United Nations Essays (Examples)

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The Role of the UN in Promoting World Peace

Words: 5261 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91521981

The United Nations in the International System: Effectiveness of Collective Security
Introduction
The concept of collective security is used by countries to end or avert conflicts. The arrangement of collective security provides that an attack against one nation has a ripple down effect to the other country and they should act as a unit to deter the attacker[footnoteRef:1]. Once the Cold War ended, the primary issues of international security have undergone significant changes. Through the United Nations (UN) peacekeeping, several conflicts in Africa, Asia, and Central America were resolved. Peacekeeping is one of the central means by which the United Nations fulfills its roles in maintaining security and peace internationally[footnoteRef:2]. The United Nations, as well as the League of Nations, was established on the collective security principle. This paper delves into how the collective security has evolved its role as the foundation for most global peace agreements and its effectiveness…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, Kenneth. “United Nations Collective Security and the United States Security Guarantee in an Age of Rising Multipolarity: The Security Council as Talking Shop of the Nations.” Chicago Journal of International Law 10, no. 1 (2009): 55-90.

Arend, Anthony Clark, and Robert J. Beck. International law and the use of force: beyond the UN Charter paradigm. Routledge, 2014.

Danchin, Peter G., and Horst Fischer, eds. United Nations reform and the new collective security. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Hogan, Willard N. International conflict, and collective security. University Press of Kentucky, 2015.

Kelsen, Hans. Collective security under international law. Vol. 49. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2001.

Pickar, Joshua. \\"Japan\\'s Defensive Constitution: Nuclear Weapons as a Better Alternative than Expanding Collective Self-Defense.\\" Law School International Immersion Program Papers, No. 20 (2016): 1-33.

Thakur, Ramesh. The United Nations, peace, and security: from collective security to the responsibility to protect. Cambridge University Press, 2016.


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UN Security Council

Words: 5883 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61388417

UN Security Council

Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…… [Read More]

References

AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,

Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.

Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.

http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_background.html
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UN Report Women Making a

Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26794355

The actual effects of these new laws and codes have yet to emerge with as much optimism as that with which they were enacted, however.

At the same time, it cannot be denied that there have been some noticeable positive changes made due to changes in policies and codes in many countries. One of the major changes that has been both a result and a cause of increased equality for women -- and one that directly impacts economic productivity -- is the advent of micro-credit loans. Government support for such loans and the institutions that make them has shifted hugely in terms of finances and policy, according to the report, and programs that promote literacy, family life education and reproductive health as well as business ventures have been effective recipients (59). This type of loan is only achievable due to changes in social policy and general equality in the countries…… [Read More]

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Un-Married Couple Cohabitation Is a

Words: 2902 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83198313

These are some of the changes that have greatly blurred the boundaries observed by the institution of marriage (Wood, 2011, p. 31).

7. Better family life

With an increase in the rates of cohabitation, there has been an improvement in the family life. People in cohabitation have the same chances of having children these days as married couples. In the past, cohabitation was thought to be a trial period before the couple opts to get married. These days the number of married couples having children is the same as that of cohabiting couples. The survey for the past year has recorded that 38% of the couples have children and these rates are the same as the couples in cohabitation (Wu, 2000, p. 20).

There are a less number of people these days who believe in the institution of marriage. There is an increase in the belief that the children must…… [Read More]

References

Barlow, a. (2005). Cohabitation, Marriage and the Law: Social Change and Legal Reform in the 21st Century. Hart Pub.

Cochrane, G.M. (2010). Do We Need a Cohabitation Agreement: Understanding How a Legal Contract Can Strengthen Your Life Together? John Wiley and Sons.

Great Britain: Law Commission. (2006). Cohabitation: the financial consequences of relationship breakdown; a consultation paper (overview), Issue 179 of Consultation paper. The Stationery Office.

Nazio, T. (2008). Cohabitation, Family and Society: European Experiences, Volume 36 of Routledge Advances in Sociology Series. Routledge.
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UN Millennium Development Goals Evaluation

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92442886

Goals

Adopted by the UN in the year 2000, the UN Millennium Development Goals, in the words of Hopper (2012, 13), sought to synthesize "the various declarations and targets from the numerous international summits and conferences held during the 1990s." Commonly referred to as the MDGs, the Millennium Development Goals are eight in number. They include: "eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; global partnership for development" (United Nations, 2014).

For this discussion, I will largely concern myself with one of the goals I have listed above. Given the kind of suffering vulnerable populations are exposed to as a result of extreme poverty, I will be evaluating the first MDG, i.e. eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. To monitor progress, the MDG has three key targets.…… [Read More]

References

Hopper, Paul. 2012. Understanding Development. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Starbird, Caroline, Dale Deboer, and Jenny Pettitt. 2004. Teaching International Economics and Trade. Denver: University of Denver.

