(4): 725-738.

Approved by an Institutional Ethics Committee and
Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 49240336
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approved by an institutional ethics committee and designed to conform to the Helsinki Declaration (Zaman, Sheikh, Das, Zaman, & Pal, 2014). Informed consent was obtained after explaining that participant confidentiality would be protected. The risks were minimized by having the participants complete the questionnaires at home and the benefits maximized when visited by clinician/researchers during data collection. The purpose of the study was to identify demographic variables predicting delays between symptom onset and TB treatment-seeking behavior, so the gathering of demographic information through self-reports was appropriate and rigorous, but not the most rigorous. A more rigorous approach would be to validate collected information using family member interviews; therefore, key variables were not operationalized using the best possible method. Given the study design and purpose, a comparison group was not needed. Since the researchers were gathering demographic and symptom onset information, the risks to internal and construct validity was minimized. Socioeconomic…

References

Carlsson, M., Johansson, S., Eale, R.P., & Kaboru, B.B. (2014). Nurses' roles and experiences with enhancing adherence to tuberculosis treatment among patients in Burundi: A qualitative study. Tuberculosis Research & Treatment, doi: 10.1155/2014/984218. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25215232 .

Zaman, F.A., Sheikh, S., Das, K.C., Zaman, G.S., & Pal, R. (2014). An epidemiological study of newly diagnosed sputum positive tuberculosis patients in Dhubri district, Assam, India and the factors influencing their compliance to treatment. Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine, 5(2), 415-20. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25097426 .

CDC Measure of Associations
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Measure of associations
Exercise 3.7
1. Rate ratio comparing current smokers with nonsmokers
Rate ration = rate of current smokers/rate of nonsmokers
(Rate of current smokers = rate of smokers per 1000 persons-years = 1.3)
(Rate of nonsmokers = rate of nonsmokers per 1000 persons-years = 0.07)
Rate ration = 1.3/0.07
=18.57
2. Rate ratio comparing ex-smokers who quit at least 20 years ago with nonsmokers
Rate ration = rate of ex-smokers quitting at 20 years/rate of nonsmokers
(Rate of ex-smokers quitting at 20 years = rate per 1000 persons-years = 0.19)
(Rate of nonsmokers = rate per 1000 persons-years = 0.07)
Rate ration = 0.19/0.07
= 2.71
3. What are the public health implications of these findings?
Based on the calculation above, it is evident that the rate of lung cancer incidences among smokers is way too high, 18 times, as compared to nonsmokers. This leads to the conclusion…

Goals -- Some Progress for
Words: 1409 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 34192582
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To wit, in several SSA countries, the ratio of girls to boys in school is less than 80% (eight girls to every ten boys who have a chance at an education). In Chad, there are 6.4 girls to every 10 boys in primary education; in Guinea-Bissau there are 6.5 girls for every ten boys in school. Child mortality is a horrific problem in SSA: in 30 of the 47 countries the rate of child mortality is at least 1 in ten (for children under 5 years of age). In Sierra Leone, for example 262 out of every 1,000 children die before the age of five (orld Bank data).

Maternal health is a very serious problem in SSA; over thirty countries report more than 500 mothers out of every 100,000 either die during pregnancy or during childbirth. There are some frighteningly stark numbers among those 30 countries; to wit, in Sierra…

Works Cited

Franklin, Thomas. "Reaching the Millennium Development Goals: equality and justice as well as results." Development in Practice 18.3 (2008): 420-423.

United Nations. "The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008." Retrieved July 11,

2009, from  http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/ .

World Bank. "Data and Research." Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://econ.worldbank.org.

Columbian Exchange Is a Term
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ibliography

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

eezley, ill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.

Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.

Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Viola, Herman J. And Carolyn Margolis. Seeds of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.

David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 53.

Kirkpatrick Sale, the Conquest of Paradise (New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990), 34.

Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, Seeds of Change (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 79.

Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 197.

Viola and Margolis, 192.

F. Hodge, "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population…

Bibliography

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Beezley, Bill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.

Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.

