47 results for “Urinalysis”.
There is also aneed to discontinue all the nephrotoxic drugs as well as the elimination of exposure to any form of nephrotoxins. All forms of electrolyte abnormalities must be properly corrected.Uric acid and pigments can be treated using alkaline dieresis. Alcohol drip and fomepizole should be used for treating methanol or ethyl glycol poisoning.
Postrenal acute renal failure is caused by the obstruction of the urinary collection system which is distal to the kidney.The obstruction is noted to lead to increased pressure in the patient's Bowman's capsule with the resulting impediment of glomerular filtration. Prolonged results ultimately lead to postrenal renal failure. The management of the condition includes the treatment of the various or specific underlying cause (s) such as high blood pressure, trauma or toxins
Intrarenal acute renal failure is caused by the primary dysfunction of the kidney's nephrons, it may however be caused by vascular, glomerular as well…
Banfi, G., Del Fabbro, M (2005).Serum Creatinine Values in Elite Athletes Competing in 8 Different Sports: Comparison with Sedentary People. Clinical Chemistry February 2006 vol. 52 no. 2 330-331
Deepak a. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1, 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-149868-0.
Klahr S, Morrison a, Buerkert J.(1980).Effects of urinary tract obstruction on renal function. Contrib Nephrol. 1980;23:34-46.
Landry DW, Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. in: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 116.
CLIA UINALYSIS TESTS IN PHYSICIANS' OFFICES
CLIA Urinalysis Tests in Physicians' Offices
CLIA regulations cover all laboratory tests conducted medical purposes. Many of these tests no longer require intensive oversight procedures because manufacturers have designed them to be almost foolproof and safe to use. Waived urinalysis tests include those detecting illicit drug use, pregnancy, liver and kidney problems, and blood abnormalities. The ease and speed with which these tests can be performed, and the relatively relaxed CLIA regulations covering their use, are making them increasing popular for use in provider offices.
CLIA Urinalysis Tests in Physicians' Offices
All clinical laboratory services offered in the United States are regulated under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2005, p. 2). The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers the CLIA program and the CMS, CDC, and FDA are jointly responsible for…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Good Laboratory Practices for Waived Testing Sites. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 54, 1-32.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2004). State Operations Manual: Appendix C -- Survey procedures and interpretive guidelines for laboratories and laboratory services. Retrieved September 2, 2011 at http://cms.gov/manuals/Downloads/som107ap_c_lab.pdf
U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2011). CLIA -- Tests waived by FDA from January 2000 to present. Accessed September 2, 2011 from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfClia/testswaived.cfm
In this second phase of my 'career training in life, for over a year after I pursued a career in the medical field, I have developed administrative skills such as medical records/data management and preparation and processing of relevant medical forms and documents. Currently, I have been exposed to other responsibilities such as patient education and quality control and documentation.
More importantly, as a medical assistant, I have acquired important skills and knowledge about tasks that will equip me in my plans to become a nurse. I have been trained to know general medical tasks such as vital signs, setting-up and preparing clinic/hospital facilities, equipments, and materials (such as injections, prescription refills, instrumentation, bandaging, sterilization procedures, and chemical disinfectants). I have also become adept at accomplishing skill- and knowledge-specific medical tasks, which includes diagnosis determination and testing and utilization of medical tools and equipments (phlebotomy, vision testing, prenatal and GYN…
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
eview of Symptoms and Lab esults
The reported nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may indicate a GI disorder, but combined with the patient's diabetes, unusual thirst, constant urination, and fatigue, the symptoms are more indicative of an endocrine disorder (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006).
Some of the patient's lab results fall into the normal range: BUN of 16 mg/dl (normal is 8 -- 25 mg/dl); creatinine of 1.3 (normal is 0.5 -- 1.7 mg/dl); sodium of 139 mEq/L (normal is 135 -- 145 mEq/L); blood pressure of 90/60 (normal is less than 120/80); and temperature of 99 .1°F (Chernecky & Berger, 2001; Pagana & Pagana, 2003).
Other lab results fall outside of the normal range: glucose of 420 mg/dl is very high (normal is 60 to 110 mg/dl); 4+ glucose and 3+ ketones are very high (normal is no glucose or ketones present in the urine); pH of…
Chernecky, C.C., & Berger, B.J. (Eds.). (2001). Laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Haber, M.H., & Ward, P.C.J. (2002). Urine. In K. McClatchey (Ed.), Clinical laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kitabchi, A.E., Umpierrez, G.E., Miles, J.M., & Fisher, J.N. (2009). Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32(7): 1335 -- 1343. doi: 10.2337/dc09-9032.
Lee-Lewandrowski, E., Burnett, R.W., & Lewandrowski, K. (2002). Electrolytes and acid-base balance. In K. McClatchey (Ed.), Clinical laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
Drugs in Federal Corrections
One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…
Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.
Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.
MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).
Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a higher priority than is currently the case. ith stronger prevention programs, and if commanding officers are more willing to put troops who have failed drug tests into those programs, more soldiers can see their drug use curtailed.
The second method is related to the first -- prevention programs. If stress in its various forms is a major cause of illegal drug use among soldiers, then there needs to be more awareness of the issue in the military community, and more help available to soldiers before they start using. Training for all members of the military community would allow for the creation of an informal support grid for soldiers experiencing stress. Programs that give soldiers a place to turn to when they…
Gilmore, G. (2011). DoD urinalysis test (drug test). About.com. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://usmilitary.about.com/od/theorderlyroom/l/bldrugtests2.htm
Jacobson, I.; Ryan, M.; Hooper, T.; Smith, T.; Amoroso, P.; Boyko, E.; Gackstetter, G.; Wells, T. & Bell, N. (2008). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 300 (6) 663-675.
NIDA. (2011). Substance abuse among the military, veterans and their families. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/tib/vet.html
Zoroya, G. (2009). Army blasted for letting drug abusers slide. USA Today. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2009-05-20-drug_N.htm
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.
Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
recoding a pregnant mother-Based case study. thai primegravida multpara.
