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Shakespeare's play Twelfth Night is an Elizabethan situation comedy. Each character has a problem to solve, and each one finds a different way to attempt to solve it. For most of the characters their difficulties revolve around members of the opposite sex. By the time the play has been completed, it is the female characters who have accomplished their goals to the satisfaction of all the parties involved. Olivia, Viola and Maria all demonstrate their ability to accomplish their romantic goals far better than the men in the play can on their own.
Orsino, a man of high birth, believes himself passionately in love with Olivia. He believes his love to be the most passionate, most sincere and most ardent of any man alive. The fact the Olivia does not return his affection has no effect on his emotions, and as it turns out, he is more in…
ii.37). Here we see that love does not always bring out the most beautiful emotions in people. It can cause desperation, isolation, frustration, and agitation. These are emotions that can sometimes make us appreciate love even more - if we have the strength to do so.
One of the things we learn from Twelfth Night is that love looks to the inner man. In other words, love discovers the truth because it eventually brings the truth to the surface. As the play moves along, Orsino realizes that he might not love Olivia as much as he thinks he does. He declares his love for her but we all know that he is in love with something else - namely her beauty and her social position. As times progresses, we see that he in more in "lust" with her than anything else. hen Orsino experiences true love, he looks to the…
Shakespeare, William. Four Great Comedies. Twelfth Night. New York: Signet Books. 1982.
play of Shakespeare, Twelfth Night particularly the comedy and the conventions used in it.
hat makes the play twelfth night a comedy?
Twelfth Night by illiam Shakespeare presents the best example of a true Elizabethan romantic comedy. Though the themes constituting the play like lunacy and absurdness of love place it in the category of a rather unconventional comedy. Nevertheless, if closely analyzed for conventions of romantic comedy, Twelfth Night certainly is one. The many elements of this play by Shakespeare provide resemblance to the Elizabethan romantic comedy. These conventions of comedy used in Twelfth Night are complex and interesting characters in disguise. These disguises include mistaken identities, cross-dressing as well as a fascinating blend of the separation of the twins. The comedy is full of mild ridicule with a touch of mockery and a mixture of romantic misunderstandings. All these elements used in this comedy have been beautifully transformed…
Shakespeare W. Twelfth Night
Shakespeare's Twelfth Night:
Discussing a Comedy
The great bard's works are always full of surprises, but nothing surpasses his comedies. The Twelfth Night, perhaps one of my most favorite plays, is a fantastic comedy that Shakespeare wrote to explore life's greatest emotions, love, loss, and laughter. This paper will discuss the plot of the play, as well as the genre.
Perhaps one of the reasons that this is such a great piece of comedy is because of the issue of constant mistaken identities, on multiple parts. The play starts out by presenting two locations, one is the kingdom of Illyria, where its leader, Orsino, lays around pining for the love of Lady Olivia, which is unrequited. The second location shows two twins, a man and a woman, performing on a ship and the subsequent storm that ensues. This second introduction is more significant, as the twins are torn…
Resources, Test Prep. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. .
Feste in "Twelfth Night"
The Role of Feste's Music in "Twelfth Night"
"Twelfth Night" is a play with multiple characters who do not see themselves clearly. Some just really don't understand who they are or what they really want. Examples of that are Olivia and Orsino Another, Malvolio, adopts postures that are superficial, trying to be something he is not. Still another, Viola, has to don a disguise because of circumstances. One character in the play who sees people as they really are is the fool, Feste. Feste uses several devices to communicate what he understands both about the people in the play and life in general, and one of those devices is song. Shakespeare heightens the importance of Feste's songs by opening and closing the play with music. Feste's songs serve to clarify the nature of events unfolding in the play without having to step outside the play and…
Subtitled by Shakespeare "Or hat You ill," Twelfth Night is one of Shakespeare's most celebrated and beloved comedies. One of the reasons Twelfth Night remains relevant for contemporary audiences is that the romantic imbroglios described in the play bear resemblance to the situations we observe in our daily lives, or at least on the television shows and movies that we continue to watch. However, the aspect of Twelfth Night that most parallels my personal experiences and events I have witnessed is related to gender. Gender bending is one of the most salient elements of Twelfth Night, and one of the reasons why the play is funny and engaging. Not only do the characters undergo issues related to mistaken identity, but their mistaken identities are linked to both gender and sexuality. Playing on gender and sexuality must have been much different in Elizabethan England versus today, and yet given the recent…
Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. Digital version retrieved online: http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/views/plays/playmenu.php?WorkID=12night
The play also opens with Orsino hopelessly in love with Olivia. Olivia, however, is consumed with grief for her brother, and rebuffs Orsino's attempts to woo her. For the play to reach its conclusion, which has the two of them marrying others, it first has to address the issue of Orsino's feelings for Olivia. Elsewhere in the play, it is clear that Orsino's love for Olivia is largely based upon her physical beauty, and he also seems to reveal that he is in love with the idea of being in love with her more than with any of her specific qualities. However, Orsino fails to directly address any of those issues within the speech. Instead, the audience is left to presume that those issues have somehow been resolved, because the audience is aware that Olivia has fallen in love with Sebastian and plans to marry him. The one clue that…
Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. New York: Penguin, 2005.
fall into thy hand, revolve. In my stars I
am above thee; but be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon 'em. Thy Fates open their hands; let thy blood and spirit embrace them; and, to inure thyself to what thou art like to be, cast thy humble slough and appear fresh.