Acquainted With the Night by Robert Frost
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Acquainted with the Night, by Robert Frost (1874-1963)

The poem Acquainted with the Night was written by Robert Frost and first printed in a collection called est Running Brook published in 1928. Robert Frost's poetry painted a classic picture of life in America. e get glimpses of every day scenes featuring every day people. e also get a picture of the very troubled and depressed Frost himself. hen reading Frost's poetry, it is important to consider the source of the melancholy tone and obsession with ghosts, death, loneliness and sorrow. Robert Frost had many losses in his personal life, business, and loved ones. He moved many times. It is a little known fact that Frost suffered from Tuberculosis. This disease was in epidemic proportions at the time. Tuberculosis not only effects your ability to breath, lowers your immune system, and steals your energy, it also causes sleeplessness, nervousness, and a…

Works Cited

Lentricchia, Frank. Robert Frost: Modern Poetics and the Landscapes of Self. Duke University Press.1975

Thompson. Lawrence. Robert Frost: The Years of Triumph, 1915-1938 .New York: Holt,

Rinehart, and Winston, 1970.

Jane Addams an Agent for
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Jane Addams was a pacifist, becoming involved with peace movements as early as 1898, according to Cimbala and Miller in Against the Tide: omen Reformers in American Society. She opposed the involvement of the United States in orld ar I and was deeply involved in the omen's International League for Peace and Freedom.

ritings

Jane Addams was a prolific writer. Elshtain, in Jane Addams and the Dream of American Democracy: A Life, provides a list of books written by Jane Addams, including Democracy and Social Ethics (1902); Newer Ideals of Peace (1907); The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909); Twenty Years at Hull House (1910); A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil (1912); omen at the Hague: The International Congress of omen and Its Results (1915), which was co-authored with two other women; The Long Road of omen's Memory (1916); Peace and Bread in Time of ar (1922);…

Works Cited

Addams, Jane. The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1909, 8.

Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull-House. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910. Quoted in Stillman, 1998.

Cimbala, Paul A., and Miller, Randall M. Against the Tide: Women Reformers in American Society. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Jane Addams and the Dream of American Democracy: A Life. New York: Basic Books, 2002, xxii - xix.

India's Health Care Compared to the U S
Words: 1881 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37001564
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Healthcare in the United States and India

The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…

References

Arora, N., Banerjee, A.K., (2010) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Prospects in Healthcare in India. Electronic Journal of Biology, 6(2), 24-25

Berman, P., Ahuja, R., Bhandari, L. (2010) The Impoverishing Effect of Healthcare Payments in India: New Methodology and Findings. Economic & Political Weekly, 45(16), 65-71.

Ma, S., & Neeraj, S. (2008) A Comparison of the Health Systems of China and India. RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy. Retrieved from  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2008/RAND_OP212.pdf 

Manchikanti, L., Caraway, D.L., Parr, A.T., Fellows, B., Hirsch, J.A. (2011) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade. Pain Physician, 14(1), 35-67.

Hyponatremia in a 38-Year-Old Male the Constellation
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Hyponatremia in a 38-year-Old male

The constellation of signs and symptoms the patient presented with is consistent with a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (Betterle, Pra, Mantero, and Zanchetta, 2002, p. 330-331). These include a recent history of gastric distress, partial loss of consciousness, lethargy, dizziness, disorientation, weight loss, hyponatremia, borderline hyperkalemia, low serum and free cortisol levels, and the lack of a rapid cortisol response to ACTH stimulation (Wilson, 2008). Signs and symptoms that may not support a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency include no mention of hyperpigmentation or pallor, and an unremarkable abdominal CT scan. A discussion of these signs and symptoms, and the possible relevance to a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency follows.

