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Figure 7 depicts 2006 Florida violent crime statistics; evolving from aggravated assault, robbery, forcible rape and murder.
Figure 7: 2006 Florida Violent Crime ates (adapted from UC crime statistics, 2008).
The 2006 National violent crime rates included: Murder -- 1.2%; Forcible ape -- 6.5%; obbery -- 31.6%; Aggravated Assault -- 60.7% Compared to Florida's 2006 violent crime rates, the murder rate and robbery rates and forcible rates are lower; however the aggravated assault rate is higher (Uniform Crime eports, N.d.).
Figure 8 depicts 2006 Florida property crime rates; evolving from burglary, larceny theft and vehicular theft.
Figure 8: 2006 Florida Property Crime ates (adapted from UC crime statistics, 2008).
The National 2006 property crime rates included: Burglary rate -- 21.9%; Larceny theft rate -- 66.2%; Vehicular theft rate -- 11.9%; Compared to Florida's 2006 property crime rates, the vehicular theft rate is lower; however the burglary rate and larceny…
Florida Department of Law Enforcement. (2008). Understanding Florida's UCR data. Retrieved July 11, 2009 from http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/getdoc/685508 BC-ce34-4423
Hanley, Matt. (2009). Naperville's crime rate up, but still low. Naperville Sun, The (IL).
Retrieved July 13, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1N1128F26EE753542F8.html
Uniform Crime Report and its accuracy, specifically how classification errors can impact the accuracy of that report. The Uniform Crime Report is considered the gold standard in U.S. crime statistics because it is the national clearinghouse for statistics. It permits comparisons of crime rates by state because they are classified in the same way at a national level. However, there are some problems with the Uniform Crime Report's statistical methodology. For example, one may be able to compare sexual assault statistics across states, but the reporting of that statistics will still depend on individual state classification of a crime. Not all problems with the use of the Uniform Crime Report are inherent in the process. For example, the article studied focuses on classification errors and how that can impact the report's accuracy. This is not an inherent problem, as the Uniform Crime Report does define the different crimes in such…
UC Uniform Crime eport
Uniform Crime eport
It is the belief of some people that the Uniform Crime eporting (UC) system, through the Uniform Crime eports collected by the FBI, provides a completely accurate indicator of crime in the United States. However, not everyone shares this opinion. There are two reasons why some people feel the UC is not accurate as a representation of crime throughout the United States, and both of them are highly valid in nature. First, the UC is a voluntary program (UC, n.d.). This means that the areas that report to it can do so only if they want to. They do not need to report if they choose not to do so, and they may also not report every crime or every group of crimes. Second, there are only 18,000 law enforcement agencies reporting, and they can only report crimes they are notified about (UC,…
Lynch, J.P., & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR. Cambridge studies in criminology. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Rosen, L. (1995). The creation of the uniform crime report. Social Science History 19(2):215 -- 238.
UCR and NIBRS Participation. (n.d.) U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Washington, D.C.
Uniform Crime eporting (UC) is a program that was initiated by the International Association of Chiefs of Police in 1929 in order to provide a reliable and uniform crime statistics for the country. Generally, this program is a cooperative initiative for city, state, county, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies to provide a country-wide perspective of crime. These agencies basically participate in the program through the provision of summarized reports on several crimes that are known to law enforcement and information regarding arrested people. In addition, these agencies also give reports on the assaulted and killed law enforcement officers as well as information on hate crime.
In most cases, these law enforcement agencies provide the crime reports every month to a common crime records facility within their respective state. Through uniform crime definitions, the state's UC Program transfers the information to the national UC Program in the Federal Bureau of…
Banas, D.W. & Trojanowicz, R.C. (n.d.). Uniform Crime Reporting and Community Policing:
An Historical Perspective. Retrieved from The National Center for Community Policing -- Michigan State University website: http://www.cj.msu.edu/~people/cp/uniform.html
"Crime." (2010). Academic Search Premier. World Almanac & Book of Facts, 123-132.
Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/detail?sid=1b700ef5-164a-43f5-b32c-e451d979a508%40sessionmgr114&vid=1&hid=116&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=aph&AN=55517264
Why Cautionary Notice Is Given Before Users Are Directed to The FBI’s Crime in The United States Publication
Cautionary notice with regard to the ranking was needed after certain entities started using the unelaborate information offered by the publication for ranking different regions on their crime levels despite this information taking into account only a couple of variables, namely college enrollment and population size. The employment of only two correlates doesn’t suffice in offering decisive information. Accurate ranking requires the consideration of several other relevant variables impacting crime type and volume; these include urbanization level; population density; variations in population composition (especially number of youth); economic conditions (e.g., employment availability, median income and poverty levels); population stability as regards resident mobility, transport modes, highway system and commuting patterns; climate; household conditions (family cohesion, divorce, etc.); cultural, religious, educational and recreational factors; effective law enforcement organizational strength; law enforcement’s…
What Do You Think?
Crime eporting: UC and NCVS
The Uniform Crime eport is a compilation of offensives collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from all police stations in the United States. Data collected is divided into two groups, Part I and Part II. Part I data includes violent and property crimes such as aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Part II offenses include simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses ("Uniform Crime eports.," 2012).
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by telephone and collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons age twelve and older from a nationally…
Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.
Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…
Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.
Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,
Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,
Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011
With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.
Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.
Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers…
Agnew, R. & White, H. (1992). "An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory." Criminology 30(4): 475-99.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Labor Force Overview. Retrieved from http://www.stats.indiana.edu August 15, 2011.
Checkpoint (2010). The Global Retail Theft Barometer, 2010 Edition. White paper retrieved from http://globalretailtheftbarometer.com August 15, 2011.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). Uniform Crime Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov August 19, 2011.
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…
Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp
Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.
Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp
Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…
Crime Data Sources in the United States
The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based eporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime eports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological…
Addington, L.A. (2008, February). Assessing the Extent of Nonresponse Bias on NIBRS
Estimates of Violent Crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
"Data Collection Guidelines." (2000, August). National Incident-Based Reporting System.
Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.fortworthpd.com/docmgmt/NIBRS_Volume1_Major_Differences.pdf
Crime a Socially Constructed
One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…
Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime . Available: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0050.xml . Last accessed 9 Mar, 2015.
Henry. (2009). Social Construction of Crime. Available: http://www.sagepub.com/haganintrocrim8e/study/chapter/handbooks/42347_1.2.pdf . Last accessed 9 Mar 2015.
history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.
The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…
Advantages of Incident-Based Reporting Over Summary Reporting. (n.d.). Justice Research and Statistics Association. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/advantages.shtml
Brown, S.E., Esbensen, F., & Geis, G. (2013). Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context (8thth ed.). Waltham: Anderson Publishing (Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=brRgAYhyhsoC&pg=PA82&dq=NIBRS+limitations&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0R0MUZePBs7Y4QTogoCQAQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NIBRS%20limitations&f=false
Manual on Victimization Surveys. (2010). Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/Manual_on_Victimization_surveys_2009_web.pdf
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2011).Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=-Z_xfTn1hT8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+Methods+for+Criminal+Justice+and+Criminology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=McwOUfO7PLCV0QXx0oDIBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Measuring Crime Victimization:
As the various kinds of crimes are significant reflections of how and why crime victimization takes place, the various sources of research and data on measuring crime victimization are crucial in the development and establishment of victimization programs. Generally, there are various programs that are administered by the relevant agencies to measure the nature, magnitude, and impact of crime in the country. While the programs are carried out for different purposes, they generate valuable information about the various aspects of the crime problem across the country. Notably, these methods of collecting crime data and crime reporting use distinctive techniques and focus on relatively different aspects of crime, which makes them important in crime reporting.
There are three major crime reporting sources i.e. The Uniform Crime eports (UC), National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and Self eport Studies. The Uniform Crime eports, developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation,…
"Chapter 6 -- Measuring Crime." (n.d.). Pegasus User Satisfaction Survey. Retrieved from University of Central Florida website: http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~kreynold/ch6.html
"Measuring Crime: How Much Crime is There?" (1999). Criminology Class. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/crimlect07.htm
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
crime rate data of burglaries in two U.S. metropolitan localities.
The UC (Uniform Crime eporting) Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation describes the act of burglary as illegal entry into a structure for committing theft or a felony. For labeling a crime as burglary, it is not necessary for the element of 'forced entry'. UC provides three sub-categories of burglary: forced entry; non-forced, illegal entry; and attempted forced entry. It defines the term "structure" as any apartment, houseboat or house trailer (utilized as permanent lodgings), office, barn, stable, vessel or ship, and railroad car (however, automobiles are not included). In the year 2012, approximately 2,103,787 burglaries were reported -- a 3.7% decline from the previous year (FBI -- Burglary). Compared to the figures for 2003 and 2008, burglaries declined in 2012 by 2.4% and 5.6%, respectively. The approximate burglary rate constituted 23.4% of the approximate property crime rate. Subcategory-wise,…
(2014). Atlanta Criminal Law Attorney - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Conviction of a Georgia Burglary Carries Severe Penalties - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://atlantacrimelawyer.com/conviction-georgia-burglary-carries-severe-penalties/
Diggs. (n.d.). EHow - How to - Discover the expert in you! - eHow. Factors Influencing the Crime Rate - eHow. Retrieved August 28, 2016, from http://www.ehow.com/list_5969328_factors-influencing-crime-rate.html
(n.d.). FBI -- Uniform Crime Reporting. FBI -- Burglary. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-u.s.-2012/property-crime/burglary
Miller. (2016). KTXS Homepage - KTXS. Abilene crime stats for 2014: Drastic increases in serious crimes - KTXS. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://www.ktxs.com/news/abilene/abilene-crime-stats-for-2014-drastic-increases-in-serious-crimes/12504383
Pre-trial and Trial
Charges and specifications shall be entered by the person making them under oath (Air War College 2005). The accused may not be compelled to incriminate himself by answering any incriminatory questions. An investigation shall be conducted and include an inquiry into the truth of the charges, a consideration of the form of charges, and a recommendation of the disposition of the case. Within eight days, the charges shall be forwarded to the officer with general court-martial jurisdiction. The convening authority shall refer this to his staff judge advocate for consideration and advice (Air War College).
