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There are multiple issues at the heart of the idea that there should be bans on junk food. The surface-level issue is that there is a point at which our free will is being corrupted by external interests, and that government as another external interest can act to counter these influences. The other major underlying issue is actually public health. This paper will examine each of these major issues at the heart of the argument and then examine the strength of the arguments in favor and against such food bands.
The individual free will argument is used by both sides. Opponents of these bans have argued that individuals have the right to make their own determinations. Surowiecki (2012) counters that people do not have a fixed definition of what they want, but rather rely on contextual clues to determine optimal consumption. These cues are typically manipulated by those…
Bernhardt, A., Wilking, C., Adachi-Mejia, A., Bergamimi, E., Marijnissen, J. & Sargent, J. (2013). How television fast food marketing aimed at children compares with adult advertisements. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from http://www.rwjf.org/en/research-publications/find-rwjf-research/2013/08/how-television-fast-food-marketing-aimed-at-children-compares-wi.html
Bittman, M. (2012). Limit soda for kids' sake. New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from http://bittman.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/06/06/limit-soda-for-kids-sake/
Mehta, K. (2007). Questioning the ethics of junk food ads. Living Ethics. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from http://svc203.wic019v.server-web.com/about-ethics/ethics-centre-articles/living-ethics-newsletter/pdfs/issue-69-article-1.pdf
Melnick, M. (2010). Study: Fast food ads target kids with unhealthy food, and it works. Time Magazine. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from http://healthland.time.com/2010/11/08/study-fast-food-ads-target-kids-with-unhealthy-food-and-it-works/
red meat which is that eating of a lot of read meat is now linked to the risk of diabetes. There have been numerous warnings that have been issued by nutritionists concerning the health risks which are associated with eating read meat. The focus on the article is how there is a confirmed link between the consumption of red meat and type 2 diabetes.it explains this following a new follow up study hat has shown the persistence of this association throughout time.
The team which came up with this report included an epidemiologist Dr. Walter Willett who is part of the Harvard School of public health. The team made reports that the people that have claimed to have increased the amount of red meat they intake over a period of four years had had a very high chance of the development of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand the…
Brown, E. (2010). Chicago Tribune. Bad news on red meat: Eating more is linked to diabetes risk. Retrieved June 23, 2013 from http://www.chicagotribune.com/health/la-sci-sn-red-meat-diabetes-20130617,0,2749123.story
Food Menu and Nutrition
Food Menu Overview
The objective of this study is to create two food menus as follows: (1) one healthy food menu; and (2) one unhealthy food menu, from a local fast food restaurant. Following the creation of these menus, this work will write a nutritional analysis of the meal created, discuss the reaction of the writer to this information and describe how this will affect the food choices of the writer in the future in terms of food choices from fast food restaurants.
The food choices that one makes when dining at fast food restaurants make a great difference in the amount of nutrition received from dining at fast food restaurants as well as the total calories that are consumed and the other factors that make foods either healthy or unhealthy for consumption. One might assume that dining at a fast food restaurant is in general…
McDonald's USA Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items (nd) Nutrition McDonalds. Retrieved from: http://nutrition.mcdonalds.com/getnutrition/nutritionfacts.pdf
Nutrition Calculator (nd) McDonalds. Retrieved from: http://www.mcdonalds.ca/ca/en/food/nutrition_calculator.html
Food Served in Public Schools
he school nutrition environment, consisting of school meals and competitive meals, has actually properly gotten terrific attention due to the fact that kids eat, usually, one-third of their everyday calorie consumption at school (Briefel et al., 2009).
Improving the dietary consumption of our country's kids is of crucial value given that one-third of school-age kids are obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Paper's Scope and significant areas:.
his research will clarify Kid Nutrition Reauthorization from FRAC. he research addresses school meal quality and gain access to (Hartline-Grafton, 2010). Moreover, the present research concentrates on competitive meals, which are extensively readily available in schools, mostly exempt from federal nutrition criteria, and have an unfavourable influence on the wellness and health of all pupils, particularly pupils from low-income households.
he semi-structured type of interview is utilized in the research in addition to the standardized…
Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Delva, J., & Johnston, L.D. (2009). The school food environment and student body mass index and food consumption: 2004 to 2007 national data. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(3 Supplement), S45-S56.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Making It Happen! School Nutrition Success Stories. FNS-374. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/TN/Resources/makingithappen.html . Accessed April 20, 2013.
Wharton, C.M., Long, M., & Schwartz, M.B. (2008). Changing nutrition standards in schools: the emerging impact on school revenue. Journal of School Health, 78(5), 245-251.
These unhealthy food advertisements are not only the reverse of dietary suggestions but they are also unnecessary in prevention of obesity.
According to the findings, broadcast media marketing has a significant impact as compared to non-broadcast advertising. In fact, television advertising constitutes the highest percentage of food advertisements to children given that most of these adverts are during children-related programs. However, more than eighty percent of these television adverts with persuasive marketing are for unhealthy foods and contain promotional characters and premium offers. While various televisions adverts were in breach of Children's Television Standards, one of the findings proposed regulatory changes to food advertising to children. Most of the non-broadcast food advertisements were also tilted toward unhealthy foods with most of them being in areas close to schools.
As mentioned earlier, commercial television advertising has taken the center stage of majority of research on food marketing to children in Australia.…
Chapman, K., Kelly, B., & King, L. (2009, March). Using Research Framework to Identify
Knowledge Gaps in Research on Food Marketing to Children in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 33(3), 253-257. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2009.00384.x
Food Choices in Australia Today
Consumers in many developed nations are experiencing a veritable epidemic of obesity, a trend that has been exacerbated both by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle as well as the types of foods that are consumed. Fast food and high fat content have also contributed to these trends, and the healthcare costs associated with treating obesity are enormous. Furthermore, unhealthy food choices during the formative years in early childhood can also result in a lifetime of weight-related problems, making the need to identify factors that influence food choices in a given setting a timely and important enterprise. To this end, this paper provides a discussion concerning three of the most important factors that have been identified by researchers as potentially influencing food choices in Australia households, which are food availability, individual preferences for flavor and taste and, increasingly, the environmentally responsible manner in which foods are produced.…
Bellisle, F. (2012, January 3). The determinants of food choice. EUFIC Review. Retrieved from http://www.eufic.org/article/en/expid/review-food-choice/ .
Craig, L. (2005). The money or the care. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 40(4), 521-523.
Introduction. Contributors: Emma Costantino - author, Sian Supski - author. Journal Title: Journal of Australian Studies. Issue: 87. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 1+.
Grainger, C., Senauer, B. & Runge, C.F. (2007). Nutritional improvements and student food choices in a school lunch program. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 41(2), 265-267.
Health Public Good
Public Health as a Public Good
The United States has one of the lowest cost food options available to its consumers in the world. For an extended period, people assumed that this was a benefit of capitalism and that competition had helped push down the prices and made food available at lower costs through the market. However, many externalities have arisen in these circumstances that are now pointing researchers to question the consequences of having mass processed food available to consumers. The United States, as well as many other industrialized nations, currently has epidemic rates of obesity as well as the related obesity diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.