(Twelfth Night, Act II, scene v, -1171)
This monologue of Malvolio's follows his just being victim to a practical joke played by Maria and the other servants. Malvolio has read Maria's letter, which he believes to be from Olivia. Malvolio harbors several delusions about himself and his ability to win over Olivia and thereby gain upward social mobility. hile Malvolio might indeed have some affection and genuine caring for his lady, he also seems far more interested in her wealth and status than in her well-being. This scene…
Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. 1599. Digital copy retrieved online: http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/views/plays/playmenu.php?WorkID=12night
Viola in the Twelfth Night
Viola's Character in elation to the Animus Development and Its 4 Stages
The animus theory of Jung suggests that, though females' conscious ego usually relates to their biological gender, masculine traits stifle because of cultural norms, and pressures cultivate, in their unconscious, a harmonizing male (i.e., contrasexual) personality. Intriguingly, Viola chose to conceal her femininity at the play's beginning. Her apparently-deceased brother is probably the physical manifestation of Viola's animus, akin to Lady Olivia's situation (Dunning, 2015). Jung suggested four stages of animus development in a woman, which can be seen in Viola.
The animus, in Jung's first stage, materializes in imaginations or dreams as the embodiment of physical strength, such as James Bond, Tarzan, or a sportsperson. He represents the Adam to the unconscious/true inner self as Eve. The animus, at this developmental stage, is a female's stud-muffin, who is there to protect and…
Anne. (2007, November 2). The Animus. Retrieved from The Third Eve: http://thirdeve.com/2007/11/02/the-animus/
Dreher, D. (1986). Domination And Defiance: Fathers and Daughters in Shakespeare. University Press of Kentucky.
Dunning, D. (2015, November 12). The Women of Twelfth Night and Jung's Animus Theory. Retrieved from Geocities: http://www.geocities.ws/packmule4school/twelfthnightjung.htm
Shakespeare, W. (1602, Febuary 2). Twelfth Night. Candlemas.
Twelfth Night Response
William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night is a romantic comedy in which the basis of the comedy is love, suffering, misunderstandings, confusion, mistaken identities and sexual ambiguity. It tells the story of twin brother and sister who were shipwrecked and separated in the kingdom of Illyria; and the misunderstandings that occur in their attempt to discover each other's fate. In the midst of this, the romantic advances of a local nobleman, named Orsino, toward a young widow, Olivia, are being disrupted not only by her refusal to respond, but by his confused feelings toward his new male page Cesario. The page is actually the female twin, Viola, in disguise and adding to the situation is the fact that the young widow also becomes attracted to the page. When the male twin, named Sebastian, arrives and is mistaken for the page Cesario, even more confusion erupts. But in the end…
Twelfth Night and as You Like It
Cross dressing is an important element that renders serious repercussions in Shakespeare's plays. Two plays that emphasize cross dressing and the repercussions it can bring are Twelfth Night and As You Like it. hile the characters of Viola and Rosalind have very different reasons to explain their cross dressing, each circumstance while causing complications, also works in their behalf. Their ability to fool those around them generates interest and adds an element of complexity to each play. Namely, each woman is able to accomplish something she would not have been able to do as a woman. Rosalind teaches Orlando the ways of love and Viola makes her way into Orsino's house and heart.
In As You Like It, Rosalind is forced to assume to role of a man as a result of fleeing the Duke's Court and seeking refuge in the forest of…
Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night: Or, What you Will. The Illustrated Stratford Shakespeare. London: Chancellor Press. 1982.
Shakespeare, William. As You Like It. The Illustrated Stratford Shakespeare. London: Chancellor Press. 1982.
Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" with Milton's "Paradise Lost"
Comparison of the two works:
Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and Milton's Paradise Lost are two examples of great works that seemingly have little in common. The differences in subject, approach, language and style contrast greatly but these works also share many common themes. Although Twelfth Night is a romantic comedic work and Paradise Lost is an epic poem that deals with a much heavier subject matter, both present the reader with stories of the consequences when there is a disruption in world order and balance while incorporating elements of disguise and character consequences.
Shakespeare's work is consistent with the witty, bright comedies popular during its time. According to Warren and Wells, these comedies typically included a mixture of dialogue, singing, stage fights, and suspense and the nature of the lighthearted language used was commonplace during the early 1600's (1994). Additionally, critic en Johnson said…
Bloom, H. (ed.) (1987). John Milton's Paradise Lost. New York: Chelsea House Publsihers.
Corns, T. (1998). John Milton: The Prose Works. New York: Twayne Publishers.
Elledge, S. (1993). John Milton's Paradise Lost: An Authoritative Text Backgrounds and Sources of Criticism. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Notkoff, T. (2001). Readings on Twelfth Night. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…
Arkin, L. (1995). The role of women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/arkin.html
Chaucer, G. (1475). The Canterbury Tales. Retrieved online: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Shakespeare, W. (1601). Twelfth Night. Retrieved online: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/ full.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Although Viola in She's the Man may be discriminated against, because of her gender, Shakespeare's Viola has never been allowed to be assertive in a physical manner because the way women are socialized. This is why Shakespeare's Viola is both a sadder and more vulnerable character throughout Twelfth Night, in contrast to the more tomboyish Viola in the modern film who can fend for herself.
