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future of the economy. There are seven references used for this paper.
The United States economy has experienced several changes in the past few years. It is important to look five economic indictors in order to speculate the direction the current economy is moving in.
Consumer Price Index
The economy continues to gather momentum in the midst of pessimistic reports. In November, there were two economic reports issued by the government.
One showed orders for durable goods plunging 3.1% from October, the largest drop in more than a year, including a sharp decline in orders for capital goods. The other showed the consumer price index falling 0.2% from the previous month, while the more stable core index, which excludes energy and food, declined 0.1%, the first outright drop in 20 years (Cooper)."
Housing Starts and Unemployment
Treasury Secretary John Snow acknowledges there has been a decline in the jobless rate…
Benjamin, Matthew, Angie C. Marek and Richard J. Newman. U.S. News and World Report.
2004): 12 January.
Cooper, James C. And Kathleen Madigan. Business Outlook: U.S.Economy: The Tea Leaves
Still Say "Happy New Year." Business Week. (2004): 12 January.
The current macroeconomic situation of the United States is generally positive. The major indicators -- GDP growth, unemployment, inflation and interest rates are all trending in the right direction, indicating the sort of stable economic growth that it the goal of monetary and fiscal policymakers. The following graph illustrates the trends for the past ten years for GDP growth and the unemployment rate:
What this shows is that the GDP contracted during the period 2008-2010 (roughly), coinciding with the Great ecession. Since that point, the GDP growth rate has been relatively sluggish, without a steady upward trend in the trendline, until recently. Only in the past couple of quarters has there been a return to a more normal rate of growth in the GDP (BEA, 2014).
The unemployment rate is a lagging indicator, and should move inverse to the GDP growth rate. The chart above shows this relationship. There…
BEA. (2014) Gross domestic product. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved December 2, 2014 from http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/gdpnewsrelease.htm
BLS. (2014). Labor force statistics from the current population survey. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 2, 2014 from http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS14
BLS. (2014). Consumer price index. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 2, 2014 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/cpi.nr0.htm
BoG, FRS. (2014). Why does the Federal Reserve aim for 2% inflation over time? Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved December 2, 2014 from http://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/economy_14400.htm
However, there are two possible alternatives, a beneficial one and a less beneficial one. oth alternatives are based on the nature of the partnership between the two countries and refer to the fact that the United States offer economic support in exchange for military services. ut the Middle Eastern country is developing and is becoming stronger and more independent with each year.
The first alternative implies that a strong and developed Turkey realizes it no longer needs aid from the United States and based on cultural differences and other divergences, renounces the strategic alliances. This would have the major disadvantage of closing U.S.' door to the Middle East and loosing a trade partner. Consequently, if would negatively impact the American economy.
The second alternative, still keeping in mind Turkey's development, is that the country will continue, further develop and improve the international relations with the United States. Realizing the great…
U.S. Census Bureau, Top Trading Partners, Foreign Trade Statistics, 2007, http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/highlights/top/index.html , last accessed on November 29, 2007
Turkey, Central Intelligence Agency, the World Factbook, 2007, https://www.cia.gov/library /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
I therefore believe that, the U.S. president should have his hands to steer this aspect by balancing interest rates as well as inflation. When inflation increases, interest rates should also increase to discourage borrowing.
The other significant argument is by Kathy Lee that the U.S. president should raise taxes while reduce government spending. The U.S. government should increase tax to encourage the citizens of U.S. with enough money from businesses to pay tax which will increase circulation of money and spur the economy upwards fro the god of all. . On the other hand, I also agree with Patricia advice regarding the Federal Reserve. It is true that government should encourage selling of bonds and raising the requirement of the bank reserve since it will improve the stability of many banks to customers' deposits yet leaving the interest rates intact so that people can still invest in the bonds and…
US Economy 2009
economy had had to adapt and change over the years. The country has moved from a nation where there were significant differences between the economic conditions as well as different policies which impact on the economic conditions of the states. A general trend over the last 200 years has been a movement away from manufacturing and towards white collar jobs, including high tech industries and the knowledge industries (Cadieux, 2009). The movement away from the manufacturing sectors has been caused by increased access to lower cost imports, were exporting countries, such as Mexico and China, have the benefit of comparative advantage.
