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" (Gilmore, 2008) in fact, it was communists "who promoted and practiced racial equality and considered the South crucial to their success in elevating labor and overthrowing the capitalist system. They were joined in the late 1930s by a radical left to form a southern Popular Front that sought to overturn Jim Crow, elevate the working class, and promote civil rights and civil liberties." (Gilmore, 2008) This is unknown even to many today who would be shocked to learn that it was a form of socialism that urged the civil right movement and in fact made the provision of a great deal of support to these issues. There were many issues beneath the smooth surface of the society in the 1950s. One of these factors was the emerging nuclear weapons and the coming Cold War which changed the face of international relations and politics.
III. STRUGGLE and ISSUES in the…
Arsenault, Raymond (2008) Defyng Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950, by Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore. 13 Jan 2008.
Tolliver, Renee, C. (1999) the Good Old Days: a 1950s Issues Portfolio. Oliver High School. Online available at http://www.chatham.edu/PTI/PDF/Tolliver99.pdf
This Fabulous Century 1950-1960 (1979) Time Life Inc., New York, NY.
The Culture of the United States (nd) U.S. Department of State. Online available at http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-117.htm
United States History 1492-1865
Q.1) Why was it necessary to change the Articles of Confederation?
Drawbacks of the Articles of Confederation
Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress was given charge of many affairs such as making decisions about war and peace, regulating the postage system and the currency, settling disagreements between various states, conducting foreign affairs, and managing the western lands. Nevertheless, in spite of this authority, the Articles of Confederation did not give Congress the power whereby it could actually put its resolutions into effect.
The basic reason that necessitated changing the Articles of Confederation was their impracticability to offer executable authority to the Congress. Additionally, there were certain other weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation from 1781 to 1789. The Congress found that it was impossible to pass any laws since there was neither an executive, nor a national judiciary. The Congress did not possess any power…
Decision at Philadelphia, Collier and Collier,
Feldmeth, Greg D.U.S. History Resources. March 31, 1998. http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html
Foner, Eric and Garraty, John A. (1991) The Reader's Companion to American History. Robert Middlekauff
United States History Up to 1877
The work of literature examined within this analytical book review is entitled Entertaining Satan: itchcraft and the Culture of Early New England. It is written by John Demos who is a professor of history at Brandeis University. Demos is largely regarded as "one of the pioneers in this field" (Rakove, 1992) and that which is based on the 17th century witchcraft phenomenon. Demos' purpose in this book is relatively simple: he is looking to examine the pervasive culture of witchcraft that was prevalent in New England during the aforementioned epoch, and link that culture to the instances of witchcraft that were detected and prosecuted. hat is truly remarkable about this purpose is that the author chooses to pursue it via an interdisciplinary approach, one which was considered "new and fashionable" (Doerner, 2013) at the time of the writing in the latter part of the…
Demos, John P. Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and Culture in Early New England. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1982. Print.
Doerner, Paige. "Book Review: Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England." Imponderabilia. 2013. Web. http://paigedoerner.wordpress.com/2013/04/18/book-review-entertaining-satan-witchcraft-and-the-culture-of-early-new-england/
Rakove, Jack. "Witching Time." The New York Times. 1982. Web. http://www.nytimes.com /1982/09/19/books/witching-time.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
he first important event that encouraged freedom was the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which recognized that women are human beings. Before the Nineteenth Amendment was passed, women were not considered citizens with full rights and privileges. Most importantly, women were unable to vote. A society cannot be free if fifty percent of its population is systematically oppressed.
he second important event that encouraged freedom in the United States since 1865 was the Emancipation Proclamation. he reason why the Emancipation Proclamation is not the most important thing that encouraged freedom is the fact that Reconstruction failed. After all the bloodshed of the Civil War, the American government failed to ensure that African-Americans would receive full reparations and the means by which to become instantly integrated into society. Moreover, there were no punishments for the slave owners who had committed brutal crimes. he slave owners…
The second important event that inhibits freedom in the United States since 1865 has been the "war on terrorism" and the infringements on personal liberty and freedom of movement. While protecting national security is important, the government has gone to far. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has become ridiculously heavy-handed to the point where many Americans believe the "terrorists have won" by making daily life more difficult.
The third important event that has limited freedom in the United States has been the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War led to the creation of Agent Orange, which propelled the Monsanto Company into the arms of the government. Monstanto was then able to create chemical-laden food products and food production methods that have caused Americans to lose food security.
In sum, freedom in America has been seriously curtailed due to some major events that have taken place since 1865. However, Americans still do have the power to change. When freedoms are restricted due to negative events, it is important to take action. Even if it takes several generations, change can take place.
United States History
On April 19, 1775, a detachment of the British regular Army marched inland from Boston, Massachusetts, in search of a cache of arms and with orders to arrest certain prominent local leaders. At Lexington, they confronted and fired upon a small group of local militia, who had gathered on the town common, or "green." Further along their line of march, they confronted a much larger group of militia at a bridge in Concord, and were turned back. Retreating to Boston, the British soldiers were subjected to continual sniper attacks. he Battle of Lexington and Concord, coming after a dozen years of escalating political conflict between the colonies and the British Parliament, marked the beginning of the American Revolution.
On May 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress, with representatives from thirteen of the British colonies along the Atlantic Coast of North America, began meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. he…
The diversity of the new nation was also a formidable obstacle to unity. The people who were empowered by the Constitution in the 18th century to elect and control their central government represented different origins, beliefs, and interests. Most had come from Britain, but Sweden, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Prussia, Poland, and many other countries also sent immigrants to the New World. Their religious beliefs were varied and, in most cases, strongly held. There were Anglicans, Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Huguenots, Lutherans, Quakers, Jews, and many more. Economically and socially, Americans ranged from the land-owning aristocracy to slaves from Africa and indentured servants working off debts.
Of all the issues confronting the Constitutional Convention, none was more contentious than the issue of slavery. There had already started to develop a divergence between North and South, based on economic realities. Southern landowners were unwilling to relinquish their prerogatives over the slaves and a compromise was finally reached which prevented Congress from banning the import of slaves before 1808. In that year, Congress acted to ban further imports, and any new slaves would have to be descendants of ones that were currently in the U.S.
Two other issues that confronted the early Americans were the fiscal policies, proposed by Alexander Hamilton, and the location of the new capital of the U.S. Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treasury, was frustrated in his attempts to gain acceptance from southern leaders for one the key provisions of his fiscal proposal, assumption of state debts by the federal government, which would doom all his efforts for fiscal reform. A compromise was reached with James Madison during a dinner that took place on the evening of June 20, 1790, in which "Jefferson
During the American Civil ar, alt hitman wrote insightful pieces that captured the war from an angle that reflected an understanding of the daily effects of the reality of the war on everyone involved.
hitman himself was effected by the war from almost the beginning when, after riding with a trainload of wounded men on the way to ashington, he decided to take a job at the Army Paymaster's Office. He stayed there for three years, where he kept the company of wounded soldiers, befriending those victims of the war.
hitman understood a sense of despair in the country before the war, which is expressed in his poetry. He thought the cause of the war was one that came from within the country and his poetry focused on the individual impact the war had on people as opposed to writing about the larger issues such a s emancipation,…
Basler, ed. Walt Whitman's Memoranda During the War and Death of Lincoln. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1962.
