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Appleman E.M. (2007). Te Evolving Field. Online. Internet. Avail:
ttp://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/cands08txt.tml. Info Acc: 27 October 2007
AFL-CIO (2007). Working Family Issues. Online. Internet. Avail:
ttp://www.aflcio.org/issues/politics/issues.cfm.Info Acc: 27 October 2007
Bus, G.W. (2004) Victory Speec. Online. Internet. Avail:
ttp://www.presidentialretoric.com/campaign/speeces/bus_nov3.tml. Info Acc: 27 October 2007
Congress.org (2007) Election 2007: Candidates and Information. Online. Internet. Avail:
ttp://www.congress.org/congressorg/e4/.Info Acc: 27 October 2007
Editorial. (2007) te Presidential Candidates on Iraq. Te New York Times Oct 2007.
Te Green Papers (2006) 2006 Primary, Runoff and Midterm Elections. Online. Internet. Avail:
ttp://www.*****/G06/.Info Acc: 27 October 2007
IrregularTimes (2007) te Ribald Reign of King George te Second. Online. Internet. Avail:
ttp://www.irregulartimes.com/uniterdivides.tml. Info Acc: 27 October 2007
Mealey, J. (2004) Bus's Brain. Film OnTeIssues (2007) 2008 Speculation. Online. Internet. ttp://www.onteissues.org/default.tm. Info Acc: 27 October 2007
Park, K. (2006) Americans, exercising teir rigt to vote, move left. Te Yale Herald. 17:10, npag.
Political Campaigns. (2007) Campaign 2000. Online. Internet. Avail:
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/politics/jan-june07/labor_05-11.html . Info Acc: 27 October 2007
U.S. Department of State (2007). 2006 Midterm Elections. Online. Internet. Avail:
http://fpc.state.gov/fpc/c18259.htm . Info Acc: 27 October 2007
The results of nearly every American presidential election in the past century have reverberated around the world. The same is true for this election, the 2012 presidential race between President Barack Obama, Mitt Romney, and a handful of under-represented third party candidates. This paper outlines some of the core issues that were on the table this election cycle. These are the main issues that the two candidates focused on, and which the American people tended also to be discussing in public forums or in polling. Although Americans are concerned with a number of issues this election cycle, a few of them rose to the surface and directed the tenor of the campaign. The economy was by far the important issue, or at least the issue that was most covered in the media. The second most important issue being discussed in the campaign was foreign policy and future military strategies.…
Bohn, Lauren E. "Solid support for Romney among U.S. voters in Israel." ABC News. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/solid-support-romney-us-voters-israel-17645759#.UJmru2n-vZw
CNN Election Center. Retrieved online: http://edition.cnn.com/election/2012/campaign-issues.html
Gallup. Web site: http://www.gallup.com/home.aspx
Pew Research Center. Web site: http://www.people-press.org/2012/11/04/obama-gains-edge-in-campaigns-final-days/1/
Outcome of the 2016 Elections and the Evolution of the Campaign
The 2016 elections were a surprise to many—mainly because the establishment candidate, Hillary Clinton, lost to the upstart celebrity billionaire Donald Trump, who had never served a day of public office in his life. However, Trump had managed to do something that Clinton did not: he appealed to a marginalized people—the working class, angry, fed up with the Establishment types—the “forgotten men and women” (Sabato, 2017, p. 109) who had protested Wall Street, promoted the Tea Party, and who now wanted to see D.C. crash and burn; and in Trump they saw a candidate with the flair and desire to “drain the swamp” as he pledged to do (Schaffner & Clark, 2018). Trump made a habit of making bold claims and predictions—such as the idea that he would build a wall between Mexico and the U.S. and get Mexico…
Ginsberg, B., Lowi, T., Tolbert, C. & Weir, M. (2016). We the people, 11th Edition. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Sabato, L. (2017). Trumped: The 2016 election that broke all the rules. London, UK: Rowman & Littlefield.
Schaffner, B. & Clark, J. (2018). Making sense of the 2016 elections: A CQ Press guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…
Clarke, P. Keynes: The Rise, Fall and Return of the 20th Century's Most Influential Economist. Bloomsbury Press, 2009.
Fine, S. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-37. University of Michigan Press, 1960.
Heinrichs, W. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
Skidelsky, R. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, 2010.
The coming presidential elections in the United States will be conducted on Tuesday, November 6, 2012 and will be America's 57th quadrennial presidential election. As the election approaches, various initiatives and measures have been taken to educate and empower America's voting public and create an increasingly responsible government. These efforts have primarily involved the provision of comprehensive, non-partisan information that relate to presidential candidates, news, issues, and political parties. These initiatives are mainly geared towards providing a platform for voters and non-voters to regularly obtain useful, straightforward, and impartial information linked to politics and issues. However, the major issue revolving around these elections is how the election results will be determined by current and previous decisions of the court. This is mainly because of the increased expectation that the coming presidential election may be a close election.
Presidential Election Laws:
The United States presidential elections are guided by constitutional…
"Campaign Finance (Super PACs)" (2012, September 13). The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012, from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/c/campaign_finance/index.html
Coleman, K.J., Garrett, R.S. & Neale, T.H. (2012, January 9). Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/180682.pdf
"Election Law -- An Overview." (n.d.). Legal Information Institute. Retrieved Cornell University
Law School website: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/elections
The Supreme Court is the most powerful body of men in the United States, contrary to what many people believe.
The powers of the three branches of government are enumerated in the three charters of freedom: The Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of ights. Together, these documents enumerate the rights and freedoms of the citizens of the United States, inherent by virtue of their citizenship; and they enumerate and limit the powers of the three branches of government in such a way as to create a system of checks and balances that cause the actions to be scrutinized by the other branches, and, if the office of the President, or the president, does not agree with legislation crated by the House of epresentatives, sent to the United States Senate for approval, the president can veto the bill containing the legislation. Likewise, the president's veto…
U.S. Federal Government, located online, found at http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/federal.shtml , retrieved 1 February 2008.
United States: A Polarized Nation
In recent decades, the United States had become a far more self-interested nation, that is, a nation in which most people are more concerned with their own interests, or their own small group's interest (e.g., the AARP lobby; the pro-life movement) than with the interests of the nation as a whole. As a result, the United States as a country is now more polarized than ever before, around special interests such as these. In this essay I will discuss polarization within the United States, in terms of political parties as well as other matters.
The extent of America's polarization, along political lines, may be most plainly seen through the results of U.S. Presidential elections within in the past two decades. The last two landslide presidential elections were won by Ronald Reagan in 1980, against Jimmy Carter, and then again by Reagan in 1984, against Walter…
United States, at te beginning of 1855, seemed to be te strongest it ad ever been wit Western expansion, a flourising economic outlook, and tousands of new immigrants bringing teir ard work to America's newest factories and fields. However, te tension was mounting politically, tension tat would lead to an inevitable, long-suffering war tat killed tousands of Americans, and canged te landscape of our nation forever. Te climax came wen Abraam Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and te Civil War became unavoidable from tat moment on.
