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In the recent past, research on the attitudes toward school of African-American students has suggested that the subculture within which many lived explained negative attitudes toward school success (Tyson, 2002). In this view, African-American students who excelled in school were teased by friends. This peer influence would prod students to either slough off school or attempt to hide the fact that they were good students. They would avoid bringing books home because completing homework was not a peer-supported value (Tyson, 2002).
However, Tyson (2002) has come to a different conclusion based on her research. She found that early school success or failure better accounted for the attitudes individual students hold toward school and school success. She found that African-American students who struggle in school during the elementary years would avoid academic work simply to avoid more failure. Her research suggested that the evolution of negative views of school…… [Read More]
Issues Facing K-12 Leadership in Urban School Settings
What are the issues facing urban education in the K-12 environment and beyond? And to what extent is crime a hot topic among urban educators?
Some have attributed the complicated issues facing urban education including crime and poverty to school boards and administrations, but the larger issue seems to be funding and support from diverse institutions (Wilson, 1994). The need for high quality and universal educational standards is a must within the United States, where public schools vary tremendously in their ability to serve varying populations (Wilson, 1994).
At this time there is a great deal of support for education as a whole, but not enough emphasis on curing the ills that exist within the urban education sector of education.
There are many issues facing urban education, including poverty. Within the United States for example, the problem of child poverty exists, which…… [Read More]
Indeed, the structure of this particularly program will allow me to explore and refine some of my own ideas concerning educational equality through both theoretical and research-based modes of investigation. This is an exciting prospect as I have yet to truly test in a scholarly or empirical way many of the assumptions and concerns which have inclined me to take this path. Even as I seek admission into the program, I am inclined to consider the spectrum of possible avenues through which to validate, disprove or expand my existing knowledge of the subject.
This would, of course, be supplemented by the urban development, community and organization discussions which are a key component of the program. I consider these aspects essential to developing the tools necessary to actually apply to a resolution of the concerns cited at the outset of this essay. Particularly, much of my own experience and personal research…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the book "Life in Schools" by Peter McLaren
Peter McLaren is a well-known proponent for enforcing social reform and teaching and discussing about new issues in education and critical theory, which is the critical pedagogy and multicultural education. His extensive works regarding the study of critical pedagogy has already made him popular and well received by students, scholars, and readers who are in line of thinking with Paulo Freire, one of the most famous educational thinkers who revolutionized the way scholars treat the problem of education in the contemporary American society. The book "Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundation of Education," (4th edition), published by Allyn & Bacon, is a reflection of McLaren's belief about the radical change the educational system needed, and the social reform the educational system needs in order relieve the poor, 'oppressed' people from suffering the commercialization…… [Read More]
Curriculum and Policy
DaSilva Iddings, Combs, and Moll (2012) discuss policies surrounding English language learners in the United States (ELL). The article begins by considering the nature and prevalence of this population, postulating that students from this category have come to outnumber native English speakers in American schools. This emphasizes the importance of effective English language instruction for such learners, since it would empower them to access better opportunities in the future and to become contributing members of society. According to the authors, however, educational policy in certain states hinders the ability of these students to access adequate language learning in English.
In Arizona, for example, the policy is based upon Proposition 203, which was approved for Arizona in November 2000. This initiative essentially replaces bilingual education in the state with what was known as "Structured English Immersion (SEI), by which students are to learn English only by means of…… [Read More]
The three necessities of life, food, shelter, and clothing, will always remain fundamental for all world citizens. Food sources will shift scope from the factory farm model in place today to smaller-scale organic farms. Smaller in scale but larger in number, farms will also rely less on long-distance transportation for delivery of goods, which will reduce stress on the environment. Housing will also evolve into a more ecologically-conscious industry with emphases on sustainable building materials and efficient heating, cooling, and lighting systems. Finally, all industries including clothing will be regulated not necessarily by corrupt governments but by local watchdog organizations to ensure living wages, healthy working conditions, and quality goods and services.