Davidson, Geinapp, Heyman, Lytle, and Stoff. Nations of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing. 1990.
Harkness, David and McMurty, Gerald. Lincoln's Favorite Poets. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee. 1959.
House of Representatives passed Health Care reform. What is the next step in the legislative process before it goes to the President to be signed? Do you think it will be signed by the President in its present form or will it die before it gets to him, and why?
A bill is first introduced into the House by one of its members, who becomes the bill's sponsor. Fellow house members may join him/her as bill advocates or cosponsors. The presence of several cosponsors or congressional heads signing onto the bill may elevate prospects of the bill successfully being passed into law. However, the bill needs to first progress across every official procedural obstacle within both Houses prior to reaching the president and being enacted as a law. Following its introduction, the presiding official of each chamber refers the bill to the established committee with jurisdiction over the theme (e.g.,…
he Progressive Movement in the early twentieth century had a somewhat similar though less socialist-leaning agenda; regulation of business and the environment were major policies of Progressives. heodore Roosevelt was the leading figure of the movement, along with Democrat William Jennings Bryant.
In 1896, Bryant ran for President against McKinley in one of the most intense elections in United States history. Multiple parties and factions backed each candidate, and McKinley's coalitions of businessmen, large-scale farmers, and skilled workers beat Bryant and his more populist movement. his had a dramatic effect on the country, taking the government in one direction and leaving a sizeable majority of the public feeling unrepresented by their government. his public pull and the tension it created with the federal government continued to shape policy through World War I and into the Great Depression, when many of the Populist and Progressive reforms were finally introduced by Franklin…
The years between the Civil War and the New Deal were marked with major changes in policy, government structure, and the world at large. Though race policy was largely regressive following the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, other reform movements pushing for institutional change gained steam during this period. The struggle for women's suffrage and other rights was truly galvanized in 1848, but was put on hold during the Civil War and completely ignored by the Constitutional amendments following the war. By 1920, women's suffrage was finally established nationally.
The other major reform movements of this period were the Populist and Progressive movements. The Populists grew out of various labor and farm movements. Labor unions began to be discussed and formed during this period, though they would not gain a strong foothold until around the 1920s, following the same timeline as women's suffrage. Some elements of the Populist ideal were government or collective ownership of railroads and communication systems and an income tax somewhat similar to what we have today. The Progressive Movement in the early twentieth century had a somewhat similar though less socialist-leaning agenda; regulation of business and the environment were major policies of Progressives. Theodore Roosevelt was the leading figure of the movement, along with Democrat William Jennings Bryant.
In 1896, Bryant ran for President against McKinley in one of the most intense elections in United States history. Multiple parties and factions backed each candidate, and McKinley's coalitions of businessmen, large-scale farmers, and skilled workers beat Bryant and his more populist movement. This had a dramatic effect on the country, taking the government in one direction and leaving a sizeable majority of the public feeling unrepresented by their government. This public pull and the tension it created with the federal government continued to shape policy through World War I and into the Great Depression, when many of the Populist and Progressive reforms were finally introduced by Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs.
Conservative American Presidents
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the return to conservatism in the American presidency after the 1980s. It will compare the similarities to earlier periods in the 19th and 20th century, and discuss what relationship there is between this return to conservatism, and the continued struggle for U.S. military dominance and economic globalization.
THE RETURN TO CONSERVATISM IN AMERICAN POLITICS
The country emerged from orld ar II as the dominant world force and with a booming national economy.
It was able to construct a series of political, economic, and military alliances that tied most of the former great powers together against its only rival, the Soviet Union. This unique postwar situation could not last forever, and in the 1960s and 1970s the "American Century" began to unravel (Florig 153).
It was this unraveling that Americans were worried about, and so they turned to…
Anderson, Dennis M. "Ronald Reagan." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 563-578.
Dansker, Emil. "William Howard Taft." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 211-234.
Editors. "Warren G. Harding." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/WH/WH_In_Brief.htm
Editors. "Ronald Reagan: Impact and Legacy." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/RR/RR_Impact_and_Legacy.htm
United States Congress:
The legislature of the United States was established in 1789 under the country's constitution and divided structurally from the judicial and executive arms of the government. This legislative arm in separated into two houses which are the Senate and the House of Representatives. hile the Senate requires that each state is represented by two senators regardless of its size, the House of Representatives consist of members who are elected on the basis of population. The Congress was created by the pioneers of the American Constitution on the basis that a huge portion of the powers of the government needs to be on the legislative branch. hereas the two Congressional chambers are separate and distinct, they tend to have an equal role in the enactment of legislation in most cases. Representation, lawmaking, oversight, service to constituents, conflict resolution and public education are the six basic functions of the…
"Chapter 11: The Congress." Faculty and Staff, Georgia Perimeter College. Georgia Perimeter College. Web. 24 May 2011. .
"Congress of the United States." History.com - History Made Every Day. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Web. 24 May 2011. .
Reception, Perception and Deception: The Genesis of Slavery
Progress has a way of making itself known to the world, even in a situation where there exists resistance. Considering Olaudah Equiano's "The Interesting Narrative, the issue of slavery throughout the colonial world was as much about assimilation as it was oppression. The conflict between cultures is shown in the nature of the cultural assumptions each makes concerning the other. The British are caught in a tunnel vision that doesn't allow for any considerations outside the belief that their way of life is superior and assume that the tribal culture will logically want to adapt to fit into the more modern way of life. They cannot accept the natives as equals, even as they verbalize their intention as one of attempting to create a hybrid culture. The Ibo, for their part, assume that the British will recognize and honor the way of…
Equiano, Olaudah. "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano." In The Classic Slave Narratives, ed. Henry Louis Gates. New York, NY: 1987.
Freehling, William W. "Founding Fathers and Slavery." American Historical Review, (1972): at http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/uhs/APUSH/1st%20Sem/Articles%20Semester%201/Artiles%20Semester%201/Freehling.htm
Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press, 2001.
On December 7, 1941, Japan launched an assault on the U.S. Naval Headquarters for the Pacific Fleet, located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This assault led directly to the open war between the U.S. And Japan, which several years later would culminate in the U.S. invaded Japan in the Okinawa archipelago and dropping two atomic bombs on Japan. The events that led to the U.S. invasion of Japan are therefore discussed on the macro, meso and micro levels.