The economy has shown some adaptability, as the shift from one sector has seen new sectors emerge and develop. The deindustrialization in the Northeast, which took place between the 1950s and 1960s, was also accompanied by increased activity in other sectors, such as universities and…
Cadieux D, (2009), The U.S. Economy, 2009, Richard Ivey School of Business, 909M45
Schwartz, ND, (2014, Jan 30), Economy Is Expanding, but Obama's Legacy May Be Slipping Away, The New York Times, accessed 3rd Feb 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com /2014/01/31/business/us-economy-grew-3-2-in-fourth-quarter.html?_r=0
Trading Economics, (2014), United States Government Budget, accessed 3rd Feb 2014 from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/ united-states/government-budget
Trading Economics, (2014), United States Unemployment Rate, accessed 3rd Feb 2014 from
Cyberterrorism on the U.S. Economy
The Impact of Cyber Terrorism on the U.S. Economy
In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), cyber terrorism can be defined as a calculated and politically enthused attack against data, information, computer systems and computer programs, which in turn, brings about non-physical vehemence against civilian targets. In simple words, cyber terrorism implies making use of the web to cause detriment to the real world and more so to a civilian target, evolving an individual or a group's devout and political objectives. The threat of cyber terrorism to the general public, the government establishment and most of all the United States economy, lies in the fact that cyber terrorists have the capacity to shut down all of the main systems that are relied upon, such as the systems of banking and also water systems. The impacts that such an invasion has on the nation…
Bucci, S. Rosenzweig, P., Inserra, D. (2013). A Congressional Guide: Seven Steps to U.S. Security, Prosperity, and Freedom in Cyberspace. Heritage.
CIA. (2000). Cyber Threats and the U.S. Economy. Retrieved 9 February 2016 from: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/speeches-testimony/2000/cyberthreats_022300.html
Halder, D. (2011). Information Technology Act and Cyber Terrorism: A Critical Review. Academia.
Kleinbard, D., Richtmyer, R. (2000). U.S. Catches 'Love' virus. CNN Money. Retrieved 9 February, 2016 from: http://money.cnn.com/2000/05/05/technology/loveyou/
Economics: The State of the U.S. Economy
Cousin Edgar, a global investor, is seeking to capitalize on the thriving gasoline industry and the rising world demand for oil by purchasing several gas stations in the U.S. market. Inspiring his interest is the high price of gasoline, which he reckons will rise even higher in the near future, thanks to the urbanization and industrialization currently being witnessed in the developing economies of Asia. Furthermore, the turmoil facing some of the world's largest oil- producers has spurred fears of supply disruptions, and, consequently, opened up growth avenues for smaller producers such as the U.S.
Cousin Edgar reckons that he will need financial reinforcement, which will most likely not be much of a problem, given that the ongoing recovery efforts have managed to stimulate loan growth to reasonable levels that are essentially near the pre-recession index. However, economic weakness still remains evident, and…
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Why are Interest Rates being Kept at a Low Level? Federal Reserve. Retrieved 12 June 2014 from http://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/money_12849.htm
Elwell, C.K. (2013). Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 12 June 2014 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41332.pdf
Levine, L. (2013). Economic Growth and the Unemployment Rate. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 12 June 2014 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42063.pdf
Multpl.com. (2014a). U.S. GDP Growth Rate by Year. Multpl.com Retrieved 12 June 2014 from http://www.multpl.com/us-gdp-growth-rate/table/by-year
Global Economy Crisis (2008) for U.S. Economy
The economic crisis that was recently witnessed around the world including the United States and the various efforts that were made by the various governments in order to bring some stability to their economies, have raised questions on the strengths of free-market system and what informs interventions by the state. This paper's objective is to put into perspective the debate on interventions by the government and free-market efficiency. The paper also seeks to make a case for the need for regulating financial institutions so that economies are more stable (Aikins, 2009).
The economic crisis raised several questions on the place of the interventions states make in stabilizing economies as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the free market system. A lot of debate has been going on in this area. At the height of the crisis in 2008, various governments of industrialized…
Aikins, SK 2009, 'Global financial crisis and government intervention: a case for effective regulatory governance,' International Public Management Review, Vol. 10 ? Is. 2
Allan, CM 1971, The theory of taxation, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Blecker, BA 2013, 'Economic Stagnation in the United States: Underlying Causes and Global Consequences, In: Working Papers.' RePEc:amu:wpaper:2013-16.