The trial procedure shall include sessions, continuances, challenges, oaths, statute of limitations, former jeopardy, pleas of the accused, his opportunity to obtain witnesses and other evidence, a refusal to appear or testify, contempt's, depositions, admissibility of records of courts of inquiry, voting and rulings, the required number of votes, the announcement of…
Air War College (2005). Uniform code of military justice. Approximately 45 web pages. Air University. Retrieved May 11, 2007 from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awcgate/ucmj.htm
Ohman, M. (2005). Integrating title 18 war crimes into title 10. 107 pages. Air force Law Review: U.S. Air Force Academy Department of Law, Winter 2005
O'Meara, K.P. (2001). How just is our military justice? 4 pages. Insight on the News: News World Communications, Inc., May 14, 2001
Pound, E.T. (2002). Creating a code of justice history. 3 pages. National and the World, December 8, 2002
UC/NIBS and NCVS
UC vs. NCVS
The Uniform Crime eporting (UC) Program UC and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) were established with two different intents and purposes. The FBI's UC is the older of the two databases. "Since 1930, participating local, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies have voluntarily provided the nation with a reliable set of crime statistics through the Uniform Crime eporting (UC) Program" (Uniform Crime eporting statistics: Their proper use, 2011, FBI). The FBI releases the data to the public for the purpose of informing citizens about the crime rates throughout the nation and also to better enable law enforcement plan their budgets and allocate their resources. Additionally, "chambers of commerce and tourism agencies examine these data to see how they impact the particular geographic jurisdictions they represent. Criminal justice researchers study the nature, cause, and movement of crime over time. Legislators…
Chapter 3: Crime, offenders, and victims. (n.d). Exploring Criminal Justice. Jones & Bartlett.
Lot, John R. & John Whitley. (2003). Measurement Error in County-Level UCR Data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19, (2): 185-198.
National Crime Victimization Survey Resource Guide. (2010). National Institute of Justice.
The charts show us why.
2. ape: There were also a huge number of rapes during these 5 years but interestingly rapes actually increased from 644 cases in 1990 to 763 cases in 21995 (1998 and 2001 showed the level to remain approximately consistent and then to drop to 294 cases in 2010). N This may have been due to the case that the Bronx, always a hotbed of violence and unrest had to defuse their energy somewhere. Hence, they turned to rape instead of murder to do so. Nonetheless, the fact that rape did not decrease is interesting
Staten Island 1990-1995
1. Murder -- There were 29 murder cases in 1990 compared to 26 in 1995. The level had dropped but not dramatically. In fact, the decline was an insignificant -- 34.6%. Nonetheless, we see Guilliani's influence here too. (Murder levels greatly decreased in the years following although recently,…
BJS. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Police Department City of New York
One of the paramedics was Latina, and she translated; the female (Ms. Garcia) was married to the suspect but says she divorced him last year due to his violent episodes and his drinking and drug use, according to the translation from the Paramedic.
"A neighbor in a nearby apartment knocked on the door and said she had witnessed the female being harmed by the suspect more than once. The witness, Alice Mercado, 27, bilingual and employed as a maid in a nearby motel, said she had heard fighting coming from the apartment in the past on many occasions. Sometimes she was afraid to come to see what was happening because the suspect was unpredictable and explosively violent when under the influence of alcohol and crack cocaine, she said. She told this officer that she once had a relationship with the suspect prior to his marriage to her neighbor.…
During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…
"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
Dark figure of crime is a term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime (Maguire & Reiner, 2007, p. 129). The notion of a dark figure undetected by standard crime reporting system casts doubt on the reliability of these systems. It also raises questions about the true magnitude of criminal activity in the United States.
The main source of crime data in the U.S. is the Uniform Crime Database, which is operated by the Federal ureau of Investigation. The UCR records crimes which are identified through the observation of a law-enforcement officer or reported by a victim or witness to law enforcement authorities. The UCR is not an exhaustive source of crime data because many crimes are neither observed by law enforcement officials nor reported by victims or witnesses.
There are two sources of crime data in the U.S. that try to ascertain…
Lynch, J.P. & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lewis, D.A., & Salem, G. (1986). Fear of crime: Incivility and the production of a social problem. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books.
Lilly, R.J., Cullen, F.T., & Ball, R.A. (2007). Criminological theory: context and consequences
Picking an Investigative Field: Violent Crimes
When it comes to the selection of an investigative field, we all have a wide range of fields to choose from. These include, but they are not limited to, violent crimes, property crimes, sex crimes, narcotics, etc. If I were to pick one of these, I would settle on violent crimes.
Violent crimes are, as elucidated in the UC (Uniform Crime eporting) Program, and as described by the FBI (2015), "are those offenses which involve force or threat of force," and they include sex offenses, suicide, assault and battery, robbery with violence, as well as homicide. As would be the case in any other career field, the relevance of adequate preparations in this particular investigative field cannot be overstated. Personally, I would prepare for this job by, amongst other things, understanding the nature of violent crimes -- i.e. what violent crimes entail. On this…
FBI. (2015). Violent Crime. Retrieved 18th Feb, 2015 from: http://www.fbi.gov /about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010/violent-crime
National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS)
The National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS) is a database of crime statistics compiled and maintained by the National Institute of Justice. It records and analyzes specific categories of crimes reported to law enforcement agencies within the United States. "For each crime incident coming to the attention of law enforcement, a variety of data are collected about the incident. These data include the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident" ("About," 2015). The focus of the NIBS are so-called 'index crimes.' These are significant crimes involving serious damage to life and property. "Index crimes include murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. These eight crimes serve as a common indicator of the nation's…
About the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). (2014).