If the U.S. invasion of Japan was spurred by Pearl Harbor, then one has to look at the causes of that attack to understand how the U.S. invasion came about. Japan was one of the world's great imperial powers during the decades prior to World War Two. After the rise of Emperor Hirohito in the 1920s, Japan embarked on a mission, believing that it could and should control "Asia,…
History. (2014). Imperial Japan. History.com. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-ww2/imperial-japan
History Learning (2014). Operation Downfall. History Learning Site. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_downfall.htm
Rosenberg, J. (2014). Pearl Harbor. About.com. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/Attack-Pearl-Harbor.htm
Tsukiyama, T. (2006). Battle of Okinawa. The Hawai'i Nisei Story. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://nisei.hawaii.edu/object/io_1149316185200.html
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…
"5b. Indentured servants." The Southern Colonies. U.S. History. 2012. [1 Feb 2013]
Pearson, Ellen Holmes. "The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction." Teaching History.
[1 Feb 2013.]
U.S. History 1877-Present
America has changed so vastly since the U.S. Civil War that it is hard to single out three events that have had the most beneficial impact from the later nineteenth century to the present day. However, in terms of selecting events that have had the greatest impact on the daily lives of Americans in this time period even to the present day it is possible to nominate some specific events. he ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920, the introduction of the New Deal under President Franklin Roosevelt, the passage of the Civil Rights Act during the Presidency of Lyndon Johnson are all events which continue to have a positive impact felt by all Americans.
he Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is what permits women to vote. he fact that it was only passed in 1920 is something of a scandal --…
The use of Communism as a fake menace was a staple of American political rhetoric well before Senator McCarthy's day -- the Haymarket Riot was an attempt to place blame on progressive political organizers, and the raids conducted after World War One by attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer were perhaps even more illegal than anything McCarthyism accomplished. However, the real function of McCarthyism was to conduct a witch hunt in American public life, and ruin the careers of people -- also effectively stigmatizing progressive politics for a long stretch afterwards. The most troubling aspect of McCarthyism, however, was that it was brought down by nobody except McCarthy himself. If McCarthy had not overreached by going after the U.S. Army -- which proved to be a crucial miscalculation -- he might have continued his red-baiting until he had effectively forced America into becoming a right-wing one-party totalitarian state, the inverted mirror image of his imaginary enemies.
Finally the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on Bush v. Gore in 2000 was a scandal in any number of ways, but chief among them was the Constitutional crisis that this decision represented. Because the justices split purely along party lines, the decision essentially politicized the Supreme Court, which was not to the benefit of the legal system. But moreover, there was no valid reason to delay the recount in Florida -- which ultimately found Al Gore had won the popular vote there too -- and merely underscored the bizarre elitist character of the Electoral College as being an element of the U.S. Constitution like the three-fifths compromise, a relic of a bygone era. As a result, America ended up with a president who had been installed by a bunch of judges appointed by his dad and his dad's boss -- the fact that his presidency was so disastrous should not be a surprise.
In conclusion, these three events all damaged the public life of the United States in various ways. The Spanish-American War turned warfare into a profiteering activity that could be conducted by coercing the public with propaganda campaigns. McCarthyism demonized political opinion in what should ideally be a tolerant and pluralist society. And the elevation of George W. Bush to the presidency ultimately damaged America's status in the eyes of the world, and its legal system, and ultimately its economy, even if it did give us the most charming amateur painter on the world stage since Adolf Hitler. The fact that Bush essentially revived the worst excesses of the Spanish-American War with his Iraq invasion, and of McCarthyism with his PATRIOT Act, demonstrate how all of these tendencies in American life are still with us.
Assassination of JFK
Why is your chosen turning point actually a turning point and not just another event?
One of the most commonly analyzed and a questionable event in the history of the U.S., the assassination of JFK was a real turning point. The complex analysis on this topic is somehow frustrating. While "JFK-nuts" may be captured in some seriously arcane information of proof, some readily available information can entirely discredit the official government version of what occurred. The assassination of JFK can be seen as a coup-d'etat and a caution to all individuals and government figures who may try to question the status quo. Strong forces within government were able to take off such a criminal action and successfully pass off such a cheap cover story. The condition of the country's democracy can be deciphered from this scenario (Zelizer, 2012).
Even more considerably, the complicity of the United States…
Zelizer, B. (2012). Covering the body: The Kennedy assassination, the media, and the shaping of collective memory. Chicago u.a: Univ. Of Chicago Press.
The Supreme Court is the most powerful body of men in the United States, contrary to what many people believe.
The powers of the three branches of government are enumerated in the three charters of freedom: The Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of ights. Together, these documents enumerate the rights and freedoms of the citizens of the United States, inherent by virtue of their citizenship; and they enumerate and limit the powers of the three branches of government in such a way as to create a system of checks and balances that cause the actions to be scrutinized by the other branches, and, if the office of the President, or the president, does not agree with legislation crated by the House of epresentatives, sent to the United States Senate for approval, the president can veto the bill containing the legislation. Likewise, the president's veto…
U.S. Federal Government, located online, found at http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/federal.shtml , retrieved 1 February 2008.
Since the days of the Old West, domestic terrorism has dug its roots into the United States. From Timothy McVeigh, whose motivations for the Oklahoma City bombing ranged from his complaints over the governments' dealing with certain political situations to his anger over the violence he witnessed during his stint in the military, to eco-terrorists and animal-rights activists who use violence in order to win others to their cause, the scope of terrorism is the United States is both large and diverse. While FBI agents search large cities for Al Qaeda terrorists in the United States, small town police arrest protestors who threaten to set fire to abortion clinics and make threats to far left and right wing organizations. Because a great deal of domestic terrorism centers around political ideas and activism, targeting domestic terrorism has become a rather controversial subject. Some argue that the demonstrations that often…
Baggett, Jay. (2007). Law Would Make Minutemen Guilty of 'Domestic Terrorism.'
Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=53857 .
Bergen, Peter and Swati Pandey. (2005). The Madrassa Myth. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.nytimes.com /2005/06/14/opinion/14bergen.html.
Cooke, Jeremy. (2001). School trains suicide bombers. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1446003.stm .
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism is the extended terminology that refers to the U.S.A. Patriot Act which, following the events of 9/11 was passed by the Senate immediately and almost unanimously. When the Pentagon and the World Trade Center were attacked in 2001, concerns over national security and America's susceptibility to terrorist threats emerged more so as the country remained baffled at what had just happened. Governmental figures needed to address people's concerns and overall, the issue of law enforcement being able to prevent such attacks from ever happening again. With Assistant Attorney General Viet Dinh having authored the act shortly after the events and upon reviewing existing practices and methodologies, Jim Sensenbrenner, member of the epublican Party, presented it to Congress. It should be noted that, generally, the Patriot Act is embedded in America's history of electronic surveillance that emerged…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Reclaiming patriotism: A call to reconsider the Patriot Act. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/safefree/patriot_report_20090310.pdf
Democratic Policy Committee. (2011). H.R. 514, Patriot Act extension. Legislative Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.dpc.senate.gov/docs/lb-112-1-14.pdf
Henderson, N.C. (2002). The Patriot's Act impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, 52, 179-209. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1168&context=dlj
Roundy, M.D. (2006). The Wiretap Act -- Reconcilable differences: A framework for determining the "interception" of electronic communications following United States v. Councilman's rejection of the storage/transit dichotomy. Western New England Law Review, 28, 403-438. Retrieved from http://assets.wne.edu/164/19_note_Wiretap_.pdf
History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the U.S.