This trend is not restricted to just adult and the obesity rates among children have subsequently risen as well. This has made many instructions and activists compare the effects of poor diets and their health consequences to…
Adams, R. "Fat is a financial issue: Litigation over obesity could consign Big Mac, large fries and bucket-sized." 27 December 2002. The Guardian. Web. 28 March 2013.
Benloulou, J. "Pelman v. McDonald's: An In-depth Case Study of a Fast Food -- Obesity Lawsuit." April 2005.
"CASE 2-7." McDonald's and Obesity. N.d.
Chicago Defender. "Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies." Chicago Defender (2003): 1. Online.
Food Intake Analysis
Food Inake Analysis
Who does not want to be healthy? However, to achieve such an admirable goal, it will require diligence, motivation, and consistency. To many, this is quite a daunting task that is met with much resistance because of the level of commitment and consistency that it requires. Insomuch, with all the various types of fast foods available and society's life style, the challenge to reach and to maintain an ideal rate seems impossible. According to the Center for Disease Control (2012), the U.S. obesity rate at 35.7%; this demonstrates a significant increase since the 1990s. Since I am concern about my health and refuse to become a statistic, I will analyze my food intake for three days.
Below is my recorded 3-day food intake. Based on the data, several adjustments will should be made to reach the recommended dietary reference intake (USDA, 2012).…
Build a Heathy Body (n.d.). Let the pyramid guide your food choices.
Retrieved from http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2000/document/build.htm
Center for Disease Control -- CDC. (2012). Adult obesity facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
MyFitnessPal. (2012). Charts and reports. Retrieved from http://www.myfitnesspal.com/
Food, Technology and Class
The digestive divide:
Food, technology, and class and the changing eating habits of Americans and people around the globe
Much has been written about the 'digital divide,' or the fact that poorer people tend to have less access to cutting-edge technology and are thus disenfranchised from many educational, vocational, and personal opportunities for self-improvement. However, this digital divide is also seen in the different eating habits of the social classes, only in reverse. Today, wealthier people have access to simpler, healthier food that requires less technology to produce. Once upon a time, bitter greens like arugula and fish like salmon were the foods of the poor while the rich dined on heavily spiced meats and alcohol. Today, the equation has been reversed. Wealthy people can afford to eat organic produce and wild-caught fish. But walk into any disadvantaged neighborhood and you will find a bodega that…
Blatt, Harvey. (2008). America's food: What you don't know about what you eat.
Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 2008.
Mintz, Stanley. (1986). Sweetness and power. Penguin.
Winne, Mark. (2008). Closing the food gap. Boston, MA, USA: Beacon Press.
Childhood Obesity and Fast Food
The paper is a research based on the topic of "The influence of fast food on child obesity." The study aims to evaluate and identify the root cause of child obesity. The study is based on a scientific approach by developing a hypothesis and then proving it through data collected.
The hypothesis of this research has been developed after a number of general observations. These observations came from generally observing the school friends, cafes and restaurants, and family members. It was observed that children who were eating fast food regularly were fat. Another observation was that when we talk to obese people they often mention that they blame fast food restaurants for their obesity. Since we have developed specific conclusions from general observations, it is an inductive approach.…
S. that is no reason to sue the fast food franchises. These lawsuits "are an embarrassment to our legal system, and an embarrassment to the people who are saying they were so dumb not to know they might get fat" (Abrams, 2004). In fact on the day that Abrams wrote that piece for MSNBC the U.S. House of Representatives passed the so-called "Cheeseburger bill" which was legislation to "protect the fast food industry from frivolous lawsuits." (Abrams).
Abrams attacked John Banzhaf, the lawyer that has launched some of the suits against the fast food industry. Abrams says that Banzhaf is wrong to link the suits against tobacco with the need to sue junk food companies. In the case of tobacco companies, Abrams continues, "people were misled about what was in cigarettes" but the same deception doesn't apply to fast food. "People should know fast food isn't good for you," Abrams…
Abrams, Dan. "Lawsuits against fast food companies are ridiculous." MSNBC. Retrieved May
18, 2011, from http://www.msnbc.com .
CNN. "House bans fast-food lawsuits." CNN Justice. Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com. (2004).
Ebert, Roger. "Super Size Me." Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .
Whole Foods Market is one of the top retail stores dealing with organic and natural foods in the United States. The company operates and owns a chain of organic and natural foods supermarkets across the United States and Canada. In essence, the company has been able to reach large number of customer by operating through several subsidiaries, and Whole Foods is the first company in the United States to be awarded the first "Certified Organic" grocer. Whole Foods Market was incorporated in 1978 and started the organic and natural foods business in 1980. Within the last 35 years of its operations, the company has become the largest retailer in the organic and natural foods. The success that the company has enjoyed over the years makes the Whole Foods and ABC Company considering integrating their business portfolios.
Objective of this report is to provide a top-notch advice to the…
Annual Report (2013). Whole Foods 2013 Annual Report. USA
Morning Star (2014). Whole Foods Financial Ratios. USA.
For that reason, I was looking for alternatives and it was good to see that government has included protein-rich peanut butte as one of the alternatives to meat.
The pyramid has been approved by many but also criticized by some. Though the basic structure is one that nutritionists wouldn't be arguing about but critique has focused on category classifications. In the bread category for example, why haven't the whole grain and high fiber been stressed? White bread is not the same as whole grain bread and since Pyramid was all about healthy eating, it should have mentioned whole grain bread instead of just any kind of bread.
Similarly some people wonder where do most food fall. If you go for apple pie for example, would that be classified as sweet dessert or fruit since it contains apples. People are also uncertain about portion sizes and what size is recommended for…
New Food Guide Pyramid. http://www.mypyramid.gov
Healthy Food Prevent Obesity?
Now more than ever obesity has become an immense issue in the United States. What used to be a growing concern has now become a topic of constant discussion and debate. It has received great media attention, with as far as getting celebrities and athletes to sponsor healthier food and more exercise. The President and First Lady of the United States have even made it a personal concern of theirs to get America healthier. Children are at an all time high for getting Diabetes from the unhealthy food that they are eating and that are being marketed to them. Adults are getting high cholesterol levels, Diabetes, and high blood pressure, from all the unhealthy fat and high amounts of salt and sugar in the foods that they are eating. In today's society, being healthy has become not only a way of living, but also a trend.…
Fast Food and Child Obesity
This study identifies the underlying correlation of fast food consumption and the increasing rate of child obesity. The system of fast food is prevalent in all countries, with each country having its own variations of types of items served and the nature of establishments serving. The popularity of fast food is due to the convenience of fast service, packaged food and low cost. Now major fast food industries try to make their product seem as healthy as possible. It is likely that the convenience is influencing the growth of childhood obesity in the United States. In addition, the factors of media, family, and environment bring about differences within our community. Understanding the correlation between these factors is vital in producing a solution. However, there needs to be a better support for causation, not just correlation. The children and youth will one-day influence the…
Chou, S. (2008). Fast Food Restaurants Advertising on Television and its Influence on Childhood Obesity. The Journal of Law & Economics, 51, 599-618.