Community Development." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm
Community Development." (2006). Federal eserve Board. etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm
King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html
Office of Community…… [Read More]
Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the Colonial Era to 1860
Urban infrastructure and connected services had a massive impact in the development of the colonies, all the way up to the end of the 19th century. In just a few decades, the quaint colonial townships which had once existed were no longer around, but had manifested into bustling metropolitan centers. This paper will demonstrate how much of that evolution was as a result of the values of Puritanism which guided and helped the colonies to evolve and develop into the modern era. The values of Puritanism spurred people to work and to thrive, causing the towns to work and to thrive into cities.
Pennsylvania is a shining example of how urban infrastructure and such related factors were able to modernize and urbanize such a colony. Philadelphia largely offers a clear example of how both privatism and a rejection of…… [Read More]
Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.
As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…… [Read More]
Louis Wirth based his urbanism studies on the city of Chicago where he lived.
A his research, he has identified three definable factors for urbanism: large population, dense settlement and social diversity. A city is "a large and permanent settlement, densely inhabited by a heterogeneous population." His urbanism describes the typical Western, industrial city: dangerous, unhealthy, where, due to the largeness of the city they live in, people develop forms of alienation and anarchy and where there is no sentiment of community.
Sally Merry found that Wirth's model worked best at a macro level, where she agrees with the anonymity that people live in and the disorder. However, she is more preoccupied with people manifestations at the city's peripheries: boundaries are a source of tension for people because of the unknown, so, starting with is, she observes human behavior at the city's boundaries.
Stanley Milgram somewhat refuted Wirth…… [Read More]
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…… [Read More]
Education Literature eview
Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus their collective attention on the epidemic of bullying which is crippling American schools. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre which claimed 13 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings that killed 32 students and faculty, recent tragedies like that which occurred at Sandy Hook elementary bring the consequences of rampant bullying in schools back to the forefront of the national consciousness. Although the loss of life associated with these terrible incidents, and the erosion of self-confidence that results from unchecked bullying, are tragedies that cause society to collectively mourn, it is possible that the diminished safety of our nation's schools has also reduced the ability of modern students to achieve academic excellence. While a causal link between…… [Read More]
Urban Data eview
eades et al. (2007) presented some interesting ideas about the use of data collection and its practical application in an urban setting. The authors discussed spatiotemporal data as a new object of desire for those wishing to control and understand human behavior in large city. The authors called for a synthesis of data information from all available sources, including telecommunications companies to assist in urban planning and understanding the complex and chaotic idea of urban dynamics.
This paper discussed this topic by explaining the details of a study conducted by MIT and Telecom Italia (TI), in ome, Italy's largest city. TI supplied data that recognized bandwidth usage on mobile phones and classified them as Erlongs. The data was collected, synthesized and modeled to help paint a picture of how ome operates and how people move about and communicate. Ultimately, the paper concluded that "Our preliminary findings suggest…… [Read More]
As the educational system continues to come unde inceasing amounts of scutiny, the teache is ultimately at the fulcum of pessue. They ae equied to digest new educational theoy and sot out the wheat fom the chaff. They ae asked to manage inceasing levels of divesity in the classoom, and students who come to class acoss a widening spectum of pepaedness. At the same time, they ae expected to be a students fiend, motivato, and at times suogate paent. Technological advances in the maketplace have made it necessay fo teaches to adapt to inceasing amounts of technology in the classoom. All of these issues ae coming at a time when fedeal mandates in the No Child Left Behind act ae demanding impoved pefomance, in some cased damatically impoved pefomance.
In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is…… [Read More]
Education of omen in Renaissance
Several methods relating to the education of women in Renaissance changed the world. However, these methods of Humanists and the queries of religious reformers had no impact on the lives of early modern European omen. Education, changing drastically between the 15th and 17th centuries was certainly kept from women although the rich and powerful were able to receive some education: it was not always used. Opportunities arose for the daughters of the rich and wealthy. However, the eventuality of all their efforts in education narrowed down to the typical role of a woman: a housewife. They still faced choices and challenges unique to their gender. hile some women did receive this education alongside men, the options of what to do with that education were cut severely. It is evident from the study that women did not have a Renaissance because of lack of education and…… [Read More]
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…… [Read More]
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…… [Read More]
' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…… [Read More]
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…… [Read More]
The odney Kind riots resulted in 50 deaths, 4000 injuries, 12,000 arrests, and $1 billion in property damage ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992").
