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Should we stop supporting the United Nations?
Position: No. We should not stop supporting the United Nations.
The international alliance to fight dangers to international safety, of any kind, exists and we know it as the United Nations. UN has not become outmoded at all. No matter what, it may have become even more significant compared to what it has been in the past. (http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/may/01inter.htm) The relative benefits of the United Nation are its worldwide participating nations, political authenticity, organizational neutrality, procedural proficiency, and setting up and mustering control. The UN is the universe's lone legitimate medium for creating, uniting and wielding authority on behalf of the global community. For the U.S. who acted towards the United Nations with a certain measure of apathy and even disdain, in my opinion the UN is going to establish its significance very shortly. The United Nations is the ideal medium for…
Americans Favor International Engagement & Multinational Burden sharing Role. http://www.clw.org/un/unpoll2.html
Gharekhan, Chinmaya. Americans will need the United Nations. May 01, 2003.
Thakur, Ramesh. International Terrorism and the United Nations.
United Nations -- Criticisms
Description of the United Nations
The United Nations (UN) has a security council that consists of 15 members. The main purpose of this council is to resolve any issues and conflicts in order to maintain peace among the nations in the world. This council was initiated in 1946. The formation of this council happened at the time when the League of Nations failed. The main reason given for their failure is the fact that they didn't have enough influence on the members to make them adopt resolutions. However, UN's Security Council not only works as the council that solves the conflicts and other issues that arise but it also creates sanctions, binds resolutions, dispatches peace speakers etc.
From among all the bodies of the UN, Security Council is usually the first one that tries to solve the conflicts. Its main aim is to solve the conflicts…
"Activities of the European Union -- Foreign and Security Policy," EUROPA -- EU Website. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. Accessed from: http://europa.eu/pol/cfsp/index_en.htm
"BBC News -- UN Peacekeepers 'failed' DR Congo Rape Victims," BBC Homepage. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. Accessed from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11224656
"Contributors to UN Peacekeeping Operations: October 2011." 31 Oct. 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011a. Accessed from:
"Contributors to UN Peacekeeping Operations: October 2011." 31 Oct. 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011b. Accessed from: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/contributors/2011/oct11_1.pdf
Still, the British's treatment of its subjects and the colonies still impacts the United States today. In fact, the entire constitution is based around ideas of democracy that were inspired by English tyranny. In another example, the Australian people were victimized by the perpetrators of the Lost Generation, members of the colonizing nation who took native children in order to make them civilized. This human rights abuse was drastic, in that children were taken from their parents, doing harm to both child and family members. In addition, the native culture was ridiculed as less than civilized. These attitudes and the pain over this action still affect Australia, recently enticing the government to institute National Sorry Day.
As these examples suggest, actions during colonial periods deeply affect nations, even to this day. Peacekeeping units must be properly educated in the history of these actions in order to deal with these sensitivities.…
Landow, George P. Why I use the term "Postcolonial;" or some words from your webmaster. 13 February 2008. Political Discourse -- Theories of Colonialism and Postcolonialism. 15 November 2008. National University of Singapore. http://www.usp.nus.edu.sg/post/poldiscourse/themes/gplpoco.html
In this sense, the mission's objective were "to verify respect for human rights as laid down in the Haitian Constitution and in the international instruments to which Haiti is a party, in particular, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Convention on Human Rights. The Mission would devote special attention to the observance of the rights to life, to the integrity and security of the person, to personal liberty, to freedom of expression and to freedom of association."
These were clearly aspects of international life which had been breached before in other crisis of the sort. The observers were deployed and scattered throughout the country.
The results of the mission were not as expected however. efore the mission the situation in the country was the following: "Almost 4,000 people were killed and over 300,000 people were internally displaced.' For political reasons, many were disappeared, others received…
BBC. Haiti protester shot dead by UN peacekeepers. (16 November 2010) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-11761941 (accessed 10 December 2010)
Global Security.org. 1991-1994 - Raul Cedras. 2010. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/haiti/politics-cedras-1991.htm (accessed 10 December, 2010)
International Civilian Mission in Haiti.Official Internet page. 2000. http://www.un.org/rights/micivih/first.htm (accessed 10 December 2010)
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995
As evident in the "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Volume 1: Charter of International Military Tribunal," foreign nations had used N conventions to step into other countries affairs if certain rights were violated. Officers of the Nazi regime were tried in an international tribunal unlike any event before. They were tried not only for war crimes, but also for their crimes against humanity, which included the mass extermination of millions of European Jews.
Paul G. Lauren explains in the Evolution of International Human Rights: Visions Seen, that the essential language used in formulating the N Charter encouraged many nations and individuals to take action against known violators of human rights. The Nuremberg trials were one of the most prominent examples of how these international criminals can be brought to justice outside of the protection of their own nation's regimes.
General Assembly of the nited Nations. "Charter of the nited Nations." 1948. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/…
University of Pennsylvania Press. 2003.
The Avalon project. "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Volume 1: Charter of International
Military Tribunal." Yale University. 2008. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/proc/imtconst.htm
United Nations and US Foreign Policy Making
This paper aims to describe the role of the United Nations in the making of United States foreign policy. In an effort to present the argument that the United Nations has an increasingly smaller role in U.S. decisions, this paper presents a short background of U.N. history, an explanation of the roles, responsibilities and interests of the U.N., and a discussion on the U.N.'s role in U.S. foreign policy making.
The United Nations (U.N.) was created in October 1945, when the U.N. Charter was ratified by a majority of the original 51 Member States (U.N. Cyber Schoolbus, 2004). The main purpose of the United Nations is to bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and the well being of all human beings. It provides the opportunity for countries to…
The United Nations: An Introduction for Students. (2004). United Nations Cyber Schoolbus. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/unintro/unintro.asp.
Barisch, F. (2004). The Role of the United Nations in U.S. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.unischaft.gmxhome.de/archiv/en/0304_38.html .
Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the U.N. . (2004). The Role of the United Nations. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.china-un.org/eng/zghlhg/zzhgg/t29436.htm.
Carpenter, Ted. (1997). Delusions of Grandeur: The United Nations and Global Intervention.. Cato Institute.
United Nations Compact for a New Century
The UN Global Compact (UNGC) is a strategic policy initiative for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies with ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labor, environment and anti-corruption (United Nations, 2010). The framework was developed to help international organizations develop responsible corporate leadership and implement policies that are favorable to the world's population. The UNGC brings business leaders together with other institutions to hold conferences, discuss best practices, and finds ways to promote responsible corporate citizenship (Janney, Dess, and Forloni, 2009). The UNGC was launched in July 2000 and has 6,000 participating businesses in 130 countries worldwide (United Nations, 2010). The Compact has had a positive effect on international businesses and in developing countries.
The UNGC is both voluntary and visible; firms who join it are publicly pledging support to the values that the UNGC…
Buhmann, K. (2009). Regulating Corporate Social and Human Rights Responsibilities at the UN Plane: Institutionalizing New Forms of Law and Law-making Approaches?. Nordic Journal of International Law, 78(1), 1-52. doi:10.1163/157181009X39706
Janney, J., Dess, G., & Forlani, V.. (2009). Glass Houses? Market Reactions to Firms Joining the UN Global Compact. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(3), 407-423. Retrieved January 14, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1913178601).
