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Chicago: Planning and Urban Life
Urban sustainability revolves around many factors. This means for the area to endure, several factors have to be considered. These factors may involve engaging the local communities in order to re-urbanize a given region. Areas to consider during this upgrade include the building structures, the infrastructure connections, urban design, which includes transportation, means. Transportation means avoiding cars in the central business district to avoid delays. The social and economic designs are also areas to be looked into during this sustainability of cities. A walking distance connection saves time hence adds in production. The environment is also an area to be looked at because it should be supportive for physical activities. This brings about the conclusion that urban sustainability consists of three important factors. These are the economic, environment and social factors (Botkin, 45).
Characteristics of a sustainable City
In a sustainable city, different…
Botkin, D.B.. Discordant Harmonies, a New Ecology for the 21st century. New York: Oxford University Press. 2002
Hak, T. Sustainability Indicators, SCOPE 67. London: Island Press.v2007
Hawken, P, Lovins, A.B. & L.H. Natural Capitalism: Creating the next Industrial Revolution. Snowmass, USA: Rocky Mountain Institution. 2006
Calthorpe, P and Fulton, W The Regional City. Washington DC: Island Press. 2001
unconventional poetic form and breaking the laws of spelling and grammar, Bill Bissett's "Ode to Frank Silvera" presents a multilayered, multifaceted critique of modern poetry and modern life. Ironically, "Ode to Frank Silvera" does reveal a strong commitment to the traditional goals of poetry: including the use of verse to achieve intellectual and emotional reactions in the reader. The reader can recognize the elements of traditional poetic structure including the use of repetition and parallelism, and deliberate homage paid to ee Cummings in the use of all lowercase letters. Bissett also manages to achieve a sort of meta-analysis of the English language, distilling words to their essential phonemes and presenting them with blatant errors in spelling. Doing this, Bissett also draws attention to the words he misspells, such as the ubiquitous "yu," which is pivotal in "Ode to Frank Silvera." The content of "Ode to Frank Silvera" echoes that of…
Bissett, B. (1980). Ode to Frank Silvera. In Beyond Even Faithful Legends. Vancouver: Talon.
Blake, W. (1794). London. Retrieved online: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/172929
Eliot, T.S. (1915). The love song of J. Alfred Prufrock. Retrieved online: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poetrymagazine/poem/173476
Morrell, E. & Duncan-Andrade, J. (n.d.). What they do learn in school. Chapter 11 in Mahiri, J. (Ed.) What They Don't Learn in School. New York: Peter Lang.
hat is urban culture(s)?
Hear the words 'urban culture,' and quite often one thinks of hip-hop, the music that is a fusion of black city culture with other ethnic elements of various cities, from Jamaican to Latino sounds. Of course, this is a single example of modern urban culture. hat hip-hop shares in common with other urban cultural expressions of the past is that hip-hop is the product of fusing the diverse cultural elements of a variety of new ethnicities into a new culture. Urban culture is the result of tightly packing people into close apartment structures, neighborhoods and blocks that often allow them to be ethnically or racially 'isolated' from mainstream modern culture, yet creates a proximity that forces urban residents to adapt to a new American environment in a socially 'sharing' way.
The notion of urban culture is older than such modern-day constructions as hip-hop however.…
Schultz, Stanley. Constructing the Urban Culture American Cities and City Planning, 1800-1920. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Lobo, Daniel G., & Larry Schooler. (2004) "Playing with Urban Life." Technology & Cities. The American City. Issue 6. Retrieved 8 Nov 2005 at http://www.americancity.org/article.php?id_article=21
Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the Colonial Era to 1860
Urban infrastructure and connected services had a massive impact in the development of the colonies, all the way up to the end of the 19th century. In just a few decades, the quaint colonial townships which had once existed were no longer around, but had manifested into bustling metropolitan centers. This paper will demonstrate how much of that evolution was as a result of the values of Puritanism which guided and helped the colonies to evolve and develop into the modern era. The values of Puritanism spurred people to work and to thrive, causing the towns to work and to thrive into cities.
Pennsylvania is a shining example of how urban infrastructure and such related factors were able to modernize and urbanize such a colony. Philadelphia largely offers a clear example of how both privatism and a rejection of…
Anbinder, T. (2001). Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City . New York: Penguin Group.
Kang, N. (2009, December). Puritanism and Its Impact upon American Values . Retrieved from ccsenet.org: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/res/article/viewFile/4585/3924
Warner, S. (1968). The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods. Phhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Our urban metropolises are no longer the vibrant or essential centers they used to be. The mass migration of the wealthy into the suburbs has left our cities with reduced tax bases and less stability and in turn the cities have rapidly begun decaying. Our cities today are decadent and dangerous. Cites are the remnants of the industrial age and that time is gone. Breaking down or getting a flat tire in the wrong block will get an unfortunate traveler an introduction into the horrors of street crime and the illegal narcotics industry. Our cities are just not nice places any more. "Residents air their complaints in community meetings (of block dubs, police beats, the Local School Council, church groups, the Chamber of Commerce). Gangs and gang bangers top the list of their concerns." (Pattillo) This report will attempt to present an anthropological answer to the culture of…
Pattillo, Mary E. "Sweet Mothers And Gang Bangers: Managing Crime In A Black Middle-Class Neighborhood" Social Forces 01 Mar. 1998.
Ryan, James E. "Schools, Race, And Money" Yale Law Journal November (1999):.
Zenner, Walter P., and George Gmelch. Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City. 4th ed. n.p. Waveland P, 2001.
The odney Kind riots resulted in 50 deaths, 4000 injuries, 12,000 arrests, and $1 billion in property damage ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992").
While riots give a voice to the oppressed, it remains questionable whether they create meaningful structural change. Ten years after the odney King riots, "South Central remains one of the city's poorest neighborhoods. Unemployment remains well above 20% even after the boom of the 1990s," ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992"). iots reflect poorly on their communities, frightening away potential investors, social service institutions, and other means of community enrichment.
However, cities and their governments can learn from these four significant events in American urban history. Law enforcement officials must be trained to anticipate riots. Police departments should eliminate racial profiling and more vigorously prosecute officers using excessive force. Minorities should become well-represented at all levels of city government including law enforcement and criminal justice but also in…
The 1965 Watts Riots." Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/watts.html
Herman, M. (nd). "Newark Riots-1967." The Newark and Detroit Riots. Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.67riots.rutgers.edu/n_index.htm
Los Angeles Riot Still Echoes a Decade Later." (2002). CNN.com.