This essay is about a process recording for a pregnant mother. Process recording is a written record of an interaction with a client. Pregnant mothers are in danger of any disease but there most alarming gestational diseases; these include hypertension, cardiac disease, anemia, diabetes, hyperemis gravidarum and many more. In this essay am only going to dwell in gestational hypertension.
This is a process recording of a case study of a pregnant mother. Mrs. B is a 16 years old primigravida at 30 weeks gestation and has attended the antenatal clinic three times. All finding were within the normal range until her last visit 1 week ago when her blood pressure was 130/90mmHg.On urinalysis there was no proteinuria. The fetal heart sounds were normal, the fetus was active and uterine size was consistent with dates. She has come to clinic today,…
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. National Guideline Clearinghouse. Available at http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc_id=9338 . Retrieved on 11/02/2011
Benson M.D.( 1989) Obstetrician Pearls,.Philadelphia:F.A Davis.
[Best Evidence] Hedderson MM, Ferrara A (.2008) High blood pressure before and during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. Dec 31(12)
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. (.2003) The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 289(19):2560-72.
Main Functions of the Kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, 12 centimeters long, which lie at the sides of the spinal column behind the abdominal cavity (Merck 2010). Their main function is to maintain the proper balance of water and minerals in the body. Their other major functions include filtration and elimination of wastes and toxins, regulation of blood pressure and secretion of some hormones. The amount of water taken into the body must match the amount being eliminated. If the balance is not maintained, water will accumulate fast and illness or death may occur. Excess water will dilute the body's electrolyte and inadequate amount will concentrate electrolytes. The kidneys regulate and help maintain the precise concentrations (Merck).
The kidneys' second major function consists of filtration and excretion (Merck 2010). They pass out urea, a main waste product from protein metabolism. Urea moves through the glomerulus and into…
DHS 2008, 'Developmental disabilities nursing,' Department of Human Services
[Online] Available at http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/spd/provtools/nursing/ddmanuel/companion.pdf ?
Franz 2009, 'Nursing care plan -- renal failure,' Nursing Crib [Online] Available at http://nursingcrib.com/nursing-care-plan/nursing-care-plan-renal-failure
Hudson, K 2007, 'Acute renal failure -- nursing CEs,' Dynamic Nursing Education
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
The patient should drink less, participate in more physical activity and should eat a better diet. The blood pressure and cholesterol both need to come down immediately.
The patient needs to take the recommendations in question 5 or he likely has a very dim future if his BP and cholesterol is not lowered a lot. Blood pressure should be measured after the patient has rested for at least five minutes. He should be instructed in advance of the appointment what not to eat or drink so that the test result is not improperly influenced (e.g. drinking caffeine).
There is no advancement or progression in symptoms but blood pressure is still entirely too high. It needs to drop by at least 30 points to be within a non-hypertension range. Needs to be made clear to patient that while he is feeling fine for now, that will change…
limits that should be placed upon search and seizure in public schools.
Apply specific legal rulings to support your position.
Analyze the New Jersey v. T.L.O. case and explain how it supports or undermines your argument.
Recommend changes to existing (specific) laws to create a fairer educational setting in terms of search and seizure.
It seems to me that search and seizure of student and faculty member possession should be scrupulously directed by the Fourth Amendment and the Fifth Amendment and that searches conducted on students should be implemented with the same dignity and in the same manner as they are conducted on faculty members. Research shows that schools are becoming increasingly restrictive in their investigation and that they, frequently, fail to protect even the basic Fourth Amendment privacy rights of the students (Berger, 2003)
The Fourth Amendment prohibits "unreasonable" searches and seizures. It is concerned with the manner that…
Berger, R (2003) The "Worst of Both Worlds": School Security and the Disappearing Fourth Amendment Rights of Students Criminal Justice Review Autumn 28 2 336-354
Beyer, D. (1997) School Safety and the Legal Rights of Students. ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 121.
Pinard, M (2003) From the Classroom to the Courtroom: Reassessing Fourth Amendment Standards in Public School Searches Involving Law Enforcement Authorities Ariz. L. Rev., 24, 1
The Center for Public Education. Search and seizure, due process, and public schools http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Public-education/The-law-and-its-influence-on-public-school-districts-An-overview/Search-and-seizure-due-process-and-public-schools.html
Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts
For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…
Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.
A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.
Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm
Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class
Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what she was "capable of doing" and just wanted to show potential clients "what we were going to be," rather than tell them the truth about how fledgling her business actually was at that time.
Was it immoral for Mary Bailey to misrepresent her company?
Looking at the "consequential" side of her decision to fudge the truth about her company, moral decisions are made based upon what the consequences of the action will be. The results of her action actually could have several consequences. The one first and pivotal consequence Maria hopes will happen, of course, is that the fact of her deciding to embellish the truth about the size of her company will bring potential customers into her business start-up Web…
Australasian Business Intelligence. (2004, May 4). Guilty plea follows workplace death.
Bauman, Margaret. (2004). Alaska leads nation in workplace death rate, report says.
Alaska Journal of Commerce.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999). Improvements in workplace safety
Screening and Assessment Methods
Drug or substance abuse and other addictive disorders have become a major issue in the United States given their prevalence among adult members across various occupations and workforce. Actually, recent statistics and trends have indicated that working adults account for a huge portion of illicit drug users. Notably, the substance abuse and other addictive disorders not only involve the use of illicit drugs but also entail misuse of prescription drugs like stimulants, tranquilizers, sedatives, and analgesics (Hersch, McPherson & Cook, 2002, p.1332). As drug abuse has increased tremendously, the negative impacts of addictive behaviors have become prevalent in the society such as increased health care costs and high rates of accidents. Consequently, several measures have been developed in an attempt to deal with these disorders including cognitive behavioral therapies.
The use of the various measures and therapies usually involves assessing and diagnosing clients for drug abuse…
Copersino et. al. (2012). Effects of Cognitive Impairment on Substance Abuse Treatment
Attendance: Predictive Validation of a Brief Cognitive Screening Measure. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38(3), 246-250.
Hersch, R.K., McPherson, T.L. & Cook, R.F. (2002). Substance Use in the Construction
Industry: A Comparison of Assessment Methods. Substance Use & Misuse, 37(11), 1331-1358.