Darwin, A. (2008). Childhood Obesity: Is it Abuse? The Children's Voice, 17, 4-24.
Eagle, T. (2012). Understanding Childhood Obesity in America: Linkages between Household Income, Community Resources, and Children's Behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
Fraser, L. (1998). Fast Food and Obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-248.
It is often said that 'we eat with our eyes' first, and children are no different. hen hamburgers are in attractive packaging emblazoned with cartoon characters, children will want to eat the burgers more than broiled chicken and whole wheat pasta. Conversely, Cornell's Center for Behavioral Economics in Child Nutrition Programs found that children eat more fruit when the fruit is displayed in attractive baskets rather than in stainless-steel buckets (Aubrey 2011). However, the presence of fast food offerings is too powerful to resist, even when fruit is present. In my own experience, I notice that when children beg to go to McDonald's, they show no interest in the healthier menu. One study of McDonald's located on hospital premises found: "hen apple dippers and milk jugs were on the menu...families rarely ordered them. Apple dippers were purchased by anywhere from 0.3% to 3.6% of kids; milk from 1.1% to 6.6%…
Aubrey, Alison. "Cheap marketing techniques help kids choose more fruit." NPR.
October 3, 2011. [October 4, 2011] NPR. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2011/10/03/141003800/cheap-marketing-techniques-help-kids-choose-more-fruit
"Fast food linked to child obesity." CBS. January 1, 2004. [October 4, 2011]
Drinking Inadequate water
One must drink enough pure water on a daily basis for good health. However, many people forego water and concentrate on other fluids which have additional ingredients. These cannot be compared to water when it comes to health benefits. (McLennan, 2000)
Take the example of young kids, who mostly prefer sweet drinks such artificial juice and sodas. Likewise, teens go for energy drinks and sports drinks in lieu of water. (Simpson, & Mazzeo, 2017)
A recent Havard study found out that over half of the children in America are dehydrated. This has many negative implications on their health and academic performance. (McLenan, 2000)
Another study showed that a quarter of American children do not drink water daily. Boys were found to be 75% more likely to be dehydrated than the girls. (Valtin, 2002)
65 % of the human body is made up of water. This water helps…
If Bruce were to charge his managers to implement a TQM Paradigm, what would the basic premise be for care? How would this impact the financial performance of the hospital? Discuss.
4. Perform a simple PEST analysis of Blake Memorial Hospital. How does this analysis help Bruce with his many decisions and horizontal priorities?
5. Explain the Kurt Lewin model and show how the three stages might be something for Bruce to adopt in his challenge to remake the hospital?
6. What aspects of social theory, particularly social constructivism, could Bruce use to develop an action plan for the hospital?
nswers- (for you to use to prepare)
1. There are a number of answers to this question. One set might focus on reaching out to the community in a Health Promotion Plan that involved local businesses, schools, churches and community groups. Pick an issue -- let us say obesity and…
Answers- (for you to use to prepare)
1. There are a number of answers to this question. One set might focus on reaching out to the community in a Health Promotion Plan that involved local businesses, schools, churches and community groups. Pick an issue -- let us say obesity and Type 2 diabetes prevention. Develop a program in which nurses go into the school system to train children and adolescents on health eating and exercise; work with local businesses to improve employee exercise, activity and nutrition; work with local newspapers, etc. To promote health walkathons, information sessions, etc. Use an educational model to show the community that the hospital cares (Theories and Models, 2009).
2. The combination of Theory X and Theory Y is more like a work in progress using Maslow's "Hierarchy" framework. It essentially goes beyond drive and says that humans have needs that must be satisfied; typically layered from survival issues upward. Once the bottom layers have been fulfilled (e.g. food, shelter, safety), then self-esteem, recognition, achievement and self-actualization, which are all workplace goals, become even more important. These workplace needs are an intrinsic/extrinsic
Genetically Engineered Food
Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…
Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."
Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.
Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.
Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
The orld Bank is a likely source of support for such an initiative. Recent research has focused on the promise of rural development through a restructuring of agri-business (Jarosz, 1996) and the results are promising. Rural labor practices are subject to change and some of those changes do not require a global revolution. Instead of waiting for the IMF to collapse or fertilizer companies to go bankrupt, sustainable agricultural development advocates should focus on the community level.
The global food system is unjust by almost every measure. Billions of people are starving to death while another billion are suffering the ill health effects of too much food. Our domestic and international institutions have not only created this reality, but are situated now to support policies that perpetuate this reality. Change will not be easy and transformation will be even harder. Small, locally-led reform can begin in any community that…
Holt-Gimenez, Eric. 2008. The World Food Crisis: What's Behind it and What We Can
Do About it. Policy Brief #16. Institute for Food and Development Policy:
Jarosz, Lucy. 1996. Working in the Global Food System: A Focus for International
American Food Uses and Abuses
The uses and abuses of food in America are becoming clearer everyday mostly because we can no longer avoid the obvious concerns about the public's poor dietary health and obesity. This concern is leading us as a nation to take a closer look at our love of fast foods and the alternative ways for us to gain access to easy and convenient food that may or may not be healthier. It turns out that even as we look to organic or locally produced food, we cannot get away from safety and health considerations. The fact is that America's food preferences are tied closely to what it means to be an American and this often means they are tied to us using ingredients that are often first about simplicity and profits (Corporate Accountability, 2011).
We know that a good deal of what we eat is processed…
CDC (2011). Listeriosis. Timeline of Events: Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado. Viewable at http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/cantaloupes-jensen-farms/120811/timeline.html .
Corporate Accountability International (2011). Health Effects of Fast Food. Viewable at http://www.stopcorporateabuse.org/health-effects-fast-food .
Honey (2011). Honey.com. National Honey Board. Viewable at http://www.honey.com/nhb/technical/ .
Let's Move (2011). America's Move to Raise a Healthier Generation of Kids. Viewable at http://www.letsmove.gov/eat-healthy.
PESTLE analysis: Fast food industry
The recent backlash against unhealthy eating could prove to be difficult for the fast food industry. There are calls to limit the marketing of fast food products to children and to limit the sale of fast foods in schools. Given that children are such an important driver of sales, this could curtail the efficacy of many fast food campaigns, particular those with tie-ins to children's films and television shows. Campaigns like Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" campaign underline the importance of healthy eating and eating minimally processed foods. Although President Obama and the First Lady have been photographed eating burgers and they say that they are not against all fast food, the overall emphasis on the administration has been on restricting access to 'junk food' (Michelle Obama loves fast food, 2010, Slashfood).