Before te election of 1860, many tumultuous appenings caused panic, depression, and conflicts between Americans. For example, 1855 saw wat was later pegged te "Bleeding at Kansas," during wic pro- and anti-slavery citizens clased (p. 428). Te figt tat ensued over Kansas in Congress as well as territorially brougt fort te notion tat slavery tensions would not be easily controlled.
1857 saw an…
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.battle.html. American Passages Website.
The News of Lincoln's Election," The Charleston Mercury, November 8, 1860. Online Version:
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.mercury.html. American Passages Website.
United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama ruled correctly in awarding partial summary judgment in this case. The summary judgment was granted in accordance with Rule 56(c) (3), Ala. R. Civ. P. Under Rule 56(c)(3), "summary judgment is proper when there is no genuine issue of material fact and the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law."
"If the moving party makes a prima facie showing that no genuine issue of material fact exists, then the burden shifts to the nonmovant." Bass v. Southtrust Bank, 538 So. 2d 794,798 (Ala. 1989). This burden requires the nonmovant to show "substantial evidence" in support of his position. id at 798.
Porter fails to show substantial proof of exposure to HIV on which his claim of emotional distress is based. Lacking proof of actual HIV exposure the plaintiff cannot move ahead with a claim based…
Conservative American Presidents
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the return to conservatism in the American presidency after the 1980s. It will compare the similarities to earlier periods in the 19th and 20th century, and discuss what relationship there is between this return to conservatism, and the continued struggle for U.S. military dominance and economic globalization.
THE RETURN TO CONSERVATISM IN AMERICAN POLITICS
The country emerged from orld ar II as the dominant world force and with a booming national economy.
It was able to construct a series of political, economic, and military alliances that tied most of the former great powers together against its only rival, the Soviet Union. This unique postwar situation could not last forever, and in the 1960s and 1970s the "American Century" began to unravel (Florig 153).
It was this unraveling that Americans were worried about, and so they turned to…
Anderson, Dennis M. "Ronald Reagan." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 563-578.
Dansker, Emil. "William Howard Taft." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 211-234.
Editors. "Warren G. Harding." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/WH/WH_In_Brief.htm
Editors. "Ronald Reagan: Impact and Legacy." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/RR/RR_Impact_and_Legacy.htm
United States operates as an indirect or representative democracy meaning that a select group is elected by the whole to serve as representatives while attending to public matters. This is in contrast to a direct democracy which holds that all eligible members of a society can personally direct public affairs. This distinction is often overlooked by most Americans who believe that the term democracy has no qualifications.
In order to fully grasp American government, it is essential to understand the Framers of the Constitution referred to it as republic in form. Their intention was to have representatives direct government operations. In other words, voters select representatives who in turn carry out government business. The reasons for this procedure are manifold. Most notably, the Framers foresaw the electorate making poor decisions based on transitory emotions thereby leading the country in an unwise direction. Given such predispositions, the Framers felt that minority…
Wilson, James Q. & Dilulio, John J. (1998). American Government. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Parties that may have been overlooked due to lack of advertising, can now demonstrate to millions of people at a time what their party beliefs are, which at times can be radically different from the two main parties.
The third party proposal has been around for a very long time, but like with everything, change is met with resistance. The idea that a "debate" is in a sense a two person, or in this case, a two party ordeal is something that many people are still in agreement with. The idea that there is a right and a wrong, a yes or a no, makes it impossible for parties who offer compromises or ideas that incorporate a little bit of everything, to become a "main" party (Abramson et al. 365). Under the current electoral system in the United States, what matters is having more votes than any other candidates. A…
Belenky A.S. "A modified "winner-take-all" rule for awarding state electoral votes in U.S. presidential elections and a game model for its analysis" Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Volume 48, Issues 9-10, November 2008, Pages 1308-1325
Abramson, Paul R., Aldrich, John H., Paolino, Phil, and Rohde. David W. "Third-Party and Independent Candidates in American Politics: Wallace, Anderson, and Perot." Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 110, No. 3 (Autumn, 1995), pp. 349-367
U.S. Electoral College. Office of the Federal Register. 4 May 2011.
U.S. Foreign Policy
American foreign policy occupies a unique place in the world. American foreign policy regarding interacting with other nations is a non-homogeneous mixture of politics, economics, and the unique American culture which believes that both the success of political and economic agenda's cannot be separated from the ways which a country treats it's people. To be specific, American has a difficult time forming positive relationships with nations that oppress, imprison, or otherwise trample their people's basic human rights to life, liberty and the individual pursuit of happiness. As he stated during his administration, President Jimmy Carter described the connection between human rights and American foreign policy this way.
Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy, because human rights is the very soul of our sense of nationhood."
American foreign policy is also seen as a function of the president, and the president must take the lead…
Allen, M., and P.P. Pan. Bush touts U.S. values to Chinese. Washington Post, 2002, February 22, p. A01.
Carter, J. Openings to Cuba: We must find common ground. Washington Post. 2002, May 24, p. A35.
Kane, John. American Values or Human Rights? U.S. Foreign Policy and the Fractured Myth of Virtuous Power Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 33. 2003
Sullivan, K. Carter urges democracy for Cuba. Washington Post, 2002, May 15, p. A14.
In high school, I frequently demonstrated my future abilities to be such a teacher. I was chosen to be part of a task force called Peer Group, which was responsible for a number of various activities that were related to helping young students and orchestrating fund-raisers and special events. In addition, on a weekly basis we assisted mentally challenged kids with projects such as puzzles and special assignments.
A also won an award named the Kings of Pythias. This honor was bestowed on students who were an asset to the community and showed excellent leadership skills. At the University of xxx, I joined a fraternity and became an important member by taking on important roles such as social planner and pledge leader.
If you ask a number of people why they decided to follow a certain career or path in life, many of them will say because a teacher they…
United States had been involved with the world affairs from 18th century to the present and its most prominent role was during the pre-world war era and post-world war affairs of the world.
Particularly when President Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy ruled, the economic prosperity of the United States began to grow on a vast scale. Their eras were considered the most successful era for United States in relation to economic prosperity. President Eisenhower and Kennedy ruled United States from 1953 to 1961 and 1961 to 1963. In their time of governance, United States took a revolutionary step in bringing change in the way people brought up lives in America (Moss & George, 2010). These Democrats controlled Congress for a period however; they could not pass liberal legislations due to the enforcements of Conservative Coalition.
The involvement of United States with worldly affairs in the light of President Eisenhower…
Bush, G.W. (2001). Public paper of the presidents of the United States. Chicago: Government Printing Office.
Moss, & George. (2010). Vietnam: An American Ordeal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Shapiro, R.Y., Kumar, M.J., & Jacobs, L.R. (2000). Presidential Power. New York, NY [u.a.]: Columbia Univ. Press.
S. such as providing affordable healthcare for all, paid for by raising taxes on the wealthy; making a sincere effort for energy independence, and generating more jobs while investing in renewable energy and conservation (Borosage and Heuvel).