Brown, MB 1984, Models in political economy, Hamondsworth: Penguin.
Small Business Act of 1958 and Contribution to Small-Scale Businesses to the U.S. Economy
Small-scale businesses have been accepted globally as instruments contributing to economic growth and development. Governments in many developing countries have adopted comprehensive efforts and policies aimed at improving the performance of small-scale businesses that have fallen short of expectations. Small-scale businesses face significant challenges that hinder their abilities to contribute to optimal economic growth and national development (Entrepreneurship 321). Therefore, this essay analyzes the Small Business Act of the year 1958. This will entail analyzing the historical perspective and implications of the act on the small businesses. The second section entails the analysis of the importance of small-scale businesses to the U.S. economy. This entails analysis of whether small-scale businesses contribute to the economy of the U.S.A.
The Small Business Act of the year 1958
The U.S. government enacted the Small Business Act of the year…
Counsel, House, Office of the Law Revision. United States Code, 2006, V. 8, Title 15, Commerce and Trade, Sections 80a-1 to End. Government Printing Office. Print.
Engineering, National Academy of. Risk and Innovation: The Role and Importance of Small, High-Tech Companies in the U.S. Economy. National Academies Press, 1995. Print.
Entrepreneurship, United States Congress Senate Committee on Small Business and. Small Business Act andthe Small Businesss Investment Act of 1958 Compilation. U.S.G.P.O., 2006.
The current state of the economy in the U.S. is generally favorable. Looking at the major macroeconomic variables, they are all at reasonable levels and more important they are trending in the right direction. This paper will look at critical variables such as the GDP, unemployment, inflation and interest rates.
The GDP is currently growing at 3.9% for the third quarter of 2014, after a 4.6% increase in the second quarter (BEA, 2014). This is healthy GDP growth. Over the past several years, the economy has been growing at a slower rate, during what was a sluggish recovery from the recession in 2009. But the current levels show that the GDP is finally getting to the point where it has recovered almost entirely, and growth is picking up. This is a positive trend in the economy. This means that the GDP will continue to grow. ight now, monetary policy…
BEA. (2014) Gross domestic product. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/gdpnewsrelease.htm
BLS. (2014). Labor force statistics from the current population survey. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS14
BLS. (2014). Consumer price index. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/cpi.nr0.htm
Federal Reserve Bank of New York. (2014). Federal funds data. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/fedfundsdata.cfm
Limiting Public Benefits
The United States economy is in serious trouble and the individual state economies are not faring much better. In times such as these, those elected into public office are called upon to find ways to save money and to help the struggling nation become strong again. For individual people living in America, the economy has directly impacted their everyday lives. Many people are out of work and more and more families are becoming dependant on financial assistance from either the state or federal government in order to keep going. hen there is no money to spend on food or clothing or shelter, the families suffer terribly. The government instituted public assistance and unemployment to help families who are in desperate need. One of the ways that politicians, particularly Republicans, have suggested for alleviating the government's financial responsibilities is to demand that all people who apply for governmental…
Bloom, R. (2011). Mandatory drug testing for unemployment benefits and TANF is costly and ineffective. ACLU.
Growing support for drug testing of welfare recipients. (2012). The New York Times. Associated Press.
Gupta, V. (2011). Mandatory drug testing demonizes and demoralizes. Debate Club.
MacPherson, J. (2013). ND bill pushes drug tests for welfare recipients. San Francisco
Economic forecasting refers to the process of trying to predict the future state of the economy through a series of different indicators. This process helps to understand the probable future of a nation’s economy and for policymaking to help promote economic growth. When developing an economic forecast, various macroeconomic factors/conditions are taken into consideration. This paper provides an economic forecast of the U.S. economy based on recent economic indicators in 2017 and 2018.
Based on seasonally adjusted annual rates in the fourth quarter of 2017, the gross domestic product growth rate is expected to increase moderately in the first quarter of 2018. As shown in these indicators and based on recent macroeconomic conditions, GDP growth rate in the first quarter of this year is expected to be approximately 2.8%. Additionally, GDP growth rate will continue to increase moderately in the second half of the year to exceed 3.0%.