The economic uncertainty in America has proved to be…
David, Brennan & Christopher Carpenter. (2009). Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 99 (3). Retrieved:
Fast food nation: The sequel. (2009). The Guardian. Retrieved:
Ideally, this would be on designated days in a central location, like a public park, and food stamps could also be used to buy the produce there. This would require a coordinated effort by the mayor, board of health, parks and recreation department, social services and zoning staff to achieve, to ensure that farmers and other small producers were not hampered by red tape in their access to the community. After that, a second step would be to create a public health campaign in the schools, coordinated by the city's board of education, principals, and health education teachers. Schools would work with local vendors to increase the amount of fruit and vegetable-related offerings in school lunches city-wide, vending machines would be banned that sold unhealthy and highly processed snacks, and agreements with fast food companies to sponsor school activities would also be banned. If the school desired to do so,…
processed foods and diet has had a negative effect upon many populations, particularly contributing to obesity and potential Type-II diabetes and a host of other problems. Medical doctors, scholars, researchers are all in agreement that there is a complete link between what we eat and drink, and the consequences to our overall health. Technology has certainly done wonders for learning, but has also contributed to children preferring video games to outdoor exercise. This, in combination with diet and sugary sodas at school has negatively impacted children's health. Dutch researchers in public health and epidemiology were so alarmed by these trends they developed a study to measure the effects of using fruits and vegetables as an intervention during mid-morning school breaks (Tak, et.al., 2010). These researchers are very well qualified on this topic, as they are professionals in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Public Health with major universities in Holland. The information contained…
Sample Selection- The study included 705 mixed gender children aged 9-10 years old in 4th grade. Fifty-five schools participated; 31 segmented for intervention and 24 as control. There were schools in five cities that met all participation criteria and there were slightly more girls who completed the study than boys. Enough extra participants were recruited during the initial stages of the study to result in the 705 completed; thus having a large enough population that was statistically viable and longitudinally appropriate. However, the Schoolgruiten research group selected the intervention cities, set the control parameters, and although there were baseline differences between the intervention and control groups, quantitatively speaking there was not necessary adequate adjustments for many demographic or psychographic variables within the study groups. From a quantitative perspective, a more clustering of variables (income, age of parent, educational level, and more) should have been structured into the study as opposed to using governmental mandates for certain groups (Halkidi and Vazirgaiannis, 2001). The research groups provided consent, teachers knew which groups had fruit and vegetable intervention, but the governance of the research was more administrative and political than scholarly in orientation.
Design and Data Collection- The design of the study was quasi-experimental and included a pre -- and post-test. Baseline measurements were conducted prior to the start of the intervention and the first follow-up was 1 year later, the second 2 years later. Both children and their parents completed questionnaires about the child's intake of food. Children completed the questionnaire within one school hour and were guided by teachers. All responses were treated confidentially, tagged and coded by independent researchers, and all had appropriate levels of consent. Questionnaires contained parallel questions for parents and children and a single item focus was done to see what the children brought to school vs. their consumption, then habits over the course of two years. Schools were not obliged to change their school policies, although teachers were asked to encourage students to bring fruits and vegetables and a specific section in a special lunch-box was given to students. The major focus of the intervention was to give a piece of fruit or vegetable (apple or orange slices, sherry tomatoes, baby carrots) free, twice a week during the mid-morning break in their own classroom, supervised by the instructor.
This approach used a mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods. Because the data was self-reported, longitudinal, and some of the groups were chosen by a non-research body, much of the material measured was not precisely quantitative in nature. From a quantitative standpoint, the numeric analysis of this data did show patterns, and was validated through statistical means. It focused more on the aspects of collecting and analyzing the intervention methods than explaining the causative factors influencing the basic hypothesis of the research. Too, while the data
production of food products has changed dramatically over the past several years. Technological changes in machinery, increased use of better and more expedient forms of transportation, and improved fertilizers have all contributed to a more efficient food production process. This more efficient process, however, has not come with some requisite problems.
The existing system of delivering food products in the United States is a major contributor to the world's global warming problem. The largest contributor to global warming is the use of fossil fuels. One study released in 2000 estimated that nearly ten percent of all the energy used in the United States was consumed by the food industry. (Heller, 2000).
This large use of fossil fuels is generated throughout the food production and delivering industry. A large measure of this use is through the extensive reliance upon artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Although the use of these products results in…
Center for Disease Control. (2003). Diabetes Public Health Resource. Retrieved December 4, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/figuretext.htm#fig1
Eckholm, E. (2010, August 11). Farmers Lean to Truce on Animals' Close Quarters. The New York Times .
Eisnitz, G.A. (2006). Slaugherhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhuman Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Prometheus Books.
Fossil Fuels. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2010, from U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/energysources/fossilfuels.htm
Tesco UK food department
a.) Legislative risks: The decision to provide healthier food by labeling the ingredients on the packages to include the calories, sugar, fat, sodium, and saturated fat content needs to also comply with the U.K. food and labeling law. According to the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of eading, "In most cases, ingredients have to be listed in weight descending order determined as at the time of their use in the preparation of the food. This is commonly referred to as the 'mixing bowl stage'. The following exemptions are however permitted" (A Guide to UK egulations, 2011)
Water and volatile products used as ingredients have to be listed in order of their weight in the finished product. The weight of water is calculated by subtracting from the weight of the finished product the total weight of the other ingredients used.
If an ingredient is…
CSPI Reports International (1998) Functional Foods: Public Health Boon or 21st Century Quackery? http://www.cspinet.org/reports/functional_foods/uk_regltry.html
Feindt, P.H. & Flynn, A. 2009, Policy stretching and institutional layering: British food policy between security, safety, quality, health and climate change, Palgrave Macmillan.
Food Labels: A Guide to the UK Regulations. Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading. http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodlaw/label/index2.htm
Lacey, R. 1992, Scares and the British Food System: Problems and Policies in Relation to Food-Related Health Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, Limited.
More objectivity is however expected from scientists, but their opinions also vary. Specifically, the opinions of those who support growth hormones and those who reject them are all derived from scientific evidence. This in turn means that the results of scientific research could be manipulated and influenced so that the findings are indicative of the desires of those who initiated the study. In this particular sense, the most pertinent situation is revealed by the beef and dairy producers, who hire their own scientists to lead the research process in the direction desired by them.
Aside from these situations however, the scientists who have conducted studies tend to link various health problems with the growth hormones. Some of the side effects to consuming products with residual matters from growth hormones include the onset of early puberty in girls, an increase in the risk of breast cancer, an increase in the risk…
Leonard, a., the story of stuff, the Story of Stuff Project, http://www.storyofstuff.org / last accessed on February 21, 2012
McLaughlin, a. 2011, the effects of growth hormones in food, Live Strong, http://www.livestrong.com/article/98816-effects-growth-hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
Artificial hormones, Sustainable Table, http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
EU scientists confirm health risks of growth hormones in meat, Organic Consumer Association, http://www.organicconsumers.org/toxic/hormone042302.cfm last accessed on February 21, 2012
Fast Food Nation
The Ramifications of Technology on Health Care and elfare of Animals and Meatpacking orkers in "Fast Food Nation" by Eric Schlosser
In the book "Fast Food Nation" by Eric Schlosser, newfound information about the behind-the-scenes operations of fast food establishments such as the well-known McDonald's, had been discussed critically. In revealing the 'hidden operations' behind the production of merchandise associated with the fast food industry such as meat production, Schlosser was able to convey his message that technology had been more of a detriment than beneficial to consumers of these fast food establishments.