While riots give a voice to the oppressed, it remains questionable whether they create meaningful structural change. Ten years after the odney King riots, "South Central remains one of the city's poorest neighborhoods. Unemployment remains well above 20% even after the boom of the 1990s," ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992"). iots reflect poorly on their communities, frightening away potential investors, social service institutions, and other means of community enrichment.
However, cities and their governments can learn from these four significant events in American urban history. Law enforcement officials must be trained to anticipate riots. Police departments should eliminate racial profiling and more vigorously prosecute officers using excessive force. Minorities should become well-represented at all levels of city government including law enforcement and criminal justice but also in…… [Read More]
Patronage jobs allowed local and regional businesses to flourish, offered political viability for minority groups, and ensured welfare services that state or federal funding would not have provided.
However, urban machines also colluded with organized crime, created impenetrable legacies of city boss cabals, and fomented corruption. Voters cast ballots based on the spoils system, diminishing the relevance of democratic freedoms. The patronage system also boosted special interests and prevented businesses from thriving independently of the machine. Around the 1920s, muckrakers began exposing the inner workings of the urban machine. Progressive politicians championed legitimate social welfare reform at the local level, speaking out against government corruption and collusion with big business (Caswell 2001).
The Progressive movement helped to eliminate or at least to diminish the scope of urban machine governments, even though Chicago's would persist well into the 1970s. In other cities like New York and Boston, the strong mayor system…… [Read More]
They strongly believe that dealing with questionable data and lowly-skilled workforce is a waste of time. Therefore, as they venture into newer markets, they face the risk of loosing out. As they go into markets looking at new opportunities, they are very insightful about company reputation.
Our focus will vary from providing services to large and medium-sized firms to small start up companies. However, small-sized firms will be the main target of our firm. Dushane will also provide attractive lucrative offers to companies that have management problems and are incapable of tackling problems when they first enter the U.S. markets.
Service Business Analysis
The consultancy "industry" is not only crushed but also incompetent, with hundreds of thousands of small companies along with individuals offering consulting services and focusing on the few dozen recognized corporations.
Our competitors vary from key global brand-names to hundreds of thousands of entrepreneurs. The…… [Read More]
Our urban metropolises are no longer the vibrant or essential centers they used to be. The mass migration of the wealthy into the suburbs has left our cities with reduced tax bases and less stability and in turn the cities have rapidly begun decaying. Our cities today are decadent and dangerous. Cites are the remnants of the industrial age and that time is gone. Breaking down or getting a flat tire in the wrong block will get an unfortunate traveler an introduction into the horrors of street crime and the illegal narcotics industry. Our cities are just not nice places any more. "Residents air their complaints in community meetings (of block dubs, police beats, the Local School Council, church groups, the Chamber of Commerce). Gangs and gang bangers top the list of their concerns." (Pattillo) This report will attempt to present an anthropological answer to the culture of…… [Read More]
Hilfiker is particularly sensitive to the source of poverty in African-American inner-city ghettoes.
His recommendation for ending poverty, was one new program: universal health coverage, to which he argued convincingly, would save all of us as a nation on current health costs and yet could include the 43 million presently uninsured (Seven Stories Press).
He also suggested three other existing programs:
1) the earned income tax credit, shown by the economists as the most profitable program for bringing up families out of poverty;
2) Unemployment insurance, that could be expanded in order to distribute enough income to keep the unemployed at least at poverty level;
3) Supplemental Security Insurance for the disabled. As he noted,
As a physician, I sometimes struggled for years to get examiners at S.S.I. To understand that one or another of my patients was, indeed, disabled."
Furthermore, for Hilfiker, the fundamental grounds of American poverty were…… [Read More]
Urban Problems and Solutions
In the 1990's, the United States exhibited a decreasing trend in the rates of pre-marital sex and teen pregnancies. However, the rate of teenage pregnancy in United States is yet considered to be alarming in comparison to that of other developed countries of the world. It has been estimated that about 1 million teenage girls in the U.S. are being victims of teenage pregnancy every year.
