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Communicable disease: Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a widespread, lethal, and infectious/transmittable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterial infection usually begins in the form of innumerable strains of mycobacteria. In the past, tuberculosis was also termed as Phthisis or Phthisis pulmonalis. Its short form is known worldwide to be TB, or MTB. Stereotypically, tuberculosis is a lung infection that attacks the lungs; however, it can as well affect the other parts of the body. It can spread through the bloodstream and the lymph nodes to any other part of the human body. TB spreads through the air when affected individuals who have the infection in an active stage sneeze, coughs, or transmits any other respiratory fluid through the air to a non-infected person (Al Jahdali, Menzies & Al Otaibi, 2011). When individuals with active pulmonary TB sing, sneezes, spit, or cough; they emit infectious aerosol droplets, which are about 0.5…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis in Newham Borough of London
The Urban Health Profile
It is true that as long as there have been human beings on planet earth there has been a certain amount of struggle against disease and creatures that carry disease along with bacteria and viruses. These are the types of struggles and successes which have determined whether or not civilizations would triumph or be defeated, and these are the struggles which will no doubt be a part of the human experience for years to come. Just as human beings feel like they have some sort of leverage and superiority over illness a disease such as over strains of bacteria through antibiotics, strains of bacteria eventually became resistant to antibiotics and ended up conquering this form of treatment: "A relationship based on interdependency between humans and micro-organisms exists with one achieving dominance over the other throughout history" (Choudhury & Mayo, 2003).…… [Read More]
Others are more reckless and assume that they simply will not get sick. No matter who they are or where they come from, though, anyone can contract T if they get around someone who is infected, so people must put social, cultural, and other opinions aside in order to protect themselves and others around them from potentially deadly diseases like T (Lawlor, 2007).
It is very easy to see that T is serious and that it is not something that should be taken lightly by health care workers and by others who may have reason to come into contact with T-infected individuals. Approximately fifty percent of people who develop an active T infection and are not treated properly die from it. Anyone who works in a health care setting is at an increased risk simply because he or she is exposed to much more than other people are. Without…… [Read More]
5 per 100,000 in 1986. In 1994, the number of TB cases among residents of correctional facilities for 59 reporting areas had reached 24,361 (4.6% of the total reporting correctional population) (Braithwaite et al.). The incidence rate was 139.3 per 100,000 by 1993 and the unadjusted case rates for prison populations in many areas are significantly higher than the rates for the general population (Braithwaite et al.). According to these authors, "The 1993 TB case rate of 139.3 per 100,000 in the New York state correctional system was more than six times the case rate of 21.7 per 100,000 for the general population of New York state. Similarly, in New Jersey the incidence of TB among state inmates in 1992 was 91.3 per 100,000, compared with 12.6 per 100,000 for the state's general population in the same year" (Braithwaite et al., p. 109). At one California state prison, the annual…… [Read More]
From the lung apices to the hemi-diaphragms, 1.5-mm thick sections were taken at 10-mm intervals. The images were prospectively reconstructed with the use of a high-resolution bone algorithm in diagnosing the lung lesions. The HRCT results were then compared with the results of clinical and para-clinical work-up on the patients. The analysis and comparison of rank values were performed using the chi-square P-values less than 0.05, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were likewise computed.
Results showed that 61 of the patients were negative for sputum smear and culture, 9 were positive for both, 5 negative for sputum smear and culture positive and 27 diagnosed according to AL and TL results (Martin and Lazarus 2000, Karam). All of the patients had x-ray or chest radiographs suggesting active PT through infiltration or cavitation in the upper lobes. HRCT findings concluded that 76 of the patients or 74.5% had…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis, commonly abbreviated as TB and known throughout historical literature as consumption, is an infection caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. (Psy Guy, 2005) Pulmonary TB is the most common type of infection, which affects the lungs. There are several other manifestations of the infection including an infection of the central nervous system, known as meningitis, an infection of the circulatory system, known as miliary TB, as well as infections of the lymphatic system, the genitourinary system, the bones, and the joints. World-wide, tuberculosis infects two billion people. With one-third of all people affected, tuberculosis is easily the most common major infectious disease today. Most of the infections are asymptomatic latent TB infections, which have a ten percent chance of progressing to an active TB disease. If tuberculosis progresses to this point, there is a fifty percent chance of death if no treatment is received. Two million people die from…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease primarily affecting the respiratory system. Symptoms include coughing, phlegm, fever, and weight loss. The disease can be fatal if left untreated, and is treatable with medications including antibiotics. Tuberculosis is more common in developing countries, but can affect anyone with a lowered immune system. Preventing the spread of tuberculosis involves public health campaigns to raise awareness.