Rothlin, S.. (2010). TOWARDS A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE CHINA: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GLOBAL COMPACT. Journal of International Business Ethics, 3(1), 3-13. Retrieved January 14, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2145765751).
The United Nations Global Compact. (2010 November 23). Overview of the UN Global Compact. Retrieved from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/AboutTheGC/
UK Human ights Law
The United Nations General Assembly proclaims the Universal Declaration of Human ights as a "common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations" for teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms (Human ights Library 2001) by member states and peoples under their jurisdiction. This Declaration recognizes, promotes and protects the inherent freedom, equality, dignity and rights of all human beings to interact with one another in the spirit of brotherhood; recognizes these rights and freedoms regardless of race, color, language, sex, religion, opinion, origin or other status or political status of their government; the individual right to life, liberty and security of person; prohibits slavery and the slave trade and torture or any other degrading treatment or punishment; equality before the law and equal protection by the law without any discrimination; right to effective remedy and full, public and fair hearing…
Amnesty International. (2003). Justice Perverted Under the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001. National Human Rights Worldwide. http://www.mafhorum.com/pre856/172S24.htm
BBC News. (2000). Landmark human rights law enforced. BBC Online. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/951753.stm
Human Rights Library (2001). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. GA resolution 217A (111), N doc A/810 at 71 (1948). University of Minnesota. http://www1/umn.edu/humanrtubstree/b1udhr.htm
Official Journal of the European Communities. (2000). Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. http://europa.eu.int/ecu-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2000/c_364/c_36420001218
N. members. For the approval of a judge candidate for the International Court of Justice or a Charter amendment, a 2/3 majority of U.N. members is required, not just those that are present and voting.
Part 5- Consensus Decision-Making
When referring to the United Nations, consensus refers to a method of negotiation and a method of decision making. Under the rubric of U.N. voting, consensus means that the voting body will have reached at least an agreement with all members that the issue will move forward or die -- that a reasonable level of agreement is in place, even if all members are not 100% for or 100% against. Unanimity and majority rule are different than consensus in that unanimity indicates that all members actively support the measure and a majority that 51.1% indicates pro-or con. Consensus simply means that there is no clear majority, nor is there 100% agreement…
Another clear advantage of the United Nations is its human rights work. Although it has not always applied its decisions equally to all member countries and has been slow to respond to human rights issues involving women and non-Europeans or non-Americans, the United Nations has been successful in improving the general conditions of human life. The United Nation's position as human-rights watchdog has recently been revamped. Prior to March of 2006, the United Nations Commission on Human ights contained many members who were accused of human rights violations. This commission was replaced by the United Nations Human ights Council. The Human ights Council appears more willing than its predecessor to call attention to human rights violations, regardless of the country in violation. However, it has yet to be determined whether the United Nations is willing to intervene in human-rights issues when the violator is one of its more important members.…
AFP. (2006). Sudan reiterates opposition to UN peacekeepers in Darfur. Retrieved November
9, 2006 from Yahoo! News
Web site: http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20061109/wl_africa_afp / skoreasudanun_061109190806
Human Rights Watch. (2004). Leave none to tell the story: genocide in Rwanda. Retrieved November 9, 2006, from HRW.org
The United Nations in the International System: Effectiveness of Collective Security
The concept of collective security is used by countries to end or avert conflicts. The arrangement of collective security provides that an attack against one nation has a ripple down effect to the other country and they should act as a unit to deter the attacker[footnoteRef:1]. Once the Cold War ended, the primary issues of international security have undergone significant changes. Through the United Nations (UN) peacekeeping, several conflicts in Africa, Asia, and Central America were resolved. Peacekeeping is one of the central means by which the United Nations fulfills its roles in maintaining security and peace internationally[footnoteRef:2]. The United Nations, as well as the League of Nations, was established on the collective security principle. This paper delves into how the collective security has evolved its role as the foundation for most global peace agreements and its effectiveness…
Anderson, Kenneth. “United Nations Collective Security and the United States Security Guarantee in an Age of Rising Multipolarity: The Security Council as Talking Shop of the Nations.” Chicago Journal of International Law 10, no. 1 (2009): 55-90.
Arend, Anthony Clark, and Robert J. Beck. International law and the use of force: beyond the UN Charter paradigm. Routledge, 2014.
Danchin, Peter G., and Horst Fischer, eds. United Nations reform and the new collective security. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Hogan, Willard N. International conflict, and collective security. University Press of Kentucky, 2015.
Kelsen, Hans. Collective security under international law. Vol. 49. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2001.
Pickar, Joshua. \\"Japan\\'s Defensive Constitution: Nuclear Weapons as a Better Alternative than Expanding Collective Self-Defense.\\" Law School International Immersion Program Papers, No. 20 (2016): 1-33.
Thakur, Ramesh. The United Nations, peace, and security: from collective security to the responsibility to protect. Cambridge University Press, 2016.
UN Headquarters: Formal Analysis
Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer assisted in the design of the United Nations (UN) headquarters in New York City with a number of other celebrated architects. He along with Le Corbusier of France served as the main designers of the building.
15 immediate observations that can be made upon first seeing the UN Headquarters are:
1. The main high rise is rectangular, like a giant 2x6.
2. It shines with so much glass.
3. It has flat building structures at the base that lead up to it.
4. The street side base structure curves inward and is lined with flags of the world’s nations.
5. The main structure that rises up has its wide flat face pointed out to sea.
6. The building itself is not deep in terms of depth on the sides.
7. It is longer than it is wide and higher than it is…
Once all countries, big, small, rich and poor, realize that their greater good lies in maintaining global peace without any "ifs and buts" they can join forces to reform the UN and make it a more effective body.
Charter of the United Nations." United Nations' Official ebsite. 2007. March 10, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html
Holmes, Kim R. "New orld Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs. 46: 2, 1993. pp: 323-340
Kant, Immanuel. "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." 1795. Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Mallaby, Sebastian. "Bound to Fail." Newsweek International, March 5, 2007 issue. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17311792/site/newsweek/
Slavin, Barbara and Bill Nichols. "Bolton a 'guided missile.'" USA TODAY. 11/30/2003. March 10, 2007 http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2003-11-30-bolton-usat_x.htm
The Charter of the United Nations was signed by the representatives of 50 countries on June 26, 1945; the start of its preamble states: "e the peoples of the United Nations [are] determined to save…
Charter of the United Nations." United Nations' Official Website. 2007. March 10, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html
Holmes, Kim R. "New World Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs. 46: 2, 1993. pp: 323-340
Kant, Immanuel. "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." 1795. Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Mallaby, Sebastian. "Bound to Fail." Newsweek International, March 5, 2007 issue. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17311792/site/newsweek/
UN Security Council
Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…
AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,
Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.
Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.
The actual effects of these new laws and codes have yet to emerge with as much optimism as that with which they were enacted, however.