Retrieved from: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/NIBRS/
Doerner, W & Lab, S. (2014). Victimology. Routledge, 2014
Michigan Incident Crime Reporting. (2014). Retrieved from:
Crime Delinquency Teenagers
Virtually no one can deny that there is a definite, tangible link between adolescence and crime. Anyone not familiar with this subject would be hard pressed to dispute the eminent statistical data that alludes to that dangerous link. In 1990, teenagers were more than 3.5 times likely to commit an indexed crime than were adults in the United States. Index crimes are both violent criminal activity such as "murder & non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault" as well as serious property crime such as "burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson" (No author 1990). This point is underscored by the fact that in 2005, approximately 10,000 prisoners in the United States were serving life sentences for actions that were committed before they turned 18 (Liptak 2005). This proclivity of teenage criminal offenders is evinced overseas in other countries as well, such as in…
Krueger, J.G. (2006). "Brain science offers insight to teen crime." ABQTrib. Retrieved from http://www.abqtrib.com/news/2006/dec/08/brain-science-offers-insight-teen-crime/
Liptak, A. (2005). "Jailed for Life After Crimes as Teenagers." New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/03/national/03lifers.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
No author. (1990). "Teenagers have the highest crime rates." Race Matters. Retrieved from http://www.racematters.org/hicrimer.htm
Reynolds, J. (2007). "Crime and the teenage brain." The Monterey County Herald. Retrieved from http://www.montereyherald.com/ci_7109878
UC vs NIBS
Data gathering in criminal justice research
Qualitative research strategies for gathering information are the most commonly used in a criminal justice setting. They include focus groups, groups of people, individual case studies, and interviews. Qualitative research concentrates on real human life experience in a social setting. This research strategy stresses on comprehending the significance connected to events in criminal justice. The perception of study subjects in a natural social environment is basic to qualitative examination. In criminal justice, qualitative examination strategies can give the criminal justice analyst with an improved comprehension of how and why crimes happen in a social setting (Nolan, Haas & Napier, 2011).
The UC and NIBS
NIBS is a crime-reporting framework based on an incident. It aims to collect information on individual crimes while making arrests within a single crime occurrence. A notable difference between UC and BIBS systems is the magnitude in…
Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L.R. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. & Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime Reports. J Quant Criminol (2011) 27:497 -- 519
Reaves, B.A., & United States. (2013). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
However, the numbers used to report murder rates only tell us the number of crimes that have occurred. They tell us nothing about crimes that were never committed because of fear of the death penalty. The conundrum is that there is no realistic way to measure something that did not happen in the general population, at least in a way that would be credible from a scientific point-of-view.
Those that support the death penalty tend to place more emphasis on the credibility of econometric methods of analysis. They can find many studies to support their position among this group of analyses. They discredit comparative methods of study that do not support their position. Both proponents and their opposition have attempted to reduce the issue of whether the death penalty acts as a deterrent to murder to one of credibility of the research findings. However, this argument fails, as there are…
Archer, D. And Gartner, R (1984). Homicide and the death penalty: A cross-national test of deterrence hypothesis. In Archer and Gartner, Violence and Crime in Cross-
National Perspective, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dezhbaksh, H., Robin, P., and Shepherd, J. (2002). Does capital punishment have a Deterrent effect? New evidence from post-moratorium panel data. American Law and Economics Review 5(2): 344-376.Retrieved February 5, 2007, from: http://aler.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/2/344.
Fagan, J. (2005). Deterrence and the Death Penalty: A Critical Review of New Evidence.
In this particular case, it appears that at least two elements of Ms. Stewart's arrest and her subsequent sentencing can be related to consensus theory.
Berle's theory of public consensus focuses on conditions within a civil society, where the consensus of the public forms a continuous although informal check on the powers of decision making held by managers (Moore and eberioux, 2010, p. 1113). In other words, managers and other powerful entities within corporations are subject to the public eye, which should serve as a deterrent for corporate crime. In a more formal way, this public consensus is legalized within guidelines and rules implemented by entities such as the SEC and other government agencies governing business ethics.
In the light of the above, one might therefore state that Martha Stewart's arrest for insider trading is the result of legal and public consensus regarding her guilt. She was found guilty according…
Leone, M. (2004, Jun. 4). Martha Stewart Arrested. Retrieved from: http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3009528
Moore, M.T. And Reberioux, a. (2010). Corporate Power in the Public Eye: Reassessing the Implications of Berle's Public Consensus Theory. Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 33. No. 4. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu
PBS NewsHour. (2004, Jul 16). Martha Stewart Sentenced. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/stewart_7-16.html
While it is true that American prisons and jails are overcrowded the answer is not to let out the violent offenders. These offenders need to receive nationally standardized sentencing and the sentences need to be longer than they currently are.
This five point plan proposes that the nation take the average sentence for each violent offense and double it. If the average sentence across the nation for robbery is three to six years, it will be changed to six to 12 years.
Third -- the third part of this five point plan to combat the emerging problem of violent crime in America will be to refuse early release. There is not a problem with allowing inmates to achieve the status of trustee however they should not be able to receive two for one days of jail credit with that status.
Jail and prison are boring. The time moves very slowly…
Barrios, Jarrett, (2006)Mass. voters give mandate for smart-on-crime policies.(Editorial)
The Boston Herald
Brack, Andy (2006) State looking at ways to take bites out of crime (accessed 6-26-07) http://www.statehousereport.com/columns/06.1015.crime.htm
____(2007) EDITORIAL: U.S. Statistics Show Violent Crime Making a Comeback
Capital punishment: Is it a deterrent to Cop Killings?