Imagine this: you are at home watching television one evening after work. As you casually flip through the channels searching for something interesting to watch, you notice a multitude of advertisements for prescription drug products. This form of advertisement is known as direct-to-consumer advertising, and is now well-known to practically all American households. One needs only to watch virtually any commercial television program or to browse through any consumer-directed magazine to view advertisements for a variety of prescription drugs. In regard to broadcast media, this is a relatively new phenomenon because, for many years, pharmaceutical manufacturers had to follow certain requirements. These requirements consisted of the inclusion of a substantial amount of material about the drug product's side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness.
Recent changes in 1999 under the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) altered the…
Jackson, Charles O. (1970). "Food and Drug Legislation in the New Deal." Princeton University
Palumbo, Francis B. "The Development of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising
Regulation." Food and Drug Law Journal 57.3 (2002). 423-443.
Furthermore, those people who did not speak Greek were referred to as barbar, the root of our word barbarian."[footnoteRef:5] [4: Ibid] [5: Ibid]
There are many aspects of Greek culture and artistic traditions that have left their mark on civilization. These contributions included, their architecture, theatre and athletic competition.
Each one of these aspects requires a student of history to investigate and understand how these ideas have impacted human development.
Greek architecture stands out as a visual representation of how the Greeks preferred their living conditions. Greeks spent much time on the design of their buildings. Temples, a Greek staple, were adorned with many flourishes and exact proportions. Giant stone structures were placed in locations important to the region and as a source of pride. esides temples, theaters and gyms were developed to provide a unique sense of community.
Ancient Greek theater is a lasting contribution of this…
"Ancient Greek Philosophy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi / (accessed April 21, 2013).
"Culture and Society." Ancient Greece. http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Culture / (accessed April 19, 2013).
Polopolus, Leonidas. "Athens, Greece: A City State That Grew From OPtimality in the Golden Era to Excessive Urbanization." University of Florida. http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/kapparis/aoc/athens.htm (accessed April 19, 2013).
Sage, Michael. Warfare in Ancient Greece. London, New York: Routledge, 1996. (accessed April 19, 2013).
United States Foreign Policy
United States has enjoyed an important position in the international political scene, since its rise to power. The U.S. government has actively participated in international political issues, primarily for the sake of country's own interest. After the Second World War, United States emerged as one of the largest economies of the world and soon acquired the position of the "only super power." The history of the United States is evident that these were the foreign policies adopted by the country's administration that led the nation to advancement, greater power and wealth in a way that no other power has ever achieved.
While discussing the policy issues, policy makers argue that it is the national interest that guides them to define foreign policies of the country. Throughout history the national interest of the country has been influenced by the events and political issues of other nations. United…
Donald E. Abelson: American Think Tanks and Their Role in U.S. Foreign Policy: Palgrave Macmillan: 1996
David Ryan: U.S. Foreign Policy in World History: Rutledge: 2000
John Dumbrell & David M. Barrett: The Making of U.S. Foreign Policy: Manchester University Press: 1998.
The rule of the case involves the Commerce Department's power to impose antidumping duties under 19 U.S.C § 1673.
The Supreme Court review of the issues presented in the instant case was a case of first impression but it has far reaching affects across a variety of industries. The question addressed by the Court was when does an import transaction involve a sale of merchandise and not merely a sale of service? The Court in its decision closed a loophole that had been created by the lower courts which had limited the application of the antidumping law based on the intent of the parties to the import transactions. The importance of the Court's decision in this case is whether U.S. industries can compete with foreign goods produced through arrangements in which a customer provides the raw materials. The various utility companies involved had argued that the transactions involved…
However, this Court also recognizes that mental illness oftentimes differs from other immutable characteristics, such as mental retardation and age, in that a defendant oftentimes has the ability to control mental illness through medical interventions. hile there is tremendous evidence of Panetti's deteriorated mental state, there is very little evidence to support Panetti's assertions that he was insane at the time of the murders. Though there are serious questions regarding Panetti's competency to stand trial, much less his competency to represent himself in that trial, there simply does not appear to be any evidence that he was insane at the time of the murders. Panetti engaged in preparations that were rationally aimed at accomplishing the murder of his in-laws, but was able to refrain from killing his wife and child. In addition, he engaged in a stand-off with police that resulted in him escaping the stand-off without being killed and…
Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 322 (1976).
Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 299 (1976).
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399, 409-10 (1986).
Discriminatory practices were encouraged, such as the Jim Crow laws that supported segregation. However, the push for segregation led to increased inequities borne by the Negroes. Many southern states encouraged segregation, as well. The original Civil ights Act of 1957 had a limited scope, which impinged upon the rights of others.
Pros & Cons
During this time, many discriminatory cases were in the spotlight, and this was no exception. The case heightened awareness, as well as the flaws of the law. Civil ights bills were evolving, as this case ruling was a milestone in history. Conversely, many Negroes lost their lives to the cause, thus paving the way for a more equitable justice system.
Although not as prevalent today, prejudice and discrimination is still experienced by many. Civil rights are no longer reserved for race, but it has extended to other protected classes, such as gender, religion,…
A&E Television Networks (2011). History of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/alabama
Dysart Schools. (n.d.). Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/#q=prejudice+theories&hl=en&prmd=imvns&ei=8SrQTp2tIZP_sQLpxt3IDg&start=0&sa=N&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=5f6e1c9d40277296&biw=1078&bih=570
Findlaw. (2011). Supreme Court: United States v. Alabama, 362 U.S. 602 (1960)
362 U.S. 602. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=362&invol=602
History Of America
The governance systems in the American history
has a rich history that has seen three different types of governance systems rule the country with the American colonists under the British colonial governance system, revolutionaries under the confederation governance system and the citizens of new epublic under the constitution governance systems. Each of these had distinct characteristics and the positives and the negatives as will be discussed below.
The British colonial governance system was established through political and commercial interests as well as emigration movements into America. The British command of the seas saw the establishment of the control of America as an agricultural land and the government was controlled from Britain with the King and the parliament in Britain making the important decisions and passing them down to the governor who represented the King in America. It was a relationship that was quite exploitative since the minerals…
E&A Television Networks, (2015). Confederate States of America. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/confederate-states-of-america
The Library of Congress, (2015). Primary Documents in American History: United States Constitution. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Constitution.html
U.S Department of State, (2015). Milestones: 1776-1783. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from https://history.state.gov/milestones/1776-1783/declaration
American Enduring Vision
American History 1820-1840 Enduring Vision
How did the changes experienced by Americans after 1820 incorporate elements of the 'Enduring Vision' to preserve a common national identity?
During this early period of American identity formation between 1820-1830, one of the most profound developments was the removal of Indian peoples from their native territories. Increasingly, the common American, the common American White man sought political enfranchisement and territory to farm on his own. These two desires, of political power and land, conjoined to make Indian removal politically popular and expedient for those in authority.