The bacterium that causes tuberculosis is called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although it most commonly infects the lungs, Mycobacterium tuberculosis can also affect other organs in the body. Exposure to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria does not necessarily lead to manifestations of the illness, because the bacteria can live inside the body and remain inactive. Moreover, when the bacteria remain inactive or latent, the disease will not be contagious ("Understanding Tuberculosis: The Basics," 2015). This is why only a small number of persons who are exposed to the tuberculosis bacteria will…… [Read More]
The Emergence and Re-emergence of Tuberculosis: Prevalence of Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in the 21st Century
In the 2003 lung disease statistics, tuberculosis is considered the "foremost cause of death from a single infectious disease," wherein T is prevalent among developing countries, causing 99% of deaths (ALA, 2004). Indeed, American Lung Association (2004) considers tuberculosis as the an "ancient scourge," gaining prevalence in the 19th century and resurging once again in the 21st century, despite medical technologies developed to curb the said airborne disease. Tuberculosis is an airborne disease that is characterized chronic or acute bacterial infection that attacks the lungs, and can also affect other parts and vital organs of the body, such as the bones, skin, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and the neck (affecting the lymph nodes) (Reichman, 2002:14). It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Symptoms of T are coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, chills, and fatigue (Microsoft…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis and AIDS Quarantines -- Ineffective Strategies of Disease Control
Imagine this. You sit next to someone in a crowded subway car, or come into contact with someone on a daily basis because they live in the same apartment complex. That person coughs frequently, and sometimes spits up blood. Later you find out that person had a contagious disease -- tuberculosis. Then you start to cough. You go to your doctor and find out that same person passed that same contagious illness onto you, because the ailment can be passes through casual contact, simply by breathing in the bacteria through the air. According to the Center for Disease Control, "TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs or sneezes. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis [...] tuberculosis as an emerging infectious disease. Tuberculosis is not a new disease, and the fact that it still exists in the world illustrates the tenacity of this infectious disease and the difficulties in continually treating and eliminating these types of diseases. Tuberculosis continues to kill millions of people each year and scientists are attempting to find new cures for the disease as it spirals out of control into one of the worst health menaces facing our world today.
History of Tuberculosis
The scientist obert Koch first discovered the disease tuberculosis (TB) in humans in 1882. There is also a bovine form of the disease that is effectively controlled in areas that thoroughly pasteurize milk and practice more efficient health care in cattle. Birds can also carry a type of tuberculosis that can affect humans. Before its discovery, tuberculosis was known by a variety of names, including the most…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis’ policies, finance, global prevention, and treatment initiatives related to Tuberculosis by their applicable ethics principles.
Considerable headway has been achieved in the battle against tuberculosis in the 21st century – a total of forty-nine million patients’ lives have been saved. But the disease continues to pose a major health threat, especially to highly vulnerable population groups worldwide (Organization, W 2009). Tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment gives rise to both ethical and technical problems which must be appropriately dealt with. For example, the latest involuntary quarantine of tuberculosis-diagnosed individuals across the globe raises the issue of balancing public health protection with individual freedoms and rights.