Therefore, any war waged on a terrorist group then becomes a war to protect the personal liberties of those who can not do so themselves.
However, the United States itself has not even been able to stand up to the standards of liberated individual rights. Within the context of the most recent foreign soil wars, American soldiers in a military base have proven that the nation itself is unable to live up to its high standards of personal liberty. In a prisoner of war camp located at a military base in Guantanamo Bay, American soldiers violated international prison code standard during a humiliating act of submission where prisoners were forced to perform unlawful acts and behaviors at the behest of the soldiers on duty, (Sullivan, 2008). The very rights which were being so violently being protected in the eyes of the American public were actually being violated in our backyard.…
National Security Council. (2008). The national security strategy of the United States of America. www.whitehouse.gov.17 May. 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf
Radelet, Steve. (2005). Think again: U.S. foreign aid. www.foriegnpolicy.com.18
May, 2008. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2773
Shah, Anup. (2006). Criticisms of current forms of free trade. Free Trade and Globalization. 18 May. 2008. http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Criticisms.asp#ErodingWorkersRights
This marked the fifteenth consecutive month of factory job losses.
In a "normal" recession, recovery begins as cuts in interest rates that induce increased consumption spending. This, in turn, leads to increased production to meet demand and eventually to increased capital spending. However, in the recession of 2001-2002, consumption spending did not fall because it was sustained by the cuts in interest rates carried out by the Federal eserve Board over the previous 2 years. The only real basis for a recovery is an increase in business capital spending and it is here that some of the intractable problems of the United States economy are most clearly seen. Interest rate cuts have little or no impact here because the major problem confronting business is not lack of credit but lack of profitable opportunities.
Pre-tax profits as a share of business product for the non-financial corporate sector rose to 8.7% in…
Tieman, J. (2001). Recession? What recession? Healthcare industry again shows its natural resistance to economic ills. Mod Healthc, 31(50), 38-40.
Iraq War on the U.S. Economy
The current U.S. War in Iraq has become the most expensive military undertaking by the United States in the last sixty years. According to a recent study, the U.S. Treasury is paying out more money each month to sustain the war in Iraq than it did during the Vietnam War. While there is little disagreement about the actual expenses involved in the Iraq War, the opponents and the supporters of the War disagree on its actual impact on the U.S. economy. While the political left and the traditional conservatives in the country are staunchly against the Iraq war and decry its detrimental effect on the U.S. economy, the right-wing neo-conservatives consider the expense of the war worthwhile and beneficial for the U.S. In the long run. This essay takes a look at the impact of the U.S. War in Iraq on the U.S. economy…
Bennis, P., Leaver, E. et al. (2005). "The Iraq Quagmire." A Study by the Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy In Focus. August 31, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.ips-dc.org/iraq/quagmire/IraqQuagmire.pdf
Bilmes, Linda. (2005). "The Trillion-Dollar War." The New York Times. August 20, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.nytimes.com /2005/08/20/opinion/20bilmes.html?ex=1128052800& en=fab629af9daf9eb5& ei=5070& ex=1125288000& en=53b1099708a36c0e& ei=5070& emc=eta1& oref=login
Buchanan, P.J. (2005). "Riding the Free Trade Raft Over the Falls." The American Cause.
April 18, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.theamericancause.org/a-pjb-050418-freetrade.htm
future evolution of the American economy is closely related not only to the 1990-2000 period, that covered one of the most prolific economic expansion in history, but also the subsequent turn of events brought about by the first ush administration. I am obviously referring here to the economic recession brought about by the tragic events of September 11 and by the economic cycles following the economic boom of the 90s, to the fiscal policy adopted by the American administration that relied heavily on debt and large fiscal deficits and to the monetary policy involving a reduction to minimum levels (1%) of the interest rate, so as to encourage a rebound of the economic processes.