Prior to Launching Technology Initiatives
Over the past seven years, many healthcare organizations, like OUUCH, have begun to transition from the traditional paper-based systems to EH systems. esearch has shown that over a period of time. EH systems can improve quality of care for patients, provide more accurate information, and overall improve safety issues relating to reducing mistakes with patients. In the exploratory study, "Change factors affecting the transition to an… [EH] system in a private physicians' practice: An exploratory study," Aaron D. Spratt, Social Security Administration and Kevin E. Dickson (2008), Southeast Missouri State University, report that the U.S. health care industry reportedly ranks among the world's leading inefficient information enterprises. Although the system needs major changes, the transition process however, creates a high change in the business aspect of an organization. Spratt and Dickson (2008) explain that for an EH system to be successful, doctors must be involved…
Amatayakul, M. (2009). EHR vs. EMR: what's in a name? Healthcare Financial
Management. Healthcare Financial Management Association. Retrieved May 13, 2010
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-202487730.html
Bennett, D. (2009). EMR market includes small and large system vendors. Managed Healthcare
However, I did not feel in any way degraded by the position in the way that Ehrenreich did, and I believe that to be the case because many of Ehrenreich's positions were by their very nature problematic. For example, she worked as a waitress and a house cleaner. Both of those positions place the individual in a position of subservience. Working at Blockbuster is different because we are around movies and customers who come in just to look for some entertainment. As staff, we are not treated poorly. Management seemed quite happy and laid-back, which made the store ambiance easy for all the clerks. Although I did not mind the work itself, the paycheck was meager and I cannot imagine paying rent with what I earned. The paycheck was only part-time, as no clerks were able to work full-time because the company would have to pay them a salary plus…
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…
Johns, L.G., Downes, G.F., Bibles, C.D. (2005). Resurrecting Cold Case Serial Homicide Investigations; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 74 No. 8). Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Markey, J. (2007). After the Match: dealing with the New Era of DNA;
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10). Yost, J., Burke, T. (2007). Veterinary Forensics: Animals Curtailing Crime; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10).
Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.
The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…
NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm
Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html
James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html
City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html
Slippery Slope Law / Discrimination
The definition of the slope and its legal implications are largely hypothetical. According to Eugene Volokh, an action that is voted in -- say a ban on guns provides with the curtailment of many other things -- like confiscation of guns, costs or data bases and many other legislations that flows into creating a system that was not envisaged in the first place or would have been the primary action. For example the gun control could flow into some other area like searches and restriction and create an altogether different system. The analogy of the slippery slope where an act of a camel causes a slope to flood and grow an oak in consequence -- the original act being something different intended is to be considered. (Volokh, 48) In truth is there such a slippery slope in legislation?
Thesis Statement: "There is no such slope…
Achampong, Francis. Workplace Sexual Harassment Law: Principles, Landmark
Developments, and Framework for Effective Risk Management. Quorum Books: Westport, CT, 1999.
Bernstein, David E. You Can't Say That! The Growing Threat to Civil Liberties from Antidiscrimination Laws. Cato Institute: Washington, DC, 2003.
Covey, Anne. The Workplace Law Advisor: From Harassment and Discrimination Policies to Hiring and Firing Guidelines What Every Manager and Employee Needs to Know. Perseus Publishing: Cambridge, MA, 2000.
In the 1930s, Dorothea Lange used photography to document the disastrous conditions for Americans confronted with the Dust Bowl in the West. The images demonstrated the urgent need for government programs to assist these disadvantaged people. The photographs told the entire story. Today, Lorna Simpson's photographs do the same: document the American blacks and demonstrate their personal societal needs. This Brooklyn-born artist uses black-and-white images to portray the situation of present-day American blacks so uninformed viewers can better understand these individuals perception of the world.
As Simpson notes about her work:
By presenting these cliches about women, I'm dealing with the language of stereotypes. I'm pointing to the fact that the wrong questions are so often asked, and this is why you don't know anything about this person. I intentionally sought to avoid presenting a 'them and us' situation, them being a white audience. It is also a…
Arango, Jorge. "At home with Lorna Simpson: a major player in the world of photography and video composes her personal sanctuary -- home." Essence. May (2002), np. [Electronic Version]
Ansell, Bennie Flores. "Lorna Simpson: The Black Female Body in Photography." Photography Institute. 25 April 2005.
Fusco, Coco. English is Broken Here. New York City: The New Press, 2000.
Theatre Nurses Equipped With the Skills equired to Perform Pre-Operative Visits
To Perform Pre-Operative Visits?
Are Theatre Nurses Equipped With the Skills equired
To Perform Pre-Operative Visits?
Are Theatre Nurses Equipped With the Skills equired
To Perform Pre-Operative Visits?
Pre-operative assessment is part of the E process that many medical professionals believe can be accomplished on the part of nurses in the unit.. The objective listed for pre-operative assessment is that special requirements for the surgery as well as the peri-operative stay should include identification and coordination of all essential resources, should inform the patients and prepare them to proceed and to ensure the patient's fitness for the procedure(s) scheduled. . The nursing team clinically examines as well as assessing all emergency patients before surgery to ensure the fitness of patients to the greatest possible extent. Strategies include, "redistributing cases from emergency to elective theatre schedules, day case emergency…
Walsgrove H, Fulbrook P.(2005) Advancing the clinical perspective: a practice development project to develop the nurse practitioner role in an acute hospital trust. J Clin Nurs. 2005 Apr;14(4):444-55. PMID: 15807751
Walsgrove H. (2004) Piloting a nurse-led gynaecology preoperative-assessment clinic. Nursing Times. 2004 Jan 20-26; 100(3):38-41. PMID: 14963959
Byrne JP (2000) The South Australian Nurse Practitioner Project: a midwife's perspective on a new initiative.Collegian. 2000 Jul;7(3):37-9. PMID: 11858406
Le-Mon B. (2000) The role of the nurse practitioner. Nurs Stand. 2000 Feb 9-15;14(21):49-51. No abstract available. PMID: 11971310
As the database network administrator assigned to the reworking of this expanding medical practice, my primary concern will be to balance the need for a large staff to be able to access the data (with differing levels of access allowed to people in different positions) while at the same time adhering to the standards of medical confidentiality as they are outlined in the HIPPA statutes and as supplemented by the medical ethics of this practice, which we assume to be of the highest since the staff are expending time and money to bring their system into compliance with current law and practice.