The romantic aspects of the original are relatively the same: Viola loves Duke Orsino (simply known as "Duke" in the film), Duke loves Olivia, and Olivia loves Viola, whom she thinks is a boy. But there is none of the melancholy that characterizes Shakespeare's comedy in this frustration of desire. Olivia rejects men because she is pining for her brother, who is dead, and when she allows herself to fall in love again, she finds herself cruelly rejected despite the fact that "he" seems to…
Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. The Shakespeare Homepage. April 22, 2009.
http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/ index.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Representations of Boyhood and Manhood in Henry V and Twelfth Night
illiam Shakespeare's plays Henry V and Twelfth Night approach the representations of boyhood and manhood in very different ways. Henry V approaches the subject most directly in the play's depiction of King Henry as a good and noble king who is plagued by his need to prove his worthiness to sit on the throne by distancing himself from the frivolous and irresponsible youth that his enemies use against him. Although Twelfth Night offers a variety of characters -- both male and female -- who toy with the meaning of gender, it is the complex relationship between Sebastian and Antonio that perhaps best illuminates the dual ways in which boyhood and manhood can be represented.
The titular character of Henry V serves to represent both boyhood and manhood in the play. King Henry spends much of the play demonstrating to…
Shakespeare, William. Henry V. New York: Signet Classics, 1995.
Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.
Orsino/Olivia from Trevor Nunn's Film .
Orsino vs. Olivia: Twelfth Night
Both Duke Orsino and the Countess Olivia in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night are victims of unrequited love for the duration of most of the movie. Orsino begins the film besotted with Olivia, a gentlewoman who has refused to marry because she still mourning her brother. However, Orsino seems less truly in love than in love with the idea of being in love. He plays melancholy music all of the time and sends love letters to Olivia, but he never engages with her face-to-face. Being in love with a woman who cannot love him back seems to satisfy his self-image, not his need for companionship. The first glimpse the audience has of Orsino is as he strides in, saying: "If music be the food of love, play on; / Give me excess of it, that, surfeiting, / The appetite may sicken,…
Twelfth Night. Directed by Trevor Nunn. 1996.
Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. Available at:
My story being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs:
She swore, in faith, twas strange, 'twas passing strange,
Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful:
She wish'd she had not heard it, yet she wish'd
That heaven had made her such a man: she thank'd me,
And bade me, if I had a friend that loved her, should but teach him how to tell my story.
And that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake:
She loved me for the dangers I had pass'd,
And I loved her that she did pity them.
This only is the witchcraft I have used:
Here comes the lady; let her witness it.
Setting: The inside of the administrative building. Nighttime. Othello is wearing a suit, and is confronted by the school's president, 'Dr. B,' and several members of the administration in their pajamas.
John Othello: Look Dr. B,…
Shakespeare, William. "Othello." MIT Classics Page. [2 Nov 2006] http://www-tech.mit.edu/Shakespeare/othello/othello.1.3.html
Virginia Woolf, the author focuses her attention on a number of scenes to bring home a central idea to her reader. Through her considerations of people, insects, and a variety of other elements Ms. Woolf considers the deeper meanings of life and the various meanings it might have for individuals and the collective of humanity. By a variety of essays that range from the death of a simple moth at a window to the complex writings of Horace Walpole, Virginia Woolf appears to contemplate the many ways in which life might make itself meaningful via death, perpetual pain, and creativity.
Virginia Woolf's interpretation of death as life's ultimate purpose in its simplest form is provided in "The Death of the Moth." The author describes a moth that flies "by day," which is caught at a window. She also describes night moths as somewhat pleasantly exciting a sense of darkness, which…
Song from the Sound of Music
Shakespeare began the story of Twelfth Night with the line "If music be the food of love play on." Though, in the play, the Duke of Illyria, Orsino, asks for a surfeit of music in the hope that an overkill of love will help him overcome his infatuation for Olivia (Shakespeare, 1.1, 1-18), the line has now become immortalized as audiences have tended to read a wealth of meaning into it. The popularity of the oft-quoted line is hardly surprising given experiential knowledge of music as one of the greatest pleasures of life. Indeed, music sensitizes and heightens all kinds of emotions and moods, ranging from the sentimental, philosophical, and maudlin to the sensual, ecstatic and peppy. But more than anything, the real power of music lies in soothing the soul by enabling a sense of connection to a universal consciousness. The title song…
Goodwin, D.P. "Thoughts on Writing." Accessed Feb. 28, 2004 from the Blue
Musings Web site: http://www.geocities.com/athens/olympus/1466/page54.html
People & the Planet. "Amazon rainforest takes new battering." Peopleandplanet.net.