The End Tuberculosis Strategy of the WHO (World Health Organization) and the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations aimed at eliminating this endemic by the year 2030 demand due focus on ethics, equity, and human rights. To this end, a WHO-published tuberculosis ethics…… [Read More]
Scope and Depth of the Problem
One of the top ten causes of death worldwide, tuberculosis kills almost two million people per year (World Health Organization, 2018). Viewed another way, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018) claims that one quarter of the world’s population is currently infected with tuberculosis. The number of cases in the United States has declined slowly, and is currently less than 10,000 (CDC, 2017a). All fifty states reported at least one case of tuberculosis in 2016 (CDC, 2017b). Worldwide, though, there are about 10 million new cases each year as of 2016, the majority of which occur in just seven countries: India, Indonesia, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, and South Africa. Tuberculosis is preventable when diagnostic and treatment interventions are available. The infection can also remain latent and non-contagious. However, there are some tuberculosis strains that have been becoming drug-resistant, impeding the effort to…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis vaccine has been around for decades. However, tuberculosis is still one of the most significant reasons for death globally. Furthermore amidst the still developing nations, tuberculosis has not decreased, with cases on the rise annually. Measures to prevent tuberculosis must be taken. Recent studies and articles relaying information on better medications, and increased efforts towards prevention has led to potential decline in tuberculosis cases. Within the next decade, hopes are for Africa, where tuberculosis diagnosis remains high, to also see a decline. Notwithstanding these developments, full scale-up of tuberculosis and HV cooperative undertakings remains perplexing and evolving drug-resistant tuberculosis is slowly becoming a key threat.
Morbidity and Mortality Statistics
This article review will focus on existing information on tuberculosis cases to better understand the spread of tuberculosis globally. t will contain articles that examine the failure of national programs to address treatment and diagnosis of tuberculosis which adds to…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis: Causes, Effects, Symptoms and Prevention Measures
Bacterial infections range from mild skin infections to more complicated diseases such as tuberculosis and bubonic plague. Advanced antibiotics, vaccines, and improved sanitation have over the years caused significant reductions in the mortality rates resulting from bacterial infections. Cases of resurgence have, however, been reported in some instances as a result of the evolution of strains that are resistant to antibiotics. Tuberculosis comes about when disease-causing bacteria induce sensitivity into the host's antigenic system (Clark 181). This text examines the costs imposed by TB on an individual and the economy and how the incidence of TB can be controlled. It hypothesizes that the control of TB is not a one-nation affair; in order to effectively combat TB within its borders, a nation must work hand in hand with other nations.
TB was once thought to be headed for extinction. Recent statistics,…… [Read More]
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a potentially deadly bacterium that can come into contact with humans and create an unpleasant scenario. Because of the potential danger that this bacterium holds, numerous diagnostic tests exist that will help to accurately identify this particular strand. The first test that is done on an unidentified bacterium is the Gram Stain. This stain allows for the determination of whether the bacterium that is being tested is either gram-positive or gram-negative (Murray and Baron, 544). This is important as almost all of the bacteria in the world fall into these two categories.
The difference between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria is in the composition of the bacterial wall. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer that is made up of polysaccharides; however, gram-negative bacteria have a thinner peptidoglycan layer, but it has an extra lipid layer surrounding the outside of its cell wall (Brooks et al., 232). This…… [Read More]
Studies show that "tuberculosis, other infections diseases, as well as alcoholism, decimated the Indian and contributed to the breakdown of both their physical stamina and their morale" (Dubos 189). Thus, the Native American tribes were demoralized by relocation to reservations, but also by their inability to fight off the white man's diseases. They decimated the population, and left behind a more resilient but less motivated population. Losing one's home is bad enough, but losing loved one's to the white man's diseases is even more difficult to bear. It is easy to see why so many Native American tribes have eventually disappeared or degenerated. Disease was a compelling factor in the fall of the Native American tribes, and the white man contributed to the fall in many, many ways. It is clear that tuberculosis and history are intertwined, and that many historical events in America could have taken a different turn…… [Read More]
disease trend. Some examples Tuberculosis
Sarah Eucalano's article that appeared in the Badger Herald, "Bird flu studies to resume shortly" details the research efforts of the international community towards the bird flu epidemic. This work attempts to identify the reasons why research into this field was abandoned, and why it is attempting to recrudesce. It alludes to the seriousness of this particular illness, and makes a plethora of references to the international research community's efforts to counteract some of the negative effects of this virus.
However, the article makes no claims regarding the treatment of the disease. This rather egregious omission is considerably understandable, of course, due to the fact that research on this particular virus had been quiescent for "more than a year" (Eucalano, 2013). At this point, treatment options for this particular virus are still being studied -- or rather, the study of treatment options is just now…… [Read More]
The drugs must also be of quality. This is often not the case, as substandard anti-tuberculosis drugs are widely available on the market in man countries.