The Los Angeles Riots, 1992." Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/la_riot.html .
Intelligence operation in cities will reveal, in addition to other things, the exact locations of the enemy. Once the locations have been pinpointed, the interagency task force can then besiege him with a combination of forces, surveillance, robotics, and media and combatants gas aimed at making the enemy's position untenable. With this in effect, the enemy is bound to be drawn out of their hideout and appropriate military action such as arrest or open fire taken.
In view of the suggestions presented, it is indeed a momentous time that military training be taken a notch higher. The reality of the 21st century leaves the defense forces with little choices, if any, as far as engaging terror groups in urban areas is concerned. The events in Mogadishu, where the U.S. military underperformed expectation, should serve as a revelation that the mighty of the forces does not necessarily guarantee success. Instead, intelligent…
Peters, R. (2001). Fighting for the Future: Will America Triumph? Washington, DC: Stackpole.
Leonhard, R.R. (2003). Sun Tzu's Bad Advice: Urban Warfare in the Information Age. ARMY Magazine - April 2003
Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…
City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/disaster/Hurricane%20Preparation%20files/City%20of%20Miami%20Master%20Plan.pdf
Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.
Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.
Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://www.udbline.com/organizations.htm
Cities are described in terms of chessboards, in which every player has a different function, from health food stores to cultural meccas, but the diversity leads to community strength. Quite sensibly, Jacobs points out that if residential areas are 'decontaminated' and cultural sites are shifted to other city areas, residents of the city will cease to frequently use these locations, the institutions' living cultural uses will decline, and tourists and museum-piece events will take over to target one-time users (168-169).
Jacobs wrote her work as a challenge to the stultifying ethos of urban planning of her day, which attempted to predict the movements of people, and create a cohesive appearance rather than to let the natural, discursive nature of urban life to work its magic. Highly regimented urban planning also isolates lower-income individuals within their own enclaves, removing them from the vibrant opportunities and enrichment of the commerce of the…
Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Vintage, 1992.
Land Use Planning Policies and Urban Sprawl
Land planning for distribution has progressed manifolds in the past century. Increase in the number of communities in the country raises the demand for urban development. Developments are often referred as revolutionary plans meant for better living. However, by the end of the 20th century perception of better living means away from the mainstream urbanism. Communities shifted to new areas with open space, tranquility and yet with almost the same kind of amenities as those in the urban areas [illiams, 2000].
Urban spread has become a major concern for various reasons. According to some urban sprawl should be controlled through extensive planning campaigns. Proponents of this group argue that the open spaces for farmland, once considered an off-limits arena for the urban commuters, today with the help of developers has slowly encroached on farm designated land. Opponents to sprawl are quick to…
Jacobs, Harvey M. Fighting Over Land America's Legacy... America's Future? Vol. 65 no, Journal of the American Planning Association, 04-15-1999.
Oliver, Charles. "Regulations Are Crimping the Suburbs," Investor's Business Daily, June 23, 1998.
Kaiser, Edward J.; Godschalk, David R., Twentieth century land use planning: a stalwart family tree... Vol. 61, Journal of the American Planning Association, 06-22-1995, pp 365(21).
Gordon, Peter; Richardson, Harry W., Are compact cities a desirable planning goal? Vol. 63, Journal of the American Planning Association, 01-01-1997, pp 95(12).
urban and rural communities differ in the formality of their norms and the strictness with which they are enforced?
Urban and rural communities differ profoundly in the demographic composition of their population and thus in their informal social norms. The greater influx of immigrants and socially mobile communities of labor often creates greater diversity in urban communities. This diversity results in greater tolerance of different modes of life. People who are young, gay, from other countries, or are pursuing artistic careers, are more likely to live in cities and often are more willing to transgress common social norms of what constitutes an acceptable lifestyle than people living in more rural areas.
Even individuals who limit themselves to dwelling in particular ethnic enclaves, like 'Little Italy' at the beginning of the 20th century, may experience greater heterogeneity of living styles than they did when they lived in rural towns in their…
However, the post office in a way "instead of becoming more urban, more willing to open picket-fence gates and climb front stoops," also "grows daily more and more rural in its outlook," preferring that its carriers not only drive vehicles but stay in their vehicles," and it is unheard of that a mailperson would come in for a slice of apple pie near the fire on a cold day, as might be the case may years ago (68). Information transmission is anonymous, and like everything else, takes place in enclosures of automobiles and post office boxes. The things that seem to keep us connected actually keeps us apart, like the post-orld ar II Interstate highway system, modeled on the German Autobahn made up of mazes of roads that fence in cities and housing developments as often as it links them together.
Some of Stilgoe's notes are not so much observations…
Stilgoe, John. Outside Lies Magic. Walker & Co, 1999.
Louis Wirth based his urbanism studies on the city of Chicago where he lived.
A his research, he has identified three definable factors for urbanism: large population, dense settlement and social diversity. A city is "a large and permanent settlement, densely inhabited by a heterogeneous population." His urbanism describes the typical Western, industrial city: dangerous, unhealthy, where, due to the largeness of the city they live in, people develop forms of alienation and anarchy and where there is no sentiment of community.
Sally Merry found that Wirth's model worked best at a macro level, where she agrees with the anonymity that people live in and the disorder. However, she is more preoccupied with people manifestations at the city's peripheries: boundaries are a source of tension for people because of the unknown, so, starting with is, she observes human behavior at the city's boundaries.
Stanley Milgram somewhat refuted Wirth…
1. PRICE AND STATUS IN VIENNA'S NASCHMARKT.
3. cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/macionis9 / chapter15/objectives/deluxe-content.html
Sprawl locations are often unsightly and starkly modern in a manner that offends some Europeans: "Traditional cities, like many small and mid-sized cities in modern-day Europe, were typically oriented in a compact and efficient way. Preferences of many people, especially in the United States, have led suburban development…in an outward instead of upward manner…Subdivisions are often cited as primary examples of a less efficient use of space that characterizes sprawl. These layouts often only have a few places to enter and exit, causing main roads to have more traffic at these points" (Hill 2010). Creating long commute times and encouraging people to remain within their homes rather than seek out others during times of leisure has had a profoundly negative social impact upon the U.S., many believe, and they cite the fact that the few cities that are anomalous in their development, such as walker-friendly New York City, tend to…
Hill, Adam. "What is urban sprawl?" Wise Geek. August 11, 2010.