At the same time, it cannot be denied that there have been some noticeable positive changes made due to changes in policies and codes in many countries. One of the major changes that has been both a result and a cause of increased equality for women -- and one that directly impacts economic productivity -- is the advent of micro-credit loans. Government support for such loans and the institutions that make them has shifted hugely in terms of finances and policy, according to the report, and programs that promote literacy, family life education and reproductive health as well as business ventures have been effective recipients (59). This type of loan is only achievable due to changes in social policy and general equality in the countries…
These are some of the changes that have greatly blurred the boundaries observed by the institution of marriage (Wood, 2011, p. 31).
7. Better family life
With an increase in the rates of cohabitation, there has been an improvement in the family life. People in cohabitation have the same chances of having children these days as married couples. In the past, cohabitation was thought to be a trial period before the couple opts to get married. These days the number of married couples having children is the same as that of cohabiting couples. The survey for the past year has recorded that 38% of the couples have children and these rates are the same as the couples in cohabitation (Wu, 2000, p. 20).
There are a less number of people these days who believe in the institution of marriage. There is an increase in the belief that the children must…
Barlow, a. (2005). Cohabitation, Marriage and the Law: Social Change and Legal Reform in the 21st Century. Hart Pub.
Cochrane, G.M. (2010). Do We Need a Cohabitation Agreement: Understanding How a Legal Contract Can Strengthen Your Life Together? John Wiley and Sons.
Great Britain: Law Commission. (2006). Cohabitation: the financial consequences of relationship breakdown; a consultation paper (overview), Issue 179 of Consultation paper. The Stationery Office.
Nazio, T. (2008). Cohabitation, Family and Society: European Experiences, Volume 36 of Routledge Advances in Sociology Series. Routledge.
United Nations (OCHA)
U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
United Nations Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
OCHA forms a significant part of the United Nations secretariat, which contributes remarkably in matters concerning human welfare across the globe. OCHA's responsibility is key to activities that relate to the saving of human life and interventions of various humans aids that come in handy during natural and man-made disasters. It is a part of the United Nations organization that forms a network, which connects various humanitarian actors in times of emergencies. OCHA has a policy development that distinctly defines its core functions as supporting effective humanitarian aid, saving life, and reducing suffering (OCHA, 2012).
The roles and responsibilities of OCHA cannot be sidelined from the core values and mission of the United Nations body. The mission is to:
Gather humanitarian efforts form different national actors across the globe…
Teng'o, D., & Khan, F.A. (31st March, 2012). Humanitarian response to IDP influx in KP. Humanitarian Bulletin: Pakistan. 3(1). Pp 2-7.
OCHA. (2012). Coordination. OCHA. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from http://
" (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325) This was the real thing: more than a half-million Tutsi murdered- three-quarters of the population -- and the attempt by the wandan state and the Hutu majority to exterminate every last Tutsi." (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325)
The question is if this can be compared to the general holocaust and the Armenian genocide, which the world watched helplessly, could the massacre have been prevented? The question is more academic. Having seen that the clashes between ethnic groups, and those who are opposed to share the natural bounties with a community they regard as unnecessary probably the total prevention of the genocide design is not possible. Can an action by the authority like the UN then have mitigated it? The answer to that question lies in the way the nations view the sovereignty and the need for intervention form the UN. It is impossible to…
Confessore, Nicholas. 2000. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. - Review. Washington Monthly, pp: 7-8.
Dorn, a. Walter; Matloff, Jonathan; Matthews, Jennifer. 2000. 'Preventing the Bloodbath: Could the UN have predicted and prevented the Rwanda Genocide?' Journal of Conflict Studies, vol. XX, no. 1, pp: 9-52.
Gellately, Robert; Kieman, Ben. 2003. The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. New York.
Riemer, Neal. 2000. Protection against Genocide: Mission Impossible?. Praeger. Westport, CT.
United Nations is an example of what kind of non-State actor?
The United Nations is an international organization; it is usually referred to as an international governmental organization (IGO), it may also be referred to as an intergovernmental organization. It is an organization that adopts a multilateral approach.
Which type of non-state actor is defined as "sets of actors engaged in voluntary, reciprocal interactions of communication and exchange across national borders"?
Non-state actors that are undertake voluntary work will usually be a non-governmental organization. These are frequently special interest groups that are set up with specific social or environmental concerns. Examples of these include Amnesty International, The Red Cross, and World Wildlife Fund for Nature, Greenpeace.
For which of the following purposes does an NGO organize for?
NGO's are citizen-based groups which are non-profit making, and are organized for specific purposes, such as a humanitarian cause, to support community or…
Sustainable Development Goals
At the end of September 2015, 173 leaders from across the globe gathered in New York City at the United Nations Summit to adopt the sustainable development goals. Generally, the concept of sustainable development goals was birthed at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012. The main objective of the conference was to generate a series of universally applicable objectives that balances economic, social, and environmental dimensions (United Nations Development Programme, n.d.). The September 2015 meeting was fueled by increased concerns, calls, and demands for leadership on climate change, inequality, and poverty. As a result, the UN Summit focused on transforming these demands, concerns, and calls into actions that were ratified as part of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The conclusion of the UN Summit in September 2015 involved the formal adoption of new development goals that would direct the development agenda of the world…
Schutt, D.M. (2014, October 29). How the Post-2015 Global Development Framework Can Address Climate Change. Carbon Market Watch. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://carbonmarketwatch.org/how-the-post-2015-global-development-framework-can-address-climate-change/
United Nations Development Programme (n.d.). A New Sustainable Development Agenda. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview.html
United Nations (n.d.). Goal 13: Take Urgent Action to Combat Climate Change and its Impacts. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climate-change-2/
United Nations (2015, August 12). Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.un.org/pga/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2015/08/120815_outcome-document-of-Summit-for-adoption-of-the-post-2015-development-agenda.pdf
UN Human ights Committee Calls for U.S. Surveillance eform
In order to preserve and safeguard civil and political rights, the United Nations monitors the protection of these rights by member states who have become part of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights (ICCP). As part of this legally binding treaty, the U.N. periodically assigns a body of independent experts to conduct an examination of how nations are implementing the protections guaranteed under ICCP. This body, called the Human ights Committee, then submits a report which "addresses its concerns and recommendations…in the form of 'concluding observations'." ("Human ights Committee") ecently the Committee submitted a report on the United States and its current policy of surveillance of the internet and wireless communications. In response to this report a digital freedom foundation called ACCESS wrote an article titled "UN Human ights Committee calls for U.S. surveillance reform" which supports the Committee's…
"Human Rights Committee." United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High
Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/ccpr/pages/ccprindex.aspx
Mitnick, Drew and Deborah Brown. (1 April, 2014). "UN Human Rights Committee calls for U.S. surveillance reform." ACCESSNOW.org. Retrieved from https://www.accessnow.org/blog/2014/04/01/un-human-rights-committee-calls-
The results of the index composition reflect that by analyzing only the elements mentioned above, both India and China rank higher than in the general HDI. In this sense, India is ranked 17 and China 18, as opposed to 119 and 89 respectively.
There are several aspects for this change. On the one hand, positive indexes were taken into account for both countries. For instance, the income in China is constantly improving, as China has a 76 ranking as opposed to 89 the general index. By comparison, this is also applicable to India, with a positive index of 87 as opposed to its general 119.