The World Health Organization is at this time assessing the quality of drugs produced by different manufacturers, an important exercise which should make possible developing countries to acquire pre-qualified drugs of guaranteed quality. Today, however, there are no pre-qualified sources of anti-tuberculosis drugs in formulations suitable for children, nor are there any pre-qualified sources of streptomycin, one of the drugs used against TB. TB disease can be treated by taking several drugs for 6 to 12 months. It is very important that people who have TB disease finish the medicine, and take the drugs exactly as prescribed. If they stop taking the drugs too soon, they can become sick again; if they do not take the drugs correctly, the germs that are still alive…… [Read More]
A further significant advance came in 1895 when ilhelm Konrad von Rontgen discovered the radiation that bears his name. Now the progress and severity of a patient's disease could be accurately followed and reviewed. (NJDHSS)
An important development in the treatment of TB started in 1886 in the United States. The physician Edward Trudeau led the sanatorium movement, based on the European model of strict supervision in providing fresh air and sunshine, bed rest, and nutritious foods. (NDHHS) This movement took place in conjunction with growing infection control measures in large urban centers of the country, and TB patients who could not be treated in local dispensaries were removed from the general population and place into sanatoriums. By 1938 there were more than 700 sanatoriums throughout the U.S., yet the number of patients outnumbered the beds available. (NDHHS) Thankfully after centuries, even millennia, of humans succumbing to TB, during orld…… [Read More]
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans. The most common causative agent of the disease is a bacterium a mycobacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium was first discovered by obert Koch in 1882. The physiology of this bacterium is aerobic and hence requires very high oxygen levels. This is primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system which infects the lungs. The most common methods used to diagnose tuberculosis are acid-fast stain, tuberculin skin test and chest radiations. M. tuberculosis requires oxygen in order for it to grow. Due to the presence of mycolic acid, M.tuberculosis has an waxy coating on its surface which is unusual making the cells impervious to Gram staining It can not retain any bacteriological stain as a result of a high lipid content on its wall therefore acid-fast staining or ziehl-Neelsen staining are used. Despite this M.tuberculosis is still…… [Read More]
Public Health Partnerships in Diverse Settings
ho was the population of interest at that moment in time? In the article by Carthon, the African-American population in Philadelphia was in focus. At the turn of the last century, 1900, the statistics clearly showed that a much higher percentage of African-Americans ("blacks" is used in the references) were dying due to tuberculosis (TB) than Caucasians ("whites") (Carthon, 2011, 32). In fact the statistics showed that about 447 blacks per 100,000 were dying (from TB) at that time compared with just 197.3 whites per 100,000, Carthon explains.
hat was the environmental context within which the population lived at that time? hy were blacks more susceptible to TV than whites in the early 20th century? Carthon suggests that blacks tended to have jobs that had a "high exposure to dust, such as marble, stone, plaster, wood, and textile work." Clearly the black worker exposed…… [Read More]
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…… [Read More]
Nurses Do? Many people, tropical countries Third World, die preventable, curable diseases. . . . Malaria,
Of the many challenges related to providing adequate health care in nations that are still developing, one of the most prominent is the fact that in many instances cases of both preventable and curable diseases (such as tuberculosis) are not sufficiently reported (WHO, 2012, p. 1). Without reporting that an individual is infected or even possibly infected by this particular malady or others, it is extremely difficult to provide the sort of remedy that could prevent such a disease from being fatal. In developing nations, there are a number of places in which communication is strained due to the fact that these locations are remote or are in parts of the world in which advancements in information technology (such as mobile devices and the internet) have not fully penetrated. Thus, one of the critical…… [Read More]
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]
CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.
CUBAN CASE STUDY
As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?
Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.
Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez
in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?