During this time, the ideal of the genteel American farmer in government began to recede. The Jeffersonian ideal was replaced by what became the Jacksonian ideal of the common man voicing his will in politics. Andrew Jackson was elected President in 1828 on a promise of full enfranchisement for all men, without former…
Thus Koppatschek's testimony is reliable.
In light of David's blatant disregard of the stipulations of the contract with Monsanto, his attempts to cover up his infringement, his inconsistent testimony and his apparent disregard for the legal process, the Court finds that Monsanto v. David does fit the definition of an exceptional case.
Because David violated the Technology Agreement which he signed with Monsanto, there was no reason why Monsanto could not be awarded the attorney's fees stated in said agreement.
Court hold the decision of the lower court in part, holding that the district court did not err in determining that David planted saved seed. The Court held the damages awarded in the amount of $10,000 in enhanced damages, $164,608.03 in costs, and $323,140.05 in attorney fees. However, the Court finds that the alternate award of $30,542.99 duplicated the $164,608.03 damages, and therefore was erroneous and therefore reversed. The…
Montsano Co. v. David. United States Court of Appeals, Federal District. Recieved from: (please fill in source here).
This was not a compilation of current rules and regulations, but rather adjustments to the current laws. It contains over 6,500 words of detailed fine-tuning (Florida ar, 2004). While these changes may well have been necessary and important, it also highlights the complicated rules and procedures those dealing with juveniles must follow. Meanwhile, individual municipalities and states, such as St. Louis and Texas, grapple with the practicalities of making juvenile probation do its job of rehabilitating youth and protecting society. It seems likely that Texas will not find the funds necessary to provide the type of program offered in St. Louis, since St. Louis can only accommodate 28 youth at a time. In addition, their approach still does not reach 35% of participants, so it is not the entire answer. Perhaps good research can suggest a way to offer rehabilitative probation to youth in a way that is financially feasible…
Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AOUSC). 1997. "Federal juvenile corrections in South Dakota." Federal Probation, March.
Florida Bar. 2004. "Proposed juvenile procedure rules (Notice)." Florida Bar News, October.
Geraghty, Thomas F. 2002. "Securing Our Children's Future: New Approaches to Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence (Book Review)." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, January.
Lhotka, William C. 1998. "Special Probation Program Monitors Troubled Youths." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 1.
Role of Cotton in Shaping United States History: 1793-1865
Extensive cotton production in the United States began in the spring of 1793 with the invention of Eli Whitney's cotton gin (i.e. A machine which separates cotton fibre from cotton seeds) (Current 1998). Almost immediately after this invention cotton production rose dramatically. As the production and transportation methods of cotton improved and the demand for fibre increased, the push for greater profits grew as well. Thus, a large number of slaves were brought into South Carolina and Georgia to provide the needed labour for cotton picking. As a result, slave labour became a valuable market throughout the South.
To become part of the Southern aristocracy, which slavery created, one needed to own land and slaves (Current 1998). The way to do this was to grow cotton as it provided the cash and credit to make both of these purchases. Ironically, slavery…
Current, Richard. MacMillan Information Now Encyclopaedias: The Confederacy. New York:
The United States is known as the "nation of immigrants." The reason for this is not hard to find: the economic opportunities and the "American Dream" have attracted waves of immigrants from different parts of the world to make America a mosaic of diverse cultures. hile America has lived up to its reputation as the "land of opportunities" and provided new settlers with the freedom and means to achieve their dreams, people who have adopted U.S. As their country have also played their part in making America great. This essay focuses on why the immigrants from Europe wanted to come to America in the early 1600s and from the 1820s to 1914; what were their expectations and what did they achieve in their adopted country.
The Early European Settlers
The history of European settlement in America started with a group of 214 Englishmen, belonging to the Virginia Company, arrived…
Dinnerstein, Leonard. "Immigration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD ROM Version, 2003
"U.S. Immigration History." World Immigration. 2003. December 16, 2004.
Small groups of Spanish colonists had established European settlement in Saint Augustine, Florida, even earlier in 1565, but the English immigration is more relevant to the history of colonial America and the United States
The first Africans who were brought to America were not slaves -- slave trade started later.
Hispanic community in the United States. Hispanic-American's have influenced many aspects of today's American culture such as art, religion, and education since the early 1600's. It will outline the influx of the Spanish explorers and the defense of the border between the United States and Mexico. The paper will also examine the influence of the food, colorful clothing, art, and the educational reform that has come about to meet the needs of the Hispanic children in the school system. This culture has made such a lasting impact in America that is deserves to be studied and researched more in-depth to gain more appreciation and insight to its lasting contribution.
Hispanic-American Cultural Diversity
Hispanic-American's have influenced many aspects of today's American culture such as art, religion, and education since the early 1600's. The borders of Mexico have long been the subject of territorial disputes and have many people have died to…
Folk Art: The Spanish Tradition." USA Today, March 1999:
Firmat, Gustavo. "Cuban Americans," Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. 1993
1997 Microsoft Corporation.
The military of the United States of America is currently comprised of four branches: the Army, the Navy, the Marines, and the Air Force. This, of course, was not always the case. Before the era of modern vehicles and modern technologies, the grandest branch of the American militia was the cavalry. In the early period of American history, from the American Revolution and up to the Second orld ar, the horse was the primary source of quick transportation and the most effective method of giving and receiving information from long distances apart. The cavalry were mounted militia which was considered among the toughest and most effective branch of the military then in existence. In the present moment historically, the cavalry have been relegated to the margins of the armed forces, used primarily for formal iconography that military function. This being the case, it is quite easy to forget the…
Beattie, Daniel (2008). Brandy Station 1863: First Step Towards Gettysburg. UK: Osprey.
Black, Robert W. (2004). Cavalry Raids of the Civil War. PA: Stackpole.
Fordney, Ben (2008). George Stoneman: a Biography of the Union General. USA: McFarland.
Heidler, David (2000). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio. 378-
United States, at te beginning of 1855, seemed to be te strongest it ad ever been wit Western expansion, a flourising economic outlook, and tousands of new immigrants bringing teir ard work to America's newest factories and fields. However, te tension was mounting politically, tension tat would lead to an inevitable, long-suffering war tat killed tousands of Americans, and canged te landscape of our nation forever. Te climax came wen Abraam Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and te Civil War became unavoidable from tat moment on.
Before te election of 1860, many tumultuous appenings caused panic, depression, and conflicts between Americans. For example, 1855 saw wat was later pegged te "Bleeding at Kansas," during wic pro- and anti-slavery citizens clased (p. 428). Te figt tat ensued over Kansas in Congress as well as territorially brougt fort te notion tat slavery tensions would not be easily controlled.
1857 saw an…
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.battle.html. American Passages Website.
The News of Lincoln's Election," The Charleston Mercury, November 8, 1860. Online Version:
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.mercury.html. American Passages Website.
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
United States of America initially adopted an isolationist stance After the American War for Independence in 1781.