United Nations 2014. Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. United Nations.  http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/poverty.shtml  (accessed June 2014).
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UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86181811

SAFETY

United Nations (OCHA)

U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

United Nations Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

OCHA forms a significant part of the United Nations secretariat, which contributes remarkably in matters concerning human welfare across the globe. OCHA's responsibility is key to activities that relate to the saving of human life and interventions of various humans aids that come in handy during natural and man-made disasters. It is a part of the United Nations organization that forms a network, which connects various humanitarian actors in times of emergencies. OCHA has a policy development that distinctly defines its core functions as supporting effective humanitarian aid, saving life, and reducing suffering (OCHA, 2012).

The roles and responsibilities of OCHA cannot be sidelined from the core values and mission of the United Nations body. The mission is to:

Gather humanitarian efforts form different national actors across the globe…… [Read More]

References

Teng'o, D., & Khan, F.A. (31st March, 2012). Humanitarian response to IDP influx in KP. Humanitarian Bulletin: Pakistan. 3(1). Pp 2-7.

OCHA. (2012). Coordination. OCHA. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from http://
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UN Human Rights Committee Calls for U S Surveillance Reform

Words: 537 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66299882

UN Human ights Committee Calls for U.S. Surveillance eform

In order to preserve and safeguard civil and political rights, the United Nations monitors the protection of these rights by member states who have become part of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights (ICCP). As part of this legally binding treaty, the U.N. periodically assigns a body of independent experts to conduct an examination of how nations are implementing the protections guaranteed under ICCP. This body, called the Human ights Committee, then submits a report which "addresses its concerns and recommendations…in the form of 'concluding observations'." ("Human ights Committee") ecently the Committee submitted a report on the United States and its current policy of surveillance of the internet and wireless communications. In response to this report a digital freedom foundation called ACCESS wrote an article titled "UN Human ights Committee calls for U.S. surveillance reform" which supports the Committee's…… [Read More]

References

"Human Rights Committee." United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High

Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved from  http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/ccpr/pages/ccprindex.aspx 

Mitnick, Drew and Deborah Brown. (1 April, 2014). "UN Human Rights Committee calls for U.S. surveillance reform." ACCESSNOW.org. Retrieved from https://www.accessnow.org/blog/2014/04/01/un-human-rights-committee-calls-

for-u.s.-surveillance-reform
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Un Ethical Leadership and Identity The Main

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49749780

Un) Ethical Leadership and Identity:

The main topic of the article is to identify and comment on the major findings originating from the collective initiatives on the issue of leadership, ethics, and identity. In order to explore this special issue, the article highlights various aspects including definitional advancements, processes in ethical leadership, and the results and moderating factors of ethical leadership. As part of the author's initiatives to explore the topic in detail, he has started by a comprehensive definition of ethical and unethical leadership. Based on an analysis of the article and the author's writing style, he is writing to both academic and professional audience. The author communicates what has been learned and need for future considerations with regard to ethical and unethical leadership and identity.

Notably, Hunter (2012) has solicited various manuscripts focusing on leadership, ethics, and identity in order to develop his special issue (p. 79). As…… [Read More]

Reference:

Hunter, S.T. (2012, April 4). (Un)Ethical Leadership and Identity: What Did We Learn and Where Do We Go from Here? Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 79-87.
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Failures of the UN

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41687985

United Nations: Failures

The United Nations is the result of an international policy experiment that aimed at bringing together the countries of the world in an attempt to avoid conflagrations such as the First and Second World wars from taking place again in the modern history of human kind. The loss of lives in the wars that marked the 20th century determined world leaders and in particular the five great powers that emerged victorious after the Second World War to consider a new political structure that would determine a path of communication, of public diplomacy and ensure a system of constant contact based on international law. lmost seven decades later, no world conflagrations have taken place; yet, the UN is considered to have failed in its attempt to manage regional and local conflicts and avoiding the loss of human life. The late 20th century saw a series of significant failures…… [Read More]

As innocent lives were torn apart, there were individual efforts to take action for the protection. Monique Mujawamariya, a Rwandan human rights activist, personally visited Washington to contact Anthony Lake, a UN National Security Advisor, in order to request extra arms and military assistance to prevent the Hutu extremists from killing her people. However, Anthony Lake responded, "the U.S. has no friends, only interests, and the U.S. has no interest in Rwanda. We have no motivation." He also reminded her about the previous incident in Somalia, where UN troops were killed brutally. He said that he did not want the UN to "return with coffins again." However, the situation in Rwanda was incomparable to the situation in Somalia because there was a public genocide. Despite this urgency, the UN did not even recognize the situation as "genocide."