Due to the fact that teen mothers and babies are vulnerable to health hazards, the considerable birth rates among teens have become alarming. The ignorance of pregnant youngsters deprives them of taking appropriate medical attention, making them vulnerable to medical complexities. The teenage pregnancies have tremendous emotional impact on the adolescents. Under feeding, negligence in taking nutrients, habits of smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. which are common among most of the youngsters make their newly born babies prone to health…… [Read More]
Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.
(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…… [Read More]
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…… [Read More]
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…… [Read More]
Many of the busts in the ghetto are drug-related, and Hilfiker notes that our society punishes petty drug offences far more severely than crimes committed by people who are wealthy. Meantime, the mandatory minimum sentence takes away the possibility of any plea bargaining; it takes away the judge's previous alternative of giving probation for a petty crime and hands the power to the prosecutor, who runs for office on a "law and order" theme.
"Deserving" poor vs. "Undeserving" poor:
It has been customary in America for society to attempt to separate the "undeserving" poor from the "deserving" poor. The deserving poor are those who have supposedly found themselves down on their luck through no fault of their own; while the undeserving are reportedly "lazy" and likely on some government assistance program (Hilfiker, pp. 69-71). As a token offer of help to the very poor the government makes "TANF" benefits available…… [Read More]
Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…… [Read More]
Urban Poverty Readings Summary/Critique
These readings examine the relationship between race and poverty, especially in urban settings that present a setting of de fact segregation. Mincy and others note the social reinforcement of certain poverty-perpetuating attitudes and behaviors in urban poor communities, which still have a predominantly frican-merican population (Mincy 1994; Massey, 1990; Jargowsky & Sawhill 2006). Specifically, the jobless rate among males living in ethnically segregated urban is noted by these authors as a major contributing factor -- if not the primary factor -- in continued poverty along dramatically racialized lines. Mincy (1994) also notes that this naturally results in higher rates of federal assistance and criminality as a primary means of subsistence in these families, and this state of affairs is self-perpetuating in the way it isolates members of such communities from mainstream society and provides inadequate role models for future generations, even insofar as actively discouraging traditional…… [Read More]
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.
Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…… [Read More]
Urban Political Science: Questions and Answers
MIAMI-DADE EHICS COMMISSION:
Miami-Dade County is seeking a new chief for its ethics board.
What is the primary purpose of this ethics board?
he ethics committee was first enacted to change the Miami home rule charter. It was set up as an committee that has semi-judicial powers and it is independent of all other government offices in the county for the purpose of maintaining its ability to look into the ethical practices of government offices with an unbiased view (Miami Dade.gov).
What issues has the Commission handled that do NO relate to the member of the Board itself?
Since the board is now just conducting the search for a new boss (Hiaasen, 2011) it is not doing any business save that. It has recently worked to create a new ordinance on conflict of interest standard because it has had an issue with the county…… [Read More]
The more jobs that can be created with this money, the more people that can get back to work and the money people that can get on with their lives. And that is exactly what the people of New York City want to do.
Hill, Jeffery. "hat the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7
June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm
"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.
McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>
Light, Larry. "Stimulus Package Offers a Break for Mass-Transit Commuters." 2009. The all
Street Journal, 7 June 2009, http://blogs.wsj.com/wallet/2009/03/11/stimulus-package-offers-a-break-for-mass-transit-commuters/
Mason, J.. "Federal Stimulus and Medicaid: How Big a Savings for the City?" 2009. IBO
eblog, 7 June 2009, http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/cgi-park/?p=7
Meckler, Laura. "Obama Signs Stimulus Into Law." 2009. The all Street Journal, 7 June 2009,
<…… [Read More]
I don't go hungry, or feel the need to abuse drugs or alcohol, but I can see how this happens in these neighborhoods, where it seems there is little else to do and little else you can do to fit in with your peers. I do not think that is right, but I understand why it occurs. It is an easy way out, and it is readily available to just about everyone in the community, and it is common, and so, just about everyone engages in some kind of addictive behavior.