Globalization has created a profound impact on society. Through globalization, emerging markets continue to grow and develop. New and innovative products are created that provide solutions to societal problems. As such, wealth is created that is distributed to nations that provide services to humanity. As wealth is distributed, urban areas are created and cultivated. These cities, over time, become populated with the new inhabitants, and continue to thrive. The development of cities and urban areas correlates directly with economic growth and development. With an economic system that continues to innovate, produce product and provide jobs, urban areas cannot be properly developed. The documentary, Urbanized is a testament to the merits of a market economy and how the city of the future may be fundamentally different from the city of today (Kolb, 1972).
To begin Urbanized provides enlightening insights into which the colonies or social formations, in which we…
1) Kolb, Frank (1984). Die Stadt im Altertum. Munchen: Verlag C.H. Beck. pp. 51-141: Morris, A.E.J. (1972). History of Urban Form. Prehistory to the Renaissance. London. pp. 22-23
2) Taylor, Nigel, (2007), Urban Planning Theory since 1945, London, Sage.
3) Wheeler, Stephen (2004). "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities," Routledge; 3rd edition
The three necessities of life, food, shelter, and clothing, will always remain fundamental for all world citizens. Food sources will shift scope from the factory farm model in place today to smaller-scale organic farms. Smaller in scale but larger in number, farms will also rely less on long-distance transportation for delivery of goods, which will reduce stress on the environment. Housing will also evolve into a more ecologically-conscious industry with emphases on sustainable building materials and efficient heating, cooling, and lighting systems. Finally, all industries including clothing will be regulated not necessarily by corrupt governments but by local watchdog organizations to ensure living wages, healthy working conditions, and quality goods and services.
Community Development." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm
Community Development." (2006). Federal eserve Board. etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm
King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html
Office of Community…
Community Development." Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm
Community Development." (2006). Federal Reserve Board. Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm
King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html
Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD). U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/
Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.
As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…
Baker, Linda. "The Fast-Moving Fight To Stop Urban Sprawl." E. May 2000 v11 i3 p26
Binkley, Clark, Bert Collins, Lois Kanter, Michael Alford, Michael Shapiro, Richard Tabors. Interceptor Sewers and Urban Sprawl. D.C.: Heath and Company, 1975
Brecher, Jeremy, & Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage, Economic Reconstruction from the Ground Up. Cambridge, Ma. South End Press, 1998
Gordon, John Steele. "The American environment: the big picture is more heartening than all the little ones." American Heritage, Oct 1993 v44 n6 p30
Urban sprawl is not something that too many people really seem to spend that much time thinking about. Despite this, however, many people do have to deal with it. Those that are faced with the problem are often unsure about what they should be doing about it, and those that work in the field of trying to control it often struggle between making sure that there are enough places for people to live and making sure that the environment is not destroyed by the new houses and other buildings that are being created. Sometimes, balancing this is very difficult, and this is at the heart of the problem. For this reason, this paper focuses on urban sprawl and the environmental impact that is often seen when it takes place.
Environmentalists have so many concerns that they often can overlook the problems that urban sprawl is causing when it comes to…
Garreau, J. (1991). Edge City. New York: Anchor Books.
Gordon, P. & Richardson, H. (1998). Prove it: The costs and benefits of sprawl. Brookings Review 16(3): 23-26.
Lomax, T. & Schrank, D. (1998). Urban Roadway Congestion, 1982 to 1996. College Station, Texas: Texas Transportation Institute.
Reid, A. (10 December 1996). Area traffic stuck in a costly jam. Washington Post, A1.
Neighbors comment on how much safer they feel and how much less violence there is. Knowing that one does not have to constantly deal with facing the violence everyday will indeed bring more people to take care of themselves more as they do not fall into the mentality of lack of control about their surroundings. If they recognize that their neighborhoods are safer and therefore they feel that their fate is more in the control of their own hands, then they may be able to also accept the fact that being healthier is actually within their reach.
Aside from the violence that contributes to an urban health crisis, illegal drugs only add on to that notion (Bourgois 2008). However, it is the illegality of drugs that actually bring the greater health risk to the urban population (Straight and True 2004). A drug like marijuana that has no real documented proof…
Bourgois, P. 2008. The Mystery of Marjiuana: Science and the U.S. War on Drugs. Substance Use & Misuse. 43:581-583.
"Hamsterdam." The Wire. Episode 4, Season 3. Home Box Office. New York, New York. 10 Oct 2004.
"Homecoming." The Wire. Episode 6, Season 3. Home Box Office. New York, New York. 31 Oct 2004.
Kinenberg, E. 2001. Dying Alone: The Social Production of Urban Isolation. Ethnography. 2/4:499-529.
It is very clear then that this particular 'urban legend' is very much the same as the gossips circulating around America. No proofs whatsoever, and the only purpose is to stir pandemonium among people.
A student at Oxford was sitting an exam when he called a supervisor and asked for his mug of ale and a plate of scones. Turns out there's rules dating back to medieval times - a few of which were never repealed. The ale and scones are duly brought. At his next exam, he's refused entry because he's not carrying his sword." http://www.warphead.com/urbanlegends/school.htm,2006 para 5)
This particular urban legend circulated among the students. This type of urban legend is not time bounded for the students can relate to this, may it be students from the past, or students of the present time. This particular urban legend is funny in a way and it stirs imagination among…
Antisocial Urban Legend." [online] viewed: 9 Sept 2006. http://www.warphead.com/urbanlegends/antisocial.htm
Collins, G.. The Irresistible History of Gossip in American Politics. Harvest Books. 1999
Schools Urban Legend." [online] viewed: 9 Sept 2006. http://www.warphead.com/urbanlegends/school.htm
If there is an aggregate sub-base, these can provide water quality treatment. There should be good compaction and appropriate geo-textiles especially for areas accessible to heavy vehicles.
Permeable pavements reduce the need for deep excavations thereby providing a cost benefit. This system reduces the run-off rates and peak flow. The overall benefit is that it removes pollutants and holds water so that it does enter the main drainage. A lot of water in the main drainage would either need pumping or treating thereby using energy (Wild et al. 2002).
They are continuous vegetated drainage systems which convey or store water while allowing filtration when appropriate. Usually, they are the equivalent of roadside gullies or drainage pipes in conventional drainage systems. However, swales have gentle gradient so that water moves at low velocity. The sediments in storm water run-off can, therefore, settle out.