According to the analysis framework of the UN, the UN defined genocide in 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part1; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group." Nonetheless, there was an increased indifference to the situation in Rwanda, and ambassadors of the UN refused to accept the situation as genocide. However, the massacre of Tutsis in particular by the Hutus is a sign of "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction." The mere fact that the UN eschewed the gravity of this genocide was a failure of the UN to exercise its intended practices as an international peacekeeping force.

The majority of the UN officials especially in the Security Council simply did not recognize this event as a significant factor or issue during their discussions. Even President Clinton of the United States himself stated in a speech regarding the country's intentions stated that issues ranging from "Rwanda to Georgia" will
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Global Tax Treaties UN Model and OECD

Words: 4790 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36069664

global tax treaties, UN model and OECD model with the view of analyzing their consideration towards rights to capital and tax income. By throwing light on differences and similarities among the models, the fundamental logic of each of them is explained. The article explains the prospecting policies of consideration when tax treaties are to be signed. It is because there is strong need to enforce a flexible but more aggressive strategy. The Section 1 of the article discusses rights about tax earnings through immovable property. The Section 2 is about business profits. The Section 3 throws light upon income from investment channels like royalties, interests and dividends. The Section 4 describes the capital gains. The conclusion of the article is given in Section 5.

ight to tax income from immovable property

Because of well-known significant relationship between the country of source of the income and the source of income itself,…… [Read More]

References

Bin Yang, A Comparative Study on the Rules and Administration of the International Taxation System (China Tax Publishing House, 2003).

Bin Yang, International Taxation (Fudan University Press, 2004).

Commentaries on Paragraph 3, Article 7 of the OECD model.

Jin Zhi Liu (translator), Commentaries of UN model Tax Convention between Developed and Developing Countries (China Financial & Economic Publishing House, 1996) 56.
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Surrealist Films Un Chien Andalou L'age D'or

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64773202

surrealist films, Un Chien Andalou L'Age, d'or Las Hurdes (Land read), terms cinematic techniques a formal surrealist perspective. Use specific frames films discussion.

Luis unuel's films are generally known to have produced diverse sentiments in viewers, considering that most people are unable to digest the controversial topics that the director relates to. When taking into account unuel's attitude in making these motion pictures, it is only safe to assume that his intention was to push away viewers rather than to attract them. It is actually probable that unuel was the first director in the history of filmmaking who expressed no interest in gathering large crowds of supporters. He was not particularly concerned about the effects that his films will generate on the public, as he was primarily interested in expressing himself through these films. unuel's films were revolutionary at the time when he first presented them to the public and…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Dir. Luis Bunuel. L'Age d'Or. Corinth Films, 1979 (U.S.)

Dir. Luis Bunuel. Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan. 1933

Dir. Luis Bunuel. Un Chien Andalou. Les Grandes Films Clasiques, 1929
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UNMIK as Established by UN

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90337779



Gradually, over the eight years since it was first instated, as Kosovo's Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) were established "UNMIK has moved back from an executive role to one of monitoring and support to local institutions. UNMIK, in its present form, is now into its final chapter before status resolution" ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009). Customs, banking regulation, and general governmental functions are some of the other responsibilities assumed by local authorities since the establishment of UN control. However, the UNMIK Department of Justice (DOJ) continues to prosecute serious crimes, "including cases of corruption, terrorism, war crimes and March 2004 riot cases" and other cases that are the fall-out of the type of longstanding ethnic rivalries that precipitated UN intervention and the creation of UNMIK in the first place ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009).

Although the UN has declared UNMIK as success, in recent years, Kosovo state authorities have begun…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Ban Ki-moon: Kosovo wants to discontinue UNMIK mission." New Kosovo Report.

March 19, 2009. March 31, 2009.

http://www.newkosovareport.com/200903191675/Politics/Ban-Ki-moon-Kosovo-wants-to-discontinue-the-UNMIK-presence.html

"UNMIK -- at a glance." UN Website. 1999. March 31, 2009.
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Role of UN in Global

Words: 1613 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10155657

There has been considerable negative propaganda about the U.N. In recent times that has portrayed the organization as a bureaucratic "white elephant" and suggestions have even been made to do away with it altogether. John Bolton, who until recently was the U.S. Permanent epresentative at the UN, once famously remarked: "The [U.N.] Secretariat building in New York has 38 stories. If you lost ten stories today, it wouldn't make a bit of difference;" and many people in the U.S. tend to agree with him. No doubt, improvement in the performance of the United Nations may well be called for, since no orgainization is perfect. However, to my mind, it would be an extremely unwise and short-sighted step to curtail the activities of the United Nations. In fact, we need to expand the United Nations so that it can carry out the enormous tasks of maintaining global peace, reducing poverty, supporting…… [Read More]

References

About the ITU." (2007). International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/aboutitu/index.html

Global Issues on the UN Agenda." (2007). The United Nations Official Website. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/issues/

International cooperation for an enabling environment for sustainable development." (2001).