July 2, 2003. Accessed Feb. 21, 2004: http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=2003
Banning Books in High School
Book Banning and Censorship
Social groups, including religious organizations, parents, and school administration among others, make decisions daily about what material will become a part of the regular school curriculum and what material will be excluded. Many decisions are made based on the educational value of text books and other learning material. However, many decisions are unfortunately made without educational potential in mind, but rather on the basis of what is considered to be profane or proper based on the opinions of certain people that feel they have the moral authority to make such decisions. American schools have always been built on the principle that children must be protected from that which is inappropriate for them to see, hear, or experience. "American schools have been pressured to restrict or deny students access to books or periodicals deemed objectionable by some individual or group on moral,…
City and Country in 'The Prince of Tides'
William Shakespeare's comedies often differentiate between the staid, political atmosphere of the court and the city, and the raucous carnival atmosphere of the forest and the countryside. Often, characters will escape the court to the forest to explore their inner depths and their passions. The result is a dichotomy that permeates several of his plays: even from close textual analysis of one passage in a Shakespeare comedy, the reader is able to discern whether the scene takes place in the court or in the forest.
There is a similar breakdown in Pat Conroy's "Prince of Tides." Scenes and flashbacks switch between New York City and the low-country in South Carolina. Like in Shakespeare's comedies, "Prince of Tides" also makes it very easy to discern exactly where each scene is taking place. In a novel of violence, deception and denial, the low-country in…
"Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other. Shakespeare uses a rhyme scheme that became known as Shakespearean rhyme scheme or English rhyme. He writes about love in a sarcastic manner though. He is mocking the traditional love poems and the usual expressive manner in which women are often compared to. It is ironic in a way because Shakespeare himself also uses the very techniques in his previous writing when he is writing from a man's point-of-view and describing a woman. But in this sonnet he uses the technique of mocking this exaggerated comparison. Usually women are compared to having skin as white as snow, however, in reality, Shakespeare points out, women don't really fit this description, "If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun."
William Shakespeare was born into a world of words that took him from cold, stone castles in Scotland to the bustling cities of Italy and the high seas of colonial change. An emblem of the Renaissance, the Bard of Avon was not only the conqueror of his own mind and pen, but also of the language of his own social, political, and religious reality. His theatre, the epic Globe, mirrors the stories of the early, bustling London and ever-morphing England in the duration of its own life, from plank and dirt to flame and fame.
By 1598, Richard Burbage was the practicing don of the London theatre world, extending his fingertips for production all over the lively center of British commerce and governance. His players, a collection of all-male actors, were widely recognized throughout the theatre world, one of the only sources of popular entertainment.
Burbage produced the works of…
Shakespeare used Music in his orks
illiam Shakespeare (1564-1616), English playwright and poet, is recognized all over the world as the greatest dramatist of all times. His plays have been performed more times than those of any other dramatist and have been translated in almost every major language. (Kastan) hile many aspects of Shakespeare's plays have been discussed and analyzed, it is perhaps not so widely known that music has also played an important role in many of his plays. In this paper we shall review the historical background of music in the Shakespearian era and discuss how and why music was used in Shakespeare's works. The type of music used by the playwright as well as some examples of music in specific plays shall also be described.
Historical Background of Music in the Shakespearian Era
The 16th century in which Shakespeare was born was a period when England was…
Lackey, Stephanie. "Shakespeare and his Music." October 12, 1998. Vanderbilt University's MusL 242 Gateway Page. April 25, 2003. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Blair/Courses/MUSL242/f98/slackey.htm
Kastan, David Scott. "William Shakespeare." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003
Music in the plays." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003. http://web.uvic.ca/shakespeare/Library/SLTnoframes/stage/music.html
Music of the streets and fairs." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003. http://web.uvic.ca/shakespeare/Library/SLTnoframes/literature/streets.html
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…
It is the meeting of two principles that makes the climactic fight between Hal and Hotspur so compelling, and at the same time there is a sense of righting a grievance and restoring to Hal the respect and hopes of the kingdom that Hotspur had robbed him of, along with his glory and celebrity. Hal tells his father that:
Percy is but my factor, good lord,
To engross up glorious deeds on my behalf.
And I will call him to so strict account
That he shall render every glory up
(III. ii. 147-50).
The language of commerce here suggests "a world in which practical cunning is the key to every triumph," but even this attitude of Hal's is seen to be a front when he allows the credit for his victory to be taken (Rubinstein 294). Through all of Hal's prticipation in robbery and symbolic language implying te same in…
Mabillard, Amanda. "1 Henry IV: Analysis." Shakespeare Online, 2006. Accessed 31 August 2009. http://www.shakespeare-online.com/playanalysis/1henryIVcommentary.html
Over, William. "Review: Henry IV Parts I II." Theatre Journal 31(4), pp. 545-6.
Rubinstein, E. "1 Henry IV: The Metaphor of Liability." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 10(2), pp. 287-95.
Shakespeare, William. The First part of King Henry IV. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Denis and Michael enthall used the space for productions and actor training. From 1963 -- 76 it was the temporary home of the National Theatre of Great ritain (see Royal National Theatre). riefly closed due to funding cuts, it reopened in 1983. Again threatened by lack of funds, it was purchased and preserved by a charitable trust in 1998. In 2003 Sir Elton John became the theater's president, a restoration drive was organized, and the formation a new Old Vic company was announced. Directed by the American actor Kevin Spacey, the group is intended showcase new theatrical talent (Old Vic, 2003).