In terms of inequality China is relatively low as its ranking is 72 compared with the general one of 89. Therefore there is little difference largely because despite the constant developments in the economy the results of this development are not evenly spread and therefore…
Human Development Index. The Human development concept. Human Development Reports. 2010. Available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/
Un) Ethical Leadership and Identity:
The main topic of the article is to identify and comment on the major findings originating from the collective initiatives on the issue of leadership, ethics, and identity. In order to explore this special issue, the article highlights various aspects including definitional advancements, processes in ethical leadership, and the results and moderating factors of ethical leadership. As part of the author's initiatives to explore the topic in detail, he has started by a comprehensive definition of ethical and unethical leadership. Based on an analysis of the article and the author's writing style, he is writing to both academic and professional audience. The author communicates what has been learned and need for future considerations with regard to ethical and unethical leadership and identity.
Notably, Hunter (2012) has solicited various manuscripts focusing on leadership, ethics, and identity in order to develop his special issue (p. 79). As…
Hunter, S.T. (2012, April 4). (Un)Ethical Leadership and Identity: What Did We Learn and Where Do We Go from Here? Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 79-87.
1998 edition of the Christian Century, Todd David hitmore writes, "The U.S. may move at some point to bomb Iraq, and do so claiming that any shedding of innocent blood is on Hussein's hands. But if it does, it is important that it does so without support from those who live under the cross." Now that hitmore's prediction has come true and the United States has gone ahead and bombed Iraq, the United Nations conflict over the Iraqi sanctions may be at an end. However, new conflicts will certainly arise, over the self-determination of the Iraqi people vs. The interest of the paternalistic and hegemonic United States.
hitmore's article focuses on the moral implications of the sanctions. The author discusses the complexity of the conflict as it manifests in the United Nations. On the one hand, Saddam Hussain has perpetrated murder and worse on thousands, indeed millions of Iraqi people,…
Whitmore, Todd David. "An Occasion of Sin: Economic sanctions against Iraq continue to cause conflict between the United Nations and Saddam Hussain." The Christian Century. 2 Dec. 1998. Find Articles. 15 Apr 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1058/33_115/53390004/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22united+nations%22+conflict
United Nations - the UN has been effective
The UN has succeeded in some of its international responsibilities but has failed in others; and according to the UN Charter the UN may not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state
The UN has achieved many "remarkable accomplishments" (Encarta.msn.com)
The UN has negotiated 172 peace settlements that ended regional conflicts
The UN has participated in more than 300 international treaties
The UN's "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (adopted in 1948) has been helpful in raising the consciousness of the need for human rights
Over 3 million children a year have been saved from polio, measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis thanks to immunization programs by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)
The UN promotes worker's rights and improves agricultural techniques in developing countries
TO: UN has success in Libya (Christian Science Monitor)
The UN Security Council unanimously awarded Libya's seat…
Background on the United Nations 2008. Accomplishments of the United Nations. Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://encarta.msn.com.
Boot, Max. 2000. Paving the Road to Hell: The Failure of U.N. Peacekeeping. Foreign Affairs.
Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://www.foreignaffaird.com. (March): 1-3.
Charbonneau, Louis. 2012. Analysis: U.N. confronts failure of diplomacy in Syria. Reuters.
United Nations: Failures
The United Nations is the result of an international policy experiment that aimed at bringing together the countries of the world in an attempt to avoid conflagrations such as the First and Second World wars from taking place again in the modern history of human kind. The loss of lives in the wars that marked the 20th century determined world leaders and in particular the five great powers that emerged victorious after the Second World War to consider a new political structure that would determine a path of communication, of public diplomacy and ensure a system of constant contact based on international law. lmost seven decades later, no world conflagrations have taken place; yet, the UN is considered to have failed in its attempt to manage regional and local conflicts and avoiding the loss of human life. The late 20th century saw a series of significant failures…
As innocent lives were torn apart, there were individual efforts to take action for the protection. Monique Mujawamariya, a Rwandan human rights activist, personally visited Washington to contact Anthony Lake, a UN National Security Advisor, in order to request extra arms and military assistance to prevent the Hutu extremists from killing her people. However, Anthony Lake responded, "the U.S. has no friends, only interests, and the U.S. has no interest in Rwanda. We have no motivation." He also reminded her about the previous incident in Somalia, where UN troops were killed brutally. He said that he did not want the UN to "return with coffins again." However, the situation in Rwanda was incomparable to the situation in Somalia because there was a public genocide. Despite this urgency, the UN did not even recognize the situation as "genocide."
According to the analysis framework of the UN, the UN defined genocide in 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part1; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group." Nonetheless, there was an increased indifference to the situation in Rwanda, and ambassadors of the UN refused to accept the situation as genocide. However, the massacre of Tutsis in particular by the Hutus is a sign of "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction." The mere fact that the UN eschewed the gravity of this genocide was a failure of the UN to exercise its intended practices as an international peacekeeping force.
The majority of the UN officials especially in the Security Council simply did not recognize this event as a significant factor or issue during their discussions. Even President Clinton of the United States himself stated in a speech regarding the country's intentions stated that issues ranging from "Rwanda to Georgia" will
Is there need for more incentives by the UN to countries that meet a certain level of Sustainable Development Goals?
The UN should go an extra mile and mobilize all possible resources to fund projects and support the countries that have successfully implemented the SDGS or shown commitment.
If nominated for the post of the next Secretary General, what kind of reforms would you initiate?
The need for reforming the UN management isn't exactly new. New secretary generals have reordered the way departments of the UN work. They have introduced new command lines and done restructuring. If elected the next secretary general, I will outsource all secretariat services. I will also push for fresh authority to change budgets and wind up programs without the need to consult the general assembly (GPF, 2012).
In addition, what initiatives would you undertake in order to make the SDGs more successful?
Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2013). Sustainable Development Challenges. New York: United Nations.
GPF. (2012). Management and Secretary General Reform. Retrieved from Global Policy Forum: https://www.globalpolicy.org/un-reform/un-reform-topics/management-reform.html
Jason. (2015, September 25). Five Reasons To Think Twice About The Un'S Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from The Rules: http://therules.org/five-reasons-to-think-twice-about-the-uns-sustainable-development-goals/
United Nations, the Unwanted Nobodies and this tells you much about its status in the world.
The UN has been implicated in a good deal of corruption and scandal. It has been said to be political, to be bigoted, to evidence cowardice and fail its responsibilities, to misappropriate its resources, and to misuse judgment. These have been only a few -- and the weakest -- of the accusations leveled against this not particularly effective institution.