The first part of my job would be to create the basic categories into which all of the relevant data can be sorted. One of the key roles of designing a database is that of reducing the complexity of the real world into a manageable degree.…
, 2003, p. 3).
The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.
Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.
Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).
NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.
Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
Gonzalez (2007), discusses the company WellPoint Inc. that provides its members with the capability to develop their own personal health records, an option to receive test results online, provide a limited set of records to their providers and to allow other family members access to the information. In terms of security safeguards, WellPoint tracks who accesses information and has staff members to monitor the systems for potential breaches. This in turn offers users a certain level of security and quality in services rendered.
As pay-for-performance programs flourish, there is a fear that many EHs cannot accurately capture the data that is required to participate. The biggest obstacles for software makers are the sheer volume of performance measures and the lack of standardization among them. One pressing issue is that some EH systems are still text-based and are therefore not as powerful for reporting and extracting information. (McKinney, 2007)
Burda, D. (2007, June 4). Hey, you asked for it. Modern Healthcare, 37(23), p.25.
Cavolo, D.J. (2007, July). Electronic medical record system: know the cost of ownership. Nursing Homes, 56(7), pp. 17-19.
Evans, M. (2007, July 30). Push for Quality Starts with it. Modern Healthcare, 37(30), pp.22,24,28.
Freudenheim, M. (2005, September 19). Doctors collaborate to find less costly way to add electronic medical records. New York Times, p. C4.
What is Project HOPE and what are the goals of the program?
In basic terms, Project HOPE according to the OPPAGA eport (2004) was "a pilot program in Hillsborough and Pinellas counties intended to break the cycle of prostitution and solicitation." The project was created by the Laws of Florida -- Chapter 2002-297. Made up of two components, i.e. prostitutes and johns (individuals soliciting prostitutes), those who participated in the program were requested to enroll into the same by "judges, state attorneys, public defenders, probation officers, and jail staff" (OPPAGA eport, 2004). It should be noted that as provided for by the law under which it was created, the program had its doors open to any individual convicted of prostitution. As the OPPAGA eport (2004) further points out, the program was mandated to "provide intake and screening, drug screening and urinalysis tests, psychosocial assessments, case management, short-term counseling,…
Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability -- OPPAGA (August, 2004). Project HOPE Helped Break the Cycle of Prostitution and Solicitation, But Had Implementation Problems (Report No. 04-50). Florida: The Florida Legislature.
Contraband in Jail
Controlling contraband should be the top priority of any prison management, regardless of the level of security. Contraband is any item that a prisoner is not allowed to possess (Frantz 178). All correctional facilities provide their inmates with room and board, clothing, medical care, and basic hygiene items. A number of these facilities allow their inmates to buy items from the commissary or receive other articles or items through other authorized channels. Any other thing, aside from these that a prisoner possesses are contraband. eapons and escape materials are both dangerous in the correct circumstances. A number of staffs who work in prisons are acutely aware of the destruction that these items are likely to cause. These items, in addition to drugs and alcohol, can cause great havoc and pose a potential danger to staff and other inmates. Other items such as materials to make homemade ropes…
Blackburn, Ashley G, Shannon K. Fowler, and Joycelyn M. Pollock. Prisons: Today and Tomorrow. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013. Print.
Frantz, Michael. Jail Time: What You Need to Know Before You Go to Federal Prison! Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Pub, 2009. Print.
Hoover, Stevin. Mark Whitacre Against All Odds: How "The Informant" and his Family Turned Defeat into Triumph. Bloomington: Xlibris, 2010. Print.
In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).
Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…
Ahrams, P., Cardozo, L., & Fall, M. (2002). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society [Electronic version]. Neurourology & • Urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.
Astroza Eulufi, C, Velasco, P.A., Watson, A., & Guzman, K.S. (2008). Enterocistoplastia por cystitis intersticial: Resultados diferidos [Enterocystoplasty for interstitial cystits: Deferred results] (Electronic version]. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, .32(10), 1019-1023.
Elizawahri, A., Bissada, N.K., Herchorn, S., Aboul-Enein. H., Ghoneim, M., Bissada, M.A.Glazer. A.A. (2004). Urinary conduit formation using urinary diversion of intestinal augmentations: II. Does it have a role in patients with interstitial cystitis? The Journal of Urology, 171, 1559- 1562.
Fall, M., Oberpenning, F.. & Pecker, R. (2008). Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: Can we make evidence-based decisions? European Urology, 54, 65-78.
military has a number of jurisdictional and operational issues associated with what it will do with personnel involved with the use of medical marijuana. Though it claims that there is no ambiguity -- that its Directives (DOD 1010.1) are clear -- in reality it now finds itself facing a "Don't Ask, Don't Smoke" problem. What is happening inside and outside of the armed services is mystifying how the rules are actually enforced and understood by its legal structure.
In general, the rules are clear. Law enforcement and command personnel inside of the services say the same as those on the outside who advice people about this issue:
The fact that your state has decriminalized marijuana use is not relevant to military law. The military is a federal institution, governed by federal laws. Drug use is a crime under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Article 112a, 10…
Byrne, A. (2010). Some U.S. Military Veterans Allowed to Use Cannabis. The Daily Dose. Viewable at http://medicalmarijuana411.com/mmj411_v3/?p=10498 .
DOD (1999). Directive 1010.1. Military Personnel Drug Abuse Testing Program.
Free Advice (2011). Public legal posting site. Viewable at http://law.freeadvice.com/government_law/military_law/military_marijuana_illegal.htm .
Krawitz, M. (2010). Veterans Health Administration Tolerates Veterans Use of Medicinal Cannabis as Adjunct Therapy to VA Hospital Supplied Opioids. MedicalCannabis.com. Viewable at http://www.medicalcannabis.com/Journal-2010/vmma-press-release-41610 .