During the 1920s and '30s Lilian aylis put on all of Shakespeare's plays, opera, and ballet. She and her troop did it all on a shoe string: ginger beer crates made up the scenery, and the casts were so poorly paid that Lilian often made dinner for them…
Coloson, P. (2006). Georgian Portraits. Read Books.
Lilian Baylis. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from absolute astronomy: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Lilian_Baylis
Old Vic. (2003, March 16). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Everything2: http://everything2.com/title/Old%2520Vic
Thorndike, S. & . (1990). Lilian Baylis. Taylor & Francis.
Although most of the occasions for masques were rather frivolous, such as the celebration of a society wedding, Jonson made sure that his masques were full of Platonic meanings, mythological references and humanistic doctrines that would tax the knowledge of the most learned among the audience. Jones, on the other hand, let loose his prodigious knowledge of classical art, his impressive competence as a painter, and his unmatched creativeness in devising stunning stage scenery and elaborate costumes for the masques, which won the admiration of all discerning observers (Ibid. 26-28).
Relationship with Jonson
Inigo Jones enjoyed a surprisingly tempestuous relationship with Ben Jonson. The partnership of the two men that started so promisingly, resulting in the creation of a number of superb masque productions, ended in bitter acrimony. Their hostility is surprising because both men were of approximately the same age, of similar humble background, shared rare artistic genius in…
Inigo Jones." Britain Express. N.d. October 18, 2007. http://www.britainexpress.com/History/inigo-jones.htm
Inigo Jones (1573-1652)." Historic Figures: BBC.co.UK. 2007. October 18, 2007. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/jones_inigo.shtml
Inigo Jones (1573 - c1652)." Greenwich 2000. July 07, 2006. October 18, 2007. http://wwp.greenwich2000.com/heritage/vip/architects/jones.htm
Lees-Milne, James. The Age of Inigo Jones. London B.T. Batsford, 1953
Blowin' in the ind"
Blowin' in the ind" also uses imagery to convey a message during times of trouble. Dylan uses naturalistic elements to elicit an emotional response from the audience. Using the earth element of "wind" brings a movement and dynamics to the song. Still it is the use of questions that make the verses so strong. Dylan does not mean for the result to be answers but to get people thinking. The use of overblown imagery Riley writes, "is necessary balance -- the first verse alone pits a dove against flying cannonballs" (56). Through this word usage, Dylan creates a good vs. evil theme. The dove represents an innocence that could be destroyed by acts of violence. Still such description creates a contradiction of terms and creates contempt for inhumanity. It is only his voice "seems to be harbouring secret messages" (Riley, 54).
Highway 61 Revisited"…
Bob Dylan. 10 Dec. 2004 http://www.bobdylan.com/index.html ..
Riley, Tim. Hard Rain: A Dylan Commentary. New York: Alfred. a. Knopf, 1992.
Williams, Paul. Performing Artist: The Music of Bob Dylan Volume One, 1960-1973. Novato: Underwood-Miller, 1990.
hy Is Angst So Universally Appealing?
The course of true love never did run smooth according to the Bard of Avon. Certainly any relationship involving at least two people must allow for at least a good chance of turbulence. But surely true love might indeed run smoothly within the pages of a novel or the rolls of an epic? ell, yes, if that were what the author wanted and (at least as importantly) what the audience wants and expects. But the idea of love that we as humans in different eras and different places often seem most content to embrace as we follow fictional lovers is one in which there is confusion and angst. Fictional lovers are often those who do not know their own minds about what will make them happy and must be forced by fate and the gods to acknowledge the love simmering within them.
Caddeau, Patrick. Appraising Genji: Literary Criticism and Cultural Anxiety in the Age of the Last Samurai. New York: SUNY, 2006.
The Mahabharata. New York: Penguin Press, 2003.
Murasaki. The Tale of Genji. New York: Everyman's Library, 1993.
Shirane, Haruo. (ed.) Traditional Japanese Literature: An Anthology, Beginnings to 1600. New York: Columbia UP, 2007.
Shakespeare and the manner in which he wrote and the theatre of his times.
In this modern world that we live in today we still do not forget the one great playwright William Shakespeare, and this is because of the fact that his work is unique and unmatched to any other. His lifetime, as we are convinced, was full of activity regarding his literary works. ut the truth is that we know very little about how he grew up and how he got married. We do however know that it was from the 1597 that he started an active life in acting, in which he performed before the queen. It was in London that he learned how to manage the theatre. It was not long after this that he flourished into an expert playwright whose work would touch the hearts of all who read it (1).
William Shakespeare was…
Discuss the Conciliar Movement. What was it and why did it arise? Give an overview of the major councils, key issues, and outcomes. In what ways was it successful? Why did it ultimately fail.