A cope with not having enough money by looking toward the future when I graduate and getting a good job so I can live the lifestyle I want. That is because I have choices. If I could not afford to attend college, or had to drop out to work or have kids, I would look at my future very…… [Read More]
Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings
Desecration of Public Education
Attack on Public Education
Public Education: A Democratic Demand
Government's Interest in Charter Schools
Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed
Division of the Community
Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools
Difference between Public and Charter Schools
No Standard Policies
Peer Pressure and Violence
Lack of Extracurricular Activities
Authority and their igid System
Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits
Following measures can be taken to improve public schools
Charter Schools vs. Public Schools
The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education
The Pressure for eform in American Education
Traits of Charter Schools
Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings
Why to Save Public Schools 21
The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…… [Read More]
Teaching in Urban Districts
The main form of interaction that goes on in schools is between the teachers and the students. Some of the students are difficult or unruly and they present many difficulties for the teachers as the teachers cannot then organize the class and provide the level of quality education that they are capable of. Disruptive students require more attention from teachers and this stops teachers from giving adequate attention to the rest of the class. There are many behavioral problems with students, but there is no method of dealing with such students in United States. Even the solution that can be achieved through disciplinary action has to be determined by the local school board, and then those decisions will have to be implemented by the teachers and the principal. One of the methods through which this can be done is the student parent handbook which is distributed…… [Read More]
National Educational Technology / State Leadership: The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) has released its 7th annual National Educational Technology Trends Report and it indicates that technology is playing "an increasingly important role" in K-12 school improvement efforts. Leadership in technology training in schools is vital if the future needs of all students are to be met, according to an article in Yacht Charters Magazine (Marketwire, 2010). The article quotes Secretary of Education Arne Duncan: "Schools can't be throw-backs to the state of education fifty, twenty, even ten years ago."
Peabody Faculty Recognized for Research, Leadership: Several faculty members from Vanderbilt University's Peabody Research Institute have been selected as American Education Research Association Fellows due to the leadership they demonstrated in scientific and scholarly educational research initiatives (Vanderbilt University). Meanwhile Robert Rodosky, who is adjunct professor of Leadership Policy and Organizations at Vanderbilt, has won the 2010 Excellence…… [Read More]
National Education Association
The National Education Association (NEA) was formed in 1857 and is dedicated to championing the rights of both educators and children. It has been a part of integration, the Civil ights movement, equal opportunity education, and the rights of teachers for over 150 years. After 1966 the National Education Association and American Teachers Association merged to form a more cohesive and powerful body. Each state has a branch of the NEA that regularly does lobby work to legislators for the resources schools need and to push for higher standards in the teaching profession. The NEA's programs and services may be accessed at http://www.nea.org. There are currently five forms of membership, from Students to etired. Anyone actively involved in the American Education System, as well as several distance and online institutions, may join the NEA, although professional certification is required for certain membership tiers.
The…… [Read More]
principals who are equity-oriented, marginalized dynamics may crop up in schools that are changing demographically at a rapid pace (Cooper, 2009). This essay reflects upon how educators may play the role of transformative leaders by way of carrying out cultural work that tackles inequity, addresses and/or attempts to remove socio-cultural limits, and promotes inclusion. The theories of Cornel West on 'the new cultural politics of difference' appraise the topic, as do literary works on transformative leadership to promote social justice.
Highlighting the ever-changing policy responses in the history of educational leadership, along with their contextual settings, explains the necessity for another glimpse at the manner in which educational leadership should be considered in recent times. Gale & Densmore (2003) found that educational leaders are now faced with contradictory pressures -- on the one hand, to favor some student groups over others, yet, on the other hand, to ensure that disadvantaged…… [Read More]
urban school districts. The biggest one I believe is coping with and attaching importance to the diversity that has been part of the American paradigm since the beginning of the country. The related challenge is providing equitable education for the children of a diverse community, frequently with wide differences in background. These differences might include socioeconomic, cultural and linguistic diversity. I believe the best way to deal with these differences is not to focus on the fact that diversity is a problem, but rather a blessing.