America, after decades of its love relationship with Conservatism, topped by eight years of the disastrous Bush presidency that has left the country on the brink of financial collapse and almost universal dislike, was indeed ready for change. it, therefore, decisively rejected the candidate -- McCain -- who promised more of the same and chose the candidate for change.
as the U.S. In Need for Change?
That there was a need for change in the U.S. is a no-brainer. On the domestic front, the U.S. is facing perhaps the most formidable economic meltdown since the Great Depression of the 1930s. In eight short years, the Bush administration has managed to turn a huge…
Borosage, Robert and Katrina Heuvel. "What Obama Needs for Progressive Reform." The Nation. September 01, 2008. November 17, 2008. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080901/borosage_kvh
Grunwald, Michael. "For Obama, Race Remains Elephant in the Room." Time Magazine. Monday, Sep. 15, 2008. November 17, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1841109,00.html
It's time America should take a chance and make Barack Obama the next leader of the free world." The Economist. October 30, 2008
Jakes, T.D. "Will a Black President Really Heal the Racial Divide?" Time Magazine. November 04, 2008. November 17, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1856574,00.html
Voter turnout in the United States changes from state to state. An excellent example to show how this variation occurs is the 2012 presidential election, where there were 45% voter turnout in Hawaiians and 76% Minnesotans. Many different factors determine the number of people who cast ballots (Larocca & Klemanski, 2011). According to Brenna Center (2020), lawmakers in 29 states have proposed bills that would encourage more voting. The bills aim to streamline the voter registration process, facilitate absentee voting, allow people with past convictions to vote, and promote more early in-person voting. Something different is happening in 15 fifteen states with bills that make the voting process more complex being suggested. Some of the restrictions include reduced support to voters, limitations on voter ID, harsh punishment for electoral related crimes, and complicated processes for absentee voting. Legislators from the 15 states argue that their purpose is to secure…
Brenna Center, (2020). Voting Laws Roundup 2020. Retrieved from https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/voting-laws-roundup-2020
Citrin, J., Green, D. P., & Levy, M. (2014). The effects of voter ID notification on voter turnout: Results from a large-scale field experiment. Election Law Journal, 13(2), 228-242.
Gronke, P., Galanes-Rosenbaum, E., Miller, P. A., & Toffey, D. (2008). Convenience voting. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci., 11, 437-455.
Highton, B. (2017). Voter identification laws and turnout in the United States. Annual Review of Political Science, 20, 149-167.
Inbody, D. S. (2016). The soldier vote: War, politics, and the ballot in America. Springer.
Larocca, R., & Klemanski, J. S. (2011). US state election reform and turnout in presidential elections. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 11(1), 76-101.
Menger, A., Stein, R. M., & Vonnahme, G. (2015, June). Turnout Effects from vote by mail elections. In conference on election administration and reform.
Mycoff, J. D., Wagner, M. W., & Wilson, D. C. (2009). The empirical effects of voter-ID laws: Present or absent?. PS: Political Science and Politics, 42(1), 121-126.
In cases of treason accusations, the testimony of two additional parties, or an open court testimony of the defendant is required: "No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court" (Section 3).
- No national or international party is exempt from following the legislations and all those who break the laws will as such be trailed in front of the Supreme Court or other inferior courts: "The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; -- to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; -- to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; -- to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; -- to…
Ginsberg, B., Lowi, T.J., Weir, M., 2009, We the People: An Introduction to American Politics, 7th Edition, WW Norton & Co Inc., ISBN 0393932141
The United States Constitution, Retrieved from www.constitutioncenter.org/633876696043236250.pdf on September 14, 2009
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Online Version, http://www.ldoceonline.com last accessed on September 14, 2009
Fresia's contention that the United States failed to live up to its revolutionary democratic promise and instead was captured by the powerful plutocratic elite has appeal, it oversimplifies the process by which the elite take and retain control over resources and governmental power. In reality, at the time of the American evolution, there was little dispute that the outcome of the evolution would be to give greater power and freedom to those leading the evolution; the founding fathers. While the promise of democracy was offered to common men, it was members of the ruling elite of the colonial Americas that made the decisions to declare America independent from England and drafted both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Therefore, it is unsurprising that the Constitution does not engage in the type of re-distribution of wealth that Fresia appears to believe is necessary in order to establish a…
Fresia, Jerry. 1988. Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and other
Illusions. Boston: South End Press.
Assassination of JFK
Why is your chosen turning point actually a turning point and not just another event?
One of the most commonly analyzed and a questionable event in the history of the U.S., the assassination of JFK was a real turning point. The complex analysis on this topic is somehow frustrating. While "JFK-nuts" may be captured in some seriously arcane information of proof, some readily available information can entirely discredit the official government version of what occurred. The assassination of JFK can be seen as a coup-d'etat and a caution to all individuals and government figures who may try to question the status quo. Strong forces within government were able to take off such a criminal action and successfully pass off such a cheap cover story. The condition of the country's democracy can be deciphered from this scenario (Zelizer, 2012).
Even more considerably, the complicity of the United States…
Zelizer, B. (2012). Covering the body: The Kennedy assassination, the media, and the shaping of collective memory. Chicago u.a: Univ. Of Chicago Press.
Hurston and Hughes
The United States has a history of racist policies towards African-Americans and other minorities. The predominant ruling class of this country has always been wealthy white Christian men. In order to sustain this position of power, all other minorities whether those be based on skin color, gender, or religion have been marginalized and classified as other. This othering has engendered a feeling in those people of the marginalized groups a feeling that in the United States, particularly in the first one hundred years of the nation's history, those othered people have minimal importance and are inferior to the people in power. riters Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston were both part of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and their works reflected the mentality of the oppressed African-Americans living in the United States at a time when they were still a marginalized people. Using her short story…
Hughes, Langston. "I, Too." Print.
Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." Print.
Hurston, Zora Neale. "How it Feels to be Colored Me." Print.
In what is shaping up to be the strangest election in United States history, the contest between the Democratic nominee, former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and the Republican nominee, billionaire real estate developer Donald J. Trump is being closely monitored by U.S. voters and an increasingly concerned international community. The Democratic nominee has most recently been charged with several abuses of classified information during her tenure as secretary of state, perjury before the U.S. Congress and illicit dealings with foreign interests buying favors from the State Department through donations to the Clinton Foundation. Conversely, the Republic nominee has been labeled alternatively as “crazy,” “insane,” and “deranged” by a growing number of observers based on his erratic and hate-filled speeches. This essay on the 2016 U.S. Presidential election reviews the literature to provide brief biographies of these presidential candidates followed by an analysis of recent trends that have…
Rick Santorum's official campaign put out the next ad, entitled Obama Ville. It was released on March 23, 2012. It creates the image of empty American towns in 2 years, and uses very dark imagery and almost horror-genre like angst. The images of the residents of these towns are cast in dark shadows, and with depressing old infrastructure. This advertisement is painting the picture that in the next 2 years President Obama will destroy the American way of life. The second half of the ad shows the face of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran, as that country defies America and seeks Nuclear Power. The end of the advertisement has the image of "Obama Ville, coming to a town near you," in a pseudo 1950s Hitchcock style, and plugs the official website of Rick Santorum.com for more content on this subject (Santorum, Obama Ville, 2012). Despite airing so recently, Mitt Romney…
Chen, H. (2009). AI, E-government, and Politics 2.0. Intellegent Systems, 64-86.