People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…… [Read More]
United Nations - the UN has been effective
The UN has succeeded in some of its international responsibilities but has failed in others; and according to the UN Charter the UN may not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state
The UN has achieved many "remarkable accomplishments" (Encarta.msn.com)
The UN has negotiated 172 peace settlements that ended regional conflicts
The UN has participated in more than 300 international treaties
The UN's "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (adopted in 1948) has been helpful in raising the consciousness of the need for human rights
Over 3 million children a year have been saved from polio, measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis thanks to immunization programs by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)
The UN promotes worker's rights and improves agricultural techniques in developing countries
TO: UN has success in Libya (Christian Science Monitor)
The UN Security Council unanimously awarded Libya's seat…… [Read More]
Cegielski, J., Griffith, D.E., McGaha, P.K., Wolfgang, M., Robinson, C.B., Clark, P.A., & ... Wallace, C. (2013). Eliminating uberculosis One Neighborhood at a ime. American Journal Of Public Health, 103(7), 1292-1300. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300781
his article covers the rate in which people have at least residual amounts of tuberculosis and how to best address the spread of B from one neighborhood to another. he article covers how local health departments track and deal with B (and similar diseases) as they arise and come up.
de Sa, L., Luiza Castro Gomes, A., do Carmo, J., de Souza, K., Palha, P., Alves, R., & de Andrade, S. (2013). Health education in tuberculosis control: the perspective of Family Health strategy professionals [Portuguese]. Revista Eletronica De Enfermagem, 15(1), 103-111. doi:10.5216/ree.v15i1.15246.
his study covers the concept of teaching and preparing future health professionals to assist with B prevention and treatment for future years and generations.
Hargreaves, J.R.,…… [Read More]
Thomas Mann's the Magic Mountain
Madame Claudia Chauchat's point-of-view of her ailment -- "no delicate child of life," is she!
Thomas Mann as a novelist is uniquely gifted in his ability to convey philosophical insight through the deployment of a different characters' specific perspective in the context of a town, family or hospital community -- even the ailment afflicting the hospital community itself, in the case of The Magic Mountain. Even when the character in question, such as Claudia Chauchat, herself lacks a level of profound self-knowledge and insight, because of her location in the particular community of the sanatorium in question at the heart of the novel, the reader is still capable of being upon the receiving end of profound insights upon the contrasting nature of health and illness from Mann's point-of-view. "e don't have much time in life," exclaims the main protagonist at the onset of…… [Read More]
This is related to the fact that the use of pesticides is very poorly regulated. (Protect Farm orker's Health) the use of pesticides has become an area of research and concern by the health authorities. This aspect has been well documented but experts are of the opinion that there are "...insufficient studies examining the effects of multiple pesticide exposure." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005)
2.2.3. Access to health benefits and care
The general consensus from the literature on the subject is that migrant and seasonal farm workers and their families are "…overwhelmingly uninsured." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005) the 2005 study of the health of migrant farm works by Rosenbaum and Shin indicates that in 2000, "…85% of migrant and seasonal farm workers were uninsured, compared to 37% of low-income adults nationally." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005) the study also found that both migrant and seasonal farm workers had less access to health…… [Read More]
Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…… [Read More]
risk of progression when a person is exposed to the tuberculosis bacilli to the formation of active illness is a two-stage process that is directed by both endogenous and exogenous risk factors.
Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly, endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre, & Mathai, 2013, p. 1).
Certain risk factors that have been well-established such as HIV, young age, and malnutrition could exist alongside certain emerging variables like alcohol, indoor air pollution, tobacco smoke, and use of immunosuppressive drugs making the risk for contracting the disease that much higher. Joel is a heavy smoker, homeless, and an alcoholic. It is highly likely he is malnourished and is exposed to…… [Read More]
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing
MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?
While it is definitely not a good thing that…… [Read More]
Magic Johnson and HIV
Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:
Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).
Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).
Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).
Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…… [Read More]
According to Dougherty, it is generally accepted that death is the "indefinite object" (Dougherty) of "The Fall of the House of Usher" but if we take a moment to read the poem that rests in the text, we might discover "evidence of a more culturally and historically specific source for Usher's terror" (Dougherty). This source, in Dougherty's opinion, is a "wild and mournful interlude" to the tale that "so powerfully impresses the narrator, Usher dreams nostalgically about an ancient ruler who sits at a glorious throne" (Dougherty). The lord in the poem seeks pleasure and needs reassurance of his superiority. Dougherty notes that many critics maintain that the poem is a "microcosmic account of Usher's one great story" (Dougherty) but Dougherty believes that the poem reflects a microcosm of a "white colonial nightmare about the impending destruction of the southern slavocracy" (Dougherty).