The UN has failed, time and again, to intervene in major world crisis when it was most needed. ather than stand their ground with Egypt for instance during the six-day war, it deserted the region, and it demonstrated this same behavior time and again during the African genocides. Similarly, too, the UN showed its ineffectiveness during the crisis with Iraq, becoming a puppet in the hands of France and ussia who tried to use it…
americans-world.org . Americans and the World: a source of comprehensive information on U.S. public opinion http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/un/un1.cfm
Charter of the UN
Kim R. Holmes, Assistant Secretary of State, "The Challenges Facing the United Nations Today: An American View," address to the Council on Foreign Relations, October 21, 2003, at www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6451#.
global tax treaties, UN model and OECD model with the view of analyzing their consideration towards rights to capital and tax income. By throwing light on differences and similarities among the models, the fundamental logic of each of them is explained. The article explains the prospecting policies of consideration when tax treaties are to be signed. It is because there is strong need to enforce a flexible but more aggressive strategy. The Section 1 of the article discusses rights about tax earnings through immovable property. The Section 2 is about business profits. The Section 3 throws light upon income from investment channels like royalties, interests and dividends. The Section 4 describes the capital gains. The conclusion of the article is given in Section 5.
ight to tax income from immovable property
Because of well-known significant relationship between the country of source of the income and the source of income itself,…
Bin Yang, A Comparative Study on the Rules and Administration of the International Taxation System (China Tax Publishing House, 2003).
Bin Yang, International Taxation (Fudan University Press, 2004).
Commentaries on Paragraph 3, Article 7 of the OECD model.
Jin Zhi Liu (translator), Commentaries of UN model Tax Convention between Developed and Developing Countries (China Financial & Economic Publishing House, 1996) 56.
surrealist films, Un Chien Andalou L'Age, d'or Las Hurdes (Land read), terms cinematic techniques a formal surrealist perspective. Use specific frames films discussion.
Luis unuel's films are generally known to have produced diverse sentiments in viewers, considering that most people are unable to digest the controversial topics that the director relates to. When taking into account unuel's attitude in making these motion pictures, it is only safe to assume that his intention was to push away viewers rather than to attract them. It is actually probable that unuel was the first director in the history of filmmaking who expressed no interest in gathering large crowds of supporters. He was not particularly concerned about the effects that his films will generate on the public, as he was primarily interested in expressing himself through these films. unuel's films were revolutionary at the time when he first presented them to the public and…
Dir. Luis Bunuel. L'Age d'Or. Corinth Films, 1979 (U.S.)
Dir. Luis Bunuel. Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan. 1933
Dir. Luis Bunuel. Un Chien Andalou. Les Grandes Films Clasiques, 1929
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
Gradually, over the eight years since it was first instated, as Kosovo's Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) were established "UNMIK has moved back from an executive role to one of monitoring and support to local institutions. UNMIK, in its present form, is now into its final chapter before status resolution" ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009). Customs, banking regulation, and general governmental functions are some of the other responsibilities assumed by local authorities since the establishment of UN control. However, the UNMIK Department of Justice (DOJ) continues to prosecute serious crimes, "including cases of corruption, terrorism, war crimes and March 2004 riot cases" and other cases that are the fall-out of the type of longstanding ethnic rivalries that precipitated UN intervention and the creation of UNMIK in the first place ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009).
Although the UN has declared UNMIK as success, in recent years, Kosovo state authorities have begun…
"Ban Ki-moon: Kosovo wants to discontinue UNMIK mission." New Kosovo Report.
March 19, 2009. March 31, 2009.
"UNMIK -- at a glance." UN Website. 1999. March 31, 2009.
There has been considerable negative propaganda about the U.N. In recent times that has portrayed the organization as a bureaucratic "white elephant" and suggestions have even been made to do away with it altogether. John Bolton, who until recently was the U.S. Permanent epresentative at the UN, once famously remarked: "The [U.N.] Secretariat building in New York has 38 stories. If you lost ten stories today, it wouldn't make a bit of difference;" and many people in the U.S. tend to agree with him. No doubt, improvement in the performance of the United Nations may well be called for, since no orgainization is perfect. However, to my mind, it would be an extremely unwise and short-sighted step to curtail the activities of the United Nations. In fact, we need to expand the United Nations so that it can carry out the enormous tasks of maintaining global peace, reducing poverty, supporting…
About the ITU." (2007). International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/aboutitu/index.html
Global Issues on the UN Agenda." (2007). The United Nations Official Website. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/issues/
International cooperation for an enabling environment for sustainable development." (2001).
Report of the Secretary-General: Commission on Sustainable Development. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/cn17/2001/ecn172001-5.pdf
Legal egulation Conservation Laws on UN Countries Territories
For a long time, the roles of the UN in managing state affairs and world peace have evolved. There are more state and non-state actors in the process of developing and imposing UN laws in sovereign states. This research paper aims at evaluating legal regulation of the conservation laws of UN of the countries territories. The essay argues that the regulations are not sufficient in conserving country progress.
ussia is noticeable in the modern world through its interventions during the post-Soviet era with the special focus of the current leadership. China is trending towards becoming increasingly authoritarian through its military-geopolitical or oil/gas-motivated expansionist diplomatic offensives on neighboring or trading countries propelled by the current leader. The authoritarian behavior appears to be supported by a strong sovereignty sense (Ferris, 2011). The UN has taken it to be a case of economic weakness within…
Browne, M.A. (2011). United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Ferris, E.G. (2011). The Politics of Protection: The Limits of Humanitarian Action. New York: Brookings Institution Press.
Freedman, R. (2013). The United Nations Human Rights Council: A critique and early assessment. New York: Routledge.
Ramcharan, B.G. (2009). The Protection Roles of UN Human Rights Special Procedures. New York: BRILL.
opportunity, I would demand UN's immediate attention to the education of children in crisis zones (Duncan, W. aymond, 2008). I would endorse an urgent call for the UN secretary General's action to make sure that vulnerable youth and children across the world obtain quality education by ensuring that:
Schools are protected from attacks
Ensuring that there is a significant increase in humanitarian support towards education
Incorporating emergencies in the budgets before they happen
I would urge the secretary general to take immediate action regarding the 30 million kids residing in nations that are scarred by conflict and violence. This would include millions of children who have been struck by humanitarian crisis such as earthquakes, flood shortages, flooding and other disasters. I would support the UN secretary general's initiative of education which incorporates measures of ensuring the right to education to all kids including all kids living in crisis zones. I…
Duncan, W. Raymond. (2008). World Politics in the Twenty-first Century Brief. Houghton:
Yearbook of the United Nations - 2003. (2005). New York: Department of Public Information.
In "UN Summit to push for corporate green plans," Clark (2012) mentions a summit in io de Janeiro, in Brazil. In addition to the cultures represented by the host country, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and India are also mentioned in the article. Clark's (2012) article, which is published in The Financial Times, illustrates some of the challenges with cross-cultural communications and business.
In "UN Summit to Push for Corporate Green Plans," Clark (2012) refers directly to the "resistance" of countries including the United States, Canada, and India to some environmental strategies "because of fears that it will add to companies' regulatory burdens." The cultural values this represents include an economic model in which businesses operate with as little regulation on the part of government as possible. However, some businesses are on board with the environmental regulations. As Clark (2012) points out, "a group of businesses…
Clark, P. (2012). UN summit to push for corporate green plans. Financial Times. 18 June 2012.