Acute Scrotum Case Study
When a male presents with acute scrotum pain and swelling a number of different diagnoses are possible; however, if the diagnosis is testicular torsion then the patient needs to be evaluated by a competent surgeon immediately (reviewed by Kass and Lundack, 1997). Of the many possible diagnoses that can produce similar symptoms, including epididymitis, hernia/hydrocele, varicocele, epididymo-orchitis, torsion of a testicular or epididymal appendage (appendiceal torsion), or Henoch-Schonlein purpura, only testicular torsion represents a bona fide medical emergency. For this reason, a detailed patient history and physical examination should be undertaken at once in order to preserve testicular function. Every effort should be made to gather a complete urologic and surgical history for the patient to exclude other conditions, including a urinary tract infection and epididymitis.
A recent study examined the diagnosis distribution for 388 boys under the age of 17 who were treated at…
Kass, Evan J. And Lundak, Bruce. (1997). The acute scrotum. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 44(5), 1251-1266.
Makela, E., Lahdes-Vasama, T., Rajakorpi, H., and Wikstrom, S. (2007). A 19-year review of paediatric patients with acute scrotum. Scandinavian Journal of Surgery, 96, 62-66.
Nelson, Caleb P., Williams, JeffreyF., and Bloom, David A. (2003). The cremasteric reflex: A useful but imperfect sign in testicular torsion. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 38, 1248-1249.
Ringdahl, Erika and Teague, Lynn. (2006). Testicular torsion. American Family Physician, 74, 1739-1743.
Cutaneous Candidiasis: A Case Study
This case study involves a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with candidiasis of the inner thighs. The goal of this report is to provide the patient with information about the most likely cause of her condition and how best to resolve the infection. In order to accomplish this goal a review of Candida pathogenesis will be presented first.
Members of the Candida genus, in particular C. albicans, can be detected in the oral cavities of 75% of the general population (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). This mostly commensal microbe colonizes oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, anal, and cutanous locations (az-Pasteur, Ullmann, & Berdicevsky, 2011). Candida species are commensal in health people and rarely cause any problems, but in persons who suffer from mild medical conditions with impaired immunity the commensal relationship can quickly evaporate and turn pathogenic (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). For example, Candida is…
Mansur, A.T., Aydingoz, I.E., & Artunkal, S. (2012). Facial Candida foliculitis: Possible role of sexual contact. Mycoses, 55, e20-e22. Doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2011.02075.x.
Mayer, F.L., Wilson, D., & Hube, B. (2013). Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence, 4(2), 119-128.
Raz-Pasteur, A., Ullmann, Y., & Berdicevsky, I. (2011). The pathogenesis of Candida infections in a human skin model: Scanning electron microscope observations. International Scholarly Research Network, 2011, 1-6. Doi: 10.5402/2011/150642.
Scheinfeld, N.S. (2004). Obesity and dermatology. Clinics in Dermatology, 22, 303-309.
Substance Abuse in America
The objective of this study is to apply change theory and the Transtheoretical Model of ehavior Change to health promotion activities in the health care environment and examine how the 'readiness to change' factor impact the success of a change in behavior.
Substance abuse in America is a prevalent problem and a challenge faced by health care provides in terms of identifying and applying effective modes of treatment to bring about behavior change in those with substance abuse problems.
Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change
The Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change was developed at the University of Rhode Island by James O. Prochaska in the latter part of the 1970s and is comprised by four components: (1) stages of change; (2) processes of change; (3) decisional balance; and (4) self-efficacy. (Inspire Malibu, 2015, p. 1) The reason for the name 'Transtheoretical" being assigned to this model is…
Zemore, SE, and Ajze, I. (2014) Predicting substance abuse treatment completion using a new scale based on the theory of planned behavior. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2014 Feb;46(2):174-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.06.011. Epub 2013 Aug 15.
Reisenhofer S (2013) Women's journey to safety - the Transtheoretical model in clinical practice when working with women experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: a scientific review and clinical guidance. Patient Educ Couns. 2013 Dec;93(3):536-48. doi: 0.1016/j.pec.2013.08.004. Epub 2013 Aug 19. PubMed
Harrell PT (1), Trenz RC, Scherer M, Martins SS, Latimer WW. (2013) A latent class approach to treatment readiness corresponds to a transtheoretical ("Stages of Change") model. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2013 Sep;45(3):249-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.04.004. Epub 2013 May 22.
Ward RM (1), Schielke HJ. (2011) Assessing the predictive ability of the transtheoretical model's heavy episodic drinking constructs among a population of underage students. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46(9):1179-89. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2011.559607. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PubMed.
Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer
Cutting down on alcohol
Giving up Tobacco
Medications approved to treat breast cancer:
Afinitor et al. (National Cancer Institute, 2016).
Concept Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer
The etiology of breast cancer remains mainly unidentified. isk factors linked with breast cancer can be clustered into three comprehensive contributing factors: i. family history (hereditary) factors, ii. hormonal reproductive factors
environmental factors (DeBruin and Josephy, 2002).
Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes may influence risk of breast cancer from environmental chemicals, dietary agents, and endogenous steroids (DeBruin and Josephy, 2002).
Lump or contour change
Edema or peau d'orange (Medscape, 2015)
Chest x-ray (CX) Complete blood count (CBC)
Basic metabolic panel (BMP)
Lepor, H. (2005). Pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the aging male population. Reviews in urology, 7(Suppl 4), S3.
Roehrborn, C. G. (2008). Pathology of benign prostatic hyperplasia. International journal of impotence research, 20, S11-S18.
Dhingra, N., & Bhagwat, D. (2011). Benign prostatic hyperplasia: An overview of existing treatment. Indian journal of pharmacology, 43(1), 6.
Hypertensive Patient Case Study
Specific physical examinations in any hypertensive patient
Accuracy in the measurement of blood pressure is the basic aspect of diagnosis. Therefore, we take it over several weeks. On each visit, normally at least three blood pressure readings are taken with the difference of 2 minutes using mercury manometer.
Palpation of all peripheral pulses should necessarily be carried out. Absent, weak, or delayed femoral pulses are the sign of coarctation of the aorta or serious peripheral vascular disease. To identify any symptom of initial or extreme stage of chronic or severe hypertensive retinopathy along with arteriovenous nicking or difference in vessel wall, we conduct funduscopic examination of the eyes (Madhur & Maron, 2014).