The advantage of swales is that…
Apostolaki, S., Jefferies, C., Smith, M. & Woods-Ballard B. 2002, Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 5th Symposium of the International Planning and Environmental Association. Oxford, September.
Apostolaki, S, Jefferies, C. & Smith, M. 2003, the Perception and Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Development & Management of the Subsurface. 5-7 Nov. Utrech, the Netherlands
Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2000, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems -- design manual for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Report No. 521
Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2002, Source Control Using Constructed Pervious Surfaces. Report No. 582
Urban Outfitters Continuing Case Study
Explain why Sears or Wal-Mart cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image
The reasons for stores like Urban Outfitters to be able to create such a culture are their ability to operate with low and medium volume. Hence it is possible to change the output based on changes in demand. For example, the 'Urban Outfitters' followed the policy of locating stores that have the concentration of targeted customers, and this also effectively made use of the existing structures to provide customer targeted fashion and label apparel and home furnishings. These could be promoted by the use of strategies like visual merchandising, displays, and customer related merchandise which naturally had higher prices and low volume. (Funding Universe, n. d.)
The advantage was that the company markets to a known demand at a set price. In the case of Wal-Mart or Sears, the problem is compound because…
Funding Universe. (n. d.) "Principal Subsidiaries: Urban Outfitters Wholesale, Inc."
Retrieved 4 May 2011 from http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Urban-Outfitters-Inc.-Company-History.html
Morrison, Adam, (2006) "Niche Markets and Small Caribbean Producers: A Match Made in Heaven." Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, vol. 19, no. 4, pp: 341-
Moschis, George P. (1994) "Marketing Strategies for the Mature Market." Quorum Books:
In a fictional film, it is unlikely that a successful former member of the Bloods would be shown as triumphing over his life on the streets. The messiness of nonfiction allows the filmmakers to embrace human complexity. hile Brick City was criticized for lacking an "entirely satisfying narrative through-line. It's an involving, often moving, slice of Newark city life, but in the end, the stories of both the city and its spotlighted residents feel very unfinished," this is inevitable because of the fact that it is more interested in showing the different sides of the city than simplifying the resident's experiences to simply tell a 'good story' (Sepinwall 2009). From a narrative point-of-view, the episode may lag at times, but the program always has a sense of 'truthfulness' in the respect it bestows to the residents on the streets and the representatives of city politics.
This theme of the video…
"Episode 4: Circus." Brick City. September 24, 2009. [June 15, 2011].
Sepinwall, Alan. "Brick City -- review." September 9, 2009. [June 15, 2011].
Hilfiker is particularly sensitive to the source of poverty in African-American inner-city ghettoes.
His recommendation for ending poverty, was one new program: universal health coverage, to which he argued convincingly, would save all of us as a nation on current health costs and yet could include the 43 million presently uninsured (Seven Stories Press).
He also suggested three other existing programs:
1) the earned income tax credit, shown by the economists as the most profitable program for bringing up families out of poverty;
2) Unemployment insurance, that could be expanded in order to distribute enough income to keep the unemployed at least at poverty level;
3) Supplemental Security Insurance for the disabled. As he noted,
As a physician, I sometimes struggled for years to get examiners at S.S.I. To understand that one or another of my patients was, indeed, disabled."
Furthermore, for Hilfiker, the fundamental grounds of American poverty were…
Speaking of Faith. Krista's Journal. "Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen" by David
Hilfiker. www.speakingoffaith.publicradio.orgAugust 24, 2006
Seven Stories Press. "Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen" by David
Urban Problems and Solutions
In the 1990's, the United States exhibited a decreasing trend in the rates of pre-marital sex and teen pregnancies. However, the rate of teenage pregnancy in United States is yet considered to be alarming in comparison to that of other developed countries of the world. It has been estimated that about 1 million teenage girls in the U.S. are being victims of teenage pregnancy every year.
Due to the fact that teen mothers and babies are vulnerable to health hazards, the considerable birth rates among teens have become alarming. The ignorance of pregnant youngsters deprives them of taking appropriate medical attention, making them vulnerable to medical complexities. The teenage pregnancies have tremendous emotional impact on the adolescents. Under feeding, negligence in taking nutrients, habits of smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. which are common among most of the youngsters make their newly born babies prone to health…
Arthur, Shirley. 1996. Surviving teen pregnancy: Your choices, dreams, and decisions. Buena park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
Johns, M. J; Moncloa, F & Gong, E.J. 2000. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Linking Research and Practice. Journal of Extension. Volume. 38; Number: 4, pp.42-47
Wong, J. & Checkland, D. 1999. Teen Pregnancy and Parenting: Social and Ethical issues. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
... In general, the further East one got, the slower new techniques were to spread. Thus there were supply-side reasons for grain exports from preemancipation eastern Europe to stagnate at a level far below what was ecologically possible" (Pomeranz 258). hile there were distinct differences involved in these regions, there were some commonalities as well.
According to Dean, Hann, Overton and hittle (2004), there remains a paucity of studies concerning the role of women and early economic history based on a misperception that women either did not have a role in the wider economy or that women were affected by economic and social change in the same way as men. An early study that challenged these assumptions conducted of women's work in the seventeenth century divided production into three co-existing types:
Domestic industry." This type of work was done exclusively for the use of the family;
Family industry." This type…
Dean, Darron, Andrew Hann, Mark Overton and Jane Whittle. Production and Consumption in English Households, 1600-1750. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Kheng, Cheah Boon. (1994). "Feudalism in Pre-Colonial Malaya: The Past as a Colonial Discourse." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 25(2), 243.
Pomeranz, Kenneth. The Great Divergence: Europe, China, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Super, John C. (2002). "Review Essay: Food and History." Journal of Social History, 36(1), 165.
Many of the busts in the ghetto are drug-related, and Hilfiker notes that our society punishes petty drug offences far more severely than crimes committed by people who are wealthy. Meantime, the mandatory minimum sentence takes away the possibility of any plea bargaining; it takes away the judge's previous alternative of giving probation for a petty crime and hands the power to the prosecutor, who runs for office on a "law and order" theme.