Mander, J. (n.d.) Corporate colonialism. Retrieved online: http://theunjustmedia.com/Corporation/Articles%20on%20Corporation/Corporate%20Colonialism.htm
assembly reform at the United Nations
Ever since the Cold War ended there have been so many problems the world has been faced with; this includes new threats to its peace and stability also. National and international conflicts based on historical, social, economic, ethnic and other factors, pose an extensive threat to the world causing greater instability. These problems are coupled with the problems of an explosive population increase, poverty, and environmental degradation affecting the entire planet. This is international environment the United Nations has to play an important role in to fulfill its responsibilities effectively in implementing the new reforms in all aspects. [CF Publications: What Future for the UN? A Prelude to the 58th UN General Assembly]
Financial eform of the United Nations
The financial reform of the United Nations is one of the most serious issues that they face at present. Japan is one country that has…
At the Plenary Meeting of the 58th General Assembly on the Follow-up to the Outcome of the Millennium Summit (Item 60) and the Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization (Item 10), 6 October 2003, available at http://www.un.int/japan/statements/haraguchi031006.html , accessed on: March 31, 2004
CFR Publications: What Future for the UN? A Prelude to the 58th UN General Assembly, available at http://www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6251,accessed on: March 31, 2004
Culture and Education, available at http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/un/pamph2000/reform.html , accessed on: March 31, 2004
United Nations OnLine Position Paper, available at http://www.unol.org/pospapers/ppeu.html, accessed on: March 31, 2004
The Aftermath of Tiananmen Square
To this day, the country of China remains an enigma, isolated from the Western world and shrouded in mystery conceptualized by the Communist ed. Its culture both ancient and modern fascinates one on many levels mainly because it is so completely foreign. Aspects of their way of life, customs and lifestyle elements mirror the Communist doctrines and the absence of pure freedom seems sad to us. Still slowly China is opening its doors to the West. There is a changing tide, a force at work. It is the advent of globalization, mass communication and new technologies that changed the atmosphere of China. The world is forever shrinking due to the marketplace being at the speed of light and commerce taking place over new mediums. This makes possibly happen. People from every nation have yearned to participate in this explosion.
The Chinese have been…
1998. "China to Sign Rights Accord." Newsday. 13 March.
Chua-Eoan, Howard. 1989. "Despair and Death in a Beijing Square." Time.
Fewsmith, Joseph. China Since Tiananmen Square: The Politics of Transition.
United States in the United Nations
hen the United Nations was first formed, it was done with noble ideas and motives. Indeed, many of the actions and deeds executed or supported by the United Nations over the years have mostly been positive and productive. However, there has been a consistent and startling degradation. It has gotten to the point where the United Nations and its member states aside from the United States have gotten into the game of talking down to the United States for something of things it has done with the United Nations itself is implicitly or explicitly condoning some depraved actions and/or there are member states that are engaging in some questionable if not unconscionable behavior. hile the United Nations has and still serves a good purpose, there are some patterns and behaviors going on from the body itself and/or its member states that need to change…
Bayefsky, Anne. "You Can't Make It Up. UN Names Democratic Israel As World'S Top Human Rights Violator -- Fox News." Fox News. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Booker, Christopher. "Climate Change: This Is the Worst Scientific Scandal of Our Generation." Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Matthews, Christopher. "United Nations Diplomat Corruption Case Presents Challenges." WSJ. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
OHCHR. "UN Human Rights Council Recommends Suspension Of Libya." Ohchr.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
The UN as Global Police Force and Negotiation Facilitator
As Mingst and Karns (2016) note, the UN has played a predominant role in setting the standard for human rights—and it did so in 1948, three years after the conclusion of WW2. However, setting the standards is not the same as enforcing the standards and so far the UN’s declaration of human rights has been fairly toothless in terms of holding nations accountable through any type of police action. Global police action when it does occur tends to come from the U.S., which emerged as the world leader among the nations in the post-War era. Mingst and Karns (2016) state explicitly that “much of the UN’s success in defining human rights norms, monitoring respect for human rights, and promoting human rights has depended on the activities of the growing international human rights network of NGOs—the third UN” (p. 218). UN-led partnerships…
Economics & Global Health
Economically deprived nations are places where poverty is widespread, and poverty almost always leads to some form of hunger; facts show that people who do not have enough nutrients become ill. This is the deadly cycle that many developing countries face. "Poverty is the principal cause of hunger," according to the UN's Education Service; and the principal underlying cause of " ... poverty and hunger" is poorly administered economic and political systems. Control over those systems is often based on "military, political, and economic power that typically ends up in the hands of a minority"; those in power often live quite well while those at the bottom of the ladder " ... barely survive" (worldhunger.org). This paper delves into the problem of poor economics, poverty, and global health issues.
Hunger: The United Nations / orld Bank Programs
The United Nations and the orld Bank have programs…
The World Bank. (2015). Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger by 2015. Retrieved
December 9, 2015, from http://www.worldbank.org .
World Hunger Education Service. (2015). 2015 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics. Retrieved December 9, 2015, from http://www.worldhunger.org .
Thank you for your consideration of my objective to transfer from the University of Toronto to Johns Hopkins University -- specifically to the Johns Hopkins' University Political Science program, where I seek to participate in the program's Model United Nations Conference -- in time for the 2016 fall semester.
Presently I am the Chair of the General Assembly at the North American Model United Nations Conference at the University of Toronto. Because of my academic skills and accomplishments at a very young age, I was admitted to the University of Toronto in my sixteenth year.
Meanwhile, my strong, well-thought-out desire to transfer is because of the wonderful opportunity for me to gain insights and deep understanding while participating in the highly respected Johns Hopkins University Model United Nations Conference.
This opening will dovetail with my career dream: to mature intellectually and professionally in ways sufficient to become a…
Kruger, D. & Fournier, C. (2009). Canadian Dollar Drops o Lowest in Four Days as Crude Oil Declines. Bloomberg.com. Online at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601082&sid=ahfsbyRA1cRI
he global economy is in a determined state of recession. Poor policy in the United States and throughout the globalizing world community have reverberated through all entangled nations. he impact on currencies in North America in particular has been decidedly negative. As the Bloomberg article from June of 2009 indicates, "Canada's currency plunged to the lowest level in four days as commodities including crude oil, the nation's biggest export, dropped amid a surge in demand by investors for safer assets." (Kruger & Founier, 1) One can infer from the article that this decline parallels a drop of similar proportions throughout the year in American currency, reflected the ripple effect of continental trade agreements in the face of major U.S. recession.
Recent events including the declaration of Japanese finance…
The article published in May 2009 in the Hamilton Spectator takes a humorous perspective on in issue which invokes consideration of the rather serious matter of ecological sustainability. In the city of Waterloo, the city council debated the issue this spring in the interests of allowing for the voicing both of advocacy and opposition to the allowance for back-yard chicken coops. The main purpose of the article was to report the debate at the city council at the ultimate outcome which was to reject the request for legalization of this practice, which its supporters view as a great and forward-thinking food source.
The article does open up to broader key questions however, most particularly in terms of the gains and losses to a township in this sort of ban. Its opponents were mostly "residents worried chickens would be noisy, smelly and attract unwanted pests." (MacIntyre, A4) In spite of this view, the article denotes that other contexts such as Vancouver, New York, Seattle and Portland have all allowed for chicken coops, siding with those who perceive this to be an efficient, healthy and safe food source. This points to the key question as to whether objecting fears are justified or imagined and, likewise, as to whether proposed gains such as sustainability and affordability are achieved. Most importantly, the article indicates that there are contexts where this has been allowed.