The beginning of the 90s brought about a new president, ill Clinton, for whom the campaign slogan "it's the economy, stupid" became an actual concept. President Clinton would become the equivalent of the 90s growth and…
1. The U.S. economy: a brief history. On the Internet at http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oecon/chap3.htm
2. Jorgenson, Dale; Ho, Mun S.; Stiroh, Kevin. Projecting Productivity Growth: Lessons from the U.S. Growth Resurgence. November 2002. On the Internet at http://www.si.umich.edu/~kahin/hawk/htdocs/jorgenson.ppt#1
3. Productivity Trends in the U.S. And Europe. May 2003
4. Pearce, David. At long last the future really is now.
Cuts in defensive spending, minor reductions to social security and the aforementioned tax measures will significantly improve the economy, whereas some of the options the U.S. has pursued in recent times are doing the opposite, as the following quotation implies.
Washington is likely to make across-the-board cuts in discretionary spending, where there is much less money and considerably less waste…but reducing funds for things like education, scientific research, air-traffic control, NASA, infrastructure and alternative energy will not produce much in savings, and it will hurt the economy's long-term growth (Zakaria, 2011).
With the implementation of many of the measures that were suggested by Simpson and Bowles, the U.S. should be able to reduce its budget and increase its financial stability within approximately 15 to 20 years. However, the improved economy will not have the ameliorating effect on other important industries and areas of interest such as healthcare and unemployment if…
Carpenter, M. (2010). "Fiscal Commission CO-Chairs Simpson and Bowles Release Eye-Popping Recommendations." TPM. Retrieved from http://tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com/2010/11/deficit-commission-co-chairs-simpson-and-bowles-release-eye-popping-recommendations.php
Crumley, B. (2009). "New lessons from the old world." Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1901483,00.html
Elliott M., Schuman, M. (2011). "World economic forum at Davos: Still standing." Time Retrieved from http://business.time.com/2011/01/31/world-economic-forum-at-davos-2011-still-standing/
Zakaria, F. (2011). "Are America's best days behind us?." Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2056723-1,00.html
The UK economy was one of the major victims of the recent global economic downturn. This is in no small measure to blame on the country's significantly sized banking sector, where giants like HSBC and Barclays were generally assumed to be "too big to fail." Today, after being the subject of both economic and political scrutiny, the very same reasons are being used to claim that these giants are "too big to save." Both concepts have enjoyed significant critical attention since the economic downturn. Although little has been offered by way of a cure for the failures of the current UK banking system, the general consensus appears to be that something needs to change if future economic disaster is to be averted.
According to Preston (2010), there can be little argument about the phrase "too big" when applied to the UK banking giants. When comparing the market share…
Figg, S. (2011, Feb 2). Britain's Banks: Too Big to Save? The Socialist. Retrieved from: http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/pdf/issue/655/10.pdf
Henderson, R. (2011, Mar 7). All British banks are "too big to fail." Living in a Madhouse. Retrieved from: http://livinginamadhouse.wordpress.com/2011/03/07/all-british-banks-are-too-big-to-fail/
Preston, R. (2010, Sep 24). Commission tackles too-big-to-fail banks. BBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/robertpeston/2010/09/commission_tackles_too-big-to-.html
Reece, D. (2011, Mar 7). Barclays chief Bob Diamond says let banks fail. The Telegraph. Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/8365101/Barclays-chief-Bob-Diamond-says-let-banks-fail.html
With a lower interest rate, that incentive no longer exists and this is usually an instrument by which private entities can be driven out of saving and into investing into new business on the market. Obviously, such an action usually creates the appropriate momentum for economic development, creating jobs, increasing governmental revenues through revenues from taxation and helping the country out of the economic recession.
In terms of fiscal policies, the measures that the government needs to take will all attempt to move the IS curve further to the right and, in this sense, to stimulate the national economy, reduce the period that the country will pass through the recession and determine a national economic growth. There are two important means by which this can be done: increased governmental spending and decreased taxes, with a less restrictive taxation policy. As we can see on the IS - LM graph, both…
United States Foreign Policy
United States has enjoyed an important position in the international political scene, since its rise to power. The U.S. government has actively participated in international political issues, primarily for the sake of country's own interest. After the Second World War, United States emerged as one of the largest economies of the world and soon acquired the position of the "only super power." The history of the United States is evident that these were the foreign policies adopted by the country's administration that led the nation to advancement, greater power and wealth in a way that no other power has ever achieved.