Report of the Secretary-General: Commission on Sustainable Development. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at  http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/cn17/2001/ecn172001-5.pdf
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Politics of Protection by the UN

Words: 3081 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28609689

Legal egulation Conservation Laws on UN Countries Territories

For a long time, the roles of the UN in managing state affairs and world peace have evolved. There are more state and non-state actors in the process of developing and imposing UN laws in sovereign states. This research paper aims at evaluating legal regulation of the conservation laws of UN of the countries territories. The essay argues that the regulations are not sufficient in conserving country progress.

ussia is noticeable in the modern world through its interventions during the post-Soviet era with the special focus of the current leadership. China is trending towards becoming increasingly authoritarian through its military-geopolitical or oil/gas-motivated expansionist diplomatic offensives on neighboring or trading countries propelled by the current leader. The authoritarian behavior appears to be supported by a strong sovereignty sense (Ferris, 2011). The UN has taken it to be a case of economic weakness within…… [Read More]

References

Browne, M.A. (2011). United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress. New York: DIANE Publishing.

Ferris, E.G. (2011). The Politics of Protection: The Limits of Humanitarian Action. New York: Brookings Institution Press.

Freedman, R. (2013). The United Nations Human Rights Council: A critique and early assessment. New York: Routledge.

Ramcharan, B.G. (2009). The Protection Roles of UN Human Rights Special Procedures. New York: BRILL.
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Opportunity I Would Demand UN's Immediate Attention

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25551126

opportunity, I would demand UN's immediate attention to the education of children in crisis zones (Duncan, W. aymond, 2008). I would endorse an urgent call for the UN secretary General's action to make sure that vulnerable youth and children across the world obtain quality education by ensuring that:

Schools are protected from attacks

Ensuring that there is a significant increase in humanitarian support towards education

Incorporating emergencies in the budgets before they happen

I would urge the secretary general to take immediate action regarding the 30 million kids residing in nations that are scarred by conflict and violence. This would include millions of children who have been struck by humanitarian crisis such as earthquakes, flood shortages, flooding and other disasters. I would support the UN secretary general's initiative of education which incorporates measures of ensuring the right to education to all kids including all kids living in crisis zones. I…… [Read More]

References

Duncan, W. Raymond. (2008). World Politics in the Twenty-first Century Brief. Houghton:

Yearbook of the United Nations - 2003. (2005). New York: Department of Public Information.
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Communication in Un Summit to Push for

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73285489

Communication

In "UN Summit to push for corporate green plans," Clark (2012) mentions a summit in io de Janeiro, in Brazil. In addition to the cultures represented by the host country, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and India are also mentioned in the article. Clark's (2012) article, which is published in The Financial Times, illustrates some of the challenges with cross-cultural communications and business.

In "UN Summit to Push for Corporate Green Plans," Clark (2012) refers directly to the "resistance" of countries including the United States, Canada, and India to some environmental strategies "because of fears that it will add to companies' regulatory burdens." The cultural values this represents include an economic model in which businesses operate with as little regulation on the part of government as possible. However, some businesses are on board with the environmental regulations. As Clark (2012) points out, "a group of businesses…… [Read More]

References

Clark, P. (2012). UN summit to push for corporate green plans. Financial Times. 18 June 2012.

Mander, J. (n.d.) Corporate colonialism. Retrieved online: http://theunjustmedia.com/Corporation/Articles%20on%20Corporation/Corporate%20Colonialism.htm
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What Was the UN's Response to the Tiananmen Square Massacre

Words: 2706 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70138198

Tiananmen Square

The Aftermath of Tiananmen Square

To this day, the country of China remains an enigma, isolated from the Western world and shrouded in mystery conceptualized by the Communist ed. Its culture both ancient and modern fascinates one on many levels mainly because it is so completely foreign. Aspects of their way of life, customs and lifestyle elements mirror the Communist doctrines and the absence of pure freedom seems sad to us. Still slowly China is opening its doors to the West. There is a changing tide, a force at work. It is the advent of globalization, mass communication and new technologies that changed the atmosphere of China. The world is forever shrinking due to the marketplace being at the speed of light and commerce taking place over new mediums. This makes possibly happen. People from every nation have yearned to participate in this explosion.