This leads us to the inference that a more scientific investigation could be undertaken to determine the answers to the key questions cited above, especially those demonstrating fear of the practice. The article's point-of-view is fairly neutral, though flecked with puns about chickens and the matter of its subjects' courage on the subject. Perhaps here we actually could stretch to the inference that the article intends to question the council's ban in acquiescence to residential fears.
A more complete reading of the Analects places these requirements for contentment and piety in a much different context that shows the true righteousness and even equanimity of the suggestions, however. When questioned about humanity, Confucius lists the qualities of "reverence, generosity, truthfulness, diligence, and kindness" as necessary in a "man of humanity" (Sourcebook, 19). While it might be easier for a wealthy and powerful man to not think of his salary and to continue perpetuating the system of authority in which he finds himself, it is no easier for the wealthy man to be truly reverent, honest, or diligent, and it is far harder for many wealthy individuals to be truly generous and kind in their dealings with others. To lead a truly good and well-purposed life, the wealthy and powerful must actually bear extra internal burdens to make sure that their wealth and power are wielded correctly.
From even the brief analysis of Dicey's doctrine examined above, it can be seen that the concept of parliamentary supremacy has never been practically implemented to its logical conclusion, and it is all but inconceivable that it ever would be. n addition to the sheer logical absurdity of a parliament answerable to absolutely no one, however, the modern era has provided many other concrete, explicit, and practical impediments to true parliamentary sovereignty. Some of these impediments have been domestic in nature, and thus could be considered untested if practically apparent; others, however, are international in nature and can be seen as constituting a conscious, willing, and explicit reduction of parliamentary supremacy.
Domestically speaking, there have been a series of judicial decisions that would seem to limit parliamentary supremacy, insisting that judicial review is necessary in the case o fcertain legal formations and applications (Allan, 2011). Others have noted…
It is in the international arena that the most significant and concrete limitations on parliament's supposed supremacy have been made, from many different angles and at varying degrees of concession or agreement by the United Kingdom and its parliament. The Human Rights Act passed by the European Union, for example, is a major piece of legislation that explicitly sets up courts and certain other bodies external to the United Kingdom that are explicitly granted sovereignty over certain issues (Anthony, 2002). There are other agreements with the European Union and other member nations, as well as decisions made within other European Union member nations that have been made applicable to other member nations and the European Union as a whole, that further limit the true sovereignty or supremacy of the United Kingdom's parliament both when it comes to the nation's external actions and in some of its domestic affairs (Weatherhill, 2007; Harker et al., 2011). All such agreements explicitly and directly negate the notion of parliamentary supremacy.
It is clear from even a basic analysis that the concept of parliamentary supremacy is not applicable in the modern era, and was ultimately incorrect when the doctrine was first advanced. While parliament holds supremacy in that it is the highest body within the government in the United Kingdom, in practice the parliament is limited by certain codified and un-codified laws and principles. Understanding this is essential t properly understanding UK constitutionality.
In the event that the analysis of records of telephone, e-mail and internet use was considered to amount to an interference with respect for private life or correspondence, the Government contended that the interference was justified. First, it pursued the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others by ensuring that the facilities provided by a publicly funded employer were not abused. Secondly, the interference had a basis in domestic law in that the College, as a statutory body, whose powers enable it to provide further and higher education and to do anything necessary and expedient for those purposes, had the power to take reasonable control of its facilities to ensure that it was able to carry out its statutory functions. It was reasonably foreseeable that the facilities provided by a statutory body out of public funds could not be used excessively for personal purposes and that the…
ECHR Case Law - Copland vs. United Kingdom European Court of Human Rights - Council of Europe Copland vs. United Kingdom 3 April 2007 Violation of Art. 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Legile Inernetului (2009) Online available at http://www.legi-internet.ro/english/jurisprudenta-it-romania/decizii-cedo/copland-vs.-united-kingdom-echr-case-law.html
Vermeulen, Mathias (2009) UN Special Rapporteur Releases Report on the Role of Intelligence Agencies in the Fight Against Terrorism. 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://legalift.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/un-special-rapporteur-releases-report-on-the-role-of-intelligence-agencies-in-the-fight-against-terrorism/
Recent Case Law on Asylum and Immigration (2008) Migration Watch.
UK ASYLUM LAW and PROCESS in the human rights law [3.1.6] section of the guide: 3.1.6|1 the IMPACT of HUMAN RIGHTS LAW; and 3.1.6|2 USEFUL RESOURCES (ICAR) 2008. Online available at http://www.icar.org.uk/7013/31-law-and-process/316-human-rights-law.html
United Airline Multinational Ventures
United Airlines is an air transport company that operates in a number of countries around the globe undertaking passenger and goods transport services. The corporation's headquarters are in New York City with branches set up in major trade cities to provide ease in management and contact with clients. In the past five years the corporation has increased its fleet of aircrafts by twenty percent owing to the rising demand in air transport around the globe. The corporation practices decentralized management with policy guidelines to ensure uniformity and brand identification in its operations.
The corporations' initial flight route comprised of local weekly flights in the U.S. To major destinations around the state. As the demand for air travel increased the company increased its flight routes and frequency depending on demand. Opportunities for a global operation came around when major airline companies continued to…
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
Are states still relevant?
ealist, cooperative, liberal and critical theories of international relations
The realist theory of international politics views states as 'black box' actors. The possibly competing interests of citizens and bureaucrats within the state are ignored. ealism holds that "at its most fundamental level, the national interest is generic and easy to define: all states seek to preserve their political autonomy and their territorial integrity. Once these two interests have been secured, however, national interests may take different forms. Some states may have an interest in securing more resources or land; other states may wish to expand their own political or economic systems into other areas; some states may merely wish to be left alone" (Ferraro 2011). Another synonym for realism is 'rationalism.' States are assumed to be able to rationally pursue their own interests in the international community.
Of course, realists understand that the…
Ferraro, Vincent. (2011). Political realism. Mt. Holyoke College.
Retrieved December 13, 2011 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/realism.htm
Morgenthau, Hans J. (1978). Politics among nations: The struggle for power and peace,
5th Ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978, pp. 4-15. Retrieved December 13, 2011 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/morg6.htm
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
United States healthcare programs to citizens compare with the healthcare provided to residents in other countries? That question will be the focus of this paper, along with the background to the decision of major health insurance companies to support the candidacy of Republican Mitt Romney.
here does the U.S. stand in the world when it comes to healthcare?
According to a statement by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, John Boehner, the U.S. has "…the best health care delivery system in the world" (Politiface.com). Boehner, who was a guest on the CBS Sunday program "Face the Nation," was commenting on the candidacy of Mitt Romney. On the July 1, 2012 program, Boehner said he supports Romney for president because Romney "…understands that Obamacare will bankrupt our country and will ruin…" that healthcare system that the speaker believes is best in the world (politifact.com).