"Deserving" poor vs. "Undeserving" poor:
It has been customary in America for society to attempt to separate the "undeserving" poor from the "deserving" poor. The deserving poor are those who have supposedly found themselves down on their luck through no fault of their own; while the undeserving are reportedly "lazy" and likely on some government assistance program (Hilfiker, pp. 69-71). As a token offer of help to the very poor the government makes "TANF" benefits available…
Hilfiker, David. (2002). Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Urban air pollution is one of the biggest environmental concerns for my community. And not just my community; air quality has seriously deteriorated in many cities around the globe over the last 60 or so years. The increasingly poor urban air quality has been largely caused by industrialization. Vehicles exhaust has also contributed to the poor air quality. In most urban areas, air pollution is a mixture of gas-phase and particle pollutants. Air pollution has serious negative effects on the quality of life especially in terms of health. In my community, the pollution sometimes gets so bad that it is visible. In other cities and mega cities around the world industrial smog is so bad it affects visibility on the road (Liu et al., 2016).
Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Urban Air Pollution
Accidently making things worse
One of the ethical dilemmas is the fear that in dealing with certain sources of…
The area northeast of Madison, Wisconsin between the city and the area of Interstate 90 and Cottage Grove oad contains a large swath of viable and as of yet undeveloped land. This proposal to develop this target plot follows a sustainable policy of sprawl. The goal is to develop the land as an extension of the Madison metropolitan area rather than as a suburb, providing urban residents with green space while providing those living near the target area with recreational activities as well. Land use policies will be progressive and focused on social justice and ethical development. The proposal for development includes the potential for ethical and sustainable business development, which encourages small business owners to establish a presence in the new space. The new area will be known as Park 420.
Park 420 will be divided into quadrants including one quarter set aside for urban farmland. Grown…
"Urban Sprawl." Almanac of Policy Issues. Retrieved online: http://www.policyalmanac.org/environment/archive/urban_sprawl.shtml
Wolch, J.R., Pastor, M. & Drier, P. (2004). Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of California. University of Minnesota Press.
Wood, H. (1998). How Government Highway Policy Encourages Sprawl. CATO Institute. Retrieved online: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=5837
I don't go hungry, or feel the need to abuse drugs or alcohol, but I can see how this happens in these neighborhoods, where it seems there is little else to do and little else you can do to fit in with your peers. I do not think that is right, but I understand why it occurs. It is an easy way out, and it is readily available to just about everyone in the community, and it is common, and so, just about everyone engages in some kind of addictive behavior.
A cope with not having enough money by looking toward the future when I graduate and getting a good job so I can live the lifestyle I want. That is because I have choices. If I could not afford to attend college, or had to drop out to work or have kids, I would look at my future very…
LeBlanc, Adrian Nicole. Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble, and Coming of Age in the Bronx. New York: Scribner, 2003.
The more jobs that can be created with this money, the more people that can get back to work and the money people that can get on with their lives. And that is exactly what the people of New York City want to do.
Hill, Jeffery. "hat the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7
June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm
"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.
McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>
Light, Larry. "Stimulus Package Offers a Break for Mass-Transit Commuters." 2009. The all
Street Journal, 7 June 2009, http://blogs.wsj.com/wallet/2009/03/11/stimulus-package-offers-a-break-for-mass-transit-commuters/
Mason, J.. "Federal Stimulus and Medicaid: How Big a Savings for the City?" 2009. IBO
eblog, 7 June 2009, http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/cgi-park/?p=7
Meckler, Laura. "Obama Signs Stimulus Into Law." 2009. The all Street Journal, 7 June 2009,
Hill, Jeffery. "What the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7
June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm
"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.
McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>
Paradoxically, states with harsher criminal statutes and higher conviction rates tend to maintain fewer inmate developmental programs because high-volume prisons tend to be run on a for-profit basis that discourages "unnecessary" spending. The most cynical suggestion is that decreasing recidivism is against the financial interests of private prisons and (although to a lesser extent,) those of government-run prisons as well (Schmalleger, 2008).
Other aspects of many types of contemporary criminal trends may also significantly undermine any strategy of deterrence through awareness of strict prosecution and sentencing. In that regard, law enforcement authorities across the nation have catalogued volumes of information about criminal subcultures in general and of the street gang mentality in particular (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Urban street gangs in particular have given rise to a culture of remorseless violence and disregard for the consequences of even the most violent crime that largely precludes any real deterrent value…
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Friedman, A. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Dupin becomes the "individual as the creature of history" (187) and the orangutan represents the "terror of a history secularized and devoid of design" (187). This pot was to usher in a new genre of plots that looked at the universe in a new way. The detective story, as a result, "responds to a new era of world history" (187). The crimes against the women can also be seen as symbols from Poe's own past as he lived through the deaths of the women he loved the most. Tragedy, of course, must make its way into Poe's fiction but the grisly murders of thee two women could easily be representations of the death of Poe's mother and cousin.
Society was all the inspiration Poe needed. Terrance halen maintains that Poe's tales "arose from within the specific conditions of capitalist development which were then emerging in antebellum America" (halen 386). Poe's…
Jordan, Cynthia. "Poe's Re-Vision: The Recovery of the Second Story." American Literature.
59.1. 1987. JSTOR Resource Database. http://www.jstor.org Information Retrieved
December 4, 2009.
Hutcherson, Dudley. "Poe's Reputation in England and America, 1850-1909." American
Colin owe and Fred Koetter argued in Collage City that the designer should intervene in the existing city by adding to and adjusting what is already there, a process more like collage than any other art form. (Barnett, 1996, p. 185)
The city as "collage" is possibly the finest metaphor for the urban world. Nowhere else do so many different people and purposes come together as in the city. No other place cries out so much for art, and is itself, an inspiration to create art. The realization that cities are living entities has initiated a renewed interest in the preservation and development of their respective parts. So much of Modernist Theory favored the abandonment of the past. It was as if we were all residents of some totally new age that bore virtually no relation to any past era. Were we born long ago and teleported to our present…
According to Jacobs, "It was being done unofficially when what had grown big and successful was used to eat up, or wipe away, or starve what was not."