Why did the United States of America initially adopted an isolationist stance After the American War for Independence in 1781.
In 1775 the thirteen British colonies in North America rose up against their parent country Great Britain. The war was known as the American evolution and was seen by the British Crown as an affront to its rule, as a result it increased its strangle hold upon the colonists (Anonymous, 2002).
From this attempt to rule by an iron hand forced the colonists to officially declare war upon the British and form a new government with their own Constitution. The war ended in 1781 and America was recognized as an independent nation by the British Government in 1783 (Anonymous, 2002).
However, in 1778, before the end of the war America had already signed…
Anonymous (2002) The American Revolution[online] accessed at http://ragz-international.com/american_revolution.htm
Cole W.S. (1991) My History is America's History [online] accessed at http://www.myhistory.org/historytopics/articles/isolationism.html (Cole, 1991)
U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'
Thesis and Outline Draft
Introduction and Thesis
currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
During hearing of the Appeal, the 9th Circuit Court, while acknowledging that the 1963 contract was entered into with the farmer's interests in mind, found that the contract language was not clear enough to support an "intended third-party beneficiary" who could sue for a breach of contract. it, therefore, affirmed (Ibid.)
In their rulings, the District as well as the Appeals Court relied on the 9th Circuit decision in Klamath (1999) in which the Court had denied "third party" status to the appellants. hile affirming, the 9th Circuit also recognized that it "may be at odds" with the Allen (1984) decision.
The Supreme Court, in its unamanous decision, held that the relevant part (390uu) of the Act merely permitted parties to join the United States in an action between other parties when the action required interpretation of a contract; it does not permit a plaintiff to sue…
ORFF et al. v. UNITED STATES et al. Find Law for Legal Professionals. 2005. February 20, 2008. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&navby=case&vol=000&invol=03-1566
Seigle, Max. Orff, Francis, et al. v. U.S., et al. Medill News Service. 2005. February 20, 2008. http://docket.medill.northwestern.edu/archives/001853.php
Klamath (1999) was a case in which a power company and the Reclamation Bureau had re-negotiated a contract and the irrigators, who were serviced by the dam, but were not privy to the modification and sued for breach of contract based on their "third-party beneficiary" status.
United States Deficit, Surplus, and Debt Have an Effect on the United State's Financial Reputation on an International Level
The objective of this study is to examine how and why the United States deficit, surplus and debt have an effect on the United States' financial reputation on an international level.
The United States has been historically viewed as a country that is financially sound. In 2011, as the United States government appeared it was going to default on its debt it is reported that there was a great deal of "bitterness, division and dysfunction that resounded around the world." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) It is reported that the United States is experiencing a diminishing of its "aura as the world's economic haven and the sole country with the power to lead the rest of the world out of financial crisis and recession." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) Additionally, the United States debt levels…
Levit, MR et al. (2011) Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations. Congressional Research Service. 11 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/157101.pdf
Sanger, DE (2011) In World's Eyes, Much Damage Is Already Done. 31 Jul 2011. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com /2011/08/01/us/politics/01capital.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
hen the old Manchu dynasty failed to come up with ways to thwart the invading foreigners, a new nationalism was born in China. The old pastimes and rituals (p. 214) had allowed China to become soft. This awakening nationalism - partly a rejection of "foot binding, servant-girl bondage, prostitution, gambling," and opium smoking - was stoked not just by the colonial aggression, but by a spreading literacy (educational institutions were being built, the telegraph, newspapers, magazines and railway travel) and emerging awareness of their endangered culture. The last Manchu Emperor was put out of office on February 12, 1912, and hence a political system that had endured for 2,133 years, was out of commission.
Fairbank takes great pains to cover myriad events in China that led the country from ancient dynasties to new ideas and new leadership. The new order - the Kuomintang political party - came into power in…
Fairbank, John King. The United States and China. Cambridge, MASS: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Therefore, any war waged on a terrorist group then becomes a war to protect the personal liberties of those who can not do so themselves.
However, the United States itself has not even been able to stand up to the standards of liberated individual rights. Within the context of the most recent foreign soil wars, American soldiers in a military base have proven that the nation itself is unable to live up to its high standards of personal liberty. In a prisoner of war camp located at a military base in Guantanamo Bay, American soldiers violated international prison code standard during a humiliating act of submission where prisoners were forced to perform unlawful acts and behaviors at the behest of the soldiers on duty, (Sullivan, 2008). The very rights which were being so violently being protected in the eyes of the American public were actually being violated in our backyard.…
National Security Council. (2008). The national security strategy of the United States of America. www.whitehouse.gov.17 May. 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf
Radelet, Steve. (2005). Think again: U.S. foreign aid. www.foriegnpolicy.com.18
May, 2008. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2773
Shah, Anup. (2006). Criticisms of current forms of free trade. Free Trade and Globalization. 18 May. 2008. http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Criticisms.asp#ErodingWorkersRights
Instead of providing a democratic model that Chinese companies could follow, American companies and not only go to China for the advantage of paying a lot less for the same work. The fact that our government tolerates and encourages such practices must change.
After the 1989 massacre in Tiananmen Square, one of the sanctions imposed on China was to be denied any World ank loans. A year later, the sanction was reduced as China was supposed to improve its human rights practices in order to get World ank loans. This measure, as many others, was never applied, as China is now one of the main beneficiaries of World ank loans and has done little in changing its human rights practices. Despite the fact that U.S. could have used its influence in the World ank and impose strict sanctions on China, it preferred not to do so, most probably based on…
China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)," Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2005, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61605.htm ;
Christensen, Nick, a Standoff Between Giants: America's Policies Towards the Human Rights Record of China, December 9, 1998, available at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~rtanter/F98PS472PAPERS/CHRISTENSEN.NICK.CHINA.HTM ;
Kourous, George and Tom Barry, "U.S. China Policy: Trade, Aid, and Human Rights," Foreign Policy in Focus, Vol. 1, No. 5, November 1996.
What choice did they have? That was an entirely different time, and people were very strong and resourceful (Burrows & Wallace, 1972). They did not have all of the help and resources that they would have had today, and women had to learn how to do things for themselves even though it was not something that they were taught or that society had encouraged them to entertain (Brinkley, 2010). Because women boycotted so many British goods, they rekindled their cloth-making and weaving skills. In addition, legal divorces were granted to women if they were patriots but their husbands continued to support their King (Brinkley, 2010). That was, quite likely, the most significant issue that took place for women during the evolutionary War.
Brinkley, D. (2010). The sparck of rebellion. American Heritage Magazine, 59 (4).
Burrows, E.G. & Wallace, M. (1972). The American evolution: The Ideology and Psychology of National…
Brinkley, D. (2010). The sparck of rebellion. American Heritage Magazine, 59 (4).
Burrows, E.G. & Wallace, M. (1972). The American Revolution: The Ideology and Psychology of National Liberation. Perspectives in American History, 6: 167 -- 305.