True Hyponatremia Diagnosis

There are a large number of conditions and diseases that can lead to the development of hyponatremia, so this symptom alone has limited diagnostic utility (Wilson, 2008, p. 519). The combination of severe hyponatremia…

References

Al-Aridi, Ribal, Abdelmannan, Dima, and Arafah, Baha M., 2011. Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency: The added value of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) measurements. Endocrine Practice, Published online ahead of print December 6, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from  http://aace.metapress.com/content/u645qx2217t34124/fulltext.pdf 

Andrews, Marcia, Johnson, Peter H., Kothare, Vijay S., and Weinstock, Doris, eds., 1999. Handbook of Diagnostic Tests, 2nd Edition. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse

Anglin, Rebecca E., Rosebush, Patricia I., and Mazurek, Michael F., 2006. The neuropsychiatric profile of Addison's disease: Revisiting a forgotten phenomenon. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18, 450-459.

Betterle, Corrado, Pra, Chiara Dal., Mantero, Franco, and Zanchetta, Renato, 2002. Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes: Autoantibodies, autoantigens, and the applicability in diagnosis and disease prediction. Endocrinology Reviews, 23, 327-364.

Common Health Care Practices in Honduras
Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71723525
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Health Care Practices in Honduras

In order to understand healthcare in Honduras, it is important to understand that Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western hemisphere (ennert & Koop, 2009).

"The economic situation is accompanied by a shortage of health professionals throughout the country. There are 57 physicians and 129 nurses per 100,000 people. In the United States, the corresponding ratios are 256 and 937 per 100,000 respectively" (ennert & Koop, 2009). This scenario means that many people in Honduras lack access to formal healthcare and must rely upon home or folk remedies for diagnosis and treatment of disease. The dire economic conditions in Honduras help create an atmosphere of chronic disease and health conditions that promote disease. Some of these problems include: diarrheal diseases, respiratory infections, lack of access to clean drinking water, waste disposal issues, muscle pain, and tuberculosis (ennert & Koop, 2009). In fact,…

References

Marson, M., Prohaska, A., Burris, S., Richardson, C. Crigger, N. (2006). Rural Hodurans perceptions about health and healthcare practices. Retrieved September 30, 2012 from Journal of Undergraduate Nursing Scholarship website: http://www.juns.nursing.arizona.edu/articles/Fall%202006/marson.htm

Massachusetts General Hospital. (2012). Honduras: Bits of culture. Retrieved September 30,

2012 from http://www2.massgeneral.org/interpreters/b_hon.asp

Rennert, W., & Koop, E. (2009). Primary health care for remote village communities in Honduras: A model for training and support of community health workers. Family Medicine, 41(9), 646-51.

Piaf Pam Gems provides a view into
Words: 46193 Length: 125 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 73251446
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in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…

Bibliography

Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786

Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260

Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.

Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/

Grassroots Advocacy
Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 39107701
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Commuity Advocacy Project: The Impact of Others

It is important in the position of advocacy to give consideration to the community impact and to the impact as an individual and this requires that ethical and legal issues be addressed relating to the advocacy plan. Specifically, the participation on some advocacy campaigns may be in appropriate depending upon the individual's position of employment. The focus of this study is to reflect on the legalities of advocacy work and consider any legal and ethical barriers that the employment setting will have on the ability to implement the advocacy plan and reflect on how one might use special interest groups in the community in the efforts to create public health policy change. As well, this study will consider the potential social change implications of the advocacy efforts.

Non-profits and Lobbying

When employed for non-profit organization considerations of advocacy must include the fact that…

Bibliography

Albarouki, L. (nd) Preventing Tuberculosis Worldwide. Literature Review.

ACT UP. (n.d.). AIDS coalition to unleash power. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from  http://www.actupny.org/ 

American Cancer Society. (2012). Retrieved from  http://www.cancer.org /

Blacksher, E. (2008). Carrots and sticks to promote healthy behaviors: A policy update. Hastings Center Report, 38(3), 13 -- 16. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Zaman Et Al 2014 With a Goal
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Zaman et al. (2014)