Why order Laboratory work up
Initial laboratory tests include urinalysis; fasting blood glucose or A1c; this is due to an increase in cardiovascular risk linked with a decreased GF level and with albuminuria. If…
Madhur, M. S., & Maron, D. J. (2014, September 30). Hypertension Clinical Presentation. Retrieved from Medscape: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/241381-clinical#b3
WebMD. (2016). An Overview of High Blood Pressure Treatment. Retrieved from Web MD: http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/hypertension-treatment-overview
WebMD. (2016). Hypertension/High Blood Pressure Health Center. Retrieved from Wed MD: http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/hypertension-symptoms-types
Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program, from the commanders responsible for implementing the program on the level of installations or garrisons, to the trained personnel taking urine samples. By way of demonstrating the utility of the continued education requirement even for the personnel collecting urine, the paper notes the existence of such widespread willingness to deceive testing, and then reviews recent peer-reviewed studies with potential relevance for successful implementation of Army Substance Abuse Program theories, curricula, and policies.
The Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs was first established in 1971 in response to a law requiring the Secretary of Defense to identify, treat, and rehabilitate members of the U.S. military determined to be dependent upon alcohol or illicit drugs; similar legislation followed to require the same…
Lande, R.G.; Marin, B. (2009) Biomarker characteristics of alcohol use in the U.S. Army. J Addict Diseases 28: 158-163. DOI:10.1080/10550880902772506
Larson, M.J.; Wooten, N.R.; Adams, R.S.; et al. (2012). Military combat deployments and substance use: Review and future directions. J Soc Work Pract Addict 12: 6-27. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2012.647586
McFarling, L.; D'Angelo, M.; Drain, M.; et al. (2011). Stigma as a barrier to substance abuse and mental health treatment. Military Psychology 23: 1-5 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2011.534397
Milliken, C.S.; Auchterlonie, J.L.; Hoge, C.W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. JAMA 298: 2141-2148 doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2141
Patient’s chief complaint, reason for visit
Ms. Richards arrived complaining that she was experiencing severe anal pain, so much so that using a tissue was also proving impossible. She claimed the pain began a couple of days earlier and has aggravated considerably since.
History of Present Illness
Ms. Richards arrived complaining of anal pain which commenced a couple of days earlier and has aggravated since. With regard to her intimate relationships, Ms. Richards states that though she has a boyfriend, their relationship isn’t serious as the two are also seeing other people. According to internal assessment reports, patient has normal hair distribution, an intact perineum, and intact urethral meatus without any discharge or inflammation. However, patient experiences unbearable pain on vaginal opening palpation, redness, and edema. Further, a mass has been identified on the right, with spontaneous, dark-yellow, smelly secretion with palpation over the Bartholin's glands.
NR 601 Week 5 Case StudyNR 601 Week 5 Case StudyThe World Health Organization (WHO) defines diabetes as a disease that affects the bodys ability to prepare or produce the hormone insulin, resulting in abnormal metabolism of blood glucose and elevated levels of the same in the blood (WHO, 2021). When an individual has diabetes, their body either does not make sufficient insulin or fails to make use of insulin as it should, causing elevated levels of blood sugar in the bloodstream. There are three types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and Gestational Diabetes (CDC, 2020). The Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC) estimates that 34 million (representing 1 in every 10) Americans have diabetes, and 90-95 percent of these patients have Type 2 diabetes (CDC, 2020). The high prevalence of diabetes calls for adequate understanding on the part of healthcare providers to ensure effective diagnosis…
ReferencesADA Standards of Medical Care (2021). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2021 Abridged for Primary Care Providers. American Diabetes Association. Retrieved from https://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/content/diaclin/early/2020/12/02/cd21-as01.full.pdfBibiloni, M., Salas, R., Garza, Y., Villareal, J., Sureda, A., & Tur, J.(2016). Serum Lipid Profile, Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Associated Risk Factors among Northern Mexican Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 63(5), 544-49.Bigelow, A., & Freeland, B. (2017). Type II Diabetes Care in the Elderly. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 13(3), 181-86.CDC (2021). Diabetes Symptoms. Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/symptoms.htmlCDC (2020). What is Diabetes? Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.htmlFDA (2017). Glucophage. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved from https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/020357s037s039,021202s021s023lbl.pdfGalicia-Garcia , U., Benito-Vicente, A., Jebari, S., Larrea-Sebal, A., Siddiqi, H., Uribe, K., Ostolaza, H., & Martin, C. (2020). Pathophysiology of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(17), 6275-81.Hill, M., & Bordoni, B. (2021). Hyperlipidemia. Treasure Island, FL: Statpearls PublishingHuang, W., Xu, W., Zhu, P., Yang, H., Su, L., & Tang, H.(2017). Analysis of Blood Glucose Distribution Characteristics in a Health Examination Population in Chengdu (2007-2015). Medicine, 96(49), Doi: 1097/MD.0000000000008765Molugulu, N., Yee, L., Ye, Y., Khee, T., Nie, L., Yee, N., Yee, T., Liang, T., & Kesharwani, P. (2017). Systematic Review of Metformin Monotherapy and Dual Therapy with Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor (SGLT-2) in Treatment of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 132(1), 157-68.NIH (2021). Diabetes Tests and Diagnoses. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Retrieved from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/tests-diagnosis#whichtestsPiva , S., Susko, A., Khoja, S., Josbeno, D., Fitzgerald, G., & Toledo, F. (2015). Links between Osteoarthritis and Diabetes: Implications for a Physical Activity Perspective. Clinical Journal of Geriatric Medicine, 31(1), 67-87.Storey, H. L., Pelt, M., Bun, S., Daily, F., Neogi, T., Thompson, M., McGuire, H., & Weigl, B. (2017). Diabetes and Endocrinology, 8(3), 1-8.WHO (2021). Diabetes. World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/health-topics/diabetes#tab=tab_1
Endocrine Case StudyPatient 1 The parents of an 11-year-old girl bring her for an office visit. She has been developing normally and has been healthy and active. Her parents report that for the past several weeks, she has been feeling tired and weak, drinking more fluids than normal, and has been urinating so much she has wet the bed at night. Two days ago, they noticed that her breath smelled like fruit and she lost 8 pounds these last weeks. Yesterday she began breathing fast and deep.Initial DiagnosisThe symptoms presented are characteristics of early onset of type I diabetes with a secondary diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (Wherrett et al., 2018). The patient presents with polydipsia and polyuria, classic symptoms of diabetes, and due to her age, these fit with type I diabetes. Her Kussmaul respirations combined with the fruity breath are indicators for diabetic ketoacidosis, typically seen in type…
ReferencesBullard, K. M., Cowie, C. C., Lessem, S. E., Saydah, S. H., Menke, A., Geiss, L. S., . . . Imperatore, G. (2018). Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in adults by diabetes type—United States, 2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(12), 359. Wherrett, D. K., Ho, J., Huot, C., Legault, L., Nakhla, M., & Rosolowsky, E. (2018). Type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Canadian journal of diabetes, 42, S234-S246.