Capital punishment is the imposition of death penalty on persons condemned of a crime. (Americana, 596) Killing condemned criminals has been one of the most extensively practiced types of criminal punishment in the United States. Capital punishment has been enforced as a punishment for brutal offenses from the initial stages of documented history. The first evidence of death penalty in the United States dates back to the colonial period in 1608 in Jamestown. Possibly there do is no existence of any public policy matter connected to management of crime which has been explored and evaluated so long as the death penalty; in much diverse means than the death penalty; or in higher degree than the death penalty.
Expressed in an easy manner, the predicament is this: no crime control concern known by us more about than the death penalty and also…
Against Capital Punishment: A Summary of Arguments Presented at a Meeting of the Men's International Theosophical League of Humanity: March 31, 1914" (April/May 1998) Sunrise magazine, Theosophical University Press
Andrews, Chris. "Death penalty gets new push" (February 19, 2004)
Retrieved at http://www.lsj.com/news/local/020419_deathpenalty_1a-4adtxt.html . Accessed on 19 May, 2004
Bedau, Hugo Adam. (1988) "Recidivism, Parole, and Deterrence," in Bedau, (ed) "Death Penalty in America" Chicago University Press. p.308
Comparative criminology is an area of study in criminology that examines the social trends of crimes across different cultures in order to identify the similarities and differences in crime patterns. This area has continued to develop in the recent years because modern criminology attaches great significance to the social context of crime, particularly the impact of the wider society. The need for conducting comparative criminology has been brought by the increase in crime rates across the globe making criminologists to realize the need for sharing and learning from each other.
In order for criminologists to conduct effective comparative study in criminology, they need to make adequate preparations. These preparations include the identification of an effective source for gathering crime data in the areas to be analyzed and an understanding of the crime rates in the different regions. The various sources utilized to gather crime data can be divided into…
Howard, G.J., Newman, G. & Pridemore, W.A. (2000). Theory, Method, and Data In
Comparative Criminology. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service -- U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_4/04d.pdf
"Reality Check: Is the Crime Rate Higher in Developed Countries?" (n.d.). NationMaster.com.
Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.nationmaster.com/article/Reality-check%26%2358%3B-Is-the-crime-rate-higher-in-developed-countries%26%2363%3B
3 for robbery, 244.0 for assault, 367.7 for burglary, 1,617.7 for larceny theft and 213.3 for vehicle theft
In 2005: 4.5 for murder, 18.9 for rape, 182.7 for robbery, 239.7 for assault, 351.3 for burglary, 1,569.6 for larceny theft and 185.6 for vehicle theft
Year Population Murder Rape Robbery Assault urglary Larceny-Theft Vehicle Theft 2003-19,212,425-934 3,775-35,790-48,987-75,453-311,422-45,204-2004 19,227,088-889 3,608-33,506-46,911-70,696-311,036-41,002-2005 19,254,630-874 3,636-35,179-46,150-68,034-302,220-35,736
FI, Uniform Crime Reports, (http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm)
As the charts prove, there has been a decrease in the number of murders, larceny thefts, assaults, burglaries and vehicle thefts. As for rape and robbery we can notice that year 2005 has brought a slight increase in the percentage comparatively with the previous year, meaning 2004.
I believe that these drops in criminal activity are not due only to the better coordination of the police compared to the previous years. I must admit, though, that the greatest part may have been achieved by it.…
FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm (n.d.)
Florida Law Enforcement
Sen. Jeff osky and ep. Julie Krupa
Director, Florida Criminal Statistics
Analysis of Florida crime and arrest data: 2001 to 2011
Per your request, the following breakdown of murders by male Floridians during the period 2001 through 2011 is provided in Table 1 and depicted graphically in Figure 1 below.
ecapitulation of Murder Statistics for the State of Florida: Male -- 2001 through 2011
ecapitulation of Murder Statistics for the State of Florida: Male -- 2001 through 2011
Crime in Florida: Uniform Crime eports (2013)
The murder rate in the State of Florida for the period 2001 through 2011 equals 626 murders per year. As can be seen from the statistics in Table 1 and depicted graphically in Figure 2 above, there was a spike in the murder rate beginning in 2005 that peaked in 2008 which has since declined to lower than…
Crime in Florida. (2013). CBS Miami. Retrieved from http://miami.cbslocal.com/2013/05/
Crime in Florida: Uniform crime reports. (2013). Florida Department of Law Enforcement.
Retrieved from http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/FSAC/Menu/UCR-Home.aspx.
The United States has no national identity card, and many Americans do not have passports. The driver's license registries are one of the primary ways that law enforcement personnel can identify suspects and victims in crimes. Moreover, a huge portion of law enforcement resources go to fighting traffic offenses, because traffic violations account for more wrongful deaths than intentional violent crime. Driver's license registries allow law enforcement personnel easy access to information about whether or not a driver is permitted to operate a vehicle and any restrictions that driver may have. Likewise, motor vehicle registries help law enforcement personnel detect property crimes. Automobile theft is a significant criminal problem. Moreover, vehicles abandoned in accidents can be traced to their owners through the registries.