Personally then, I would face the challenge of diversity by focusing on the positive aspects of this element. In the classroom I would for example provide time for students to present their particular culture to the rest of the class. This would entail the traditions such as food and dancing that the culture includes. In this way students learn about other cultures, and also…… [Read More]
Journal Entry 1
Discourse on classroom management has shifted away from a disciplinarian and authoritarian model towards one more steeped in developmental psychology, social justice, and compassion. Within a new educational paradigm, teachers can provide structure in the classroom without expecting “conformity” or “obedience” per se (Jones, Jones & Vermette, 2013, p. 21). Teachers working within a classroom management paradigm that emphasizes trust and relationship building create far more effective educational environments.
Still, teachers do need to be armed with information and specific strategies. Some of the strategies recommended including improved awareness of non-verbal communication cues and a systematic means of redirecting and reframing problematic behavior (Jones, Jones & Vermette, 2013). Effective classroom management requires sensitivity to issues like cultural diversity and other contextual variables, too. The authoritarian approach does not work with adolescent students, especially, requiring teachers to develop a flexible and creative approach to problem solving in the…… [Read More]
Although further education courses can be at traditional universities, they are generally taught through colleges that are exclusively venues for further education courses. These institutions are sometimes called "community colleges" after the American institutions that are similar. (Although American community colleges offer both post-secondary education as well as further or continuing education classes.) Other institutions that offer further education courses may offer a variety of work-based learning classes while campuses that offer adult and community learning coursework also frequently offer further education coursework.
As is appropriate -- and indeed perhaps necessary -- for further education programs designed to ameliorate the skills of a profession as important as teaching (as well as other professions such as social work, medicine, or law), there is an agency tasked with ensuring that teacher further education aligns with national goals for the profession's standards. The Learning and Skills Improvement Service (the LSIS was formerly titled…… [Read More]
social capital was available to you? Why?
I would say that I have the benefit of a good education and strong background in appearing knowledgeable about something. This lends itself to convincing people and debating with people.
• Did you have a lot of social capital relative to others? Had your social capital been influential in your life in terms of crime control? Why? Provide a real-life example of a person you think took to crime because of less social capital availability.
I would say I absolutely have at least a marginal advantage in social capital. I often keep my views to myself because some people are quite touchy about opinionated and outspoken people. However, when I do say thing I absolutely have something good to say and I believe I have the standing to make the assertions that I do, especially as it relates to crime. For example, I…… [Read More]
urban violence as it relates to a significant family stressor. The author examines the causes of violence as related to family stressors and applies a program to it to affect change. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The problem with urban violent is not just a problem for those who are involved. The occurrence of urban violence impacts the local business, schools, and families of those who are near the area. When urban violence begins to appear several things begin to happen. Businesses are affected because the consumer does not want to go into the area to shop. This causes economic problems for the businesses and they close down. Once they close down this means a loss of jobs, which can contribute to the poverty level that has been documented as a contributing factor to urban violence. It is a vicious circle that perpetuates itself. The schools…… [Read More]
Opportunities in K-12 Urban City Schools
This paper intends to show that the best educational leadership can provide to individuals is to provide students with the skills they need to skillfully and successfully cope with "today" and upon doing so to be secure in the knowledge that the tomorrows and the future will follow. This paper will research, explore and examine the options that present themselves to today's graduate student with a Master of Education K-12 Leadership in the urban city school setting.
According to Elliot W. Eisner:
The unknowable future is not a sound basis on which to plan curriculum."
Eisner that upon first contemplating the creation of a curriculum that will prepare students for the future seems to be a task that is unachievable because the future world is something we see through a "glass but darkly" concerning the future. However, as Eisner points out no…… [Read More]
The sample will be drawn from a single school in large urban district. By framing the study this way, researchers understand that findings may produce insights into the way this subject is addressed in some school settings. However, this will lack external validity within the frame of only a single sample school.
The primary delimitation is shaped by the selected grade levels for review and by the teacher population which will drive the focus of the study. Accordingly, the methodology will center on an interview of teachers who preside over grades 6 through 8 in the selected school. The expected sample population is comprised of 11 participants, who will answer questions regarding the identification, labeling and education of students who are talented and gifted.