Besides just abject failures, though, Jacobs also cites a number of success stories that indicate city planners in the United States had learned some valuable lessons from their failures in the late 20th century. According to Jacobs, "There are quite a few cities that are more vigorous and more attractive than they were 10 or 20 years ago. A lot of good things are being done, but it's not universal." As an example, Jacobs points to Portland, Oregon as a city that has taken steps to reinvent itself based on the lessons learned in the past. Emphasizing that the Portland planners did not use a "lot of gimmicks," Jacobs reports that the holistic approach used has resulted in a reinvigorated city:
walked through the empty lot, en route to the walking path beneath the freeway overpass. "Someone ought to do something with this land," I said to my friend. "What a waste! At least the city could buy it and build a skate park, like the mayor keeps promising." My friend nodded in return. Several years ago, I didn't understand how cities sprouted and grew; how their residents maximize local natural resources; and how neighborhoods, streets, and public utility services are mapped out. Like most people, I watched passively as parking lots turned into parks and once-dead districts became magnets for tourism. Then on a trip to New York City I craned my neck in utter amazement at the towering high rises looming over me, anchored on the relatively tiny island of Manhattan. Eight million people breathed, walked, and worked here and although the subways didn't always run on time, Manhattan…
social capital was available to you? Why?
I would say that I have the benefit of a good education and strong background in appearing knowledgeable about something. This lends itself to convincing people and debating with people.
• Did you have a lot of social capital relative to others? Had your social capital been influential in your life in terms of crime control? Why? Provide a real-life example of a person you think took to crime because of less social capital availability.
I would say I absolutely have at least a marginal advantage in social capital. I often keep my views to myself because some people are quite touchy about opinionated and outspoken people. However, when I do say thing I absolutely have something good to say and I believe I have the standing to make the assertions that I do, especially as it relates to crime. For example, I…
Adams, J.T. (1931). The epic of America. New York, NY: Blue Ribbon Books.
Merton, R.K. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York, NY: The Free Press.
urban violence as it relates to a significant family stressor. The author examines the causes of violence as related to family stressors and applies a program to it to affect change. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The problem with urban violent is not just a problem for those who are involved. The occurrence of urban violence impacts the local business, schools, and families of those who are near the area. When urban violence begins to appear several things begin to happen. Businesses are affected because the consumer does not want to go into the area to shop. This causes economic problems for the businesses and they close down. Once they close down this means a loss of jobs, which can contribute to the poverty level that has been documented as a contributing factor to urban violence. It is a vicious circle that perpetuates itself. The schools…
Adolescent development: challenges and opportunities for research, programs, and policies.
Segregation and crime: the effect of black social isolation on the rates of black urban violence.
Lerner JV, Lerner RM. 1983. Temperament and adaptation across life: theoretical and empirical issues. In Life-Span Development and Behavior, ed. PB Baltes, OG Brim Jr., 5:197-230. New York: Academic. 411 pp.
Lerner RM. 1995. America's Youth in Crisis: Challenges and Options for Programs and Policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 147 PP.
urban school districts. The biggest one I believe is coping with and attaching importance to the diversity that has been part of the American paradigm since the beginning of the country. The related challenge is providing equitable education for the children of a diverse community, frequently with wide differences in background. These differences might include socioeconomic, cultural and linguistic diversity. I believe the best way to deal with these differences is not to focus on the fact that diversity is a problem, but rather a blessing.
Personally then, I would face the challenge of diversity by focusing on the positive aspects of this element. In the classroom I would for example provide time for students to present their particular culture to the rest of the class. This would entail the traditions such as food and dancing that the culture includes. In this way students learn about other cultures, and also…
Religion and Urban Landscape
Social Assimilation and Identity in Gods of the City by Robert Orsi
Religion as a social institution is considered one of the most influential agents in the society. As an institution, religion plays a vital role in altering or changing the way people behave and think. This is especially true in the case of immigrants and other people of different nationalism and race in the United States. Contemporary American society is a 'melting pot' for people who came from all kinds of societies and cultures. As the number of immigrants increased, cultures are brought and assimilated within the American society, where 'hybridization' of societies occurs.
Religion, indeed, is one aspect of culture that directly influences individual and collective thinking and behavior. For individuals trying to cope with a different kind of society, religion serves as 'relief' and social companion for the lone individual. Through religious activities,…
Orsi, R. (1999). Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape. IN: Indiana University Press.
Massachusetts and Virginia
The Colonial period saw the English established a number of colonies in America. These colonies were not only divided by geography, but also by such things as religion, economics, and other factors. Far to the north, in an area called "New England," lay the colony of Massachusetts, a religious-based society founded by members of a strict religious sect as a refuge from persecution. In the south lay Virginia, settled by a company, for economic purposes, and where religion did not dominate every aspect of society. These two English colonies were both English and Protestant., but could not be more different.
During the early 17th century there was "bitter persecution in England of those whose religious views differed from the Church of England." ("Massachusetts Colony") Among these were the Puritans, who wanted to purify the Church of England from harmful doctrines that were too similar to Roman Catholicism.…
"Massachusetts Colony." Colonial Ancestors- Colonial Genealogy Records and History. Web. 16 June 2011. http://colonialancestors.com/ma/colony.htm
"Puritan Life." Ushistory.org. Web 16 June 2011. http://www.ushistory.org/us/3d.asp http://www.usahistory.info/southern/Virginia.html
"Virginia" History of the U.S.A.: Converted from Henry William Elson's History of the United States. 1904. Web 15 June 2011.
Edge Cities" by Joel Garreau.
Joel Garreau authored the best seller on how we build the cities that become the milestones of our civilizations because the fact is that these places are where we find our offices and shopping malls located bringing money to all of us.
The title of the book Edge Cities by Garreau is one book that has been valued by its readers because it opens doors to the subject of unplanned architecture. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier is not only a blockbuster, but The New York Times declared it "the first major book to examine a phenomenon that by any reasonable definition is among the most pressing of our age." Garreau's ability to write is exceptionally different because he has the ability to look into the obvious chaotic mess that will only worsen the future.
The cities that have been defined as…
Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…
Chudacoff H. & J.E. Smith. (2005) The Evolution of American Society,
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-189824
Jacobs, Jane. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New
York, Vintage Books. ISBN:067974195X
Massey, D. and N. Denton. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the
Individuals could not grow their own food, given the space and land constraints and therefore were dependant upon the city infrastructure to provide it. This then creates additional industry, and the story goes on to build whole insular and expansive systems within the city to meet the needs of labor and industry. Agricultural support systems, in outlying areas, transportation systems to make logistics of such provision possible as well as markets to bring the goods to consumers and of course the restaurant industry all grew with the population.
Housing, is another example. Housing in newly forming cities is often substandard, as it was in most U.S. cities, and where it existed in this manner, city planning, codes and standards had to be created to respond to concerns regarding safety and other issues. This became substantially more important as industry introduced thinks like electricity, running water and waste removal systems to…
Hommann, Mary. City Planning in America: Between Promise and Despair. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.