Cohen, B.R. (2009). Modern environmental history of Virginia. Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Modern_Environmental_History_of_Virginia
Kerber, L.K. (1990). "I have don…much to carrey on the warr." Women and the shaping of Republican ideology after the American Revolution. Journal of Women's History, 1(3): 231-243.
United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).
Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).
On the other hand, Conservatism deems…
Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.
Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. USA: Ron Lipsman.
Watts, D. (2006). Understanding American Government and Politics: Second Edition. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.
United States to Respond to a WMD Attack Within Our orders?
The objective of this study is to answer how prepared the United States is to respond to a WMD attack within its borders and to answer whether there is enough capability to effectively respond to such an attack. This study will further answer as to whether the response plan and command control structure clearly understandable and whether everyone has a role or if there are gaps or redundancies. Finally, this study will answer as to how intelligence supports this response with restrictions imposed upon intelligence operations within our borders.
The challenges to an effective response to a WMD attack within U.S. borders are diverse in nature. Some of the challenges are technology related while others relate to communication among agencies and operation teams. In addition, there is presently funding issues relating to effective management of homeland security initiatives making…
Joint Publication 2-38 (2007) Civil Support.
National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats (2009) National Security Council.
Steps Have Been Taken to Improve U.S. Northern Command's Coordination with States and the National Guard Bureau, but Gaps Remain (208) GAO report to congressional requesterse. USGAO. April 2008.
United States Northern Command (2007) DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management 29. A3 (Jul 2007): 1-2.
United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…
Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm
Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm
Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02.
German immigration to the United States prior to 1877. Specifically, it will discuss to what extent and how did they influence life in the U.S.A. German immigrants to the United States influenced thought and culture in a variety of ways, but they have nearly always managed to hold on to their own culture while adapting to their surroundings.
While America has always been a melting pot of different cultures blending to form a whole, Germans have always managed to blend into society while nevertheless retaining their own special culture and society. The Germans are one of the few races to hang on to their culture so powerfully, while still successfully merging with U.S. culture. One of the most important ways they held on to their culture was by continuing to speak German, especially in the homes, and raising their children to also speak the native language. They also tended to…
Editors. "Germans in America: Chronology." Library of Congress. 1 May 2001. 10 March 2003. http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/european/imde/germchro.html
Hoyt, Dolores J. "19th Century German Immigration in Historical Context." Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. 8 Oct. 1998. 10 March 2003. http://www-lib.iupui.edu/kade/nameword/context.html
Spencer, Aaron Fogleman. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Wittke, Carl. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1952.
United States policy towards the Iran's nuclear program has been complicated by a variety of issues. Some of these issues include Iran's alleged sponsorship of terrorism, regional stability, hostility towards U.S. allies, and the complication of the peace process between Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. The United States' approach in policy toward Iran's nuclear program has changed very little from the Bush administration to the current Obama Administration. A writer for time magazine cleverly stated, in regard to the United States' approach to Iran's nuclear program that Obama taking over the presidency "is more like taking over the controls of a train than getting behind the wheel of a car" (T. Karon). This analogy is appropriate because Obama's administration is following the foundation laid by the Bush Administration.
Both the Obama and Bush administrations recognized the potential global and regional danger that could surfaces as a result of…
Katzman, K. (2008). Iran: U.S. concerns and policy responses. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Obama's Foreign Policy Similar to Bush's at End of 2009 - TIME. (n.d.). Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1950827,00.html
Renshon, S.A. (2009). National Security in the Obama Administration: Reassessing the Bush doctrine.. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.
Us Diplomacy With Iran - Clinton says U.S. diplomacy unlikely to end Iran nuclear program - Los Angeles Times. (n.d.). Featured Articles From The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/03/world/fg-clinton3
As Maloney (2010) points out, the tight sanctions are not putting the U.S. In a good position to negotiate, so there must be some path to victory under realist philosophy that involves escalating a conflict position with Iran. There is also the possibility that the conflict is inevitable, and the United States is hoping to stall Iran long enough to find a way around conflict.
This paper will investigate the sanctions from the realist perspective. The hypothesis is that the sanctions do fulfill a realist path to success, but they are not capable to achieving this end on their own. The sanctions must, therefore, be working in concert with other elements of strategy. The topic is important because the situation in Iran is ongoing, and poses a risk to global security and stability. If the course of engagement that the U.S. is on with Iran is the wrong one, then…
Korab-Karpowicz, W. (2013). Political realism in international relations. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/realism-international-relations/
Maloney, S. (2012). Obama's counterproductive new Iran sanctions. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.relooney.info/0_New_12624.pdf
O'Sullivan, M. (2010). Iran and the great sanctions debate. Washington Quarterly. October 2010.
The Economist (2013). How Iranian companies manage to keep trading with foreigners. The Economist. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.economist.com/news/business/21574540-how-iranian-companies-manage-keep-trading-foreigners-around-block
The fundamentals of exchange theory are illustrated at Appendix a. This approach to analyzing the current situation in North Korea will help add to the existing body of knowledge by developing fresh insights into the possible motivating factors that have characterized North Korea's negotiations with the West in general and the United States in particular in the past and will help address the hypothesis to be tested which is stated below.
The likelihood that it will be possible to persuade North Korea to dismantle its nuclear capability will be increased if American military forces are removed from South Korea.
This hypothesis will be qualitatively tested based on a preponderance of the evidence that results from the critical review of the literature described above.
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea equires Long-Term Strategic elationship with the U.S."
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea Requires Long-Term Strategic Relationship with the U.S."
International Journal on World Peace 24(1): 37-38.
Catchpole, B. 1998, November. "The Commonwealth in Korea." History Today, 33.
Jefferson asked Lewis to fully explain to the Indians that the white explorers were interested in trade, not in seizing their lands (Ambrose 154). This showed that Jefferson used a steady hand and smart policies regarding the estern frontier and that he understood diplomacy with the Native Americans, whom he respected very much.
The Civil ar: The fact is, most Americans probably believe that the only issue that precipitated the Civil ar was slavery, and though slavery was at the center of the north-south feud, it was not alone as a spotlighted issue. The bottom line issue that tore the country apart was state's rights; in other words, did states have a right to go against the will of the national government? Could a Southern state continue to keep slaves in bondage because their cotton crops (hence, their economic power to survive) depended on slave labor? The answer of course…
Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson,
and the Opening of the American West. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Jones, Robert Francis. (2002). George Washington: ordinary man, extraordinary leader.
Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press.
This would have given Hitler an advantage in Africa, and he could have conceivably taken over much more territory and been much harder to control and subdue. In addition, on the Pacific front, the Japanese were attempting to take over as much territory as they could find, all the way to Australia and beyond, and the Americans defeated them many times during 1942, including at the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway, where countless Japanese soldiers died, and numerous Japanese ships were sunk. If America had not entered the war, Japan could have gotten a much bigger foothold in the Pacific, and might have been impossible, or much harder to stop.