In arguing his position that the fast food industry was detrimental to consumers, he provided examples in which the technology of machinery had led to developments that only increased the chances of dangerous diseases to spread and thrive and worsened the conditions in which meatpackers worked. Moreover, these detrimental effects of technology had important…
Schlosser, E. (2002). Fast Food Nation: the dark side of the all-American meal. NY: Perennial Books.
Kimchi in an ancient Korean food made from a pungent mixture of fermented vegetables and its variations amount to 80 kinds of dishes of that period (aymond). For the season's summer and fall it is made in small quantities because the fermentation can go bad, but for winters it is made in large quantities so that it can be eaten for 3-4 months of the winter season. The Kimchi curing for the winter season is called "kimjang" and in usually done in the last days of November (aymond).
In the old times, kimchi was made of greens picked and salt or salt and alcohol mixture. By the end of Unified Shillan and start of Koryo era, pickled sliced radish in brine was made very popular (aymond). Soon after chili was introduced in Korea and it was added in the kimchi making as well. During the late Chosen era, powdered chili…
Armstrong, E. The Importance of Fermentation. 2004. www.treelight.com
Donna. Kimchi: Why This Delicious Korean Staple is Also a Health Wonder food. Body Ecology. 2008
Olsen. How kimchi prevents obesity. Bright Hub. 2009
Owl. The Everyday Benefits of Kimchi. Flu Trackers. 2006
Should Flavorful Health be allowed to have a "100% Vitamin RDA" package icon despite the fat content, which is listed on the back?
No. Doing so is deceptive and violates the fundamental principle of honesty, or truth in advertising. The phrase itself is true only in a literal sense, but deceptive in context, because it purposely implies that the product is one that is more healthful than it is unhealthful. By referring to one minor "recommendation" when the product completely violates a more significant "recommendation" (to limit saturated fat intake), the label is intentionally deceptive. The company should be allowed to sell the product but not to market it, either directly or indirectly, as a healthful dietary choice by purposely creating that inference in any respect. The ethical choice would be to avoid any reference to healthfulness on the wrapper or market it as a vitamin-rich alternative to other junk…
' (EurActiv 2008)
'The traffic light Scheme was shown to be the most effective of by the FSA. hat they also discovered was that consumers wanted product labeling; they liked separate information on 4 key nutrients that include fats, carbohydrates, proteins and salts and sugars.' (EurActiv, 2010) Consumers found traffic color coding easy to understand and use. As a result they wanted numerical information on amount of nutrients in a serving. However they found GDA percentage rather confusing. Also the importance of making nutrition and ingredient labeling mandatory on wines, beers and spirits and having a consistent mandatory labeling system with color codes was emphasized by the NGOs representing different areas of health at the hearing. These products could not be eliminated from the labeling because they were part of the foods that contributed to obesity.
At the public hearing on efficient food, (Public Hearing on Efficient foods, 2011) Mr.…
DN Sanco, (2011) European Vegetarian and Animal News Alliance (EVANA): Renewed Commitment of stakeholders to Combat Overweight and Obesity Related Health Issues Brussels, Belgium
European Public Health Alliance, (2011) putting citizens' health at the heart of Europe, Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from www.epha.org/a/3107
EurActiv, (2008) European Food Safety Authority: Food industry, food labeling Retrieved from http://www.euractiv.com/en/cap/smes-hit-cost-eu-food-labelling-proposals/article-174970
EurActiv, (2011) Europe Urged to recognize Chronic Obesity Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from http: / www / euractiv.com.en/health / Europe
Sources of Information for a Porters Five Forces Analysis on Kraft Foods
To undertake a Porters Five Forces analysis it is necessary to identify potential sources of information that will give the required information. The Five Forces analysis will require an assessment of the five areas; degree of rivalry among competitors, threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of customers, and availability of substitutes. This process can be examined by looking at the sources which may be used for a Porters Five Forces analysis of Kraft Foods, a firm that competes in the food industry. Each of the forces will be considered separately.
Degree of rivalry among competitors
Source 1; CSI Market; UL is http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KFT
This is a very useful web site which has the primary aim of providing information to potential investors. The page on Kraft Foods is particularly useful in assessing the firm's position…
Baertlein, L, (2014, Sept 30), Kraft challenged by "healthier" macaroni and cheese brands, didReuters, accessed at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/30/us-kraft-macandcheese-idUSBREA2T09C20140330
CSI Market (2014), Kraft accessed at http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT on 7th Sept 2014
Food and Drug Administration, (2004), accessed at http://www.fda.gov/Food / on 7th September 2014
K-Mart, (2014), accessed at http://www.kmart.com/en_us/grocery-pet.html on 7th Sept 2014
The problem with this is that the underlying issue is not addressed. The headmaster and staff completely ignored the contents of the petition, and the fact that numerous students have complained about the food they receive. They have also ignored the fact that the complaint, in the light of a more health-conscious society, is in fact legitimate.
Another problem is a basic lack of communication. It can be that the school has a legitimate reason for the quality of food offered by the cafeteria, such as finances. The children were also summarily punished without being given an opportunity to state their case. Thirdly, the parent conference was conducted without the presence of the children, further limiting their opportunity to communicate. In this light, they saw their only opportunity to bring their point across by means of trespass. Furthermore, by encouraging parents to also punish their children, the problem is exacerbated…
18). In this manner, the public and private sectors can ascertain that via reflection and debate, the appropriate issues are addressed, the product is truly what it is with no erroneous and misleading claims attached, and that consultation will be implemented in a manner equitable to all. This was the way, for instance that Pollard et al. (2001) and Roos et al. (2002) implemented food and nutrition policy schemes at the local, state, and national levels, for instance, in the case of Pollard et al. (2001), in child care centers.
Questions that involved in policy evaluation include:
Have the stated goals and performance indicators of the policy been achieved -- for instance, is corruption impeded and all foods truly styled for what they are including their potential negatives?
Are there changes in the area that the policy was supposed to be influencing?
Has the policy really caused the claimed change…
Alma Ata Declaration of Health for All (1978) http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf ,
Bridgeman, P., & Davis, G. (2002). A policy cycle. In the Australian policy handbook (pp. 23-33). Canberra: AGPS.
Busch, L. (2002). The homiletics of risk. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 15, 17-29.