Kantor, Paul, and Stephen David. The Changing Political Economy of Urban America. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.
Walton, John. "Urban Sociology: The Contribution and Limits of Political Economy." Annual Review of Sociology (1993): 301.
Watts, Sheldon. "The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America." Journal of Social History 38.1 (2004): 267.
Over the year, the organization built 1,800 multi-purpose geodesic domes, for the Afghan refugees. Later, they would establish factories in both Pakistan and Afghanistan, to manufacture concrete roof beams, as well as other housing components, facilitating the rebuilding of not only homes, but entire communities as well. The Gulf ar resulted in millions of Kurds fleeing their homes, and once again Shelter for Life saw an opportunity to help others in need. Responding to the turmoil of the Iraqi people, Shelter for Life became an international NGO.
History"). Funding for Shelter for Life projects comes from a variety of sources including private donations, collaborations with other NGOs, such as Habitat for Humanity, religious organizations, humanitarian organizations, and governmental agencies ("Partners").
Randall Olson is the current President and Chief Executive Officer for Shelter for Life. Highly qualified, Olson received his B.A. In Linguistics and South and Southwest Asian Studies, his M.A.…
Capacity. 2008. Shelter for Life. December 6, 2008. http://www.shelter.org/org/capacity.php.
FAQ. 2008. Shelter for Life. December 6, 2008. http://www.shelter.org/org/faq.php.
Habitat for Humanity Fact Sheet. 2008. Habitat for Humanity. December 6, 2008. http://www.habitat.org/how/factsheet.aspx .
History. 2008. Shelter for Life. December 6, 2008. http://www.shelter.org/org/history.php.
Marketing and Increasing Profits / Marketing Plan: Vet Life Apparel
Sales and Profits
Vet Life Apparel
Vet Life Apparel, based in the Wilmington NC is owned and run by two Marine veterans Corey and Kevin, who after completing their active duty service and having participated in a number of combats decided to venture into the private sector. Vet Life is creative and full of purpose. This is why it will always give you something to wear and give the veterans community something to be proud of. Vet-Life raises awareness about PTSD, helps the homeless veterans get off the street, and helps the disabled have access to living conditions through nonprofit charities (Vet Life 2016).
The objective of this report is to discuss a marketing plan that can help the company increase its overall sales.
Glass door. (2015). Companies in Wilimgton, NC, U.S.. Retrieved from https://www.glassdoor.co.in/Reviews/wilmington-reviews-RCH_IL.0,10_IM932.htm?&countryRedirect=true on 6th January, 2016
Howard, J. (2015). Top 5 Trends in Apparel Retail for 2015. Digital marketing Magazine. Retrieved from http://digitalmarketingmagazine.co.uk/digital-marketing-lead-generation/top-5-trends-in-apparel-retail-for-2015/1610 on 6th January, 2016.
Inc. (2012). Top Retail Companies on the 2011 Inc. 5000. Retrieved from http://www.inc.com/inc5000/list/2011/industry/retail / on 6th January, 2016.
MBASkool. (2015). Zodiac Clothing SWOT Analysis, USP & Competitors. Retrieved from http://www.mbaskool.com/brandguide/lifestyle-and-retail/2425-zodiac-clothing.html on 6th January, 2015.
For instance, in Season 2, Hard Cases (Episode 4) explores the idea of individuals who are repeat offenders, and the difficulty for the police to even come close to managing crime. Just as one crime is potentially solved, three more pop up that may never be. The police must count on people from the neighborhood to assist them, but these same individuals are torn between helping the police and being part of the community. The idea of hopelessness is summed up when one of the characters, Nick, asks his father if he misses his work at the dock (the shipyards are closed, and the father now spends much of his time at a local bar, drinking to dull his pain). His father replies, "ouldn't matter if I did" (the ire 2005).
Also apparent is some real systems thinking with the ire that goes to the heart of inner city labor…
Franzese, Covey and Menard. Youth Gangs. Springfiled, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 2006.
"The Wire." HBO. June 2005. http://www.hbo.com/the-wire/episodes#/the-wire/episodes/index.html&isVideoPage=true&g=u&subcategories=none&order=date-desc&limit=none (accessed March 2012).
Traister, R. "The Best TV Show of All Time." Salon.com. September 15, 2007. http://www.salon.com/2007/09/15/best_show / (accessed March 2012).
A key element to Maslow's hierarchy of needs is that it is a hierarchy, namely that the baser needs must be satisfied before the higher needs can be met. A salesperson scrabbling to make a living might be willing, to satisfy his or her physiological needs, to sell anything to anyone, even encourage someone to go into dangerous debt with a mortgage he or she can ill-afford to buy an overpriced or unsuitable house. A person who lives in an unsafe community might enter into such an agreement, to earn enough money for his or her own immediate self-interest to move out of that community. The foolishness of buying a home on such a basis in the long-term is difficult to appreciate when short-term needs are not met on a physical level. Only when the salesperson's bestial instincts of food and shelter and safety are satisfied can he or she…
Gwynne, Robert. (1997) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…
A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.
Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.
Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896
City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.
To some degree, this may be considered a concession to peasants who were largely upset with their station in life as urban areas benefited more significantly from the economic expansion. There is little indication that prosperity was widespread among the peasant classes during the Tokugawa period. Other historical signs point to the real possibility that most farmers suffered during this period.
In fact, much of the economic woes for rural Japan at this time can be traced to developments that were taking place in the cities because of the still feudal organization of Japanese society. The daimyo were lords in the feudal sense; though their holdings varied, agricultural lands -- and taxes on those lands -- formed the basis of their wealth and power. Therefore, when the shogun made it law that each daimyo had to keep up a residence both in their own hometown as well as in Edo,…
Duiker, William J. And Spielvogel, Jackson J. World History Volume I: To 1800. 2nd ed. London: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1998.
Griswold, Susan. "The Triumph of Materialism: The Popular Fiction of 18th-Century Japan." Journal of Popular Culture 29.1 (Summer 1995): 235-245.
Howell, David L. "Territoriality and Collective Identity in Tokugawa Japan." Daedalus 127.3 (Summer 1998): 105-132.
Keogh, Annette. "Oriental Translations: Linguistic Explorations into the Closed Nation of Japan." Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation 45.2 (Summer 2004): 171-191.
Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).
Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.
The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…
Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).
Goodfriend, Joyce D. Slavery in colonial New York City. Urban History, Vol. 35
(2008), pp. 485-496.