Crawford, K. (2009). Following you: Disciplines of listening in social media. Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 525-535.
Crowe, T. (2012, March 1). Santorum more electable than Romney? Retrieved from Catholic Vote: http://www.catholicvote.org/discuss/index.php?p=27435
Gabriel, Trip. (2012). Wisconsin Votes in Primaries." NYTimes. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2012/04/04/us/politics/wisconsin-votes-after- fiercely-fought- battle.html?_r=1&scp=8&sq=primary%20advertisements&st=cse
Mass Media and Congressional Campaigns in U..
This is a study on the mass media principles and how they are used in congressional campaigns in the U.. It has 12 sources.
In view of the strong economic-based relationship that exists between the congressional elections and the mass media, more rigid laws need to be established in addition to a screening process for each candidate through which they all have to pass in order to represent the American people.
The media plays an important role in contemporary political activity, as it is a key communicator. This communication is supposed to serve the needs of the people as a whole and bring information to them that would serve their interests. However, such media may be the tool of politicians, as they may manipulate certain important information about themselves in order to gain popularity. Ideally, it is the media that is used to…
Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000.
Cohen S, Young J (eds) (1980). The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the Mass Media (revised). London: Constable.
Conflicting Theories of Congressional Elections. Accessed on 24-11-2003. http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:g4H8gEwwJjoJ:weber.ucsd.edu/~skernell/strategy/strategy2.pdf+theories+Congressional+campaigns+&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Gregory Meeks on Principles & Values. 2001. http://www.issues2000.org/NY/Gregory_Meeks_Principles_+_Values.htm
This as an important moment in the history of the Cold War because it marked the start of a new series of talks between the Palestinians and the Israeli side. This moment also proved the importance of the State Secretary in relation to the issues of foreign policy and the international community.
At this moment, some of the most important cabinets in the executive concern issues such as internal affairs and job security. These are essential portfolios from the perspective of internal and external factors. The homeland security refers in particular to aspects which take place inside the borders of the U.S. And tackle the threats that are visible on the U.S. territory. There are several departments inside the Homeland Security portfolio. These concern issues of counterterrorism, border security, immigration, or cybersecurity
. Counterterrorism measures are crucial at this moment, especially given the national security advisory which changed to orange…
Department of Homeland Security. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
Department of Homeland Security. Counterterrorism. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/files/counterterrorism.shtm
Department of Labor. On the Recovery Act. 2009. Accessed from http://www.dol.gov/recovery/
Department of Defense. Travels with Gates. 2010. Accessed from
The international community can obviously respond by seeking to marginalize the Taliban and similar movements as extremists. However, it has become clear following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that western governments have not been effective in infiltrating terrorist networks and pre-empting attacks. It has also become clear that there will be no shortage of people in the Islamic world who are willing to martyr themselves for as long as there are legitimate grievances against the U.S. And other countries. It is therefore in the interest of the Americans that actions are taken by its government that seek to address both the legitimate concerns of moderate elements within the Islamic world and American's own relative ignorance as to what is happening in the world beyond the U.S. (Marsden, 2002 pp. 153-155).
The Afghanistan military action of the U.S. wherein the Taliban regime was overthrown is…
Marsden, P. (2002) the Taliban, War and Religion in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books Ltd.
Rashid, a. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
Roy, O. (1986) Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, J. (1991) Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in Nuclear Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
2nd Amendment to U.S. Constitution
Laws regarding the use and safety of weapons in the United States date back to
1837, when Georgia's ban on handguns was ruled unconstitutional. Subsequent legislation has been scrutinized by courts -- including the High Court -- and in numerous cases the rulings have supported a citizens' right to keep and bear arms except in certain cases. In District of Columbia v. Heller, the last decision offered
by the Supreme Court in 2007, a law banning handguns was struck down based
on the Second Amendment. How this ruling will ultimately affect states and local governments remains to be seen, but this paper carefully reviews opinions from the majority and minority on the Court. This paper also presents what the Court considers enumerated rights and how the gun lobby might be impacted by the ruling -- as well as those advocating for gun safety. Scholarly, peer-reviewed…
hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…
Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004 http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm
History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2
Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History
He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…
S. interests in that part of the world. Then, on January 17, 1991, the U.S. launched the first attack, with more than 4,000 bombing runs. After 100 hours, Bush called off the offensive, saying he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties.
Though Bush was criticized for this withdrawal being premature, the U.S. made a retreat from Kuwait after the successful offensive, and Bush's approval ratings reached new highs.
Bush announced in early 1992, that he would run again for President, and his reelection looked probable. However, higher taxes and uncontrolled economic problems brought his term to an end in 1992, and Bush lost to Bill Clinton. Bush was running as a conservative, but so were oss Perot and Pat Buchanan (who ran against him for the epublican nomination).
In order to defeat Pat Buchanan's bid for the epublican nomination, Bush declared even more conservative stances. Though he defeated Pat Buchanan, oss…
Farnsworth, S.J. And Lichter, S.R. (2004), New presidents and network news: covering the first year in office of Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34:3, 29 Jul 2004, 674.
Frye, T. (1999). Changes in Post-Communist Presidential Power: Political Economy Explanation. A paper prepared for Ohio State University. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at http://kellogg.nd.edu/events/pdfs/Frye.pdf
Kelley, C.S., and Marshall, B.W. (2006). The Last Mover Advantage: Presidential Powers and the Role of Signing Statements, Chicago, IL. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p139737_index.html.
Mann, J. (2002). The ghost of the oval office, New York Times, October 4, 2002.
PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS (1.5 pages requested)
My fellow Americans, the past two years have been tremendously challenging for all of us, as well as for me personally as your president. Tonight, I feel that I have to address a specific problem that has emerged since my election and that I fear is undermining the integrity of the constitutional form of government upon which all of us rely to guarantee the effectiveness of this great democratic republic.