He directed me toward various reading materials and articles that related my areas of expertise to a wider range of study. Since then I have been thoroughly investigating the relationship between personal and public health. I believe I will make a valuable adjunct to your Master's Program in Environmental Science and to your Environmental Health Sciences Department. I bring with me years of hands-on experience working with individuals and health care institutions, an observer of the ill effects of a poorly managed environment. Also, I have traveled around the world and have an international background. My unique experiences and heritage will contribute to program diversity.
With a professional attitude and a natural inclination for combining science with public relations, I will fit in naturally to your Masters in Environmental Sciences program. My professional, academic, and personal background will contribute greatly to what I have learned so far in my academic…
CT scan or MA may result in the clinician oversight of some of the more subtle findings. It is expensive and the availability is limited.
It is possible to evaluate AS via angiogram, bet evaluation of the size of the stenosis tends to be imprecise. Additionally, angiography does not allow a cross-sectional assessment of the stenosis, and in the case of FMD, it is not possible to distinguish the different histological types, although intervention at the time of assessment is a possibility. Doppler sonography is able to measure the amount of blood flow, and is non-invasive. It tends to be highly invasive and is able to demonstrate problems with slow patterns and other issues which are highly suggestive of significant stenosis. Doppler ultrasound tends to be very operator dependent and the exam takes a significant amount of time. Additionally, the exam may be limited by abdominal girth, patient movement and…
1. Paven G; Waugh R; Nicholson J; Gillin a; Hennessy a Nephrology (Carlton). 2006; 11(1):68-72
2. Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research (AHRQ)
Comparative Effectiveness of Management Strategies for Renal Artery Stenosis: AHRQ Executive Summary,), Rockville, Maryland; http://hcup.ahrq.gov/HCUPnet.asp
3. Dejani H, Eisen TD, Finkelstein FO: Revascularization of renal artery stenosis in patients with renal insufficiency. Am J. Kidney Dis 2000 Oct; 36(4): 752
working with a diverse population of Native Americans, Hispanics, and other individuals in the prison systems and public clinics of this country, I have come to two, crucial conclusions. Firstly, that the currently cost-strapped environment of the national health care system cries out for innovative financial and sociological solutions. Secondly, I believe I require further education in the field of public health to accomplish my goals in seeking to remedy the systemic abuses I have personally witnessed in my own, current capacity as a physician's assistant. These two crucial reasons combine and fuse in my desire to pursue a PhD at Walden in the field of public health.
"Physician, heal thyself," goes the famous quotation -- and indeed, I have sought to heal my own gaps of knowledge through continually educating myself in the technical innovations of the medical field and of the current state of public health in America.…
Diabetes in Australia
The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been massive researches and huge sums directed towards good management and possible elimination of diabetes at the national levels. This commitment is exhibited by the specialized funds and efforts like the Juvenile Diabetes esearch Fund (JDF) that has been committed to striving to mitigate the effects of diabetes from the render age of the Australians.
Since diabetes is such a big challenge to Australia as a whole, diabetes mellitus was declared a National Health Priority Area in 1996 during the Australian Health Minister's Conference and this was as recognition to the high levels of diabetes prevalence within Australia, the mortality rates that were due to it, the impact it had on morbidity and the possibility of the health improvements that can be…
American Diabetes Association, (2013). Kidney Disease (Nephropathy). Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/kidney-disease-nephropathy.html
Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing, (2012). Diabetes. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/pq-diabetes
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, (2011). Diabetes Prevalence in Australia Detailed estimates for 2007 -- 08. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737419307
Baker IDI, Heart & Diabetes Institute (2013). Diabetes: The Silent Pandemic and its Impact on Australia. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Documents/DA/What%27s%20New/12.03.14%20Diabetes%20management%20booklet%20FINAL.pdf
Drug Testing in the Workplace
Most employers in the United States are not required to do drug testing on either current or potential employees, although the majority have the right to do so (United States Department of Labor, 2010). Drug testing is not required under the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988. The Act can be confusing and challenging for employers, however, since it essentially states that any organization receiving federal grants or contracts must be drug-free but does not contain language that specifically allows for drug testing (Thompson euters 2011). Many state and local governments limit or prohibit drug testing unless required for certain jobs with state or Federal governments.
As far back as 1997, the American Civil Liberties Union was deploring the use of drug testing in the workplace, citing an increase of 277% over a ten-year period (American Civil Liberties Union, 1997). Drug testing remains a controversial issue…
Drug-free workplace policy builder. Section 7: Drug testing. (2010). U.S. Department of Labor.
Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen92.asp
Drummer, O.H. (2006). Drug testing in oral fluid. Clinical Biochemist Reviews 27(30), pp. 147-
Privacy in America: Workplace drug testing. (1997). American Civil Liberties Union.