The Chinese have been…… [Read More]

References

1998. "China to Sign Rights Accord." Newsday. 13 March.

Chua-Eoan, Howard. 1989. "Despair and Death in a Beijing Square." Time.

12 June.

Fewsmith, Joseph. China Since Tiananmen Square: The Politics of Transition.
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The UN Is a Corrupt Orgnaization

Words: 1856 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73279270

United States in the United Nations

hen the United Nations was first formed, it was done with noble ideas and motives. Indeed, many of the actions and deeds executed or supported by the United Nations over the years have mostly been positive and productive. However, there has been a consistent and startling degradation. It has gotten to the point where the United Nations and its member states aside from the United States have gotten into the game of talking down to the United States for something of things it has done with the United Nations itself is implicitly or explicitly condoning some depraved actions and/or there are member states that are engaging in some questionable if not unconscionable behavior. hile the United Nations has and still serves a good purpose, there are some patterns and behaviors going on from the body itself and/or its member states that need to change…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayefsky, Anne. "You Can't Make It Up. UN Names Democratic Israel As World'S Top Human Rights Violator -- Fox News." Fox News. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.

Booker, Christopher. "Climate Change: This Is the Worst Scientific Scandal of Our Generation." Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.

Matthews, Christopher. "United Nations Diplomat Corruption Case Presents Challenges." WSJ. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.

OHCHR. "UN Human Rights Council Recommends Suspension Of Libya." Ohchr.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
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The World Bank and the UN Promote Programs to Lift People Out of Poverty

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72622864

Economics & Global Health

Economically deprived nations are places where poverty is widespread, and poverty almost always leads to some form of hunger; facts show that people who do not have enough nutrients become ill. This is the deadly cycle that many developing countries face. "Poverty is the principal cause of hunger," according to the UN's Education Service; and the principal underlying cause of " ... poverty and hunger" is poorly administered economic and political systems. Control over those systems is often based on "military, political, and economic power that typically ends up in the hands of a minority"; those in power often live quite well while those at the bottom of the ladder " ... barely survive" (worldhunger.org). This paper delves into the problem of poor economics, poverty, and global health issues.

Hunger: The United Nations / orld Bank Programs

The United Nations and the orld Bank have programs…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The World Bank. (2015). Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger by 2015. Retrieved

December 9, 2015, from http://www.worldbank.org.

World Hunger Education Service. (2015). 2015 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics. Retrieved December 9, 2015, from http://www.worldhunger.org.
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2009 Canada Welcomes UN Action

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44902345



Kruger, D. & Fournier, C. (2009). Canadian Dollar Drops o Lowest in Four Days as Crude Oil Declines. Bloomberg.com. Online at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601082&sid=ahfsbyRA1cRI

he global economy is in a determined state of recession. Poor policy in the United States and throughout the globalizing world community have reverberated through all entangled nations. he impact on currencies in North America in particular has been decidedly negative. As the Bloomberg article from June of 2009 indicates, "Canada's currency plunged to the lowest level in four days as commodities including crude oil, the nation's biggest export, dropped amid a surge in demand by investors for safer assets." (Kruger & Founier, 1) One can infer from the article that this decline parallels a drop of similar proportions throughout the year in American currency, reflected the ripple effect of continental trade agreements in the face of major U.S. recession.

Recent events including the declaration of Japanese finance…… [Read More]

The article published in May 2009 in the Hamilton Spectator takes a humorous perspective on in issue which invokes consideration of the rather serious matter of ecological sustainability. In the city of Waterloo, the city council debated the issue this spring in the interests of allowing for the voicing both of advocacy and opposition to the allowance for back-yard chicken coops. The main purpose of the article was to report the debate at the city council at the ultimate outcome which was to reject the request for legalization of this practice, which its supporters view as a great and forward-thinking food source.

The article does open up to broader key questions however, most particularly in terms of the gains and losses to a township in this sort of ban. Its opponents were mostly "residents worried chickens would be noisy, smelly and attract unwanted pests." (MacIntyre, A4) In spite of this view, the article denotes that other contexts such as Vancouver, New York, Seattle and Portland have all allowed for chicken coops, siding with those who perceive this to be an efficient, healthy and safe food source. This points to the key question as to whether objecting fears are justified or imagined and, likewise, as to whether proposed gains such as sustainability and affordability are achieved. Most importantly, the article indicates that there are contexts where this has been allowed.