Meanwhile on Fox News Sunday (also…
Balanced Politics. (2009). Should the Government Provide Free Universal Health Care for All
Americans? Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://balancedpolitics.org .
Business Insider. (2012). Health Insurance Companies Are Worried About A Romney
Victory. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.businessinsider.com .
United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).
Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).
On the other hand, Conservatism deems…
Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.
Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. USA: Ron Lipsman.
Watts, D. (2006). Understanding American Government and Politics: Second Edition. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.
In fact, the UN's official policy attempts to limit the types of conditions that can be placed on debt forgiveness for third-world and developing nations. Despite this fact, it would be simplistic to state that G8 should not have the ability to make financial decisions independent of the UN and other international influence. As the countries that have provided the majority of financing for the world's poorest countries, it may be that the continued financial health of those countries depends upon them getting a financial benefit from such financial assistance. Therefore, the current world economy may actually depend on the ability of G8 to operate independently from the broader international community.
Q3: How does the Fisher effect impact the ability to forecast currency exchange rates? If the real interest rate is constant across borders, one would expect a constant currency exchange rate, but this does not occur. On the contrary,…
United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…
Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm
Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm
Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02.
("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1970s-1980s").
President Regan's successor, President George H.. Bush, continued to adhere to the Mexico City Policy. In 1993, it was rescinded by President Clinton. President George . Bush reinstated the policy in 2001 by establishing conditions in the grants awarded to USAID. In addition, President George . Bush extended the policy to apply to any "voluntary population planning" assistance provided by the Department of State. (Obama).
Progress in family planning policy was made in other areas. The federal government recognized that special attention in providing family planning counseling should be paid to countries where overpopulation threatened biodiversity or endangered species. ("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1990s-2009").
In addition, the federal government, especially USAID, worked to use family planning policy to promote the awareness of HIV disease and to promote health practices that would restrict the spread of such diseases. In 2003, USAID established new guidelines…
Clinton Hillary. Foreign Policy Address at the Council on Foreign Relations, May 5, 2009. U.S. Department of State. Web. May 24, 2010.
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Jones K.A. "New Complexities and Approaches to Global Health Diplomacy: View from the U.S. Department of State." PLoS Med 7(5). Web. May 24, 2010
Obama, Barack. "Memorandum to the Secretary of State: Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning," January 23, 2009. Web. May 24, 2010.
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…
American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University
Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.
Hearing loss is very case specific because one person who has hearing loss or impairment may be able to hear certain sounds or be completely deaf.
Impairment entails something is not working as well as it should but there may still be some basic functioning. Hearing loss can go by many terms such as deaf, deafness, or hard of hearing. All could be one and the same situation but as pointed out, each individual is suffering from their own individual illness or situation and may or may not be comparable to any other hearing loss situation.
Although this report focuses on hearing loss as it is associated to military service, it is important to note that in the United States; approximately three of every thousand newborns are born with some type of hearing impairment thus making it one of the more common birth defects in our nation. This entails that…
Minter, Stephen G. (2002). "Does Your Hearing Conservation Program Measure Up? Once Described as "Sleep Aid Material," the Dry Topic of Hearing Conservation Metrics Draws Increased Interest as OSHA's STS Trigger Undergoes Review." Occupational Hazards, 3/1/2002.
Mosley, Gerry L. (2004). "National Guard and Reserve Unit Health Protections." Congressional Testimony, 3/30/2004.
PR Newswire (2003). "Compound Licensed by American BioHealth Group From U.S. Navy Shown to Protect Against Hearing Loss From Impulse Noise; - New Data Presented at Association for Research in Otolaryngology Meeting." PR Newswire Release, 3/3/2003.
Rabinowitz, Peter M. (2000). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. American Family Physician, 5/1/2000,.
The result was a put-off United States. ealizing this furthered the need for an outside alliance, talks of NATO resumed. At this point, Canada saw NATO as more than just a defense strategy in the face of Communism. Canada fought and won a battle in discussions to require all members of NATO to cooperate economically. Additionally, the NATO alliance assured that Canada would have a say in combined foreign policy and security. Even further, Canada would be able to deal with the United States on more of a multilateral level, which would help ease the disparity between the nations (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). ather than simply following America's lead in foreign affairs, Canada was determined to make decisions in the best interest of the Canadian people.
By 1949, the threat of Communism was in full swing. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapon, and the world took notice. Now…
Aronsen, L.R. (1997). American National Security and Economic Relations with Canada, 1945-1954. Westport: Praeger Publishers.
Canada. (2003). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from Encarta Online. Web site: http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563379_7/Canada.html.
Canada and the UN. (2003). Canada and the United Nations. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Web site: http://www.un.int/canada/canadaandun.html .
Canada Department of National Defense. (May 1953). Canadian participation in the Korean War, Part I. Canadian Defense Report No. 62. Montreal: Canada Department of National Defense.
"..three asymmetric methods that could be used to exploit the Court: (1) misusing the Court's investigative processes, (2) filing questionable or fraudulent complaints, and (3) manipulating mass media (Austin, W. Chadwick, Kolenc and Anthony Barone, 2006, p. 291)."
Finally, the issue of how the court might deal with the problem of international terrorism is not well understood (Yarnold, Barbara, 1991). The court's authority to extradite and prosecute terrorists from third world countries needs to be better defined Yarnold, p. 1). The United States has not signed on to the ome Statute, and understanding the U.S. role of protecting its own, should the U.S. continue to reject
The ome Statute is becoming clouded by the strength and power of the international community and courts (Dietz, Jeffrey, 2004, p. 137). Under the powers of the ICC, any American prosecuted in the court would be denied the protections guaranteed Americans under the Bill…
Aksar, Y. (2004). Implementing International Humanitarian Law: From the AD Hoc Tribunals to a Permanent International Criminal Court. London: F. Cass. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108538096
Austin, W.C., & Kolenc, a.B. (2006). Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? The International Criminal Court as a Weapon of Asymmetric Warfare. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(2), 291+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5016812758
Danner, a.M. (2003). Navigating Law and Politics: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court and the Independent Counsel. Stanford Law Review, 55(5), 1633+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006263
U.S. Foreign Policy
American foreign policy occupies a unique place in the world. American foreign policy regarding interacting with other nations is a non-homogeneous mixture of politics, economics, and the unique American culture which believes that both the success of political and economic agenda's cannot be separated from the ways which a country treats it's people. To be specific, American has a difficult time forming positive relationships with nations that oppress, imprison, or otherwise trample their people's basic human rights to life, liberty and the individual pursuit of happiness. As he stated during his administration, President Jimmy Carter described the connection between human rights and American foreign policy this way.
Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy, because human rights is the very soul of our sense of nationhood."
American foreign policy is also seen as a function of the president, and the president must take the lead…
Allen, M., and P.P. Pan. Bush touts U.S. values to Chinese. Washington Post, 2002, February 22, p. A01.
Carter, J. Openings to Cuba: We must find common ground. Washington Post. 2002, May 24, p. A35.
Kane, John. American Values or Human Rights? U.S. Foreign Policy and the Fractured Myth of Virtuous Power Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 33. 2003
Sullivan, K. Carter urges democracy for Cuba. Washington Post, 2002, May 15, p. A14.