In Europe, there might have been far more dire consequences if America had not entered the war until 1942. England was weakening, and it is very conceivable that the country could have fallen to the Nazis in 1942. This…
Globalization has stripped the U.S. Of its stranglehold over manufacturing and forced it to readjust itself into a service oriented industry. As a result, education, training and specialization are more crucial than ever for the attainment of high paying jobs. This leaves the majority of Americans who do not have high educational or vocational training to have fewer opportunities for employment. Competitions from third world nations have stripped away many industries and jobs that are traditionally strong employers such as the automotive and steel industries. The result is that employees have had to take lower-paying jobs because they cannot readjust themselves for more complex positions required within the changing dynamics of globalization. rom an economic perspective this is an inevitable process, and therefore the wealth gap grows because those with very strong education and specialization are able to take advantage of economic trends towards service oriented industries, while those who…
From a political perspective, economic change and the conservatism of the past two decades have changed the spirit of government assistance for the poor. Welfare no longer exists as it did in the 1970s, and more funding is being diverted away from providing for the poor. As a result of government policies to provide greater independence and breaks for the average citizen, more and more funds are being steered away from helping the poor. The combination of a dearth of government spending to aid the poor as well as an unfriendly job market for unskilled labor has contributed to the poor becoming poorer.
From a social perspective, the "hippy" culture of the earlier decades has been replaced with a growing demand for social gratification through money and influence. In a survey conducted of college students in 1990, 80% reported that making money was their first priority following graduation. As society becomes more influenced by materialistic culture, the perspective of helping the poor and solving social problems are de-emphasized. All three factors have contributed to the growing wealth inequality within the United States.
Nickel and Dimed" revealed to us the world of American poverty. The poorest sector of the United States live a life that few can imagine and many thought eradicated. The factors that have brought us to the circumstances that Ehrenreich depicts within her book are multifaceted. They involve inevitable economic changes, government policy as well as social perspectives. To rectify this problem will be extremely difficult. Changes will have to be made on many different levels that will involve a changing perspective on views of poverty and success. However, if this trend continues, the wealth gap will inevitably polarize the American public and lead to a major national crisis. Thus to preserve the democracy and health of the United States, steps must be taken to change the culture towards wealth disparity.
United States in decline -- again? The answer if one is looking at the question during the year that this article was published (2007) is yes, the U.S. was in decline in many ways -- and continues to be in decline. In Michael Cox's scholarly article clearly points out that following orld ar II, and the subsequent Cold ar years, the U.S. was considered hands down the strongest nation in the world. Communism was on the decline, which was a point in America's favor after those Cold ar years of outreach by both capitalism and communism to try and impose influence on nations all over the world.
Cox is correct when he says that Ronald Reagan has been "almost completely rehabilitated by a new generation of historians" who, when comparing Reagan to George . Bush, see Reagan in a different light altogether. Maybe it is the fact that "hindsight is…
Cox, Michael. "Is the United States in decline -- again?" Royal Institute of International
Affairs 83, no. 4 (2007): 643-653.
2005). Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.
Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation." Rather than seeing other nations as means to promote American interests, FDR believed that American well-being depended heavily on the well-being of its satellite countries as well. This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism.
As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. Thus, by World War II, many Western nations threw their support behind the Allies.…
For example, the Chinese had no need for European foodstuffs but they did want European silver ("Early Global Commodities" 2010). Trade between China and Europe was not as robust as it was between the Arab world and Europe because of the lack of demand in China for European products other than silver. As a result, a diffusion of culture from China to Europe did not take place as did the diffusion of culture from Arabia and medieval Muslim societies to Europe.
Moreover, much European silver came from the territories conquered in the New World. In addition to plundering South America for silver, European societies also imported South American foods such as tomato, chili, chocolate, and sugar. These commodities eventually transformed the European diet ("Food, Demographics, and Culture" 2010). Thus, economic imperatives cause the development and diffusion of ancient South American societies. On the other hand, Yellow iver Valley culture in…
"Early Global Commodities," (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247550
"Food, Demographics, and Culture" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247553
"Migrations of America" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/260105
"River Valley Civilizations." (n.d.) Retrieved online: http://www.historyhaven.com/APWH/the%20River%20Valley.htm
histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…
Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.
Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.
This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
History of Discrimination in the United States
The Europeanization of North America
Greater than 99% of the population of the United States originated from another country, having immigrated here between the time of Christopher Columbus' arrival and the present day (Spickard, 2007, p. 4). Despite estimates that suggest close to five million Native Americans were living on land that would eventually become the United States in 1492, diseases such as smallpox, typhoid, and cholera wiped out an estimated 95% of this demographic at a relatively rapid pace, thus helping to pave the way for European immigration into North America (Spickard, 2007, pp. 36-37).
The earliest permanent (successful) white settlements included the Spanish in the southwestern territories that would become Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, and on the east coast in Florida (Spickard, 2007, pp. 37-40). The primary goal of the Spanish settlements was economic, but this was not…
Hagy, J.W. (1991). Mosquitoes, leeches and medicine in Charleston, South Carolina (1670-1861). Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 2, 65-68.
Min, Pyong Gap. (2002). Mass migration to the United States: Classical and contemporary periods. New York: Altamira Press.
Spickard, Paul. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identiy. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Fancis Group
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). National Population by Race, United States: 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/.
United States Have a Non-Interventionist Foreign Policy? with Todd Myers
This lecture was part of Political Economy Week at Grossmont. The lecture started with a little history about the foreign policy of the United States, especially with regards to the theme of non-interventionism. The speaker referred to the way the United States used to be non-interventionist until the First and Second World Wars, how it was reluctantly entering the Second World War but after that, there was no more non-interventionism. Since then, the United States has been the opposite, fighting other people's fights for them under the guise of benevolence. The speaker questions whether this trajectory is healthy for the world and for the United States. Citing the failure of the recent interventions, but also contrasting that with non-intervention in Syria, the speaker did a good job of presenting both sides of the argument.
There was more I liked about…
Models of Media and Politics
A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).
The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. aker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three…
Arango, Tim, 2008, 'World Falls for American Media, Even as it Sours on America. The New York Times, Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Artz, Lee, and Kamalipour, Yahya, 2007, the Media Globe: Trends in International Mass Media. Rowman & Littlefield: Landham, MD.
Baker, Mark a., 2010, 'Hallin & Mancini, the North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model by: Mark a. Baker II', Global Media. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://globalmediastudies.blogspot.com .
Hallin, Daniel C., and Mancini, Paolo, 2004, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.
In fact, the UN's official policy attempts to limit the types of conditions that can be placed on debt forgiveness for third-world and developing nations. Despite this fact, it would be simplistic to state that G8 should not have the ability to make financial decisions independent of the UN and other international influence. As the countries that have provided the majority of financing for the world's poorest countries, it may be that the continued financial health of those countries depends upon them getting a financial benefit from such financial assistance. Therefore, the current world economy may actually depend on the ability of G8 to operate independently from the broader international community.
Q3: How does the Fisher effect impact the ability to forecast currency exchange rates? If the real interest rate is constant across borders, one would expect a constant currency exchange rate, but this does not occur. On the contrary,…