The study proceeds from the assumption that instructors have addressed the questions presented to them with clarity and honesty. The research is also carried by…… [Read More]
school uniforms within a school system. Ideas such as school discipline, student behavior, and academic achievement are discussed along with examples of why different schools have implemented student use of uniforms. Various viewpoints are presented, along with proponents and opponents concerns for the actual implementation of uniforms.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ITHIN A SCHOOL SYSTEM: AFFECTS ON DISCIPLINE AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Many schools across the United States have adopted school uniforms to meet the needs for a mandatory dress code. There are many opposing arguments on the issue of whether public school students in the United States should be required to wear uniforms or obey dress codes. Improvement of discipline and academic performance, reduction of fashion competition among students are a few of the reasons given in support of implementing school uniforms. However, the opposing viewpoints maintain that requiring school uniforms are a violation of students' First Amendment right to…… [Read More]
urban elementary school in Eastern, New York . That problem
Specifically, is the social promotion of fourth grade students with disabilities. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue as social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefit from children being passed to the next grade level. This benefit consists essentially of state and federal funding (Meier et al., 2004, p.8). Special education teachers are tasked with teaching students who have not mastered basic skills.
Meier, D. et al. (2004). Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act
is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston: Beacon Press.
There is a gap in practice regarding the effects of social promotion regarding teachers and students, as the concept remains controversial (Frey, 2005).
Frey, N. (2005). Retention, social promotion, and academic redshirting. Remedial and Special Education, 26(6): 332-346.
There is a…… [Read More]
Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…… [Read More]
In the U.S. The conflict between progressive and traditional education has been going on for over 100 years, and E.D. Hirsch and John Dewey are polar opposites in this pedagogical and philosophical conflict. Dewey was indeed a support of the Left in politics who wanted the U.S. To become a social democracy and move away from more traditional conservative ideas. He thought that democratic socialism would be the wave of the future in urban, industrial society, and that the traditional education system was not preparing students to participate as active citizens in this new society. It was rigid, authoritarian and hierarchical, with teachers acting like dictators in the classroom and often dispensing plenty of corporal punishment. ather than follow a rigid, old-fashioned curriculum, the teacher had to allow students to participate in designing lessons that were relevant to their lives and experiences. Only this way could the public schools…… [Read More]
Amico, Deborah.(2011).Providing Worker Education and Building the Labor Movement: The Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1)
In this paper, D'Amico discusses the provision of worker education as well as the building of the labor movement activities that takes place at Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York (CUNY).This educational facility is dedicated to the provision of worker education as well as the building of the city's labor market. The author indicates that the institute is active in the provision of workers access to education as well as advancement should they seeks it. The article also mentions that the institute is also involved in the coalescing of the labor-management education funds as well as academic departments with the widely accepted industry expertise in order to create the best programs that can adequately serve the union members.
Martin, Larry…… [Read More]
Schools and Education
Over the last several years, the field of education has been facing tremendous challenges. This is because of shifts in how they address a host of issues and there are changing demographics of students. These are all signs of broader social implications which are having an effect on individual performance and their ability to adapt with a variety of situations. (Rury, 2013)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Rury (2013) who said, "e live in a time of considerable social and political turmoil, marked by economic uncertainty that has directly touched the lives of millions of Americans. Deep divisions and critical problems, as a range of issues are debated fervently, extending from economic policy, to poverty and inequality. If there is anything everyone seems to agree upon it the growing importance of education for the future. ithout expanding our present knowledge and abilities, it…… [Read More]
Current state of American education
In the United States of America, both the public and private schools are liable for the provision of education within the entire nation. In accordance with funding and the full control by the local, state, and federal government, there is universal availability of public schools across the whole nation (Orland, 2011). Empowered by the jurisdictions over school districts, the locally elected school boards are responsible for setting the education policies, funding, employment, teaching, and the formulation of the public schools' curriculum (Frank, 2012). Additionally, the state governments control the standardized tests and educational standards for public school systems. On the other hand, private schools are free to determine their own staffing policies, as well as their curriculum via voluntary accreditation available with the regional independent accreditation authority. Educational statistics reveal that approximately 85% of school age children go to public schools, 10% attend…… [Read More]
hen it comes to pedagogy, the art of teaching, there are many different interrelationships among different theories of knowledge, theories of learning, conceptions of curriculum and approaches of broad inquiry for the purposes of schooling. Every teacher is faced with a challenge to effectively convey his or her message of knowledge and inspire today's youth. It takes a certain amount of passion and consistency to pursue such a career.