While discussing the policy issues, policy makers argue that it is the national interest that guides them to define foreign policies of the country. Throughout history the national interest of the country has been influenced by the events and political issues of other nations. United…
Donald E. Abelson: American Think Tanks and Their Role in U.S. Foreign Policy: Palgrave Macmillan: 1996
David Ryan: U.S. Foreign Policy in World History: Rutledge: 2000
John Dumbrell & David M. Barrett: The Making of U.S. Foreign Policy: Manchester University Press: 1998.
Legal Immigration Is Good for the United States
With the United States opening its boarders to thousands of legal immigrants each year, immigration has become one of the most hotly debated issues in the country. However, what has largely fueled this debate has to do with the impact of both illegal and legal immigrants on the United States' economy, crime rates as well as education and environment. While some continue to advocate for the reduction of immigration within the U.S., others are of the opinion that legal immigration impacts positively on the U.S. In terms of diversity and economic gains amongst other unique benefits. It is important to note that when legal immigration is viewed from a critical perspective, the United States does benefit greatly from the same. This text will clearly and concisely highlight some of these benefits.
Immigration in the United States: An Overview
Considered a complex demographic…
Arnold, K.R. (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. California: ABC-CLIO.
Estrom, P. (2007, June 7). Immigration: Google makes Its Case. Retrieved February 12th, 2012, from Business Week website: http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/jun2007/db20070606_792054.htm
Geigenberger, J. (2008). The lasting Value of Legal Immigration for the United States of America. Norderstedt Germany: GRIN Verlag.
Griswold, D. (2009, July 21). As Immigrants Move in, Americans Move Up. Retrieved February 14th, 2012, from CATO Institute website: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=10650
the president also promised to work with other relevant sectors to assist homeowners in refinancing their mortgages at low interest rates.
On the other hand, Republicans are worried about proposals that would repeat the 2009 stimulus plan despite of President Obama's call for bipartisan support to the bill. They argue that the failed 2009 stimulus plan and its successive policies have shown that huge government deficit spending is not the solution to the stalling economy. hile Republican leaders are trying to offer a more moderate stand, they have given a staunch opposition to government's measures of new spending.
After the end of the 2009 economic recession, the Federal Reserve has been involved in various attempts to stimulate economic growth. Some of these efforts include lowering short-term interest rates to nearly zero. The Fed's recent efforts are the push to lower long-term interest rates by buying $400 billion in long-term Treasury…
Censky, Annalyn, and Charles Riley. "What's in Obama's Stimulus Plan - Sep. 8, 2011." CNNMoney - Business, Financial and Personal Finance News. Cable News Network. A Time Warner Company, 08 Sept. 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011. .
"Consumer Price Index Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 16 Nov. 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011. .
"Economic Outlook, Indicators, Forecasts." Kiplinger - Personal Finance, Business, Investing, Retirement, and Financial Advice. The Kiplinger Washington Editors, 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011. .
"This is the first time since March 2001 that Pennsylvania's job count climbed above 5.7 million," Schmerin announced. "Our economy has added 60,000 jobs in the last year and I expect that trend will continue. Pennsylvania's economy added jobs in nine of the past 10 months."
The tables below show the current state of the U.S. economy and the Pennsylvania labor-related economy.
Table 1: United States Economy at a Glance
(1) In percent, seasonally adjusted. Annual averages are available for Not Seasonally Adjusted data.
(2) Number of jobs, in thousands, seasonally adjusted
(3) For production and nonsupervisory workers on private nonfarm payrolls, seasonally adjusted
(4) All items, U.S. city average, all urban consumers, 1982-84=100, 1-month percent change, seasonally adjusted
(5) Finished goods, 1982=100, 1-month percent change, seasonally adjusted
(6) All imports, 1-month percent change, not seasonally adjusted
(7) Compensation, all civilian workers, quarterly data, 3-month percent change, seasonally adjusted…
Index Mundi. (2005). United States Economy Profile 2005. Retrieved from the Internet at: http:www.indexmundi.comabout.html.
Rosenfeld, S. (2005). Tax Cuts Aren't the Only Way to Stimulate the Economy. TomPaine.com.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2005). Retrieved from the Internet at: http:www.bls.goveagFnote4.