As you know, the two-party political system and the bicameral nature of the American Congress is designed to guard against the usurpation of power by any one political party or group. However, in the last two years, a disturbing pattern has emerged in which some of the safeguards expressly designed and built into this system have been misused very deliberately and systematically for the purpose of achieving purely political goals and at great expense to,…
Tracy Flick, a preppy overachiever, is running unopposed for student council president. Mr. M, the faculty advisor, distains Tracy and has decided she needs an opponent. Mr. M talks Paul, the injured quarterback, into running - to go for the glory of leadership instead of the momentary glow of sports. Tammy, Paul's sister, decides to run for president after her girlfriend leaves her for Paul. Throughout the movie each character takes actions, fair or unfair, for personal gain. Mr. M throws the election to Paul as revenge against Tracy for having had an affair with his friend and fellow teacher who is fired. Tracy tears down the election posters out of frustration and blames someone else. Tammy falsely claims responsibility for ruining the posters so that she will be expelled and able to transfer to an all girl's school. Paul is the only candidates who wants whatever the outcome will…
Election is a humorous farce disguised as a high school student council election. It explores the motivations of and influences on a candidate. Tracy Flick, a preppy overachiever, is running unopposed for student council president. Mr. M, the faculty advisor, distains Tracy and has decided she needs an opponent. Mr. M talks Paul, the injured quarterback, into running - to go for the glory of leadership instead of the momentary glow of sports. Tammy, Paul's sister, decides to run for president after her girlfriend leaves her for Paul. Throughout the movie each character takes actions, fair or unfair, for personal gain. Mr. M throws the election to Paul as revenge against Tracy for having had an affair with his friend and fellow teacher who is fired. Tracy tears down the election posters out of frustration and blames someone else. Tammy falsely claims responsibility for ruining the posters so that she will be expelled and able to transfer to an all girl's school. Paul is the only candidates who wants whatever the outcome will be, praying to God for each person to do well regardless of who wins.
All three movies use humor to exaggerates the issue each is asking the movie viewer to consider: Wag the Dog uses movie production and media tricks to ask the question of what is real and what is fake; Bulworth takes a straight-laced Senator and turns him into a rapper to show the realities of campaign funding; and Election elevates a student council election to a matter of life or death. While these issues are presented as humor, each situation can be transferred to the realities of American politics. The movies each give the viewer permission to be cynical of the voting process. They each illustrate how elections are not what they appear to be; collectively showing that the news media, professional marketers, the television and movie industry, and a candidate's campaign team can easily turn truth into fiction and fiction into truth.
These movies ironically foretold the future. The 2000 Presidential election was decided not by the voters, not by the Electoral College but by the Supreme Court. Ballots in Florida were reviewed by hand, lawyers and academia were called in to review elections laws and processes, the media cried lack of fairness, and each and every voter had to question the value of their vote. The country as a whole needs to evaluate the influence of campaign financing, the lack of consistent voting methodology, and the use of television advertising on how the United States of America elects its leaders and establish their laws. The U.S.A. citizens need to question if the process is really fair, fully representative and produces the best leadership for their country.
Presidential Election Poll Data 2012
National Poll Data: 2012 Presidential Election
We are waist deep into election season. Now is the time for frantic fundraising, polling, and campaigning. ecent polls show a lot about the political beliefs and behavior of upcoming American voters. Analyzing poll results can help forecast the next president of the United States. After examining three polls in particular, a strong prediction can be made showing now President Barack Obama as the next likely president of the United States.
One ongoing poll helps paint a very detailed picture of how the two candidates are fairing within the American presidential race of 2012. This was a detailed poll that is continuously producing numbers base don interviewing registered voters. It is being conducted by Gallup Politics. Beginning in April 2012, representatives from Gallup Politics have asked registered voters "Suppose the presidential election were held today, if Barack Obama were…
Elliott, Scott. (2012). Latest polls & pundit ratings changes. Election Projection. Web. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from http://www.electionprojection.com/2012elections/polls/
Gallop Politics. (2012). Election 2012 Trial Heat. Obama vs. Romney among registered voters. Polls. Web. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from http://www.gallup.com/poll/150743/Obama-Romney.aspx
Rainey, James. (2012). Mitt Romney's 47% comment alienated undecided voters: Poll. Los Angeles Times. Web. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/la-pn-mitt-romneys-47-percent-poll-20120925,0,5822326.story
The media has been referred to as the fourth estate, a bedrock element of democratic society. The term has its origins referencing the critical role that media plays in society. The first three estates are taken to be the clergy, the nobility and the commoners. This concept derives from England, in particular attributed to something that Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1841 about there being three estates in parliament, but the reporters in the gallery were the fourth estate." Carlyle had written that they were the most important of all (Crichton et al, 2010).
When applied to a country's media, the terms "free" and "independent" reference privately-owned media that operate without undue interference from the government. The media is considered to be a bedrock of democracy because they are responsible for the flow of information to the populace. More specifically, this refers to organized media companies, prior to the digital…
The international political solutions to climate change may not be very feasible and practical in their implementation since the issue of climate has now been turned into a political wand to sway voters one way or the other. This then means the solutions suggested are personal beliefs or party beliefs towards handling the climate change. The challenge then comes when the individual or the party ceases to be in power and a rival comes into power, one who does not prioritize climate issues, then it means that earlier efforts will be neglected and reversed. The private and the NGOs are more likely to inform the climate change agenda since they often have the vision that guides them regardless of who is at the helm of the organization.
The few high polluters need to be presented with the historical data of the cost of climate change and the devastation…
Anyone who uses his or her cellphone too quickly check a message while standing in line at the grocery store is likely to become aware of the intense hostility directed toward Internet technology. The Internet has been accused of making people rude and less civil in real life and in online life; of negatively influencing elections; even of artificially damaging the human brain by reducing the natural human attention span. Very few technologies admittedly have no negative effects. Even early industrialization had negative effects on the lives of people who wove by hand for a living. But while the Internet has clearly had some negative effects, this should not outweigh the positive impact it has had upon many lives, including connecting people who would otherwise not have any social outlet, and providing a window onto the world that intellectually curious people would not otherwise be able to see.
One of the key contentious issues in the recently finished United States presidential elections from members of both parties was that of ending the free trade agreements. Free trade takes into account the lack of restrictions on imports or exports by government administrations. Therefore, there is the free flow of goods and services to and from nations based on the market demand and supply. In the contemporary, the United States has effective free trade agreements with twenty nations. One of the major key trade agreements for the nation is the North American Free Trade Agreement, which delineates the guiding principles for transnational trade with Mexico and Canada (International Trade Administration). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the costs and benefits of free trade and the impact on the United States if the deliberations on ending free trade agreements come to fruition.
Creative Destruction and Impact on the…
Boston Fed. "Winners and Losers of Creative destruction: Should we put the emphasis on creative or destruction? Discuss among yourselves." (2007). Retrieved from: https://www.bostonfed.org/-/media/Documents/ledger/fall2007/winners.pdf?la=en
Caballero, Ricardo. "Creative Destruction." MIT. (2010). Retrieved from: http://economics.mit.edu/files/1785
Collins, Mike. "The Pros and Cons of Globalization." Forbes, 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/mikecollins/2015/05/06/the-pros-and-cons-of-globalization/#40aacdb12170
Gerson, Michael. "U.S. isolation is bad policy, even if Americans say they want it." The Washington Post, 2014. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/michael-gerson-us-isolation-is-bad-policy-even-if-americans-say-they-want-it/2014/10/13/651fad6c-5300-11e4-892e-602188e70e9c_story.html?utm_term=.5abe67cfe0ae
Citizen United on the 2012 Elections
Effects of Citizen United
Citizens United is an organization in the United States that does not operate on profit and that focuses on conservatism. The scenario that is commonly related to the organization is the particular Supreme Court Case 'Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission," which attempted to ascertain the legality of specific aspects of campaign finance. The ruling that was made in the case influenced numerous practices that can be condoned during the election period. The 2012 elections are similarly projected to be influenced majorly by Citizens United based on the various changes that it has caused in the election system.