Obviously, law enforcement personnel use a wide variety of government databases in their daily crime prevention, detection, and investigation duties. Without these databases, officers in different jurisdictions…
Federal Bureau of Investigation (unk). National Incident-Based Reporting System. Retrieved from http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/faqs.htm
Hitt, S. (2000, July). NCIC 2000- National Crime Information Center. Retrieved March 13,
2011 from Find Articles website: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_7_69/ai_64994525/
National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. (2010). National Crime Victim Survey resource guide. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from the University of Michigan website: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/NCVS/
Additionally, although Uniform Crime eports states that women are responsible for approximately 15% of all criminal homicides, the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that they only comprise 1% of all death row inmates. According to the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty, more than 33% of these women were sentenced to death for killing their abusers. Equally disturbing is the fact that, according to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, only 10% of those convicted in capital cases were could afford to hire their own attorneys. Because of the disparities with which the death penalty is applied, the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association, in a vote of 280 to 117, issued a request for a suspension on all executions because they believed the system in place was "a haphazard maze of unfair practices" (The New York Times, 1997, A 20).
Perhaps the most popular argument…
Bailey and Peterson, "Police killings and Capital Punishment: The post-Fuman period.
Criminology 25 (1987): 1-25.
"Bar Association Leaders Urge Moratorium on Death Penalty," The New York Times, February
4, 1997, 20.
Death penalty is generally conceived of as the supreme legal sanction, inflicted only against perpetrators of the most serious crimes. The human rights community has traditionally held a stance against the death penalty for a wide variety of reasons: critics argue that the death penalty is inhuman and degrading; that it is inappropriately applied and often politically motivated; and that rather than reducing crime, the viciousness of the punishment only serves as an inspiration to further violence.
Historically the death penalty has existed all around the world. Only since the beginning of the twentieth century has the death penalty been rejected by a growing number of people and states. International law discourages but does not prohibit it. Article 6 (paragraphs 2 and 5) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights states that "sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the…
Bernard, T. (1992). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York: Oxford.
Bohm, R.M. (2010). Death penalty opinions: Effects of a classroom experience and public commitment. Sociological Inquiry, 60, 285-297.
Bohm, R.M. (2003). American death penalty opinion: Past, present, and future. In J. Acker, R.M. Bohm, & C.S. Lanier (Eds.), America's experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (pp. 27-54). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Bradizza, C.M., Collins, R.L., Vincent, P.C., & Falco, D.L. (2006). It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1559-1577. doi: 10.1016jaddbeh.2005.12.001
3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.
4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.
5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).
One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…
Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.
Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.
Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?
Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).
What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?
Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
DeCrescenzo, D. (2005). Early detection of the problem officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
74(7), 14-17. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204141156?accountid
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…
Brown, C., (2000). Australians' attitude to security. On the Internet at: www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx.Retrieved February 20.
Best Export Markets for U.S. Security and Safety Equipment (2005). On the Internet at: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.Retrieved February 20
Environmental Scan of the Security Industry (2006). On the Internet at http://www.asial.com.au/default.asp?page=/media%20centre/research+and+articles/environmental+scan+of+the+security+industry.Retrieved February 20, 2007.
Home Security Market Goes Hi-tech (2006). On the Internet at: svconline.com/resav/hitech_home_security_06192006. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States
The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
UC, NIBS and NCVS Programs
Uniform Crime eports (UC), the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS) are programs or systems that have been developed to collect and report on national crime rates in the United States. UC is a cooperative initiative for law enforcement agencies across the nation to provide report on national crime statistics. On the other hand, NIBS is a program designed to provide detailed information regarding crime incidents to the general public, researchers, students of crime, law enforcement agencies and personnel, and governmental planners. NCVS is a program by the Bureau of Justice Statistics which provides crime reports based on surveys by the United States Census Bureau. These programs have several similarities and differences as they focus on gathering and providing reports on United States' crime rates.
The major similarity between these programs is their focus on collecting and reporting crime…
James, N. & Council, L.R. (2008, January 3). How Crime in the United States is Measured. Retrieved March 27, 2016, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL34309.pdf
"The Nation's Two Crime Measures." (2014, September). Program Report. Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Statistics website: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ntcm_2014.pdf
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
Classical theory elucidates crime as a creation and outcome of beliefs that advantages of committing crimes are extremely greater than normative, socially acceptable behavior. The foundation of this school of thought on criminology is that crime is a rational choice and that many individuals have the capacity to resort to crime. In addition, individuals will commit crime subsequent to the comparison of prospective advantages and disadvantages of such actions. The positivist school of criminology tries to ascribe crime causation to understood, contemplative assertion of advantages that criminal activities carry. Next, sociological school of criminology asserts that crime comes about due to manifold factors that can be split into mental, biological, and social factors. Therefore, it implies that crime is a result of social factors and elements that influence the behavior of human beings.
eek 2 Discussion
Siegel delineates the three different ways crime is recorded in our country. The…
Boston University Metropolitan College. Reintegrative Shaming & Restorative Justice, 2016. Web. Retrieved: https://learn.bu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1942479-dt-content-rid-6162758_1/courses/14sprgmetcj602_ol/week06/metcj602_W06L01T04_Reintegrative.html
Criminal Justice. Similarities and Differences Between Social Control Theories and Other Major Theories of Crime. Social Control Theory, 2016. Web. Retrieved http://criminal-justice.iresearchnet.com/criminology/theories/social-control-theory/7/
Mongold, Jennifer L., and Bradley D. Edwards. "Reintegrative Shaming: Theory into Practice." Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology 6.3 (2014): 205.
Podgor, Ellen S. "The challenge of white collar sentencing." The Journal of criminal law and criminology (2007): 731-759.