Tomlins, Christopher. Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early
Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings
Desecration of Public Education
Attack on Public Education
Public Education: A Democratic Demand
Government's Interest in Charter Schools
Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed
Division of the Community
Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools
Difference between Public and Charter Schools
No Standard Policies
Peer Pressure and Violence
Lack of Extracurricular Activities
Authority and their igid System
Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits
Following measures can be taken to improve public schools
Charter Schools vs. Public Schools
The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education
The Pressure for eform in American Education
Traits of Charter Schools
Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings
Why to Save Public Schools 21
The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…
Behrman, J.R. (1997). The Social Benefits of Education. London: CIP.
Hassel, B.C. (1999). The Charter School Challenge: Avoiding the Pitfalls, Fulfilling the Promise. Washington: Congress Cataloging.
Lieberman, M. (1993). Public Education: An Autopsy. New York: Congress Cataloging.
Buckley, J., & Buckley, J. (2007). Charter Schools: Hope or Hype? London: Princeton University Press.
The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.
Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, eeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.
A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…
Jeanine B. et al. Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries Journal of Comparative
Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 188-189
Katsiaouni, O. & Gorniak, J. (2001). Globalization and rural poverty in transition economies.
Paper for Expert Group Meeting on Globalisation and Poverty Reduction: Can th Rural Poor Benefit from Globalisation? organised by Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations, 8-9 November 2001, New York.
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.
In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.
The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.
The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.
During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.
It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…
History Lesson: Contaminated Water Makes a Deadly Drink
Kathy Jesperson on Tap Editor (accessed 4-20-07)
Apostles of cleanliness (accessed 4-23-07)
Region of Megalopolis (urban area in Northern America) and its sub-Region of Nantucket (off Cape Cod)
This paper describes the geographic region of Megalopolis (urban area in Northern America) and its sub-region of Nantucket (off Cape Cod). It also deals with the history of Nantucket and the causes that led to the formation of the megalopolis in northeastern USA. Megalopolis comes from the Greek words for 'very large' (Mega) and city (polis). It basically means a very large city. Jean Gottmann, a Frenchman, coined this term to refer to northeastern USA extending from oston to Washington DC. The idea of Megalopolis existed in Ancient Greece where they attempted to create a very large city in the Peloponnese Peninsula. Their attempt was unsuccessful but the small city of Megalopolis that they created still exists. The concept of Megalopolis lies in the fact that cities are not viewed as individual units but…
Gottmann, Jean. Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1961.
J. Gottman, The Coming of the Transactional City, University of Maryland Institute for Urban Studies, 1983.
Mittleman, Earl. "An Outline of American Geography. United States Information Agency, 1995.
Basingstoke. "Megalopolis: The Giant City in History" Macmillan, 1993
Integrated Urban Port and Harbor Planning With Environmental Assessment and Coast Guard Facilities
Port planning is a multifaceted project that involves technical, operational, economic, social, and environmental aspects. The projects may range from terminal rehabilitation until altering the whole area into a communal park, involving several different aspects in economic, social, cultural, ethical, and environmental goals.
Every area has unique resources, which need to be incorporated into the whole planning process based on the local legal regulation. As with differences in geographical characteristics, it is necessary to find particular approach to the short- and long-term goals of the port, and every detailed construction or facilities provided. The port and harbor must meet the need on how to convert the urban area into a beneficial site as well as to maintain its original characteristics of the landscape including - and without overlooking - the resident people's objectives for the future. It…
Leverburgh Waterfront Planning Brief. 2001. European and Development Services. http://www.w-isles.gov.uk/lever00.htm.(Apr1, 2002).
Management Measurement For Marina and Recreational Boating. 1997. Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. EPA-840-B-93-001c January 1993. http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter5/index.html .(Apr1, 2002)
Nicholas, Francis W. In Christian Charles M. And Harper, Robert A. 1982. Managing the Urban Physical Environment. Modern Metropolitan System. Charles E. Merrill Pub. Pp. 332-359.
Port of San Francisco Strategic Plan. http://sfgov.org/sfport/PortMissionFY01_02.pdf .(Apr1, 2002)
Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas
Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)
Shaw and McKay discovered a…
Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.
Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966
Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.
Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.
Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.
Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.
Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?
Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…
hereas adult obesity rates have always been present, they have never been so high. hat is more worrisome is that youth is becoming increasingly obese. The American Heart & Stroke Association conducted a study, for instance, in which it found the following data to be true:
"Among children ages 2 -- 19, about 1 in 3 are overweight and obese (BMI-for-age at or above the 85th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts.):
- 32.1% of all boys, and - 31.3% of all girls, and Among children ages 2 -- 19, about 1 in 6 are obese (BMI-for-age at or above e 95th percentile of the CDC growth charts.):
- 17.8% of all boys, and - 15.9% of all girls."
ith the aid of the internet, staying home has become much easier and just as mind stimulating as actual human interaction. The most prevalent example of such instances is the…
Clarke, Richard a., and Robert K. Knake. Cyber War: The next Threat to National Security and What to Do about it. New York: Ecco, 2010. Print.
"Deloitte Study Finds That Facebook Has an Overall Economic Impact of €2.6 Billion in the UK." Deloitte Study Finds That Facebook Has an Overall Economic Impact of €2.6 Billion in the UK. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. .
"Educational Benefits of Online Learning." Blackboard. 1998. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. .
"The Facebook Effect: How Congress Is Using Social Networks to Strengthen Ties to Constituents." Congressional Institute. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. < he Facebook Effect: How Congress is Using Social Networks to Strengthen Ties to Constituents>.
share with you my life story and some American History. Throughout this paper we will discuss the many changes that took place in America between orld ar I and the 1970's. e will discuss the causes of the war and its aftermath. e will also present facts about orld ar II, the Cold ar, the Korean ar and Vietnam. In addition we will explore the ways in which the Civil Rights Movement changed America forever. The conclusion will be an analysis of the event that has been the most significant in reshaping American life forever. First lets discuss how I arrived in America.
The year was 1916 and I was 9 years old, the war was in progress and we were living in Russia. At the time Russia was in political chaos it was being transformed from a Czarist monarchy to a Communist one and the nation was at war…
Cold War," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2002
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Conflicting National Interest. http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/civil_n2/histscript6_n2/wwcause.html
Russia in Transition: The Diplomatic Papers of David Rowland Francis, U.S. http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/2upa/Iss/RussiaTransition.htm