Citizen United's mission is described to be dedication to the restoration of the government of the United States to the control of the 'citizens'. In addition, it is committed to asserting American values that are linked to freedom of enterprise, national sovereignty…
Bai, M. (2012). How Much Has Citizen United Changed the Game? The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com /2012/07/22/magazine/how-much-has-citizens-united-changed-the-political-game.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Millhiser, I. (2012). Citizen United Has Already Doubled The Amount of Outside Spending in Presidential Election Years. Think Progress. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/03/12/442227/citizens-united-has-already-doubled-the-amount-of-outside-spending-in-presidential-election-years/?mobile=nc
Stone, R. (2012). Koch Brothers Behind Paul Ryan as VP Choice. Economic Policy Journal.com. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://www.economicpolicyjournal.com/2012/08/paul-ryan-koch-brothers-get-their-man.html
Toobin, J. (2012). Money Unlimited. The New Yorker. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/05/21/120521fa_fact_toobin
Preserving the current form of government will ease Nepal's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic. If the nation were to suddenly switch voting procedures and governmental structures, the resulting confusion would threaten to undermine the fledgling system. Furthermore, a large number of Nepalese residents are either connected to or from India and are familiar with its parliamentary system.
A parliamentary system allows for a greater plurality of voices in the legislative branch of government. Nepal is an extraordinarily diverse country, with no one ethnic group comprising more than 15.5% of the nation's population (CIA). The recent political strife in Nepal is partly rooted in the strong Maoist presence there. Maoist demands for political representation in parliament was finally granted during the recent turmoil in 2007 (CIA). Nepal's main considerations when composing its new constitution and attendant form of government include maintaining political stability, permitting a plurality of…
CIA. "Nepal." The World Factbook. July 24, 2008.
Fred I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama, Third Edition. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Fred I. Greenstein's central point The Presidential Difference is that in the modern U.S. political system since the Great Depression and Second World War, the presidents are now they key actors, far more so than the pre-1933 period when Congress was the most important branch of government. Because the role of the executive expanded exponentially in both foreign and domestic affairs, the leadership style of the presidents became a crucial factor in policymaking and policy failures. He analyzes the leadership style of the thirteen presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama, including their communication abilities (or lack thereof), personality and emotional makeup, cognitive/intellectual abilities, and organizational talents. If Roosevelt set the pattern and served as the template for the modern chief executive -- and there seems to be little doubt that…
European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations
The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…
Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.
Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.
Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.
Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
In the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, the Democrats experienced significant losses in both the Senate and the House of Representatives in addition to losing the presidency. While the Democratic presidential candidate, Hillary Clinton, won the popular vote, Donald Trump won the electoral college votes to clinch the presidency. The Republicans not only won the presidency but also won the Senate and the House of Representatives. In the aftermath of the 2016 elections, the performance of the Democratic Party has been the subject of scrutiny among political analysts and experts in political matters. The media has remained puzzled with the outcome of the elections because they were so wrong in their predictions. One of the issues that has received considerable scrutiny by the media is why Democrats failed to capture more seats in the U.S. House and why they lost control of the Senate. This paper focuses on examining the reasons…
Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).
The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).
The authors present…
Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).
Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com.
Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary
Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
In this regard, throughout American history, the political pundits have argued about who was going to be the next president and why, but one of the foremost factors that has not been included in their analysis has been gender and race. Indeed, to date, it would have been completely accurate to predict that it was a foregone conclusion that the next president would be "a rich white guy." Today, though, for the first time in America's history, the electorate is faced with some new choices that may spell the end of the good ol' boy cabal that has always seemed to control the political process in one fashion or another. In fact, the United States may be fielding its first viable black and female candidates ever during the next presidential election, and it the question is no longer a matter of "is America ready for a black or female president?"…
agenda-setting function mass media work current presidential election. Consider essay: a) What issue(s) highlighted media ( candidates ) effect voters year? b) There emphasis independent voters swing states Ohio.
The role of the media in today's society is considered of utmost importance. It shapes opinions, if creates opinions, but most importantly it influences the way in which perceptions are created and decisions taken. This is why the media is viewed in a democratic society to be the fourth power in the state, after the executive, legislative, and judicial ones. This role is most obvious perhaps during election years and periods, regardless of the type of voting action. This is largely due to the fact that the media usually influences the agenda of the elections to take place.
The importance of the presidential elections is without any doubt. These are the times when the media exercises its biggest influence. The Watergate…
America.gov.. Third Parties in U.S. Elections. 2008 http://www.america.gov/st/usg-english/2008/September/20080926163103naneerg0.5847132.html
Driehaus, B. "Court Orders Ohio to Include Libertarian Party on Ballot." The New York Times. 2008. http://www.nytimes.com /2008/07/19/us/politics/19ohio.html?_r=1
McCombs, M. The Agenda-Setting Role of the Mass Media in the Shaping of Public Opinion. N.d. http://www.infoamerica.org/documentos_pdf/mccombs01.pdf
The Conservative Brawler. Agenda-Setting What is it, what role did it play in the 2008 presidential election and where is it going? Agenda-Setting in the Media. 2009. http://www.theconservativebrawler.com/2009/11/msm-agenda-setting-in-2008-election.html
American Elections Have ecome Undemocratic
The American electoral process has been criticized on several points. This paper addresses some, though not all, of the ways in which the American political process has been criticized. Starting with campaign finance and whether expensive advertising exerts an influence on the outcome of elections out of proportion to its importance, I discuss the difficulty faced by potential candidates in getting their names on ballots when they are not the candidate being promoted by either the Democrats or Republicans. I then address whether the idea of plurality in national elections is a rational one and conclude with a discussion of the Electoral College and whether its presence and influence in the outcome of the presidential race runs contrary to the expressed democratic spirit of the United States.
First, there is the issue of campaign finance. Essentially, the uncomfortable question is this: is the American system…
1. "Abolish the Electoral College" The Rest of Us.Org 2005. 29 April 2005
2. "Frequently Asked Questions." U.S. Electoral College 2005. National Archives & Records Administration 30 April 2005.
3. "Quick Answers to Candidate Questions" U.S. Federal Election Commission. 2005. 1 May 2005.
4. Kinsley, Michael, "Sitting Pretty." CNN Time September Edition CNN.com 29 April 2005
Government preferable in a Presidential system? Why or why not?
Before it can be considered whether a divided government is preferable in a presidential system, divided government must be defined. A divided government refers to a government, in which the president is a member of one political party, and at least one chamber of Congress, whether the Senate or the House of Representatives, is controlled by the opposite political party. Divided government is a frequent historical occurrence in America, meant to dissuade radical changes in policy and to motivate politicians of both parties to compromise on proposed legislation. Divided government is natural in a presidential democracy, and is preferable to a one-party congress when balance and stability of government is the chief cause for concern, as it was for the founding fathers in the 18th century.
It is normal for presidential systems to become divided governments, particularly in the mid-term…
role of government in the current debates surrounding the enactment of universal healthcare and the illicit drug war along the Mexican border, it is critical to look to the powers granted by the Constitution. Yet, the Constitution has always meant different things to different people throughout American history. As any law student will tell you, one of the major conflicts surrounding the Constitution is the concept of Originalism. This legal understanding holds that if the Constitution is to mean anything, the courts must interpret it through the lens of the men who put the ink to the paper and established the government (calia, 1998). Yet, significant flaws exist in this theory as the Founders themselves were not of one mind but were a diverse and politically combative group to the point of fighting duels with one another (e.g. Hamilton's murder at the hands of Burr). To return to these modern…
Baker, P. 2010. Obama Making Plans to Use Executive Power. New York Times. 12 Feb 2010.
Fiegerman, S. 2011. Congress Approval Rating Hits All Time Low. The Street. 21 Dec 2011.
Immigration Policy Center, 2009. Enforcing Immigration Laws. American Immigration Council. Last Accessed 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/just-facts/enforcing-immigration-laws-repairing-our-broken-immigration-system
Matthews, M. 2012. How Obama Sucker Punched Republicans on the Budget. Forbes. 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/merrillmatthews/2012/01/12/how-obama-sucker-punched-republicans-on-the-budget/
The third secondary source we will look at here is Kaiser (2009). Kaiser argues that money has corroded the electoral process in the United States. He gives statistical data on the rising cost of political campaigns as an indication of how money's importance has grown in the last several decades. If the campaigns of all the candidates for President, the House, and the Senate cost less than a billion dollars in 1976, in 2000 it was $2.8 billion (even if adjusted to the inflation), while in 2004 it was $4.2 billion. "This steady increase appears now to be a permanent fixture of our politics," he says (p. 290). Kaiser also gives examples of how money spent by individuals allowed them to win seats in the House or the Senate. For example, John Corzine, a retired investment banker and a Democrat, won a Senate seat from New Jersey in 2000…
Austen-Smith, D. (1993) Information and Influence: Lobbying for Agendas and Votes. American Journal of Political Science, 37(3): 799-833.
Bartels, L.M. (2005) Economic Inequality and Political Representation. Unpublished paper. Retrieved on February 15, 2001, from http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/economic.pdf
Derek, C., ed. (2002) the Best Elections Money Can Buy. U.S. PIRG Education Fund Report. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/_8MuDgm1AnavpYKIfwgxSA/bestelections10_02.pdf .
Farman, T.W., & Eggen, D. (2010) Republican Congressional Candidates Race Ahead in Fundraising. Washington Post. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/16/AR2010101603236.html
Superiority of the anadian Government over that of the United States Regarding Access to the Media by Political Parties
The media, with its diverse modes of mass communication, plays a pivotal role in electoral campaigns both in anada and the United States. andidates for political office thoroughly understand the infinite potential in utilizing the media for their campaign platforms. With just one brief thirty-second advertisement during a commercial break either on the radio or on television, a candidate instantaneously speaks to millions of attentive listeners and/or viewers. By launching a national communications campaign, a political nominee essentially creates the most efficient and mesmerizing tool in his electoral arsenal.
Though the media has admittedly proven to be an invaluable tool in bridging the gap between a candidate and his constituency, there are a myriad of ethical issues that constrict a candidate from utilizing this resource to it's fullest potential. The main…
Center for Governmental Studies. "Grading State Disclosure 2003: Campaign Disclosure Laws. http://www.campaigndisclosure.org/gradingstate/lawfindings.html
Alliance for Better Campaigns. "All Politics is Local; But you wouldn't Know it by Watching TV. http://www.bettercampaigns/org/reports/display.php?ReportID=12.
It is headed in the right direction and will surly prosper in the many years to come.
(c)Why were you able to accomplish what you did when you did?
We have been able to accomplish what we have because of the Land Grant College Act of 1862. In early 1848, Congressman Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont suggested that American colleges might steer away from the portion of the studies that had been established so many years ago and think about moving in a direction of having studies with more practical values. In 1857, he introduced a bill that incorporated leading reform notions in regards to technical education. He proposed that institutions should promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in areas that relate to the professions that people were doing (udolph, 1990, p. 149).
This act provided for the support in every state of at least one…
Andrew Dickson White. (2009). Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Cornell University Web site:
Rudolph, Frederick. (1990). The American College and University. Athens: The University of Georgia Press.
5). One this level, Obama makes a moe pesonal appeal to the audience. She bought the poblems down to the individual who would eventually cast the vote. The use of genealizations did not have the same impact on the individual. McCain's focus on "ou paty" and "ou nation" was meant to instill a sense of unity, but did not have the impact of Obama's moe pesonal appoach.
In the final analysis, it is appaent that although both women ae extemely intelligent and well educated, Michelle Obama knew he audience bette than Cindy McCain. Obama used language that did not highlight he college backgound, but flowed in a convesational manne. She continued to build appot with the woking class vote thoughout he speech. To do this, she used he level of language, use of examples, and continual eiteation of he connection and he husband's pesonal connection with the people of…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (2000). Civil Political Discourse in a Democracy: The Contribution
of Psychology. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from http://www.co-
Love, J. (2010). The Value of Building Rapport. Selling Journal. Retrieved February 22, 2010
Image chronicles the history of the United States and the Philippines over several hundred years of modern history. Karnow's main argument about the relationship between the new nation is that the United States had an empire over this far-off but ostensibly independent country that "dare not speak its name." Over the course of the book, Karnow paints a convincing portrait of a nation colonized. Karnow suggests that what was particularly damaging about the de facto (if not de jure) American empire in the Philippines was that America's self-image is that it is a democratic, non-empirical country. By engaging in the sort of relationship America had with the Philippines, America betrayed its most fundamental principles as a nation as well as engaged in exploitation. Because America did not perceive itself as a nation capable of exploiting other nations like its parent country England, it could not even acknowledge the abuses it…
Greenberger, Allen J. "Imperialism." World Book Online Americas Edition. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/ar?/na/ar/co/ar273460.htm. November 18, 2002.
Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. New York: Random House, 1989.
Stanley Karnow, In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines, New York: Random House, 1989, "Introduction."
Ibid, Chapter 1.
More precisely even, in order to reach the highest position in the United States, he used his conceptions regarding the reorganization of the United States in order to defeat Hoover. In this sense, "the Hoover administration was accused of being the "greatest spending Administration in peace times in all of our history." It had "piled bureau on bureau, commission on commission..." At the same time Hoover was condemned for the modesty of his relief efforts" (Abbot, 1990, 22). Still, once he reached the President's office he dwelt on the need for the U.S. To recover and created the New Deal, a program that would ensure the recovery of the economy as well as that of the population. These discussions however made him one of the most popular presidents of the history of the U.S. especially taking into account the fact that at the moment of Roosevelt's election, there were over…
Abbott, Philip. The Exemplary Presidency: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.. 1990.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003.
Another factor that determined the failure in the 2002 elections, is that the Democratic candidates' campaign was not as aggressive as it should have been. The Democrats' opponents used attack campaigns, so the Democratic candidates should have responded "preferably with a plan that turns his attack campaign into a character issue on him."
Other than this, Shawni Littlehale of the free-market Pioneer Institute for Public Policy esearch estimates that: "the majority of the electorate wants a fiscally conservative governor to push for lower taxes and cuts in our bloated state government, while they want their [state] rep/state senator to bring home perks for their cities ad towns."
The Democrats' success in the 2006 elections was determined by a very strong electoral campaign, the 50-State Strategy. From the beginning, the Democrats were determined to win and geared up in every precinct in the country in an unprecedented 50-state organizing strategy.…
Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2006. (2006). Wikipedia. Retrieved December 3, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts_gubernatorial_election%2C_2006 .
Kamarck, Elaine C. Glass Ceiling. Why the dominant Democrats can't elect a governor. (2003). CommonWealth. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
Keough, Robert. Why can't the Bay State elect a Democratic Governor? (2003). CommonWealth. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
The 50-State Strategy (2006). The Democratic Party. Retrieved December 4, 2006 at http://www.democrats.org/a/2006/09/50-state_strate_17.php .
In this essay, we will investigate the topic of Russian interference in the United States’ 2016 Presidential election. This essay will contain a list of topics related to Russian meddling, possible titles for essays covering those topics, an outline of the essay, and an example demonstrating how to write a strong essay. Our free example essay will not only explain how Russian interference influenced the election, but also show you how to write each part of an essay: introduction, thesis statement, and body paragraphs that combine evidence and analysis. The essay will conclude with a review of the information presented in the essay and suggestions for further action.
A New Kind of Cold War: Russian Meddling in the 2016 Election
Is Putin the De Facto President of the United States: How Russia Influenced the 2016 Election
Should Russian Interference in the 2016 Election Invalidate the Results?
What Does Russian…
incumbent is the existing holder of a political office who normally has a structural advantage over challengers during an election," ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). In the House of Representatives, incumbents win over 80% of their elections ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). For the presidential race, the power of incumbency is different and in many ways, weaker due to term limits and the nature of the executive office. Anti-incumbency can haunt presidents who, for whatever exogenous or endogenous factors, had a difficult presidency. Prevailing party fatigue can also be a factor boosting the chances of a non-incumbent from the opposing political party. In the case of presidential elections taking place after a two-term president such as in 2016, there is no incumbent and therefore the process by which the hopefuls win their party's nomination becomes the focal point of their campaign work.
Incumbents enjoy obvious advantages over their non-incumbent counterparts…
McLaughlin, Dan. "History is not on the Democrats' Side in 2016." The Fedeeralist. Retrieved online: http://thefederalist.com/2014/09/04/history-is-not-on-the-democrats-side-in-2016/
Nelson, Michael. Guide to the Presidency and the Executive Branch. Fifth Edition. Los Angeles,: Sage, 2013.
"The Power of Incumbency." Boundless. Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/political-science/textbooks/boundless-political-science-textbook/congress-11/congressional-elections-81/the-power-of-incumbency-446-1638/
Shady American Elections of 1876
The most corruption ridden, heinous and questionable presidential election in American history had only just begun. During the presidential campaign, Rutherford was blasted by Tilden's opposition labeling him thief, briber and a drunkard. Eyebrows were raised in states controlled by Republican about voting fraud; armed and dangerous bigoted white democrats had enveloped the South thwarting blacks from voting in elections. Hence in the aftermath, South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida were judged too close to call. With these states still in-pending, Tilden was short of one electrical vote of 185 as written in the constitution to win an election. Hayes captured 165 electoral votes; now he just needed 20 electoral votes to win from these mentioned three states to attain the president's seat. The crisis began slowly leading up to the threat of a civil war which finally concluded behind the curtain deal, popularly known as…
Harmon, Mark D. "The New York Time sand the Theft of the 1876 Presidential Election." Journal of American Culture (2004): 35-41. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1987.1002_35.x/abstract
History. n.d. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/compromise-of-1877
Holt, Michael F. Gilder Lehrman. n.d. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/reconstruction/essays/contentious-election-1876
King, Gilbert. Smithsonian Mag. 07 September 2012. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-ugliest-most-contentious-presidential-election-ever-28429530/?no-ist
E-Voting and elated Use of the Internet for Elections
Electronic voting often regarded as Internet voting, online voting or e-voting is an electoral system that utilizes encoding to permit a voter to pass on their secure and confidential ballot over the web. (E-Ping meeting Brussels) The democratic system of formation of government entails authority of the citizens to choose leaders and to represent them in the Legislative Assembly and form the government. It is pertinent to note that a lot of citizens are found to be uninterested in the process of election and do not even cast their vote. Such attitude of the voters may arise out of the lack of awareness about how and where to cast their ballot, lack of awareness about the election process or lack of time. (unning Head: Future Elections -- On the Internet?)
This is particularly true in case of United States since there…
Cross, Michael. Voting against Internet Elections. The Guardian. February 12, 2004, pp: A4-A5
e-Ping meeting Brussels. 10 September 2002. Retrieved from www.eping.org/docs/oostveen.ppt Accessed on 14 October, 2004
How E-Voting Threatens Democracy. 29 March, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/news/evote/0,2645,62790,00.html?tw=wn_story_related Accessed on 14 October, 2004
Jalonick, Mary Clare. Q& A: Campaigning on the Internet - Strategy & Tactics: Using the Internet in Politics. Campaigns and Elections. Volume: 12; No: 1; September, 2002. pp: 25-28
He still occasionally 'bums smokes' and chews nicotine gum to combat cravings (Altman, 2008, p 3). Obama's campaign released records suggesting that he is in excellent health -- only one page long. The only specific data they have revealed is his low cholesterol rating. The question arises -- if Obama is in such good health (and he does work out very frequently) why the reticence about the information (Altman, 2008, p.3).
The Obama campaign has implied that the mere appearance of good health on the part of the candidate should be enough, a statement that they would likely mock if it came from the older McCain. McCain has also cited the longevity of his mother as an example of why people should be unworried about his candidacy but again, this is hardly scientific proof of his fitness (Tasker & Chrissos, 2008, p.1). Of course, one of the reasons that questions…
Altman, Lawrence. "Many holes in disclosure of nominees' health." The New York Times.
20 Oct 2008. 20 Oct 2008. http://www.nytimes.com /2008/10/20/us/politics/20health.html?ref=health
The health and medical history of John F. Kennedy." Doctor Zebra. 6 April 2006.
20 Oct 2008. http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g35.htm