But in instances where the TV does not provide good moral and role models for the teenagers then it is just to say that the TV programs are the major contributing factor towards homophobic tendencies among the society members. The lack of positive role modeling is also being viewed on the side of lesbians, gays and bisexual youth Kielwasser AP and olf MA ( 378)
. Most gays and lesbians in the society are brought up in a straight community with few gays and lesbians role models; thus they are specifically vulnerable to the portrayals of gay people in the mass media (Ryan & Futterman, 124).
The mainstream media has treated the sexual minorities as if they are not part of the human race, as if they do not exist. In addition, it was observed that the gay people of whichever age are rarely portrayed, and mostly the little portrayal…
Bandura a. "Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication." Media Psychology 3 (2001): 265 -- 99. Print.
Battles K, and Morrow-Hilton W. "Gay Characters in Conventional Spaces: Will and Grace and the Situation Comedy Genre." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 19.1 (2002): 87 -- 105. Print.
D'Augelli, a.R. "Lesbian and Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences of Harassment and Fear on Campus." Journal of International Violence 7.383-395 (1992). Print.
David P. Pierson. "Hey, They're Just Like Us!" Representations of the Animal World in the Discovery Channel's Nature Programming." J. Pop Cult (2005): 698-712. Print.
Schaefer, K., J. Hennessy, & J.G. Ponterotto. (2000). ace as a variable in imposing
and carrying out the death penalty in the U.S. ace, ethnicity, sexual orientation, violent crime: The realities and the myths. The Haworth Press, 35-45.
The research question was: given the extent to which the death penalty has been arbitrarily imposed, to what extent are there unbalanced racial demographics in death penalty sentencing?
The hypothesis was that race is a factor in terms of how death penalty sentencing is allocated.
esearch was accumulated through the analysis of the FBI's Uniform Crime eports from 1976 to 1995. This source provided information about the race of perpetrators. DOJ capital offender data files were also analyzed for the demographic data for each of the 5,580 of the prisoners condemned to death versus those of offenders from states without death penalties (Schaefer, Hennessey, & Ponterotto, 2000, p. 39).
Schaefer, K., J. Hennessy, & J.G. Ponterotto. (2000). Race as a variable in imposing
and carrying out the death penalty in the U.S. Race, Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation, Violent Crime: The Realities and the Myths. The Haworth Press, 35-45.
Lambert, E., S. Jiang, O. Elechi, M. Khondaker, & D. Baker. (2014). A preliminary study of gender differences in death penalty views of college students from Bangladesh, China,
Nigeria, and the United States. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 12:44-68.
Gender and Crime
How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.
The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…
Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/
Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Doing this ensures early identification of an unknown crime hence, the adoption of proactive approaches against it. Achieving this relies on the establishment of a positive relationship between the police and the truck drivers (U.S., 2001).
Establishing park watch in the community also helps in preventing violent crime since it addresses a wide range of criminal acts. The program aims at enlisting the users of the park and neighbors to take the responsibility of watching over the parks. Significant evidence shows that involving the youth in activities that involve them in building the community reduces the rates of violent crimes in the community. Engaging the youth in different activities such as cleaning the parks and recreational spaces creates a healthy environment that attack a variety of economic activities. Through this, the unemployed youth acquires alternative source of income contributing to the minimization of violent crimes caused by youth unemployment. Other…
Gilligan, J. (2001). Preventing violence. New York: Thames & Hudson.
Texas Department of Criminal Justice Community Justice Assistance Division (2014). Battering Intervention and Prevention Program (BIPP) Accreditation Guideline. New York: Texas Department of Criminal Justice.
Workplace Violence Prevention. (n.d.). FBI. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov /stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/january2011/workplace_violence_prevention
(U.S.), O. Of the S.G., (U.S.), N.C. For I.P. And C., (U.S.), N.I. Of M.H., & (U.S.), C. For M.H.S. (2001). Chapter 5 -- Prevention and Intervention. Text. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44295/
Crime and criminological data can be gathered, interpreted, and represented in different ways. The use of “big data” in criminology has helped illuminate the efficacy of various prevention or intervention policies and programs, as well as helping to better allocate resources for criminal justice. In the United States, the main data sources include the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The UCR is subdivided into the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), the Summary Reporting System (SRS), the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Program, and the Hate Crime Statistics Program, each of which track specific types of crime data (FBI, 2018). Another major crime data system used in the United States is the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). A similar tool has been used on an international scale with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)…
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund
Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ )
Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
school uniforms within a school system. Ideas such as school discipline, student behavior, and academic achievement are discussed along with examples of why different schools have implemented student use of uniforms. Various viewpoints are presented, along with proponents and opponents concerns for the actual implementation of uniforms.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ITHIN A SCHOOL SYSTEM: AFFECTS ON DISCIPLINE AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Many schools across the United States have adopted school uniforms to meet the needs for a mandatory dress code. There are many opposing arguments on the issue of whether public school students in the United States should be required to wear uniforms or obey dress codes. Improvement of discipline and academic performance, reduction of fashion competition among students are a few of the reasons given in support of implementing school uniforms. However, the opposing viewpoints maintain that requiring school uniforms are a violation of students' First Amendment right to…
Brunsma, David. "Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use and Academic Achievement." Journal of Educational Research 92 (1998) 53-63.
Clinton, William J. Text of Presidential Memo to Secretary of Education on School Uniforms Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
Clinton, William J. Transcript of Presidential Radio Address to the Nation.
Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
However, most of them have gradually resigned themselves to their situation and are enduring the circumstances in the best way possible.