With a goal of identifying which socioeconomic variables predict TB treatment outcomes, Zaman and colleagues (2014) compared a number of socioeconomic variables using the Chi square test. This was not an appropriate choice for the categorical variables of treatment motivation, treatment delay, and distance from a directly-observed short-course therapy (DOTS) center, because the sample size was too small for several of the comparisons. A more appropriate test would be the exact test of goodness-of-fit or the Fisher's exact test. The significance values were such that type I and II errors were probably avoided, with p values of 0.97, 0.0096, and 0.0003, but effect sizes were not discussed and p values appeared to be used to indicate effect size, a common error. Missing values were included as categorical variables. The authors made extensive use of tables to present the data using exact patient counts per variable, which…

References

Carlsson, M., Johansson, S., Eale, R.P., & Kaboru, B.B. (2014). Nurses' roles and experiences with enhancing adherence to tuberculosis treatment among patients in Burundi: A qualitative study. Tuberculosis Research & Treatment, doi: 10.1155/2014/984218. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25215232 .

Zaman, F.A., Sheikh, S., Das, K.C., Zaman, G.S., & Pal, R. (2014). An epidemiological study of newly diagnosed sputum positive tuberculosis patients in Dhubri district, Assam, India and the factors influencing their compliance to treatment. Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine, 5(2), 415-20. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25097426 .

Criminal Justice System in Two Countries
Words: 4897 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49687414
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Criminal Justice System

Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.

Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:

Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…

References

Ackerman, S.R. (n.d.). Independence, political interference and corruption. Retrieved from:  http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CB8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.transparency.bg%2Fdownload.html%3Fid%3D674&ei=nmSFVJjfJsX3UIzXgpAL&usg=AFQjCNG3iXhyvEpGajwTxpO_2SO2oFiECw&sig2=qZhx2nM7AmhxVKqpdVdtOA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.d24 

BAR Human Rights Committee of England and Wales. (2010). A Place in the Sun Zimbabwe: A Report on the state of the rule of law in Zimbabwe after the Global Political Agreement of September. Retrieved from: www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/144602/7351_bhrc_zimbabwe_report.pdf

Barkow, R.E. (2008). Institutional Design and the Policing of Prosecutors: Lessons from Administrative Law. Stanford Law Review 61, 869-922.

Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press.

Indigenous Studies Colonization Can Negatively
Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18600663
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In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.

Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.

Government policy and exclusion

According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…

Works Cited

Aboriginal health issues.  http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/aboriginal_health_issues-open 

Anderson, I.,&Whyte, D. (2006). Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 5-16.

McCalman, J., Morley, R., & Mishra, G. (2008). A health transition: Birth weights, households and survival in an Australian working class population sample born 1857 -- 1900. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1070-1083.

McCalman J., Smith L., Anderson I., Morley R., Mishra G. (2009) Colonialism and the health transition: Aboriginal Australians and poor whites compared, Victoria, 1850 -- 1985. History of the Family 14-253 -- 265

History of Quarantine in the
Words: 3672 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17203367
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She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.

The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.

It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…

References

Barroni & Lemer, (1993). Temporarily Detained: Tuberculous Alcoholics in Seattle: 1949

through 1960. Public Health then and now. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 86 No. 2.  http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/257.pdf 

Elizabeth & Daniel M., (1988). AIDS: The Burdens of History. PP 151-152. London: University

of California Press Ltd. retrieved on May 17, 2010 from  http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=z6NTN5uYOEAC&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=the+most+concerted+attack+on+civil+liberties+in+the+name+of+public+health+in+American+history.%22&source=bl&ots=ex3b2rbZNW&sig=A0oWLrxni6iipuMdeUwT5jiCzEI&hl=en&ei=jvXyS6jkJZGnsAazg8HrCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=the%20most%20concerted%20attack%20on%20civil%20liberties%20in%20the%20name%20of%20public%20health%20in%20American%20history.%22&f=false

Funding for AIDS in Africa
Words: 3546 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 1779188
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The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)

Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…

References

Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN

Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.

DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's

Sons: New York.

Healthcare Propsal Are Immigrants Left
Words: 2880 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 45935050
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Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.

What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?

The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:

"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…

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Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America, Praeger Publishers, Westport,

CT.

Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Uninsured Americans: Newly