Physician Assistant Program Narrative
Personal Statement: My Motivation towards Becoming a PA
We all have dreams and aspirations. As a young child, my dream was to become a chef. When asked why I wanted to become a chef, my answer was always consistent; "I wanted to delight people by preparing them delicious dishes." As I grew up, I became more informed and my view of the world became clearer -- and it was then that I realized that deep inside, I wanted to end up in a profession that impacted positively on the lives of others. A profession that brought delight to those I interacted with. Then, something happened that completely convinced me that I would most comfortably serve in any of the helping professions. A couple of months after my 10th birthday, my younger brother got bitten by a dog in his face -- right below his left eye.…
There is also aneed to discontinue all the nephrotoxic drugs as well as the elimination of exposure to any form of nephrotoxins. All forms of electrolyte abnormalities must be…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
CLIA UINALYSIS TESTS IN PHYSICIANS' OFFICES Urinalysis CLIA Urinalysis Tests in Physicians' Offices CLIA regulations cover all laboratory tests conducted medical purposes. Many of these tests no longer require…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
In this second phase of my 'career training in life, for over a year after I pursued a career in the medical field, I have developed administrative skills such…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
" (1995) The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being…Read Full Paper ❯
Endocrine Pancreas eview of Symptoms and Lab esults The reported nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may indicate a GI disorder, but combined with the patient's diabetes, unusual thirst, constant…Read Full Paper ❯
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Drugs in Federal Corrections Corrections issues One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a…Read Full Paper ❯
Internet: Privacy for High School Students An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion…Read Full Paper ❯
recoding a pregnant mother-Based case study. thai primegravida multpara. This essay is about a process recording for a pregnant mother. Process recording is a written record of an interaction…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Renal Failure Main Functions of the Kidneys The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, 12 centimeters long, which lie at the sides of the spinal column behind the abdominal cavity (Merck…Read Full Paper ❯
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed. Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in…Read Full Paper ❯
Medical and Medicine - Nursing
The patient should drink less, participate in more physical activity and should eat a better diet. The blood pressure and cholesterol both need to come down immediately. Question 6…Read Full Paper ❯
limits that should be placed upon search and seizure in public schools. Apply specific legal rulings to support your position. Analyze the New Jersey v. T.L.O. case and explain…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business Ethics When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Screening and Assessment Methods Drug or substance abuse and other addictive disorders have become a major issue in the United States given their prevalence among adult members across various…Read Full Paper ❯
Prior to Launching Technology Initiatives Over the past seven years, many healthcare organizations, like OUUCH, have begun to transition from the traditional paper-based systems to EH systems. esearch has…Read Full Paper ❯
However, I did not feel in any way degraded by the position in the way that Ehrenreich did, and I believe that to be the case because many of…Read Full Paper ❯
, 2005) In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence…Read Full Paper ❯
Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police…Read Full Paper ❯
Slippery Slope Law / Discrimination The definition of the slope and its legal implications are largely hypothetical. According to Eugene Volokh, an action that is voted in -- say…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Lorna Simpson] In the 1930s, Dorothea Lange used photography to document the disastrous conditions for Americans confronted with the Dust Bowl in the West. The images demonstrated the urgent…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Theatre Nurses Equipped With the Skills equired to Perform Pre-Operative Visits To Perform Pre-Operative Visits? Are Theatre Nurses Equipped With the Skills equired To Perform Pre-Operative Visits? Dissemination Are…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
Computer Science As the database network administrator assigned to the reworking of this expanding medical practice, my primary concern will be to balance the need for a large staff…Read Full Paper ❯
, 2003, p. 3). Conclusion The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly…Read Full Paper ❯
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models…Read Full Paper ❯
Gonzalez (2007), discusses the company WellPoint Inc. that provides its members with the capability to develop their own personal health records, an option to receive test results online, provide…Read Full Paper ❯
Project HOPE What is Project HOPE and what are the goals of the program? In basic terms, Project HOPE according to the OPPAGA eport (2004) was "a pilot program…Read Full Paper ❯
Contraband in Jail Controlling contraband should be the top priority of any prison management, regardless of the level of security. Contraband is any item that a prisoner is not…Read Full Paper ❯
Interstitial Cystitis In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Military Marijuana military has a number of jurisdictional and operational issues associated with what it will do with personnel involved with the use of medical marijuana. Though it claims…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Cryptorchidism Acute Scrotum Case Study When a male presents with acute scrotum pain and swelling a number of different diagnoses are possible; however, if the diagnosis is testicular torsion…Read Full Paper ❯
Cutaneous Candidiasis: A Case Study Candidiasis This case study involves a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with candidiasis of the inner thighs. The goal of this report is to provide the…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Substance Abuse in America The objective of this study is to apply change theory and the Transtheoretical Model of ehavior Change to health promotion activities in the health care…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer Lifestyle Eating Better Cutting down on alcohol Giving up Tobacco Exercising Controlling Stress Medications/Surgical Medications approved to treat breast cancer: Abitrexate…Read Full Paper ❯
Hypertensive Patient Case Study Specific physical examinations in any hypertensive patient Accuracy in the measurement of blood pressure is the basic aspect of diagnosis. Therefore, we take it over…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Miscellaneous
Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program,…Read Full Paper ❯
1. Subjective Patient’s chief complaint, reason for visit Ms. Richards arrived complaining that she was experiencing severe anal pain, so much so that using a tissue was also proving…Read Full Paper ❯
NR 601 Week 5 Case StudyNR 601 Week 5 Case StudyThe World Health Organization (WHO) defines diabetes as a disease that affects the bodys ability to prepare or produce…Read Full Paper ❯
Endocrine Case StudyPatient 1 The parents of an 11-year-old girl bring her for an office visit. She has been developing normally and has been healthy and active. Her…Read Full Paper ❯
He directed me toward various reading materials and articles that related my areas of expertise to a wider range of study. Since then I have been thoroughly investigating the…Read Full Paper ❯
CT scan or MA may result in the clinician oversight of some of the more subtle findings. It is expensive and the availability is limited. It is possible to…Read Full Paper ❯
working with a diverse population of Native Americans, Hispanics, and other individuals in the prison systems and public clinics of this country, I have come to two, crucial conclusions.…Read Full Paper ❯
Diabetes in Australia The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Drug Testing in the Workplace Most employers in the United States are not required to do drug testing on either current or potential employees, although the majority have the…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Physician Assistant Program Narrative Personal Statement: My Motivation towards Becoming a PA We all have dreams and aspirations. As a young child, my dream was to become a chef.…Read Full Paper ❯