This leads us to the inference that a more scientific investigation could be undertaken to determine the answers to the key questions cited above, especially those demonstrating fear of the practice. The article's point-of-view is fairly neutral, though flecked with puns about chickens and the matter of its subjects' courage on the subject. Perhaps here we actually could stretch to the inference that the article intends to question the council's ban in acquiescence to residential fears.
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Confucius Un-Confounding Confucianism Understanding Hierarchy

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21231208



A more complete reading of the Analects places these requirements for contentment and piety in a much different context that shows the true righteousness and even equanimity of the suggestions, however. When questioned about humanity, Confucius lists the qualities of "reverence, generosity, truthfulness, diligence, and kindness" as necessary in a "man of humanity" (Sourcebook, 19). While it might be easier for a wealthy and powerful man to not think of his salary and to continue perpetuating the system of authority in which he finds himself, it is no easier for the wealthy man to be truly reverent, honest, or diligent, and it is far harder for many wealthy individuals to be truly generous and kind in their dealings with others. To lead a truly good and well-purposed life, the wealthy and powerful must actually bear extra internal burdens to make sure that their wealth and power are wielded correctly.

Confucius…… [Read More]

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UK Constitution the Concept of

Words: 977 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57023930



Practical Limitations

From even the brief analysis of Dicey's doctrine examined above, it can be seen that the concept of parliamentary supremacy has never been practically implemented to its logical conclusion, and it is all but inconceivable that it ever would be. n addition to the sheer logical absurdity of a parliament answerable to absolutely no one, however, the modern era has provided many other concrete, explicit, and practical impediments to true parliamentary sovereignty. Some of these impediments have been domestic in nature, and thus could be considered untested if practically apparent; others, however, are international in nature and can be seen as constituting a conscious, willing, and explicit reduction of parliamentary supremacy.

Domestically speaking, there have been a series of judicial decisions that would seem to limit parliamentary supremacy, insisting that judicial review is necessary in the case o fcertain legal formations and applications (Allan, 2011). Others have noted…… [Read More]

It is in the international arena that the most significant and concrete limitations on parliament's supposed supremacy have been made, from many different angles and at varying degrees of concession or agreement by the United Kingdom and its parliament. The Human Rights Act passed by the European Union, for example, is a major piece of legislation that explicitly sets up courts and certain other bodies external to the United Kingdom that are explicitly granted sovereignty over certain issues (Anthony, 2002). There are other agreements with the European Union and other member nations, as well as decisions made within other European Union member nations that have been made applicable to other member nations and the European Union as a whole, that further limit the true sovereignty or supremacy of the United Kingdom's parliament both when it comes to the nation's external actions and in some of its domestic affairs (Weatherhill, 2007; Harker et al., 2011). All such agreements explicitly and directly negate the notion of parliamentary supremacy.

Conclusion

It is clear from even a basic analysis that the concept of parliamentary supremacy is not applicable in the modern era, and was ultimately incorrect when the doctrine was first advanced. While parliament holds supremacy in that it is the highest body within the government in the United Kingdom, in practice the parliament is limited by certain codified and un-codified laws and principles. Understanding this is essential t properly understanding UK constitutionality.
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UK Immigration and European Convention

Words: 8560 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4227806

In the event that the analysis of records of telephone, e-mail and internet use was considered to amount to an interference with respect for private life or correspondence, the Government contended that the interference was justified. First, it pursued the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others by ensuring that the facilities provided by a publicly funded employer were not abused. Secondly, the interference had a basis in domestic law in that the College, as a statutory body, whose powers enable it to provide further and higher education and to do anything necessary and expedient for those purposes, had the power to take reasonable control of its facilities to ensure that it was able to carry out its statutory functions. It was reasonably foreseeable that the facilities provided by a statutory body out of public funds could not be used excessively for personal purposes and that the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ECHR Case Law - Copland vs. United Kingdom European Court of Human Rights - Council of Europe Copland vs. United Kingdom 3 April 2007 Violation of Art. 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Legile Inernetului (2009) Online available at http://www.legi-internet.ro/english/jurisprudenta-it-romania/decizii-cedo/copland-vs.-united-kingdom-echr-case-law.html

Vermeulen, Mathias (2009) UN Special Rapporteur Releases Report on the Role of Intelligence Agencies in the Fight Against Terrorism. 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://legalift.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/un-special-rapporteur-releases-report-on-the-role-of-intelligence-agencies-in-the-fight-against-terrorism/

Recent Case Law on Asylum and Immigration (2008) Migration Watch.