The Conciliar Movement began in the 14th century and included the Council of Pisa (1409), the Council of Constance (1414-1418) where the Conciliarists ruled that they as a collective had more authority than the Pope as head of the Church, and the Council of Basel (1431-1449) which failed to conclude at all. The Church's traditional doctrine regarding the head of the Church and the authority of the Pope was finally confirmed at the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-1517), but it would be more than 300 years later before the doctrine of Papal Infallibility would be official defined at the First Vatican Council (1870), only to be somewhat undefined and "conciliarism" restored at the Second Vatican Council…
Sigmund Freud believed humans early on in development had a sexual need. This was seen through his perspective of desire and emotion within the unconscious part of the human mind. To Freud, sexuality is a key component to human personality and thus plays an important role in a child's development. This is evidenced in Mary Williamson's article, "The importance of fathers in relation to their daughters' psychosexual development". Essentially, daughters develop their sexuality based on their interactions with their father. By having formed a sexual attraction in a metaphorical sense to the father, without the mother's intervention, a daughter can properly develop a satisfactory gender or psychosexual identity.
The beginning of the article is a rather lengthy introduction explaining how the information provided came to be. Williamson attempts to explain her intentions within the lens of various psychoanalytic approaches covering the father-daughter relationship. She also states that the formation of…
Shoaib, M. (2014). Electra Complex in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. Lapis Lazuli -An International Literary Journal, 4(1), 169-173.
Smart, J. (2012). Disability across the developmental life span: For the rehabilitation counselor. New York, NY: Springer.
Williamson, M. (2004). The importance of fathers in relation to their daughters' psychosexual development. Psychodynamic Practice, 10(2), 207-219. doi:10.1080/14753630410001699885
The Cid is a fair and just man, which is part of the knightly image, and he lives a good and just life. He is pious, and he commands respect, as the growth of his forces during his exile indicates. The image of the knight is also extremely brave, especially in battle, and both books hold up this image. The Cid and his men are extremely brave on the battlefield, and they support each other, as well. In one battle, one of his knights loses his horse. Simpson writes, "His lance is broken, but he grasps his sword and smites mightily, now on foot" (Simpson 33). This is one of the enduring images of the knight, that he is brave among all other things, and that he is extremely brave in battle.
Another image of the knight in both books is that they share a camaraderie and sense of working…
Gies, Joseph and Frances. Life in a Medieval Castle. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1974.
The Poem of the Cid. Trans. By Lesley Byrd Simpson. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…
1. Cultural Environment
Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.
Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.
Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.
No other hero is so frequently mentioned. He is the only person so important that triads are enlarged into tetrads to fit him in. (Ashe 45)
The account that did the most to establish Arthur as a prominent historical figure was the History of the Kings of Britain written in 1135 by Geoffrey of Monmouth, a elsh monk, and the book provides a history of the earliest kings of Britain, some 99 in all, including King Coel, known to us today from the nursery rhyme as Old King Cole. About one-fifth of the book is devoted to Arthur, and Geoffrey provides the first organized version of the story. Many of the elements that would be part of the later tradition were missing, however. Arthur's court is not at Camelot but at a place called Caerlon-on-Usk, or City of Legions. Geoffrey contributed at least three new elements to the existing histories…
Ashe, Geoffrey. "The Arthurian Fact." The Quest for Arthur's Britain, Geoffrey Ashe (ed.). Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1987.
Beowulf. Library of the Future CD-Rom, 4th Edition. Irvine: World Library, 1996.
Capellanus, Andreas, the Art of Courtly Love. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. New York: Holt, 1963.
This includes the need to maintain chastity, a test Perceval passes when he "has a close call with sexual temptation: slipping into bed with a demon in alluringly feminine form, he is only saved when his glance falls on the red cross inscribed on his sword pommel. The 'lady' and her silk tent disappear in a flash and a puff of smoke, leaving the tell-tale sulphurous stench of hell. A distraught Perceval stabs himself through the left thigh in penance" (Kaeuper 258). Such ability to resist is the mark of a knight, though many of the stories also suggest that the knight often fails this test at some point and then has to do penance to make up for his failure.
hether the Grail derives from Christian ideas first or from Celtic images and stories, over time the idea of the Grail did become more associated with Christian symbols so…
Kaeuper, Richard W. Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Loomis, Roger Sheman. The Development of Arthurian Romance. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1963.
The Carnevale and Sensa festivals were outlawed and the Book of Gold, which had recorded the names of patrician families of Venice for more than four centuries, was burned.
Before leaving Venice Napoleon instructed his men to take twenty paintings along with five hundred manuscripts of rarity including the 'Wedding Feast at Cana' by Veronese. Napoleon additionally took the four bronze horses of San Marco to be taken from the facade of the building. As well, the ancient winged lion that was atop the column in the Piazetta was removed. The Aresenale is reported to have been "systematically stripped down to the bare walls. A regiment of French soldiers took axes to the lavish busintoro…" (Madden, 2012, p.449) in addition, "dozens of priceless works of medieval art, including Golden oses bestowed o Venice for centuries of faithful service to popes were broken apart for their diamonds, pearls, and precious metals."…
Madden, Thomas (2012) Venice: A New History. Penguin Group, U.S.. Oct. 2012.
knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…
Bacon, Leonard. The Song of Roland, Dover Thrift Editions. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2002.
Brault, Gerard J. Early Blazon: Heraldic Terminology in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, with Special Reference to Arthurian Literature. Oxford,: Clarendon Press, 1972.
Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. London: R. Hale, 1986.