Cummins, S., & Macintyre, S. (2002). "Food deserts" -- evidence and assumption in health policy making. British Medical Journal, 325, 436-438.
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…
The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.
Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
consumer who has read Fast Food Nation, I personally believe that I can make an informed choice to NOT eat fast food burgers at McDonald's. However, even as someone who actively solicits information about the food I eat, it can be difficult to know what is good to buy. First of all, in regards to meat, there are many conflicting studies about its health, some proclaiming the superiority of a high-protein, low-fat diet, the others stating that a vegetarian diet is superior. Secondly, many products purport to be healthy because the burgers are said to be organic, or are from grass-fed cows, or because they are 'prime' and 'choice.' These health claims may mean little to consumers. A consumer must be very vigilant about dietary information in today's America. Furthermore, he or she must also continually weigh the merits of one study over others when making decisions.
The average fast…
Overlapping Neural Correlates for Food and Drug Addiction
The Neural Correlates of Food and Drug Addiction Overlap
A recent popular press article in the Huffington Post reviewed a recently published research article that revealed the brain functions in a similar manner whether a person is addicted to food or drugs. Women scoring high as emotional eaters and exposed to a milkshake preferentially activated the anterior cingulate cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and caudate, as imaged by fMI. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex was less active when compared to the brains of subjects scoring low as emotional eaters. These areas correspond to those that have been found to be involved in drug using/seeking behavior, which suggests the mechanisms involved in food and drug addiction are similar or the same. Previously published research studies support this conclusion, although addiction-related behaviors are very complex and additional studies will be…
Coletta, Maria, Platek, Steven, Mohamed, Feroze B., van Steenburgh, J. Jason, Green, Deborah, and Lowe, Michael R. (2009). Brain activation in restrained and unrestrained eaters: An fMRI study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 598-609.
Gearhardt, Ashley N., Yokum, Sonja, Orr, Patrick T., Stice, Eric, Corbin, William R., and Brownell, Kelly D. (2011). Neural correlates of food addiction. Archives of General Psychiatry, Published online ahead of print April 4, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/archgenpsychiatry.2011.32v1
Goldstein, Rita Z., Tomasi, Dardo, Alia-Klein, Nelly, Carillo, Jean H., Maloney, Thomas, Woicik, Patricia A. et al. (2009). Dopaminergic response to drug words in cocaine addiction. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(18), 6001-6006.
Killgore, William D.S. And Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A. (2006). Affect modulates appetite-related brain activity to images of food. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 357-363.
Genetically Modified Foods
' There has been a great deal of controversy over genetically modified foods (GMOs). First, many individuals and organizations oppose the concept of altering the genetics of foods for any reason. And secondly, there is a hot debate as to whether or not food manufacturers should publish / label their packages as containing GMOs. This paper covers the controversies and provides several angles to the debates.
The way in which companies modify food genetically is through " ... the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup" of the seeds to be changed materially (Schneider, et al., 2014). There are two ways GMOs can be produced through "recombination": either by moving genes from one organism to another organism; or by making changes in genes within an organism "that are already present" (Schneider, p. 1). The changes that occur after being genetically engineered result in…
Jalonick, M.C. (2014). Debate over genetically modified foods continues amid confusion.
PBS News Hour. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from http://www.pbs.org .
Kopicki, A. (2013). Strong Support for Labeling Modified Foods. The New York Times.
Retrieved September 16, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com .
So, putting the Rolly name on a product that is potentially unhealthy could do serious damage to the company's overall message.
Additionally, Europe does not currently have a market of low-calorie products because unlike the United States where that market is popular, Europe is not in need of such products. So, unlike the expansion of reduced fat products, reduced calorie products using artificial sweeteners would most likely prove detrimental.
Project 10: This project is a money sink for the company. While high-tech software may make some aspects of the business run smoother, the overall cost of updates and repairs is not worth the expanse at this time. Once the company stabilizes and sees market growth, then is the time to consider such proposals.
Project 11: This acquisition meets all three of the company's current goals. It would ensure profitability, aid in debt payoff, and allow new market shares. Additionally, the…
Child Obesity and Junk Food
Over the last several years, the issue of childhood obesity and junk food has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the total numbers of children who are considered to be at least 50 pounds overweight have risen dramatically. In a study conducted by Children's Hospital Boston, they found that 30% of those who eat junk fund on a regular basis are exponentially increasing the chances of reaching these levels. This is from them being exposed to added amounts of fat, sugar and cholesterol. (Holguin, 2004) Yet, other studies have shown that it is lifestyle choices, not the food itself that is making children obese. (Datar, 2012) This is creating conflicts about the accuracy of research. To illustrate the effects this is having requires showing how these variables are interconnected.
This will help everyone to realize how junk food is related to obesity…
Datar, A. (2012). Junk Food in Schools. Journal Policy Anal Manage, 31 (2), 312 -- 337.
Holguin, J. (2004). Fast Food Linked to Childhood Obesity. CBS News. Retrieved from:
Roberto, C. (2010). Influence of Licensed Characters. Pediatrics, 126 (1), 88 -- 93.
III. The federal government does regulate foods for safety but plays no role in limiting how much unhealthy foods children eat when in their parents' care. On the other hand, the fact that government programs now make a specific effort to improve the ratio of healthy food choices to unhealthy food choices in public education demonstrates that without some controls, children will make unhealthy choices and eat more unhealthy foods than is good for them.
IV. Children do not develop will power by being exposed to temptation without a specific reward or an immediate consequence associated with making the more beneficial choices (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Providing children with the information that eating too much unhealthy foods will have adverse consequences in several decades is not a sufficient motivation for them to eat less unhealthy food than they wish to at the moment.
The arguments put forth against the…
Belch, G, Belch, M. (1998) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated
Marketing Communications Perspective. Irwin/McGraw-Hill: New York
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Allyn & Bacon: New Jersey
Food Nation is the kind of book that you hope young people read because it demonstrates far better than any social studies class the need for government regulation, the unchecked power of multinational corporations and the importance of our everyday decisions.
Despite international concerns with the Cold War and Senator McCarthy's accusations, the 1950s were an exciting change for many Americans. A large number headed out to the suburbs to newly designed housing. National roads started sweeping across the cities and towns. Soon, another change came about on these roads: the arrival of fast-food restaurants, which have epitomized America ever since. People just have to is drive up to the window and order their meals; within minutes they are fed and content. Yet, there are always two sides to an issue, especially when big money is involved. According to the book Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser, fast-food…
Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Collins, 2002.
The Prevalence and Importance in the Problem
In 2007 the percent of food insecure houses in the United States was 11.one percent. This Season, as much as 50 million of U.S. citizens were living in food insecure houses. In the 50 million of the masses, 33.5 million were grownups and 16.7 million were children. Every county in the United States is influenced by food insecurity. Steele County, ND gets the least expensive quantity of food insecure houses, while Holmes County, MS gets the finest quantity of food insecure houses. Inside the richest nations in the world, you'll still find people missing the required daily intake to eat (Brownell and Ludwig, 2011).