UK ASYLUM LAW and PROCESS in the human rights law [3.1.6] section of the guide: 3.1.6|1 the IMPACT of HUMAN RIGHTS LAW; and 3.1.6|2 USEFUL RESOURCES (ICAR) 2008. Online available at http://www.icar.org.uk/7013/31-law-and-process/316-human-rights-law.html
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UK Labour Market the Labour Market Is

Words: 1787 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28867435

UK Labour Market

The labour market is defined by the Office for National Statistics (2011) as those between the ages of 16 and 64 inclusive. They are typically categorized as either employed, unemployed or inactive. Income inequality refers to the spread of income throughout the labour market. The most common measure of income inequality is the Gini coefficient. The indicator reflects the distribution of income among economic classes and is expressed as a percentage, the higher the number the greater the degree of income inequality. The Gini coefficient for the United Kingdom has increased from 28 to its current level of 34. The level of inequality is a long-term increasing trend in Britain (JRF, 2007). The behavior of the Gini coefficient tends to be that the coefficient increases during times of economic growth as the incomes of the wealthiest increase at a faster rate than other incomes during these periods…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Joyce, R.; Muriel, A.; Phillips, D. & Sibieta, L. (2010). Poverty and inequality in the UK: 2010. Institute for Fiscal Studies. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from JRF. (2007). New poverty and wealth maps of Britain reveal inequality to be at 40-year high. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://www.jrf.org.uk/media-centre/new-poverty-and-wealth-maps-britain-reveal-inequality-be-40-year-high

Office for National Statistics. (2011). Labour market statistics. ONS. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/lmsuk0311.pdf

ONS. (2010). Income inequality. ONS. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=332
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United Airlines

Words: 2792 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88327489

United Airline Multinational Ventures

United Airlines

United Airline

United Airlines is an air transport company that operates in a number of countries around the globe undertaking passenger and goods transport services. The corporation's headquarters are in New York City with branches set up in major trade cities to provide ease in management and contact with clients. In the past five years the corporation has increased its fleet of aircrafts by twenty percent owing to the rising demand in air transport around the globe. The corporation practices decentralized management with policy guidelines to ensure uniformity and brand identification in its operations.

The corporations' initial flight route comprised of local weekly flights in the U.S. To major destinations around the state. As the demand for air travel increased the company increased its flight routes and frequency depending on demand. Opportunities for a global operation came around when major airline companies continued to…… [Read More]

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UK Healthcare

Words: 9250 Length: 36 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11726267

UK Healthcare

Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.

With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…… [Read More]

References

Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,

Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins

BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical

Directorates London: BMA.
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Nation States Descriptions Are States Still Relevant

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78724161

Nation States

Descriptions

Are states still relevant?

ealist, cooperative, liberal and critical theories of international relations

The realist theory of international politics views states as 'black box' actors. The possibly competing interests of citizens and bureaucrats within the state are ignored. ealism holds that "at its most fundamental level, the national interest is generic and easy to define: all states seek to preserve their political autonomy and their territorial integrity. Once these two interests have been secured, however, national interests may take different forms. Some states may have an interest in securing more resources or land; other states may wish to expand their own political or economic systems into other areas; some states may merely wish to be left alone" (Ferraro 2011). Another synonym for realism is 'rationalism.' States are assumed to be able to rationally pursue their own interests in the international community.

Of course, realists understand that the…… [Read More]

References

Ferraro, Vincent. (2011). Political realism. Mt. Holyoke College.

Retrieved December 13, 2011 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/realism.htm

Morgenthau, Hans J. (1978). Politics among nations: The struggle for power and peace,

5th Ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978, pp. 4-15. Retrieved December 13, 2011 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/morg6.htm
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United States Engaged in a

Words: 3295 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89899979

urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…… [Read More]

Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.

Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.

Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
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United States Healthcare Programs to Citizens Compare

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48925524

United States healthcare programs to citizens compare with the healthcare provided to residents in other countries? That question will be the focus of this paper, along with the background to the decision of major health insurance companies to support the candidacy of Republican Mitt Romney.

here does the U.S. stand in the world when it comes to healthcare?

According to a statement by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, John Boehner, the U.S. has "…the best health care delivery system in the world" (Politiface.com). Boehner, who was a guest on the CBS Sunday program "Face the Nation," was commenting on the candidacy of Mitt Romney. On the July 1, 2012 program, Boehner said he supports Romney for president because Romney "…understands that Obamacare will bankrupt our country and will ruin…" that healthcare system that the speaker believes is best in the world (politifact.com).

Meanwhile on Fox News Sunday (also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Balanced Politics. (2009). Should the Government Provide Free Universal Health Care for All

Americans? Retrieved November 17, 2012, from  http://balancedpolitics.org .