Hopkins, Andrea. Knights. 1st American ed. New York: Artabras, 1990.
Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.
Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from…
Audretsch, D.B. And Meyer, N.S. " Religion, Culture and Entrepreneurship in India." Indiana
University Public Affairs Conference. 2009. 17 Apr.2010.
"Cuisine." Cuisine Tours of India, Culinary Tour India, Indian Cuisines information,
But I wasn't nearly excited as I had been the previous year on all counts. Toys and other gifts no longer held the same appeal to me -- already I could imagine when the books would be read, or the game already played a thousand times, and the brand new shine of each present seemed to fade with this knowledge. The wrapping papers, so many squares of petroleum-processed soon-to-be-confetti, were carefully un-taped and unfolded instead of being ripped off of each package, and though they would simply be making their way into the trash I folded each one ontop of those that had come before, forming a neat stack of flattened celebration, before I turned to examine the gift itself. There was something very bittersweet about the whole experience, and I remember savoring every moment of it.
I had always been a very serious child, or so I have been…
An Examination of Cultural Poetry
Every country, culture, and time period has had poets living within their society to help record the very essence of which their people live. These poets, known for expressing raw emotion, have become particularly talented at expressing their experiences. From Australia to England, Japan to Pakistan, during the ninth century or the twentieth, poets have learned to capture their true meaning of the word "love."
Christopher Brennan was an Australian poet, librarian, and lecturer born 1870, passing away in 1932. Among the many famous pieces he wrote was, "Because She Would Ask Me Why I Love Her." Brennan expresses romantic frustration and dissatisfaction with the question of why he loves his significant other. When questioned, he replies to her, vividly and picturesque: Do not ask why I love you, or if I love you (Brennan, 2010). He claims that his love will last…
Brennan, C. (2010, August 23). Because she would ask me why I loved her: A poem by Christopher Brennan. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://www.lovepoems.me.uk/brennan_because_she_would_ask_me_why_i_love_her.htm
Faiz, F.A. (n.d.). Deep in love. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://whirledview.typepad.com/whirledview/2005/02/indian_love_poe.html
Komachi, O. (2002, July 30). A love poem of ono no komachi. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://www.classical-japanese.net/Poetry/komachi.html
Love-Poems.Me.Uk. (2010, August 23). Biography, poems and picture: Christopher Brennan.
Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).
The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…
Abram, S. (nd) The Effects of Fluency Instruction Incorporating Readers Theatre on Oral Reading Fluency in an Eighth-Grade Classroom. Retrieved from: http://arareading.org/doc/Susan_Abram_Reading_Fluency_Action_Research.pdf
Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J & Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a Nation of Readers, Urbana, IL: The Center for the Study of Reading.
Cooper, D. (2000). Literacy: Understanding Literacy Learning and Constructing Meaning. Massachusetts: Houghton Muffin Company.
Fluency (nd) National Institutes of Health. Chapter 3. Retrieved from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/ch3.pdf
Pearl Poet's Sir Gawain
The Arthurian Legends are one of the most mysterious of Middle English literature. For many years historians have tried to match King Arthur to one of the Early Kings of Britain, however, all attempts have met without success. It is now generally accepted that King Arthur and the other Knights of the Round table represent a composite of the behaviors and attitudes of people of that time period. The same can be said of the character of Sir Gawain in "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." As social attitudes changed, so do the ideal characteristics that exemplify virtue and purity. The character Sir Gawain appears in many versions of the Arthurian Legends. The characteristics and attitudes of Sir Gawain seem to shoe a shift over time. The most widely accepted version of the character of Sir Gawain is the version that is attributed to the poet…
Abrams, M.H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1993.
Andrew, Malcolm, and Ronald Waldron, eds. The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript. 2d ed.
London: Arnold, 1982; Gordon, E.V., ed. Pearl. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.
Bishop, Ian. Pearl in Its Setting- A Critical Study of the Structure and Meaning of the Middle English Poem. Oxford: Blackwell, 1968
In contrast to bolstering the position of any specific class of society, in the Canterbury Tales Chaucer's method of story telling refuses to take sides: a tale by a knight is deflated by that of a miller, and the miller's wit is undercut by his drunkenness. hile many critics have commented upon the ironic contrast between the Chaucerian teller of the tales and their content, such as the greedy Pardoner who condemns money as the root of all evil, this irony is also evident within the pilgrim's tales, even the funny miller's tale (Spearing 2001). Those who know best are shown to know least, and the man who tries to control his wife is shown to be the most out-of-control.
Blamires, Alcuin. "Philosophical sleaze? The 'strok of thought' in the 'Miller's Tale' and Chaucerian fabliau." The Modern Language Review. 102. 3 (July 2007), 621-640.
Heffernan, Carol Falvo.…
Blamires, Alcuin. "Philosophical sleaze? The 'strok of thought' in the 'Miller's Tale' and Chaucerian fabliau." The Modern Language Review. 102. 3 (July 2007), 621-640.
Heffernan, Carol Falvo. "Chaucer's 'Miller's Tale' and 'Reeve's Tale,' Boccaccio's Decameron,
and the French fabliaux." Italica. 81.3 (Autumn, 2004), 311-324
Morgan, Gerald. "Philosophical Chaucer: Love, Sex, and Agency in the Canterbury Tales. The Modern Language Review. 102. 2 (April 2007), 477-478.