The End esult in the Problem on Families
In food deprived families each and every member is affected. Youthful children from food insecure families frequently have decreased communal and intellectual development, as well as increased health issues and…
Alston, J., Mullally, C., Sumner, D., Townsend, M., & Vosti, S. (2009). Likely effects on obesity from proposed changes to the U.S. food stamp program. Food Policy, 34 176-184.
Barnhill, A. (2011). Impact and ethics of excluding sweetened beverages from the SNAP program. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 2037-2043.
Brownell, K., & Ludwig, D. (2011). The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, soda, and USDA policy: who benefits? Journal of the American Medical Association, 306 (12), 1370-1371.
Shenkin, J., & Jacobson, M. (2010). Using the Food Stamp Program and other methods to promote healthy diets for low-income consumers. American Journal of Public Health, 100(9), 1562-1564.
During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…
Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.
Goldberg, C. & Zimmerman, R. (2011). What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Common Health. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/08/food-additives-obesity
Hellmich, N. (2009). Rising obesity will cost U.S. health care $344 billion a year. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2009-11-17-future-obesity-costs_N.htm
Miller, R. & Jentz, G. (2010). Business law today: 9th edition. South-Western/Cengage Learning.
The question as to what is more influential in affecting children's predilections for unhealthy food -- taste or packaging -- would be more useful to explore, but was not fully brought to light within the construct of the study, given that children were offered an choice between two identical assortments of sweet treats and vegetables at the same time.
The focus on cartoons advertising children's food is a distraction, says McWilliams, from the more difficult-to-control pressures that do influence childhood obesity. Parents that can afford healthy foods and parents that have the time and the energy to ensure their children have safe places to exercise tend to have slimmer children. It is easier to ban cartoon advertising for cookies, politically, then to end subsidizes to industrialized farms that make cheap, sweet corn syrup used in processed snack foods and to make urban areas safe places to play. McWilliams uses his…
McWilliams, James. (2010, July 22). What we know, and don't know about children and junk food. The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/07/22/what-we-know-and-dont-about-children-and-junk-food/?scp=2&sq=childhood obesity&st=cse
healthy Nutrition: A Chemistry View Point
Chemistry is a branch of sciences that deals with the compositions of matter and helps in identifying the substances that form matter. Living as well as non-living bodies are formed with substances. These substances differ in their composition, nature, properties, and reactions with other substances. There is a vital role of chemicals and chemistry in everyday life of human beings. The impacts of chemical substances on living beings can also be divided into direct and indirect categories. The impact of environmental substances is indirect in nature whereas direct impacts are chemical composition of food, nutrition, vitamins, and physical activity.
The following sections are focused on detailed review of relevance for chemistry and chemicals on healthy eating habits, nutrition, and vitamins. The significant role of physical activity and exercising is also elaborated in the sections below. There are significant benefits of healthy diet and exercise.…
Papadopolus, K. (2008). Food Chemistry Research Developments. USA: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Sladyk, K., & O'Sullivan, B. (2010). Occupation, activity, Skills, patterns, Demands, context, and Balance. Occupational Therapy Essentials for Clinical Competence, 33.
Willett, W. (2012). Nutritional epidemiology (Vol. 40). USA: OUP.
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Ethics and Public Policy
This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.
An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity
One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…
Athanassoulis, N. (2014). Virtue ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved http://www.iep.utm.edu/virtue/
Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (2012). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved from:
Ethical Issues Involved
The increased danger of heart disease in urban Asian areas as a result of an unhealthy lifestyle affects several areas of basic human needs. Specifically these include the need for health and happiness. The people most affected by the danger are those living in urban areas. The lifestyle promoted by stress-laden jobs and a lack of physical activity affects the basic need for health.
Health is adversely affected because of the various structures in place in an urbanized setting. The development of motorized transport for example has severely restricted the human tendency to exercise the body in these kinds of settings. Furthermore health is affected by the ready availability of addictive drugs such as cigarettes and alcohol. These are often used to cope with work and other urban-related stress factors, because exercise is no longer used as a stress reliever.
The basic human needs for food and…
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…
Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching
on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.
Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most
Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
Vending Machine Businsess Plan
Maketing business plan
Location, envionment and taget maket
Value poposition and competitive edge
Maketing and sales stategy
Online maketing technique
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending -- Healthy Seven Vending
Location, envionment and taget maket
Ameica's obesity epidemic has been spialing out of contol in the past two decades, and will continue to gow unless dastic measues ae taken to change Ameican eating habits. It is of paticula concen that the ate of childhood and adolescent obesity is gowing so apidly. H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending (Healthy Seven Vending) believes that it is essential that food copoations pai with local municipalities, educational institutions, and othe oganizations that play a vital ole in young people's lives. "Moe than half of U.S. middle and high schools still offe suga dinks and less healthy foods fo puchase. Students have access to suga dinks and less healthy foods at school thoughout the…
references even when they are not eating from vending machines.
A growing problem. (2013). Overweight and obesity. Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).
Not even public health experts entirely agree why the obesity rate has skyrocketed in recent decades. This website provides an overview of some of the leading proposed causes, including the popularity of marketing junk food to teens.
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy vending machines. (2013). http://www.healthyvending.com/machines
Causes of Obesity
Recent attention has been given to the growing number of obese Americans. In a nation notorious for technological advancements, the American population is also becoming popular for its growing girth. The primary cause of obesity in America can be traced to the evolution of technology. Everything we have invented to make our lives easier has also made us lazier. ith the invention of vehicles, we stopped walking so much. Individuals prefer to stay indoors and watch television rather than go outside. Fast food is often selected over preparing meals in the kitchen strictly because of the convenience it provides. In fact, our technological advancements have made it possible to never leave the house for days. Considering these factors, it is no wonder that Americans are becoming fatter and unhealthy. hile many would like to blame their "genes" for this condition, it appears that obesity is a condition…
Ads Add Pound to Our Kids." Atlanta Journal-Constitution Online. http://www.ajc.com/health/content/sharedauto/healthnews/kids/517629.html . February 26, 2004. Site Accessed February 27, 2004.
America the Unhealthy." CBS News Online. February 26, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/02/26/health/main602417.shtml . Site Accessed February 27, 2004.
Shinn, Eileen and Poston, Carlos. "Why We Are Overweight." Detroit News. http://detroitnews.healthology.com/focus_article.asp?f=beyond_dieting&c=envsgenes
Site Accessed February 27, 2004.
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…
Coveney, J. 2008. The government of girth. Health Sociology Review, 17, pp. 199-213.
De Silva, A.M., Bolton, K., Haby, M., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., and Swimburn, B. 2010. Scaling up community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background and evaluation design of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well initiative. BMC Public Health, 10, pp. 65.
Henderson, J., Coveney, J., Ward, P., and Taylor, A. 2009. Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media. Social Science & Medicine, 69(9), pp. 1402-08.
Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., and Williams. 2005. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health Promotion International, 20(1), pp. 19-26.
A direct contributing factor to the second determinant is the lack of energy resulting from unhealthy eating habits. Indirectly, social changes in work and economic habits result in fewer physical activities from day-to-day.
A d) To encourage more physical activities, community programs such as walking and jogging competitions could be arranged. These activities will then be focused on the whole family, with categories to focus on the abilities of men, women and children.
A e) Impact objective: Advertising to educate the public regarding the benefits of healthy foods. Education programs can also occur in schools and health clinics.
Process objective: Advertise a community activity involving jogging and walking activities. The distance will vary according the categories for men, women and children. Prizes will be used to encourage participation.
Grayson, Charlotte (2004, Aug.) Weight Loss: Health Risks Associated with Obesity. WebMD, The Cleveland Clinic. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/46/2731_1658
World Health Organization. (2005). Obesity…
Grayson, Charlotte (2004, Aug.) Weight Loss: Health Risks Associated with Obesity. WebMD, The Cleveland Clinic. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/46/2731_1658
World Health Organization. (2005). Obesity and Overweight. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity/en
Japanese Live Longer than Americans?
One of the greatest markers for the achievement of "civilization" in any culture is longevity, a mark of the proof of the health and wellness of a country or a group of people. (Hopper, 1999, p. 443) With this mark comes a responsibility, for both the individual and the culture as a whole. With regard to longevity the world recognizes that of many, industrialized nations as outstanding among all, and surprisingly many are concerned about the average longevity of the United States population, especially in comparison to places like Japan. (Quinlivan & Davies, 2003)
As you can see the difference between these two like countries on the issue of longevity is significant. Both men and women, in Japan live significantly longer on average than do those in the United States. In fact they live more than three years longer. In fact in Japan can be…
Akst, D. (2003, Summer). Cheap Eats. The Wilson Quarterly, 27, 30+. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
CIA World Fact Book, 2003, "Japan," "USA"
Hopper, G.R. (1999). Changing Food Production and Quality of Diet in India, 1947-98. Population and Development Review, 25(3), 443. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from Questia database,
Chosen Business: City estauant
Befoe discussing what the coe activities the company undetakes to achieve its opeational objectives, it is vital to highlight these opeational objectives. The following section gives a bief oveview of these objectives:
The stategic objective of Taste Inn is to become the most liked band among its customes, a financially and opeationally stong company in the eyes of its investos, and a competitive paticipant in the food and hospitality industy of Austalia. The majo opeational objectives of the company include:
A stong custome base:
The most impotant opeational objective of the company is to stengthen its custome base by attacting moe and moe customes towads its poduct offeings. It aims to build a stong public image in the eyes of its customes and the society in which it opeates.
Become a financially and opeationally stong copoation:
The second most impotant…
Introduce products with innovative taste and new ingredients, use extensive marketing campaigns
Introduce products with innovative taste and new ingredients,
marketing strategy of McDonald's
The message of healthy eating seems to have permeated our entire culture. The need to 'eat less and move more' is proclaimed everywhere in public service announcements. The White House has even instituted a campaign called 'Let's Move' to encourage healthy eating amongst young people. The obesity rate amongst young children is particularly worrisome, given that obese children are likely to grow into obese adults with chronic health problems. Yet the fast food chain McDonald's, which has long been criticized for its unhealthy food offerings, has been able to craft an effective marketing strategy that has enabled it to withstand its harshest cultural critics.
The first critical component of McDonald's marketing strategy is market segmentation. Although McDonald's products are popular all over the world, McDonald's is acutely conscious of the need to build a core audience and tailor its message to specific consumers. A key market…
Helm, B. (2010). Ethnic marketing: McDonald's is lovin' it. Businessweek. Retrieved from:
McDonald's food you can't get here. (2013). The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from:
Homework assignments can include discussing with parents at least one healthy food that can be added to the family diet.
Gym sessions can be increased during the school day, supplemented by field trips that encourage physical activity. Homework assignments, especially for young children, could include physical activities undertaken with parents. Children could then report on these in writing or orally.
chool policies can therefore be modified in simple and small ways to change the daily habits of children, and to encourage parents to do the same. These can be implemented while the more complicated issues such as fast food at school cafeterias are addressed by legislation. The important aspect of this is that the root of the problem is addressed by involving the whole family in a policy of exchanging unhealthy habits for healthy ones.
Richards, Edward P., Gold, Jay & McLean, Thomas (2004, June). Legislative trategies to Reduce…
School policies can therefore be modified in simple and small ways to change the daily habits of children, and to encourage parents to do the same. These can be implemented while the more complicated issues such as fast food at school cafeterias are addressed by legislation. The important aspect of this is that the root of the problem is addressed by involving the whole family in a policy of exchanging unhealthy habits for healthy ones.
Richards, Edward P., Gold, Jay & McLean, Thomas (2004, June). Legislative Strategies to Reduce Obesity. Third Annual CDC Public Health Law Conference.
prediction comparison vote real members House Representatives a law. 1. You choose real members House Representatives, Republican Democrat. (There 435 members House, find interests .
A tax on obesity as seen by Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives Bill Cassidy and Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives James McGovern
Obesity has come to be a significant issue in the United States today, with more and more individuals displaying the malady's symptoms. As a consequence, the authorities have gotten actively involved in trying to control it through installing tougher regulation and by implementing programs meant to educate people with regard to attitudes they should take toward the concept. hile agreeing about the significance of this issue, American politicians seem to have different opinions on the matter -- some believe that the solution stays with tougher legislations while others consider that it all comes down to education and…
"Bipartisan Bill Launched to Treat and Reduce Obesity," retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://conscienhealth.org/2013/06/bipartisan-bill-launched-to-treat-and-reduce-obesity/
"Rep. Jim McGovern's 4th "End Hunger Now" Speech: The Obesity Paradox -- Video," retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://www.hhe.tv/rep-jim-mcgoverns-4th-end-hunger-now-speech-the-obesity-paradox-video/
"Text of the Treat and Reduce Obesity Act of 2013," retrieved July 13, 2014, from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/113/hr2415/text
Social: Personal -- Obesity Academic Subject: Health Possible academic topics: Is obesity a health epidemic? Has treatments obesity successful? How food environment affected obesity? Unit II Posted: Tuesday, November 20, 2012 hen engaging academic writing, determine purpose analyze audience academic writing, begin academic language, exhibits common features mentioned LBCH Chapter 10
Obesity -- one of the most horrible health epidemics today
There is presently much controversy regarding obesity and its current status, as while many prefer to believe that it is an isolated condition, others consider that it is a health epidemic. Society is generally inclined to neglect obesity and considers malnutrition to be much more important in comparison to it. More and more parts of the world are affected by the malady and it is gradually becoming obvious that the masses need to get actively involved in combating it using any means they have available. Many tend to believe…