Business Insider. (2012). Health Insurance Companies Are Worried About A Romney

Victory. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from  http://www.businessinsider.com .
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United States of America Has a Long

Words: 1938 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 973824

United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).

Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).

On the other hand, Conservatism deems…… [Read More]

References

Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.

Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.

Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. USA: Ron Lipsman.

Watts, D. (2006). Understanding American Government and Politics: Second Edition. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.
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United States Seems Concerned About

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36005611

In fact, the UN's official policy attempts to limit the types of conditions that can be placed on debt forgiveness for third-world and developing nations. Despite this fact, it would be simplistic to state that G8 should not have the ability to make financial decisions independent of the UN and other international influence. As the countries that have provided the majority of financing for the world's poorest countries, it may be that the continued financial health of those countries depends upon them getting a financial benefit from such financial assistance. Therefore, the current world economy may actually depend on the ability of G8 to operate independently from the broader international community.

Q3: How does the Fisher effect impact the ability to forecast currency exchange rates? If the real interest rate is constant across borders, one would expect a constant currency exchange rate, but this does not occur. On the contrary,…… [Read More]

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United States' Task of Setting Policy With

Words: 2510 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38461137

United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html

Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm

Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm

Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
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United States Should Use Its

Words: 2975 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87619689

("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1970s-1980s").

President Regan's successor, President George H.. Bush, continued to adhere to the Mexico City Policy. In 1993, it was rescinded by President Clinton. President George . Bush reinstated the policy in 2001 by establishing conditions in the grants awarded to USAID. In addition, President George . Bush extended the policy to apply to any "voluntary population planning" assistance provided by the Department of State. (Obama).

Progress in family planning policy was made in other areas. The federal government recognized that special attention in providing family planning counseling should be paid to countries where overpopulation threatened biodiversity or endangered species. ("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1990s-2009").

In addition, the federal government, especially USAID, worked to use family planning policy to promote the awareness of HIV disease and to promote health practices that would restrict the spread of such diseases. In 2003, USAID established new guidelines…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clinton Hillary. Foreign Policy Address at the Council on Foreign Relations, May 5, 2009. U.S. Department of State. Web. May 24, 2010.

Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).

Jones K.A. "New Complexities and Approaches to Global Health Diplomacy: View from the U.S. Department of State." PLoS Med 7(5). Web. May 24, 2010

Obama, Barack. "Memorandum to the Secretary of State: Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning," January 23, 2009. Web. May 24, 2010.
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United States Postal Service Summary

Words: 2820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53172371

The continuing economic recession that began in 2008 in the United States greatly exacerbated that revenue problem as people reduced their unnecessary use of postal services and increased their use of private-sector competitors such as United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (FedEx). To date, the USPS has been slow to respond to competition, particularly in relation to the adoption of the bar coding system that has long been in use by UPS and FedEx and that is considered to have been instrumental in their increase of the market share (Brewster & Dalzell, 2007).

The USPS already has formal plans to adopt such mechanisms by the year 2013, but those plans preceded the economic crisis of 2008 and the precipitous nature of funding issues affecting its operations in the current political climate. In that regard, the USPS is also saddled with significant pension obligations that have inspired considerable attention in…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2011). Personal Interview Conducted by the Researcher on November 2,

2001 with a current USPS employee working as a Letter Carrier since 2000. The

Interview was conducted on the strict condition of absolute anonymity.

Brewster, M. And Dalzell, F. (2007). Driving Change: The UPS Approach to Business.
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US Intelligence Community

Words: 3284 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67757178

U.S. intelligence community is always expected to perform its duties according to some specified guidelines. This study examines the three themes found in the Pfeffer and Salancik book, "The External Control of Organizations," as applied to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC). The paper reveals how the themes are applicable to the IC and their potential benefits to the IC. It is evident that the identified have proven to be useful to the community, as it has enabled it to adapt to the changing paradigms within the intelligence community.

The themes

First theme: the importance of the environment or the social context of organizations for understanding what decisions were made about issues ranging from whom to hire, the composition of boards of directors, and what alliances and mergers to seek.

From this theme, the leading obstacle in the realization of accountability in the U.S. intelligence community is the prerequisite of secrecy…… [Read More]

References

Banner, D.K., & Gagne?, T.E. (2006). Designing effective organizations: Traditional & transformational views. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Publ.

Dobbin, F., & Schoonhoven, C.B. (2010). Organizational studies: The Stanford School 1970-2000. Bingley: Emerald.

Donaldson, L. (2010). American anti-management theories of organization: A critique of paradigm proliferation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Hatch, M.J. (2011). Organizations: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
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United States Has the Highest Rate of

Words: 13726 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23718315

United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.

The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.

Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University

Press.

Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.