Power was juggled in different areas based on victories and loses of the two competing empires.
After the initial wave of crusaders, Europe had regained the area formerly known as the Christian Byzantine Empire, including Jerusalem and other parts of Israel. After fighting off the Islamic nations who held the area, Christianity ruled over Jerusalem until the late eleventh century. This formed a new Christian state within an Islamic context, but only heightened tensions between the two regions. Then in 1187, the Turkish Kingdom ruled by Saladin who ruled over Egypt and Syria, (Lewis, 134). For the next century, several other unsuccessful crusades were launched to once again recapture the Holy Land.
It was not only war which distanced the two regions. It was also a lack of social understanding which occurred through normal and commercial contact between the modern day enemies. Many Islamic traders and the Northern European markets…
Attar, Samar. "Conflicting Accounts on the Fear of Strangers: Muslim and Arab
Perceptions of Europeans in Medieval Geographical Literature. Arab Studies Quarterly. 27. 2005. pp. 17-35.
Lewis, Bernard. From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting the Middle East. Oxford University Press. 2004.
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
1960's approximately 200,000 people in the United States claimed to be of the Buddhists sect (Nattlier). Some of these began to think of themselves as Buddhist after a personal experience such as visiting Asia, reading in depth about the religion or talking with others who had experienced the religion firsthand. However, most of them were Hawaiian residents whose parents and grandparents had immigrated from China and Japan. Today these numbers are much greater. It is estimated that somewhere between two and three million followers live in the U.S. (Nattlier). A more conservative guess represents a tenfold increase since the '60s. Some of this increase may be due to individuals coming to the United States from Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Taiwan. However, Americans of non-Asian ancestry are also becoming Buddhists. Overall, there have been two Buddhisms -- Asian immigrant Buddhism and American con-vert Buddhism -- and three…
Harris, Elizabeth. What Buddhists Believe. Oxford, England: 2000.
Kraft, Kenneth. "New Voices in Engaged Buddhist Studies." Journal of Buddhist Ethics. 7-2000.
Nattlier, Jan. "Why Buddhism, Why Now?" 14, November 2005.
Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?
Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/careers/career_opportunities.html
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from students.flatworldknowledge.com Web site: http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/study/4?e=
IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1.iwon.com Web site: http://www1.iwon.com/home/careers/company_profile/0,15623,1310,00.html
special education from the standpoint of the students' parents. The writer explores the opinions on the accessibility and quality of special education afforded their children in Massachusetts. The writer examines the opinions through the use of research project that is proposed here. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
For the last four decades the nation has been steadily working to improve the special education system within its public schools. A Supreme Court decision in the 1960's mandated that special education children be given many more services than they had in the past and that they receive that education within the least restrictive learning environment possible. Over the last four decades as these changes have taken place there have been many articles published on the changes, and the success or failure of those changes. Massachussets has enjoyed the cutting edge of special education reform with prototype programs as…
Circassian People, a brief history
The Circassians, comprising some 3,000 people concentrated in two northern villages, are Sunni Muslims, although they share neither the Arab origin nor the cultural background of the larger Islamic community. While maintaining a distinct ethnic identity, they participate in Israel's economic and national affairs without assimilating either into Jewish society or into the general Muslim community The Circassians are a Muslim people, whose Russian name is Cherkess and whose native name is Adygey. They are now officially classified as three peoples: the Kabarda, in the Kabardino-alkar Republic; the Circassians or Cherkess, in the Karachevo-Cherkess Republic; and the Adygey, in the Adygey Republic. The term Circassian has sometimes been incorrectly applied to all the mountain peoples of the N. Caucasus. Known in antiquity, they inhabited the western side of the Caucasus and the Crimea and were known to the Greeks as the Zyukhoy. They were Christianized…
Amjad M. Jaimoukha, The Circassians: A Handbook (Peoples of the Caucasus) Hardcover - March 2001.
John Colarusso, Nart Sagas from the Caucasus: Myths and Legends from the Circassians, Abazas, Abkhaz, and Ubykhs Princeton University Press, December 2002
This is an attempt to study the history and development of one of the great institutions of United States and a part of the images of the country that has spread in the whole world. As is well-known, the dominance of the world by United States came after the Second World War when the traditional leaders of United Kingdom and Germany lost their predominant positions due to the destructions of the war, and the impact of change in economic order due to the freedom of many countries. This was the freedom of the colonies and United States had been one of the first colonies to be free, and the former colony became the leader, along with Russia which was the pathfinder of the failed social and economic structure of communism. It was a contest between the two to prove the relative superiority of the two systems, and the…
McDonald's Marketing Strategies. [Internet]
Available from http://www.marketingtops.com/marketing/marketing55.html [Accessed 24 April 2004]
McDonald's keep thinking up good deals for their customers nowadays due to the drop in sales and reduction of margins that the company is facing, and one of that is to provide extra benefits to their customers, and this is often achieved by increasing the quantity served by just adding item quantities at a very low price.
Fascinating Mcfacts about McDonald's International. The Times November 11, 1996