Dougherty believes that the "experience of violent slave…… [Read More]
Transcription aspects (NFkB and activator pro- tein-1) might then be launched causing the manufacturing and launch of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), proteases, and arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene-B4, prostaglandin E2). When alveolar macrophages including silica die launch silica bits that are then re-engulfed by various other alveolar macrophages, they end up causing a cycle of injury. This cycle is accompanied by the motion of neutrophils and lymphocytes to the locations of injury leading to additional inflammatory modifications. Inflammatory cytokines consisting of interleukin 1 (IL-1), growth necrosis aspect-, arachidonic acid metabolites (eg, leukotrienes), and chemokines such as IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, MIP-1, MIP-1, and monocyte chemoattractant proteins all seem associated with this inflammatory process. In addition, macrophage- obtained fibrogenic aspects such as platelet-derived development elements, transforming development elements (TGF) - and - epidermal development aspect, and insulin-like development factor-1 are launched as the body starts reparative measures. A continuous…… [Read More]
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…… [Read More]
Aleinikoff, . (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795
his paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. he author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." his is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location.
Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American…… [Read More]
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…… [Read More]
While Poe relates these as true stories, as opposed to the works of his own imagination, one can't but read them also as the fantastical longing of husband wanting to deny death's ability to separate him from his beloved wife.
After Virginia died, Poe went on a frenzied search for a female replacement. Not that any woman could have truly replaced Virginia in his eyes, but only that he found himself quite incapable of maintaining himself without a woman's influence. Poe pursued and was briefly engaged to poetess Sarah Helen Whitman, however the engagement dissolved largely due to Poe's growing reputation as a drunk. After Whitman, Poe passionately pursued Annie ichmond, though for her marriage to another man, their relations remained platonic. At the same time Poe was writing impassioned love letters to ichmond, he formed yet further platonic bonds with Sarah Anne Lewis, and poetess Susan Archer Talley. Finally,…… [Read More]
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]
ADS in South Africa
Those of us living in the United States became used to the face of ADS a generation ago. We learned to recognize the particular gauntness that characterized those who had been struck by it, and who would soon be taken away by it. And then, after years of people dying from this disease, we learned that people who had this terrible disease could be healed; not cured, for they still contained the viruses within their bodies, but they could live lives that were happy and meaningful - and long. The terror of ADS subsided, becoming one of only many of the perils of modern life rather than one of the predominant ones.
But the trajectory of ADS in South Africa (as well as in other parts of the developing world, has been very different. Even in the first years of the disease the manifestations of it…… [Read More]
Prospects of a brighter future for Cote d'Lvoire
Cote d' Lvoire has finally recovered from a decade old socio-political crisis which plagued it from 2002-2011. This crisis hindered the almost all efforts in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDG indicators have shown a decrement in performance over the past years. Now growth is on its way and relations are being established with international financial institutions. The MDG goals will be attained by the latest 2012-2015 via the National Development Plan which has been enforced by Ivorian government (World Bank, 2011).