Perhaps the most appropriate way to analyze the Soviet society in the post-Soviet period is to look at the effect of the change on different age groups of the population as has been done in a 2001 "Human Development eport" published by UNDP. The report reveals that among the different age-groups of ussians -- the "soviet" generation, born in the 1920s and 30s have been "pushed to the sidelines of public life" and suffer from an intense feeling of depression close to a feeling of being a social outcast. The "middle generation" groups too suffer from a deep "socio-emotional" crisis, considering itself as a generation "lost" in the waves of transformation and in their "struggle for survival." The younger ussian generation, on the other hand, has coped…
Country Study: Russia." (2004) Country Studies: The Library of Congress. October 1, 2004. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/rutoc.html
Human Development Report on Russia, 2001." (2002) Edited by Prof. Serguei Bobylev. UNDP. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://www.undp.ru/index.phtml?iso=RU&lid=1&cmd=publications
Russia." (2005). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html
2004 Estimate; Source: CIA World Fact book legacy of the Soviet era when the ruling ideology encouraged the adoption of a uniform Russian culture and enforced Russian as the official language throughout the Union
National Incident-Based Reporting System (IBRS) is a system used by national and state law enforcement agencies to report and analyze crimes. he system allows for the widespread use of data related to a variety of crimes coming to law enforcement agencies. he data collected includes the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident.
he information collected by the IBRS is extensive and the use of the system can be, therefore, complex. Since the system was introduced in 1985 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation the basic system has been adopted by a number of local and state law enforcement agencies as well. Some of these jurisdictions, including the State of New York, have chosen to enhance the system or adapt it to their…
The reporting of hate crimes is still in its infancy. Data is only available from 1992 to the present and it is only in the past ten years that wholesale participation has been available. As participation becomes more universal, the results will be more complete and as reporting protocols are improved the results will be more accurate. By their nature, hate crimes involve a high degree of bias and therefore discplined reporting protocols are a necessity.
The IBRS system affords law enforcement agencies with the opportunity to take advantage of the phenonmenal capacity of modern police and data processing systems to accumulate a myriad of details regarding criminal activity and criminals. The sophistication of the system allows investigating officers the ability to record pertinent facts in a systematic method that results in the organizing of data into specific segments. This leads to more accurate and complete analysis and, arguably, this leads to better law enforcement techniques.
The mission of the IBRS system is to enhance the quality, and timeliness of crime data collection and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing of the collected crime statistics. Presently, participation in the use of the IBRS system is not universal and a great deal of the reporting of crime statistics by the FBI and other reporting agencies is still done using summary format. It is the hope that in the near future the IBRS system will be used by all law enforcement agencies throughout the country. It is believed that this will result in better reporting results.
1990, United States government passed the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. This mandated that state, local and federal law enforcement agencies report data on crimes that reflected a bias against a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, and/or ethnicity/national origin. Several years later, people with disabilities were added to this list. Data collection was placed under the auger of the FBI, which complied by publishing an annual report through its Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. This program started to publish a review of national hate crimes in 1990 entitled Hate Crime Statistics, 1990: A Resource Book. By 1992, the publication reflected the reported data of all states. Because certain states, such as Wisconsin, penalize perpetrators more for the same crime if the motivation for that crime is thought to be categorical hatred, statistics reflect the opinions of law enforcement agencies.
Because of this wealth of new data, in addition to the data…
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
Juvenile Arrest ates
eview of the DOJ 2008 Juvenile Arrest eport
The overall rate of juvenile arrests declined by 3% between 2007 and 2008 for all persons younger than the age of 18 (Puzzanchera, 2009). This continues a trend of year-to-year reductions in overall juvenile arrest rates. Between 2004 and 2008 there was an overall 4% reduction in juvenile arrest rates and between 1999 and 2008 a 16% reduction. The source of this information is the FBI's Uniform Crime eporting Program.
Although American law enforcement agencies made 2.11 million arrests of persons under the age of 18, this does not mean that 2.11 million juveniles were arrested (Puzzanchera, 2009). A single juvenile may be arrested several times during a reporting year, which means that the number of juveniles responsible for the 2.11 million arrests is less than 2.11 million. In addition, a single juvenile may have committed multiple crimes, but…
CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 18 Mar. 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/2012/CDC-AA-Youth-0612-508.pdf .
Puzzanchera, C. (2009). Juvenile arrests 2008. Retrieved 18 Mar. 2014 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/228479.pdf .
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
At this time there is no uniform consensus about what agencies have authority in the Middle East. The Dubai police are working with agencies including the Department of Homeland Security to establish a more democratic policing system. Despite their best efforts however, there still exist many groups within the Middle East that adopt radical approaches to policing. Not every agency agrees on uniform democracy, and some still prefer an authoritarian approach to policing (Exum, 2006, p. 1). This can and often does lead to greater violence within the region, with in many cases people living within the regions of the Middle East still lacking freedom of expression and living in fear of violent punishment for any crimes committed.
As Exum (2006) noted in his overview of policing in the Middle East, a bus driver was at one point withdrawn from his vehicle and beaten as well as sodomized as a…
Exum, Andrew. (2006). "Hizballah at War: A Military Assessment." The Washington
Institute for Near/East Policy, Accessed 3, May 2007: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC05.php?CID=2574
Institute of Race Relations. (2007). "The politics of fear: Civil society and the security state." Institute of Race Relations, Accessed 3, May 2007: