Universal healthcare is certainly an intriguing prospect. There are a number of proponents for this form of healthcare and, within the United States, at least, perhaps an equal (as well as equally vociferous) amount of dissidents. Nonetheless, universal healthcare is a reality throughout Europe. In North America, it has long been implemented in Canada with effective results and little reason for disparagement. hen one considers these two examples, as well as the numerous advantages that universal healthcare presents for the society that implements it, it becomes perfectly clear that universal healthcare should get instituted within the United States, as well.
Perhaps the most cogent reasons for the efficacy and utility of universal healthcare are found when comparing it to the current system of healthcare in the United States. At present, healthcare in America involves individuals paying for nearly every aspect of services related to this industry. Perhaps the lone exception…… [Read More]
Universal Health Care - Literature Review
Universal Health Care
Universal health care is a hot-button topic for many people, especially since "Obamacare" was passed into law. However, there has been some discussion of a health care bill of some kind for the United States for many years before President Obama took office. The debate is nothing new, but there are two sides to the issue - both of which are very significant in what they have to offer when it comes to making a decision as to what would be best for the American public and the health care that they need both now and in the future.
As far back as 1989, Relman was addressing the issue of universal health insurance. He stated at that time that universal health care was a notion whose time had come, and that something needed to be done to protect the American people…… [Read More]
This drug is far more available in the U.S. Others complain about waiting lists for specialists or refusals by their GPs to see much-needed specialists. Specialists in fields of practice such as mental health and dentistry are often scarce, in certain areas of the country. And because of lower tax revenues due to the recession and rising costs due to the aging of the population, the NHS has placed limits on routine orthopedic surgeries, such as hip and knee replacements, and radically restricted the funding of infertility treatments (Donnelly 2010).
However, despite these admitted problems, the United States spends almost 15% of gross domestic product on health care compared with less than 8% in the United Kingdom and a higher proportion of the British population thinks their system works well. (Hull 2005). When the recent Conservative government was elected to power, it reassured the nation that it would take steps…… [Read More]
Universal health care system also termed as single-payer system in intended for all individuals irrespective of their financial standing. No procedure is considered perfect for the universal or single healthcare system. Several nations are adopting various procedures for attaining the objective of providing insurance facilities to its individuals. Soviet Union is considered as the premier nation engaged in guaranteeing the system of universal health care to its citizens. After prolonged efforts in the sphere of nationalization of medicines in the recent past, it is evident that no other countries practicing nationalization of medicines have accomplished so much achievement as that of Soviet Union. Several developed countries including Canada and UK have adopted the single universal health care system. (Cherner, 1990)
But in America, health care facilities as a matter of right is not granted to all its citizens and it is the only developed country to do so. (Frenkel, 1998))…… [Read More]
Some believe that a universal healthcare system would provide fewer incentives for doctors, who would be less likely to perform at their best. Doctors who are not paid based on their quality may be more likely to perform at a lower quality, some hypothesize. This argument is also used to support the fact that having national health insurance may dissuade those who would be good doctors from going into the medical field, as they may opt for better paying positions. Paying doctors, and healthcare workers as a whole, is another major issue that those opposed to universal healthcare site. They wonder how the economy can support such a policy, believing that it will be paid for by a hike in taxes, so that the benefit from universal healthcare will be overshadowed by the literal cost.
John O'Shea, a practicing general surgeon and a prominent conservative, takes this view. He argues…… [Read More]
In the same Hastings Center eport as the above quoted article, another article reiterates, "One widely accepted way of justifying universal access to health care is to argue that access to health care is necessary to ensure health, which is necessary to provide equality of opportunity, but the evidence on the social determinants of hearth undermines this argument" (Sreenivasan, 2007, pg. 21).
Though the literature offers sound reasons why a move to universal health care is not a welcome one according to many experts, it seems likely that some form of health care reform will take place. This is especially true when observing the number of states that are moving towards implementing such a system.
One writer provides the following information; "When I first heard of the Massachusetts state legislation, two things came to mind. One of them was a piece of Canadian history little known to Americans: universal…… [Read More]
While all of these elements, working in tandem, are a viable way to overhaul the U.S. Health Care System, there needs to be cooperation in the halls of government and on the streets of the nation if the program is to take root.
Political and Sociological Factors to Enact the Changes
Politically, there needs to be a "crossing of the aisle" for those who are politically opposed to one another in the halls of Congress and Senate if the new system will ever happen because of the Federal role in financing, accounting, and administrating the new system. Perhaps most importantly, what the political officials need to understand is that this is an American, or more precisely human issue, rather than one that is associated with one political party or the other. A healthy population is best for everyone and should not be discarded for the sake of political wrangling, advantage,…… [Read More]
According to Bachman (2012) this is based upon the provision that those who do not purchase health insurance must pay a tax each year. Moreover, they think that this will harm the ability of firms to innovate, reduce competition and increase taxes. (Bachman) (Pipes)
Evidence of this can be seen with Bachman saying, "Obamacare represented the largest expansion of entitlement spending and playground of left-wing social engineering in our country's history. The president's health care plan was a power grab by big-government liberals who do not understand that the answer to rising health care costs is not more bureaucracy and higher taxes." This is illustrating how the Tea Party thinks that this is the equivalent of socialized medicine. To prevent Obamacare from causing long-term damage they are dedicated towards its repeal. (Bachman) (Pipes)
Conclusion: The argument that is most compelling is from the hite House and Democrats. This is because…… [Read More]
universal health care in the U.S. There are numerous compelling arguments in favor of establishing universal health care access in the U.S.; this essay surveys the literature on this topic and presents these arguments.
Providing universal health care would benefit the country as a whole. According to Reuters, Harvard edical School researchers found that each year nearly 45,000 people, or one every 12 minutes, die because they cannot get medical care (Heavey, 2009). This tragedy happens because Americans lack universal health care.
Access to universal health care should be a right of citizenship, not a privilege reserved for the wealthy and powerful. The U.S. is the only industrialized nation in the world that does not have universal health care. As of 2011, thirty-two of the thirty-three developed nations have universal health care; the U.S. is the only exception (COTO Report, 2011).
A particularly convincing argument in favor of universal healthcare…… [Read More]
Chapter 2: eview of elated Literature
This chapter provides the background and an overview of the debate concerning national health insurance and the issues surrounding the provision of universal health care in the United States. A discussion of the implications of universal health care for private insurance carriers and other stakeholders is followed by a review of the criticisms being directed at current efforts to reform health care in the U.S. A brief summary of the research concludes this chapter which is followed by a more complete description of the study's methodology in chapter three below.
Background and Overview
A strictly literal definition of universal health care would mean that everyone, including illegal aliens, all children irrespective of their financial or legal status, and those with preexisting conditions, for example, would be equally entitled to health care services, a situation that may appear as pie-in-the-sky but which is…… [Read More]
The notion of universal health care in the United States is a decidedly polarizing one, which is why this author chose it. Universal health care is a single payer system in which healthcare is subsidized by the government with equal, free access to all. The audience for this document is the array of health care insurance companies. Many people deride such a notion as a harbinger of socialism, which in itself is merely a precursor to communism.
Barkan, Ross. “Universal Healthcare in America? Not a Taboo Now, Thanks to Bernie Sanders”. www.theguardian.com 2017. Web. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/sep/14/universal-healthcare-america-bernie-sanders
This source highlights the growing popularity of a single-payer, universal healthcare system among numerous democrats. It contextualizes this information around a bill proposed by Bernie Sanders, who gained notoriety for running for president last year.
The strength of this sources is its recentness, as it was published two months ago. It directly informs the…… [Read More]
The American healthcare system is in a crisis situation, with exorbitant spending unbalanced by “poor health outcomes, including shorter life expectancy and greater prevalence of chronic conditions” versus high income countries with universal healthcare systems (Squires & Anderson, 2015, p. 1). The Affordable Care Act was an attempt, albeit an incomplete one, to reform the way healthcare is structured and financed. Universal health care is a concept that has gained some traction in the United States, but its thorough implementation is hindered by values, norms, and fears. Overall, the pros of universal healthcare undoubtedly outweigh the cons. The pros of universal healthcare include reductions in wasteful spending, the promotion of social justice and health equity, and the improvement of overall health outcomes in the United States.
The United States already has some limited forms of universal healthcare, addressing the needs of specific patient populations. For example, the American…… [Read More]
At which point, the overall costs of care will be passed on to the tax payer in the form of higher taxes. This leads to a decrease in the overall quality of care and it will not slow the price increases, as the government seeks to restrict access to these services. Then, when the program becomes broken (such as: what is happening to Social Security) removing or reforming the bureaucracy is nearly impossible. (Messerili, 2010)
A second argument that many critics make about universal health care is: it will stifle innovation. Whenever, the government is running any kind of program, they will place a large number of restrictions and regulations on the industry. When this takes place, you are causing some of the best and brightest minds to seek careers in other fields, as the restrictions from the government are too cumbersome. A good example of this would be: the…… [Read More]
universal access to health care in U.S. population
Ethical Issues in Global Health: orld Healthcare Organization a Fundamental Universal Health Care Enabling U.S. Population in Accessing Healthcare
The objective of this study is to examine ethical issues in global health care and specifically the orld Healthcare Organization as being a fundamental in universal health care enabling the U.S. population in accessing healthcare. The work of right (2004) relates that the United States, in a comparison of several indicators of health "ranks in or near last place among industrialized nations of the world." (p.2) In addition, the United States has one of the world's highest rates of child mortality with eight deaths per 1,000 children under the age of five reported in 2002 as well as one of the shortest life expectancy rates in the world. (right, 2004, paraphrased) hile the United States boasts the best in the world's choice of…… [Read More]
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…… [Read More]
WHO rates France as having the best healthcare ("World Health," 2000). In addition to universal healthcare, France also has non-profit supplementary providers, which means that the government subsidizes 70% of regular expenses but pays 100% of more expensive or long-term treatment plans (Sandier, Paris, & Polton, 2004). Money for subsidies comes from mandatory earnings contributions such as 5.25% salary, capital income, and gambling winnings (Sandier, 2004).
An argument that often arises is that people say they don't want the government deciding what medical procedures they can have. However, decisions regarding what procedures are covered by a particular health plan are made by the healthcare insurance companies, which are for-profit ("Insurance Verification," n.d.). Many people are denied treatment regardless of the illness. As already mentioned, some of the other nations with universal healthcare have supplementary plans in addition to the government plans that allow the patient more choice.
There are many…… [Read More]
Health Care Past, Current, And Future
The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.
Past Health Care Services -- Early America
Health care in colonial…… [Read More]
However, they contradict themselves trough supporting one's right to commit physician-assisted suicide, since this would virtually mean that the individual who is no longer willing to live is not provided with health care meant to prevent him or her from dying (Epstein, 1999, p. 1).
Among those opposed to the fact that health care is becoming increasingly better are those who are in their twenties and are obliged to work hard in order to pay for their own medical insurance and for that of the underprivileged (Bonner, 2010).
Contemporary health care is basically provided by groups forced to pay taxes in order for others to benefit out of the process. The fact that health care is a privilege and not a right was made obvious ever since the 1954 foundation of the Department of Health, Education, and elfare. The name contained the term welfare with the intention of highlighting how…… [Read More]
Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.
Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.
It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…… [Read More]
Health Care eform:
One of the major topics that have had a long history in the United States is health care reforms, which has been characterized by huge debates. Following decades of failed attempts by various Democratic presidents, a new law was enacted by President Obama to overhaul the country's health care system. The enactment of this legislation came after a year of harsh partisan combat with the purpose of ensuring access to health care insurance for millions of Americans. In addition to being the most controversial topic, health care reform law was the largest single legislative accomplishment of President Obama. Notably, this legislation will cost America's government approximately $940 billion over the next decade based on an analysis by the Congressional Budget Office. The office has also estimated that the law will lessen federal deficit by about $138 billion during the same period and a further reduction of the…… [Read More]
Healthcare Legislative Bill
The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts
The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).
With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…… [Read More]
(Expenditure, 2012) This merciful act is taken because of a simple fact; these elderly are deemed too old to work. Americans younger than 65 have an expectation of work placed on them in order to receive medical care at 65.
The third issue of universal health care is the principle of hard work and earning your keep. In America, health care for the young is seen as a privilege, not a right. There are some who disagree with this, but America at large is skeptical of all forms of welfare and state controlled support. The problem for many is a philosophical challenge to the notion that poor unemployed workers deserve health care paid for by their hard working neighbors.
Centers for medicare and medicaid services. (2012). Retrieved from https://questions.cms.gov/
Expenditure patterns of older americans. (2012, February). Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/publications/ib/index.cfm?fa=ibDisp&content_id=4992
Henry kaiser family foundation. (2012). Retrieved from http://healthreform.kff.org/federal-funds-tracker.aspx… [Read More]
The result is that a multilayered system which is inherently designed to maintain and improve our public health standards has instead become almost entirely designed by its profitability. The best opportunity we have for reversing this trend is the applying of pressure that only the federal government can bring to bear. Greater regulation of pricing, coverage and standards of care will shift the focus back to quality health outcomes rather than strict improvement of the bottom line at all costs.
- Is there a solution?
How can (or can't) public policy shape health care in the U.S. hat do you predict for the next year?
Public policy absolutely has the capacity to bring improvement to a highly dysfunctional system. The Affordable Care Act and many of its related sub-initiatives such as the Readmissions Reduction Program are indicative of this opportunity. Indeed, the continuing pressure upon hospitals to focus on producing…… [Read More]
Healthcare Plan eview
The author of this report is to answer three general questions relating to healthcare program evaluation. The first question asks the author of this report to examine the overall purpose of healthcare program evaluation. The second question asks the author to identify at least five different types of common healthcare program evaluation techniques. Finally, one of those methods in particular will be selected and there will be a drilling down into more detail on that single type. While the purpose and method of operations is quite similar with all program evaluation types, there are some subtle to major differences from type to type.
At its core, the purpose of healthcare program evaluation is to analyze and improve the operations and performance of a healthcare program based on a systematic and full review of what is going right, what is going wrong and what needs to be changed.…… [Read More]
Universal healthcare is the only saving formula for this nation, which is doomed in a health care crisis of unprecedented proportions. There is a urgent need to transform healthcare from its present state of commercialism towards the humanitarian approach which guarantees 'healthcare for all' independent of their social or financial circumstances. A shared and collective responsibility of healthcare management is the only viable formula for America. It is high time we learn from Canada, UK and other European nations and restructure the current broken state of our healthcare. The successful passing of the USNHC act (H.R. 676) is the only way for America to wake up from its healthcare nightmare. Will the powerful insurance industry hold its ground yet again and resist this awakening leaving all the citizens doomed? This is an important question for all the citizens of our country.
1) Science Daily, 'American Values lamed for U.S.…… [Read More]
Not only do these practices discourage preventative care and monitoring, they also diminish the quality of the good that insured individuals are buying from the health insurance companies. Insured individuals are paying for insurance and paying for most of their healthcare costs in addition because of the exorbitant deductibles. PPACA's prohibition of these practices ultimately forces health care companies to raise the bar and give health insurance customers more value for money.
Public-Private Partnerships Prevent ureaucratization of Health Care
There are widespread misconceptions that the PPACA will provide health insurance through some government-run bureaucracy. Actually, PPACA is built on close cooperation between health insurance companies and the government. Under PPACA, the government does not operate hospitals nor does it provide medical insurance to individuals. Actually, it requires individuals to carry some form of private health insurance or suffer a penalty. The only time the government becomes involved is when an…… [Read More]
As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.
Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…… [Read More]
In 2004, a Ten-Year Plan to Strengthen Health Care was announced, primarily intended to improve access to medical services, decrease wait times, and update medical equipment and ensure accurate reporting and enhance public health promotion and prevention programs. Shortly thereafter, the Canadian Supreme Court affirmed the nation's health care philosophy and the immediate need to implement further improvements envisioned by the ambitious 2004 plan in striking down a Quebec law that had prohibited private medical insurance for covered services:
The evidence in this case shows that delays in the public health care system are widespread and that in some serious cases, patients die as a result of waiting lists for public health care...In sum, the prohibition on obtaining private health insurance is not constitutional where the public system fails to deliver reasonable services."
According to legal experts, the decision could "open the door to a wave of lawsuits challenging the…… [Read More]
Health Care Finance
Greenwald engages in a discussion comparing the U.S. health care system to, well, other health care systems. An interesting methodological fault is that Greenwald cherry-picks his examples. In one paragraph, he compares the U.S. with Canada, in other the UK, and in another Spain. he problem, methodologically, is that he can cherry-pick data from whatever country best suits his argument. What this means, in terms of interpretation, is that Greenwald's findings need to be taken with a grain of salt. As an example, Greenwald notes higher wait times in three countries for urgent coronary artery bypass. Nobody likes high wait times, but Greenwald's U.S. figure doesn't factor in the uninsured, whose wait time is infinity. hey just die. he issue many have with the U.S. system is not that performance is poor; it is that performance is only good when you can afford it.
his cuts to…… [Read More]
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…… [Read More]
In addition, Senator Collins led the fight to restore critical f funding to Medicare for home health care so that elderly citizens and disabled can receive needed care in their own homes ("Biography")."
Obviously the senator encourages the funding of both Medicaid and Medicare as she has fought to ensure that both are funded correctly. Collins was also a supporter of the stimulus package that improves healthcare information technology.
As it pertains to abortions Susan Collins is also pro-choice and believes in stem cell research. She is adamant about the right of a woman to choose just as Senator Kennedy. She also voted no on prohibiting HHS grants to organization who perform abortions. She has also been a proponent of expanding stem cell research.
In both the present and the past Collins has worked to ensure that healthcare coverage is affordable. From the bill that she coauthored with Senator Kennedy…… [Read More]
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…… [Read More]
Universal healthcare would benefit a large segment of the population, and it should be implemented as quickly as possible to ensure the nation's health and to save money.
There are some clear arguments against universal healthcare. One of the most well-known and cited is the idea that the Federal Government is not capable of efficiently managing healthcare, and they cite the problems with the Veteran's Hospitals and Medicare as a very real example of that mismanagement and inability to control costs and other aspects of universal healthcare. Many government agencies are indeed inefficient, understaffed, and mismanaged, so care must be taken to ensure this does not happen with any agency managing universal healthcare. There should be strict controls and measures in place to ensure the agency is managed efficiently and provides the best results, and there should be measures in place to ensure the quality and delivery of healthcare services,…… [Read More]
Despite of the receipt of federal funding to assist in the set-up of an insurance exchange program, the Minnesota legislature is not cooperating with the Governor Drayton's plans to design a program. Instead, in a classic example of partisan politics, the legislature is going forward with its own plans to design an exchange program. In doing so, the legislature is placing the State of Minnesota in a position of possibly losing the grant provided by the federal government. According to the grant provisions, the state must show it can operate an effective exchange program by the end of calendar year 2012 or the federal government under the terms of ACA will impose a one size fits all exchange on the state. Even the state's most conservative political groups oppose this happening and advocate that the state's executive and legislative branches cooperate in formulating an acceptable state exchange program.
The effect…… [Read More]
health care in the United States has been the source of heated debate for a number of years. Although the publicity surrounding the issue has been considerable and made to look like it is a recent problem facing the nation, the problem, in reality, has been on the horizon for nearly a century. During President Woodrow Wilson's administration, efforts were unsuccessfully made to pass national legislation regarding the delivery of health care in the United States and the issue has appeared periodically on the national agenda ever since (Lepore, 2009). Finally, on March 23, 2010, among massive controversy, the Affordable Care Act, through the massive efforts of the Obama administration, became law.
Despite the passing of the Affordable Care Act, health care in the United States remains dismal for a large percentage of American citizens. Although there were a number of significant provisions in the Act that took effect nearly…… [Read More]
The Affordable Care Act works on the premise that all Americans should have access to health care insurance. Because this is provided through insurance companies, the system is only enforceable under certain conditions. One of the key tenets of health care reform is the idea that those with pre-existing conditions cannot be denied insurance coverage. This group of people has long had problems getting insurance, and insurance companies spend tens of millions to invent pre-existing conditions that would then be used to deny coverage. Even insurance commissioners have been known to take offensive and absurd stances on pre-existing conditions, arguing that insurance companies should not have to take customers with such conditions because the person is to blame for their pre-existing condition (Ferguson, 2013). With attitudes like this from people connected to the insurance industry, the only way that the Obama Administration was going to achieve universal health care…… [Read More]
Quality of Care: Healthcare eform
Health care reform legislation is expected to reduce health care spending by $590 billion over 10 years and lower premiums by nearly $2,000 per family by slowing the annual growth rate in national health expenditures. Discuss how this savings will be accomplished and what potential sacrifices in health care delivery may be experienced. Is the figure of $590 billion when calculated over a ten-year period really a significant savings?
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was designed to make healthcare more accessible to a wider array of Americans and also more equitable in its method of delivery. Some of its provisions included requiring all adults (with some hardship exemptions) to have healthcare or pay a penalty. The hope was that expanding the risk pool of young, healthy insured who might otherwise forgo coverage would support the costs of some of the other provisions of the bill,…… [Read More]
Universal Health are for America:
How a Socialist Model an Work in a Democratic ountry
The possibility of a universal health care system in the United States seems distant at times. Yet as more and more youths graduate college, and as more and more adults lose positions they have held for decades, one finds oneself wishing that the United States would at least secure this basic right for such individuals, many of whom have few prospects for immediate hire and remain without health insurance coverage. The political situation often does not match social reality, especially with respect to universal health care.
Though President Obama has taken measures to ensure that the health care system is at least reformed a little, the path to a future vote for universal health care remains long and arduous. Sadly, few can envision a socialist model of healthcare working in America, and content…… [Read More]
Finally, the wealthy would be paying a higher percentage.
Response to Answer 2
Indeed, Hillary Clinton's proposal is ambitious but amounts to little more than sitting on the fence. Instead of proposing a comprehensive plan for true universal health care, she suggests a convoluted system of tax credits. Income tax forms are complex enough; few citizens can navigate their way through their pages without hiring an expert, and only those who are well-off enough can afford to do so. Hillary's plan only improves slightly on an outworn system. Instead, we need to entirely revamp the concept of health care and change the way Americans view socialized medicine. Whether or not Hillary Clinton was involved in nefarious scandals, she should devise a health care plan that more closely resembles those used successfully in many other countries: taxes fund a federally-funded health care system that completely removes private insurance companies and strips…… [Read More]
This paper will outline some of the high-level issues in the American health care system. At this level, the discussion centers around issues such as the political environment, the influence of key stakeholders and power structures. By analyzing the health care system through these lenses, the observer is able to better understand why (or why not) good ideas are implemented (or not). There are five central questions that will be addressed in this discussion, starting with the impact of socioeconomic and sociopolitical factors on US health care policy.
Socioeconomic / sociopolitical factors
One of the most critical issues in the US health care system is the socioeconomic disparity in health outcomes. This is typically driven by access to care. Lantz, House & Lepkowski (1998) found that mortality risk was a function of income, with the lowest-income groups in their study having the highest mortality risk. While there…… [Read More]
Cost is one of the primary issues -- it is cheaper to go to an RN than a doctor, and walk-in clinics have lower overhead costs than physician's offices, which is of great concern to uninsured or minimally insured patients. ait time is another concern -- clinics provide immediate treatment, patients do not have to wait for appointments for a brief, routine procedure, which insured patients may balk at if they merely wish to get a routine culture for strep throat. Using the Internet to access information about insurance and care results in lowered administrative costs for providers, less need for phone operators to provide advice, and results in additional speed for the consumer, in accessing records.
For a patient without insurance, ordering drugs online and not having to pay for a 'live' consult may be more cost-efficient, despite the higher costs of the drugs. Healthcare companies' desire to make…… [Read More]
In their move from a completely government-paid and -- operated healthcare system to a fees-based approach, the Chinese have greatly improved the efficiency, availability, and efficacy of their healthcare system (Wan & Wan 2010). This suggests that a combination of perspectives, rather than the market or single-payer perspectives that form so many healthcare systems, is most effective.
There are also, of course, healthcare systems that have developed in the same period as those mentioned above, but with far more negative results. The South African healthcare system, though effective in combating certain specific conditions, has many of the same failings as the United States' system, only on to a far more apparent degree. A lack of organization and responsiveness, exacerbated by an attempt to exert highly politicized and highly centralized control over healthcare provision, has plagued South African efforts to combat AIDS and many other problems the country -- and the…… [Read More]
Hadley, Jack, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, & Dawn Miller. (2008). Covering the uninsured in 2008: Current costs, sources of payment, and incremental costs. Health Affairs, Web
According to Hadley (et al. 2008), "the cost of expanding coverage to the 16% of Americans who are uninsured would add 5% to national health spending" (Hadley 2008: 399). This cost is considerable, yet the cost of allowing the status quo to remain is far greater. In the article, "Covering the uninsured" the authors use quantitative analysis to determine how much care uninsured persons currently receive, how much of it remains uncompensated because of an inability to pay, and how much more coverage would be consumed if all Americans did have health insurance (Hadley 2008: 399). Their data encompasses interviews of 102,000 people who were part of the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys; data from government budgets and health care providers; surveys…… [Read More]
Health Policies Medicare
hen everyone in our country finally starts to reach the age of 65 years of age or older, then every person will become eligible for Medicare. It is clear that there are some elderly that are having minimum health concerns while others recurrently are dealing with medical issues for which they will have to seek out treatment by the doctor. However, research is starting to display that there are at least five top conditions that are enhancing on medical and drug spending. It is obvious that Heart disease circumstances are the number one medical issue that the those that are considered elderly are facing and that is becoming very costly to them. Most are unaware that the second one is the disease cancer and it could be internal or external for various elderly patients. Other issues such as joint ailments a lot of the times can cost…… [Read More]
Canada is even further behind in its access to high tech equipment, including machines used for MRI's and CAT scans. This shortage of equipment affects wait time for diagnostic tests, which in some provinces can run well over three months (Beaudan, 2002).
According to Michael Decter, chair of the national board of Canadian Institute for Health Information, the Canadian health care system is dazed but he still believes that modernized public healthcare is the answer. "e do well on life expectancy and immunization of children compared to the U.S.," he says, noting that the United States spends 40% more on healthcare than Canada does (Beaudan, 2002).
Americans who go to Canada for cheap flu shots often come away impressed at how Canada offers free and first class medical care to everyone. But hospital administrators will tell a different story about having to cut staff for lack of funds or about…… [Read More]
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…… [Read More]
The health of any single person is the most important and most limiting factor about that person's ability to complete physical tasks and live a useful and purposeful life. Healthcare is a term that is widely used but never discussed in how it can best be accessed. The purpose of this essay is to identify and describe a useful plan that helps solve the dilemma of people acquiring a proper and useful source of healthcare. The ethical component of the situation will also be introduced to help demonstrate how practical this plan can be.
To many, healthcare is often associated with doctors, nurses, hospitals, drugs and surgery. It seems that more people are sick or are diseased with some sort of affliction than ever before. Tanner (2008) made the point that "a closer look shows that nearly all health care systems worldwide are wrestling with problems of rising…… [Read More]
It appears the dangers of a commercialized healthcare system have demonstrated that this beastly practice of profiting off the sick is not good for the society at many different level it contains.
Healthcare discussions of this matter do not belong in a committee that is dedicated to commercial purposes. Medicare and Medicaid were successful in the past in spite of the many governmental forces that played a role in their existence, but like all things these are old and obsolete ways of dealing with this current crisis of confusion.
A philosophical mindset, absent from this meeting, that included individual responsibility and preventative efforts to maintain health should be emphasized from leaders. Safety can never be guaranteed, neither can good health, so to offer such promises of universal coverage is over-idealistic if not criminally negligent. Like the answer to most problems, the solutions are local and come from within communities and…… [Read More]
there are three parts. PAT A EQUIES 4 DIFFEENT ANSWES
"ICD-10-PCS is intended to replace ICD-9 volume 3 for facility reporting of inpatient procedures….ICD-10-PCS is a totally new coding system designed to better accommodate the rapidly changing world of procedures. The code system was developed in the 1990s, but use of the continually updated codes will start almost 20 years later." (Dimick 2011). This new standard is supposed to be more accurate and reflective of current healthcare realities than standards of the past, but it is uncertain if in its implementation this promise will be realized.
Current status of implementation
This standard has yet to be fully implemented. "On October 1, 2013, healthcare providers must begin reporting HIPAA claims using the ICD-10 counterparts to the current ICD-9 code sets" and full implementation will be a 20-year process (Dimick 2011).
Three major issues related to implementation status…… [Read More]
The heated nature of the current political debate in the United States upon the subject of healthcare is testimony to the idea that far less than economic numbers, cultural wars govern how healthcare is perceived and administrated. All nations face the problem of cost containment of an increasingly expensive healthcare system. People are living longer, and the nations of the developed world have populations with a far higher median age than in the past. Medical technology is also more expensive. Thus, some form of 'rationing' (as politically unpalatable as the world may be) is required, either based upon need, or based upon who can pay. The United States stresses that individuals can 'choose' to have healthcare or not, and implicit in this assumption is that individuals who can 'merit' better jobs that provide healthcare are making one choice, while Americans who work several jobs that do not offer healthcare --…… [Read More]
Stated to be barriers in the current environment and responsible for the reporting that is inadequate in relation to medical errors are:
Lack of a common understanding about errors among health care professionals
Physicians generally think of errors as individual that resulted from patient morbidity or mortality.
Physicians report errors in medical records that have in turn been ignored by researchers.
Interestingly errors in medication occur in almost 1 of every 5 doses provided to patients in hospitals. It was stated by Kaushal, et al., (2001) that "the rate of medication errors per 100 admission was 55 in pediatric inpatients. Using their figure, we estimated that the sensitivity of using a keyword search on explicit error reports to detect medication errors in inpatients is about 0.7%. They also reported the 37.4% of medication errors were caused by wrong dose or frequency, which is not far away from our result of…… [Read More]
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…… [Read More]
As a woman enters her geriatric years, many unique problems are also faced. Her post-menopausal period leaves a woman with increased risk of osteoporosis, and hormone-replacement therapy may need to be considered or dismissed depending upon the needs and wellness of the individual women. Additionally, increased risk for obesity begins nearly at the adolescent period, when women's hormone loads change and often activity of childhood decreases. The incidence of obesity and overweight among women perpetually increases with every year of life. ("Overweight, Obesity Threaten U.S.," 2002, p. 8)Obesity and overweight, as one of the most significant conditions associated with several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, increased risk of stroke and hypertension should be developed as a lifespan issue, as the needs of intervention and prevention change as women age and go through various stages of life.
While women have functional characteristics that require specialized health care,…… [Read More]
More area is dealt by Human esource Management than people originally thought of. Some may explain it as the exchanges between boss and worker in the time period between which a worker is employed, until they are eliminated. It is true human resources management starts even before this, with the strategies that are formed by the institution, and the laws that govern workplace institutions. Human esource Management is the procedure of working with people so that they and their organizations attain full potential even when change accelerates the necessity to get new talents, take up new tasks, and develop new relationships, as per an article by L. Dobb abd P. Dick of 1993. (Blessinger, Human esource Management)
Human esource Management is projected as that part of management, which deals with plans, decisions, issues, ethics, process, routines, work, performance and system associated with the management of people as workers…… [Read More]
United States healthcare programs to citizens compare with the healthcare provided to residents in other countries? That question will be the focus of this paper, along with the background to the decision of major health insurance companies to support the candidacy of Republican Mitt Romney.
here does the U.S. stand in the world when it comes to healthcare?
According to a statement by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, John Boehner, the U.S. has "…the best health care delivery system in the world" (Politiface.com). Boehner, who was a guest on the CBS Sunday program "Face the Nation," was commenting on the candidacy of Mitt Romney. On the July 1, 2012 program, Boehner said he supports Romney for president because Romney "…understands that Obamacare will bankrupt our country and will ruin…" that healthcare system that the speaker believes is best in the world (politifact.com).
Meanwhile on Fox News Sunday (also…… [Read More]
Economics of Healthcare
The Economics of Health Care
The healthcare in the United States is a system of economics that has been referred to as a Ponzi scheme and most assuredly, the economics of the U.S. healthcare system are unsound at best. The United States is the only industrialized nation in the world that fails to provide universal access to basic health care and according to the work of Kilchevsky (2004), 'the absence of universal health coverage has been called 'one of the great unsolved problems facing the United States at the onset of the 21st century." (p.1) This work intends to examine the economics of health care in the United States.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that national health expenditures for 2009 totaled $2.5 trillion, which is stated to be $58,086 per person. (erdine, 2011, p.1) The estimated total for health expenditures in 2008…… [Read More]
Access to Health Care in USA
This research paper focuses on the degree of accessibility to the health care services in the U.S.A. Accessibility refers to the ability of an individual to meet health care needs and to acquire the needed medical services on time. It then discusses the findings of the research. The suggestions for the elimination of the prevailing problems in the health care system are also given in the preceding paper.
Health Care: Access to Health Care in United States of America
To achieve a long-lasting life and to save oneself from major diseases it is important that people have an easy access to the medical and health care services. Access to the health care services means that individual gets timely health services to attain the best heath results. In other words it refers to the ability of an individual to meet health needs and to acquire…… [Read More]
History Of Health Care Mandate
The signing of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) by President Obama must be considered a landmark event in the history of the nation regardless of how one views the constitutionality of the legislation. Passage of the legislation marked the end of a long and acrimonious debate and brought the United States in line with the rest of the developed world in terms of providing universal health coverage to its citizens (Orszag, 2010). Unfortunately, the debate over the constitutionality of the ACA did not end with Obama's signing of the legislation as within days several different states filed suit against the law's requirement that most Americans purchase health; against the health care mandate.
The health care mandate was first offered as an option by the conservative think tank, the Heritage Foundation, as an option to the single-payer system that had been historically supported by Democrats and…… [Read More]
President Clinton's And Obama's Health Care Policies
President Obama's Healthcare policies
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has drawn some comparisons to elements of past efforts, including Mitt omney's health care plan in Massachusetts and the Clinton plan from the 1990s. This paper will mainly examine the context of the Clinton Plan vs. The ACA. After winning office, President Clinton followed up on a campaign promise to provide health care to the 37 million uninsured Americans. This plan had motivation citing a strong sense of social justice, especially in light of America's tremendous wealth. There was majority public approval for the plan at the time. However, a single payer plan idea faced opposition and Clinton needed to create an alternative (Pfiffner, 1994).
The Clinton government recognized that a major overhaul was not going to find favor, so he sought to implement a plan that would expand coverage rather than dramatically restructure…… [Read More]
Effects on Current Position
With "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act," many healthcare professionals are affected (Democratic Policy Committee, n.d.). Nationwide, hospitals are scrambling to buy hospitals in an effort to control costs. Doctors are leaving small private practices. Large insurance companies are becoming more dominant as smaller ones disappear because they cannot stay competitive (New York Times, 2011). Furthermore, epublicans denounced the law as an intrusion by the government that would prompt employers to eliminate jobs, create an unsustainable entitlement program, saddle states and the federal government with unmanageable costs, and interfere with the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, the law would exacerbate the steep rise in the cost of medical services, thus affecting the elimination of many healthcare positions. Ironically, less healthcare professionals will ensue, but an increase in patient care will be needed, as a result in more people becoming insured.
Challenges & Opportunities
Moreover, many…… [Read More]