This paper will argue the validity of Nel Noddings' groundbreaking work on the notion of care and take a look at her book Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. The thesis born out of the reading will also touch on her other works as well. To pursue a just argument that the notion of care works today, this paper will also look at Aristotle's Ethics. By examining his work, the paragraphs below will conduct a theoretical conversation…… [Read More]
Lives on the Boundary by Mike ose
The achievements of ose with his students were successful and exceptional because most of his students were in the circumstances he was once in the discredits most of the educational fallacies and stereotypes that are applied on remedial students and literacy. He also shows how one can succeed in life despite of the background as it is seen when he becomes a teacher and later a director at UCLA
The main theme in this book is to show how life can be hard for the remedial students who he argues that they do not fail as a result of intelligence and poor skills but due to limited opportunity and little understanding. He tells this through his own life experience to show how both social and economic forces play a big role in influencing performance and perception of the unprepared students. He does not…… [Read More]
Establishing Consultation and Collaboration in a School
Calgary Public School Board has hired a resource teacher for an elementary/junior high school, which has 16 teachers and 325 students i.e. 150 and 175 students at elementary and junior high levels respectively. The school principal has indicated his desire to create some form of consultation and collaboration in the school. While the school has in the past referred students with special needs to special education placements in other schools, those with learning and behavioral difficulties have been removed from the resource room because they could not be placed in a district program. The former resource teacher did not work in collaboration with other teachers and stakeholders. As the new resource teacher, it's important to establish suitable measures for consultation and collaboration to help address the needs of special education students. Such a platform will help in dealing with the different cases in…… [Read More]
The study found that while the students sought out information from a variety of sources, the sources they found most valuable were parents, friends, teachers, and school counselors. Students in upper grades (11th & 12th) were more likely than students in lower grades to seek out information, and upper level students were more likely to find school counselors, college resource materials, campus visits, and college representatives as most helpful, compared with lower grade students (9th & 10th) who reported that parents, relatives, or siblings were most helpful. There are several implications of this study for colleges and universities. First of all, as school counselors were cited as an important resource for information, colleges need to work with counselors to make sure they have up-to-date information. Griffin et al. (2010) explain that "erroneous information can lead to unrealistic expectations that may cause students to select goals and take actions that can…… [Read More]
grew up in an underdeveloped urban city where the poverty and social conditions hindered me from getting an appropriate education.
Like Rafe Esquith, I believe that this has given me a special empathy to people from societies similar to mine. I understand them. Take just a few days ago, for instance. I was stopped by robbers at gunpoint who forced me to continue to drive. Many others, I suppose, would have been afraid. I can't say I wasn't, but more than that. I was them. I was with them. I understood why they were doing this. I pitied for their childhood, and I wished to help them.
TEP's two-year graduate program offers specialized urban teacher preparation in the form of a two-year intensive Master of Education (M.Ed.) program in teaching for social justice in urban communities. Yes! This calls to me. But far more resonant with me is your objective:…… [Read More]
At-Risk Students in Highe Education
The objective of this wok is to wite on thee theoies that ae o should be pat of developmental education theoy in highe education and specifically as elated to at-isk students. This study will be in the fom of a eview of liteatue in this aea of inquiy that is located in academic and pofessional jounals and aticles as well as othe such pee-eviewed publications.
Thap (2001) wites in the wok entitled "Fom At Risk to Excellence: Reseach, Theoy and Pinciples fo Pactice" that sociocultual-based school pogams ae such that use the innate cuiosity of students to "constuct miniatue communities of scientific pactice." (p.11) Paticipation in schoolwok is paticipation in sociocultual activity and this is stated "to occu on many planes o levels of inteaction." (Thap, 2001, p.11)
It is stated in the wok of Rogoff (1995) that eseach can be divided into…… [Read More]
They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."
Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…… [Read More]