Situation of the MDGs in Cote d'Ivoire
The case for MDG's in Cote d'Lvoire
Birth of MDG indicators: A short introduction
According to MDG's, it's clear that there has been delay in eradication against poverty and education sector, gender discrimination in education, lack of women empowerment, child and mother health to name a few. The only work done…… [Read More]
International health care funding programs are collaborative, multinational, cross-disciplinary endeavors with a broad philanthropic outlook and scope. There are dozens of different international health care funding programs, all of which depend at least in part on private funding sources due to the prevalence of the neoliberal economic, political, and social justice model (Pfeiffer, 2003). Two of the most significant international health care funding programs include the Global Fund, which focuses on AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria to provide funding, consultation, leadership, research, coordination, and policy standardization; and the Commonwealth Fund, which is a fully private foundation dedicated to equitable access to healthcare resources. Both the Global Fund and the Commonwealth Fund perform similar functions as international health care funding programs. They provide services, support, human resources, and infrastructural support to primary health care delivery in the developing world but also in any region of need. Although utilization of the Global…… [Read More]
approved by an institutional ethics committee and designed to conform to the Helsinki Declaration (Zaman, Sheikh, Das, Zaman, & Pal, 2014). Informed consent was obtained after explaining that participant confidentiality would be protected. The risks were minimized by having the participants complete the questionnaires at home and the benefits maximized when visited by clinician/researchers during data collection. The purpose of the study was to identify demographic variables predicting delays between symptom onset and TB treatment-seeking behavior, so the gathering of demographic information through self-reports was appropriate and rigorous, but not the most rigorous. A more rigorous approach would be to validate collected information using family member interviews; therefore, key variables were not operationalized using the best possible method. Given the study design and purpose, a comparison group was not needed. Since the researchers were gathering demographic and symptom onset information, the risks to internal and construct validity was minimized. Socioeconomic…… [Read More]
Measure of associations
1. Rate ratio comparing current smokers with nonsmokers
Rate ration = rate of current smokers/rate of nonsmokers
(Rate of current smokers = rate of smokers per 1000 persons-years = 1.3)
(Rate of nonsmokers = rate of nonsmokers per 1000 persons-years = 0.07)
Rate ration = 1.3/0.07
2. Rate ratio comparing ex-smokers who quit at least 20 years ago with nonsmokers
Rate ration = rate of ex-smokers quitting at 20 years/rate of nonsmokers
(Rate of ex-smokers quitting at 20 years = rate per 1000 persons-years = 0.19)
(Rate of nonsmokers = rate per 1000 persons-years = 0.07)
Rate ration = 0.19/0.07
3. What are the public health implications of these findings?
Based on the calculation above, it is evident that the rate of lung cancer incidences among smokers is way too high, 18 times, as compared to nonsmokers. This leads to the conclusion…… [Read More]
To wit, in several SSA countries, the ratio of girls to boys in school is less than 80% (eight girls to every ten boys who have a chance at an education). In Chad, there are 6.4 girls to every 10 boys in primary education; in Guinea-Bissau there are 6.5 girls for every ten boys in school. Child mortality is a horrific problem in SSA: in 30 of the 47 countries the rate of child mortality is at least 1 in ten (for children under 5 years of age). In Sierra Leone, for example 262 out of every 1,000 children die before the age of five (orld Bank data).
Maternal health is a very serious problem in SSA; over thirty countries report more than 500 mothers out of every 100,000 either die during pregnancy or during childbirth. There are some frighteningly stark numbers among those 30 countries; to wit, in Sierra…… [Read More]
Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
eezley, ill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.
Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.
Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.
Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Viola, Herman J. And Carolyn Margolis. Seeds of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 53.
Kirkpatrick Sale, the Conquest of Paradise (New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990), 34.
Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, Seeds of Change (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 79.
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 197.
Viola and Margolis, 192.
F. Hodge, "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population…… [Read More]
Acquainted with the Night, by Robert Frost (1874-1963)
The poem Acquainted with the Night was written by Robert Frost and first printed in a collection called est Running Brook published in 1928. Robert Frost's poetry painted a classic picture of life in America. e get glimpses of every day scenes featuring every day people. e also get a picture of the very troubled and depressed Frost himself. hen reading Frost's poetry, it is important to consider the source of the melancholy tone and obsession with ghosts, death, loneliness and sorrow. Robert Frost had many losses in his personal life, business, and loved ones. He moved many times. It is a little known fact that Frost suffered from Tuberculosis. This disease was in epidemic proportions at the time. Tuberculosis not only effects your ability to breath, lowers your immune system, and steals your energy, it also causes sleeplessness, nervousness, and a…… [Read More]
Jane Addams was a pacifist, becoming involved with peace movements as early as 1898, according to Cimbala and Miller in Against the Tide: omen Reformers in American Society. She opposed the involvement of the United States in orld ar I and was deeply involved in the omen's International League for Peace and Freedom.
Jane Addams was a prolific writer. Elshtain, in Jane Addams and the Dream of American Democracy: A Life, provides a list of books written by Jane Addams, including Democracy and Social Ethics (1902); Newer Ideals of Peace (1907); The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909); Twenty Years at Hull House (1910); A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil (1912); omen at the Hague: The International Congress of omen and Its Results (1915), which was co-authored with two other women; The Long Road of omen's Memory (1916); Peace and Bread in Time of ar (1922);…… [Read More]
Healthcare in the United States and India
The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…… [Read More]
Hyponatremia in a 38-year-Old male
The constellation of signs and symptoms the patient presented with is consistent with a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (Betterle, Pra, Mantero, and Zanchetta, 2002, p. 330-331). These include a recent history of gastric distress, partial loss of consciousness, lethargy, dizziness, disorientation, weight loss, hyponatremia, borderline hyperkalemia, low serum and free cortisol levels, and the lack of a rapid cortisol response to ACTH stimulation (Wilson, 2008). Signs and symptoms that may not support a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency include no mention of hyperpigmentation or pallor, and an unremarkable abdominal CT scan. A discussion of these signs and symptoms, and the possible relevance to a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency follows.
True Hyponatremia Diagnosis
There are a large number of conditions and diseases that can lead to the development of hyponatremia, so this symptom alone has limited diagnostic utility (Wilson, 2008, p. 519). The combination of severe hyponatremia…… [Read More]
Health Care Practices in Honduras
In order to understand healthcare in Honduras, it is important to understand that Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western hemisphere (ennert & Koop, 2009).
"The economic situation is accompanied by a shortage of health professionals throughout the country. There are 57 physicians and 129 nurses per 100,000 people. In the United States, the corresponding ratios are 256 and 937 per 100,000 respectively" (ennert & Koop, 2009). This scenario means that many people in Honduras lack access to formal healthcare and must rely upon home or folk remedies for diagnosis and treatment of disease. The dire economic conditions in Honduras help create an atmosphere of chronic disease and health conditions that promote disease. Some of these problems include: diarrheal diseases, respiratory infections, lack of access to clean drinking water, waste disposal issues, muscle pain, and tuberculosis (ennert & Koop, 2009). In fact,…… [Read More]
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…… [Read More]
Commuity Advocacy Project: The Impact of Others
It is important in the position of advocacy to give consideration to the community impact and to the impact as an individual and this requires that ethical and legal issues be addressed relating to the advocacy plan. Specifically, the participation on some advocacy campaigns may be in appropriate depending upon the individual's position of employment. The focus of this study is to reflect on the legalities of advocacy work and consider any legal and ethical barriers that the employment setting will have on the ability to implement the advocacy plan and reflect on how one might use special interest groups in the community in the efforts to create public health policy change. As well, this study will consider the potential social change implications of the advocacy efforts.
Non-profits and Lobbying
When employed for non-profit organization considerations of advocacy must include the fact that…… [Read More]
Zaman et al. (2014)
With a goal of identifying which socioeconomic variables predict TB treatment outcomes, Zaman and colleagues (2014) compared a number of socioeconomic variables using the Chi square test. This was not an appropriate choice for the categorical variables of treatment motivation, treatment delay, and distance from a directly-observed short-course therapy (DOTS) center, because the sample size was too small for several of the comparisons. A more appropriate test would be the exact test of goodness-of-fit or the Fisher's exact test. The significance values were such that type I and II errors were probably avoided, with p values of 0.97, 0.0096, and 0.0003, but effect sizes were not discussed and p values appeared to be used to indicate effect size, a common error. Missing values were included as categorical variables. The authors made extensive use of tables to present the data using exact patient counts per variable, which…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice System
Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.
Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:
Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…… [Read More]
In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.
Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.
Government policy and exclusion
According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…… [Read More]
She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.
The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.
It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…… [Read More]
The resulting information points to the idea that there are more factors at play than simply developing and then providing vaccination doses to developing nations. The action plans that produce better results are paramount to success, and factors of social significance are just as important as or more important than having enough clinicians or clinics to administer the immunizations. The idea that community based and local volunteers would be needed to help administer and do family teaching about immunizations in India is also supported by Prinja, Gupta, Singha & Kumar who stress that in their large trial, associated with timely vaccinations of children in India with the DPT vaccination the results were far better when local volunteers were recruited as the presence of these individuals as well as their supportive education helped individuals better understand the need for their children to get the vaccination (eb-97). Another concept that is raised…… [Read More]
The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)
Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…… [Read More]