Minehan, Cathy. (April 1, 2005). The U.S. Economy: 2005 and Beyond. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston York County Economic Development Summit.
Kohn, Donald. (April 22, 2005). Imbalances in the U.S. Economy. 15th Annual Hyman P. Minsky Conference, The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York.
Sterngold, James. (July 17, 2005). Casualty of War: The U.S. Economy. San Francisco Chronicle.
Powers, Shannon. (July 26, 2005). Statewide Job Count Continues to Climb. WBOC. Retrieved from the Internet at: http:www.wboc.comGlobalstory.asp?S=3636270.
The article concedes, however, that declining business confidence is an absolute danger that must be dealt with and the government not being an active partner with businesses and in favor of the recovery will just make things worse (Pollin, 2010).
A similar point is made in a different article that states that the role of fiscal policy in pushing an economy towards recovery cannot be over-estimated or over-analyzed because of the vital role fiscal policy plays in said recovery. The article notes that the impact (or lack thereof) of programs like Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Medicare, tax credits, Social Security, direct subsidies, unemployment insurance and such are often included in any analysis of fiscal policy but it also noted that many parties that look at this topic glaringly omit are transfer payments and other assistance paid directly to financial institutions (Tcherneva, 2012).
This perhaps became a much less…
2012 Forecast: Recovery…or Recession?. (2012). Financial Executive, 28(1), 21-23.
Auerbach, a., Gale, W., & Harris, B. (2010). Activist Fiscal Policy. Journal of Economic
Perspectives, 24(4), 141-164. doi:10.1257/jep.24.4.141
Baily, M., & Lawrence, R.Z. (2004). What Happened to the Great U.S. Job Machine?
Even European immigrants experienced discrimination in the 19th century. As Vellos (1997) points out, "American society did not accept the Irish Catholics and Germans, and movements to limit immigration began to form." The Chinese Exclusion Act established anti-Asian sentiments and was not repealed until as late as 1943. For the first time in American history, immigration was "seen as a threat to the United States economy, and Congress began expanding the list of 'undesirable classes' hoping to upgrade the quality of immigrants and to limit overall entry," (Vellos 1997).
In spite of having to live in squalid inner city tenement buildings, new waves of immigrants relished the idea of the American Dream. The American Dream provides the ideological and psychological incentive for new immigrants to a pursue a path of upward social mobility. Upward social mobility was most likely unavailable in the home country, whereas the United States has been…
"A Historical Look at U.S. Immigration Policy." (1995). Retrieved online: http://web.missouri.edu/~brente/immigr.htm
Center for Immigration Studies (n.d.). Immigration history. Retrieved online: http://www.cis.org/ImmigrationHistory
Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform (2010). U.S. Population and Immigration Data, Projections and Graphs. Retrieved online: http://www.cairco.org/data/data_us.html
Diner, H. (2008). Immigration and U.S. History. America.gov. Retrieved online: http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307112004ebyessedo0.1716272.html
Prevent Competitive Markets in the United States
The United States follows a system of "free market economy" in which most businesses are privately owned and where individual producers and consumers determine the kinds of goods and services produced as well as the prices of such products. Competition is a key factor in market economies as it keeps the prices of products in check, forces the competitors to enhance the efficiency of their production process, and drives the inefficient producers out of the market. However, "perfectly competitive market" is largely a theoretical economic concept which does not exist in any country and most countries, including the U.S., follow a system of mixed economy. In such 'mixed economies,' there are several factors which prevent the existence of a perfectly competitive market and the U.S. is no exception to this rule. In this paper, we shall discuss some of the factors that work…
Karier, Thomas. Beyond Competition: The Economics of Mergers and Monopoly Power. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1993.
United States (Economy)" Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003
Such markets are known as 'oligopolies.'
As long as it is not created specifically to monopolize commerce in interstate trade
Less Economic Integration Within the United States
Over the last several decades, the total amount of trade between the United States and Canada has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the two nations share a common boarder that has encouraged both of them to trade more with each other. As time has evolved, this relationship has continued to increase exponentially with the two becoming increasingly interconnected based upon NAFTA. This has helped to fuel large amounts of natural resources that are exported from Canada into the U.S. Where, America has considerable demand for raw materials to meet the needs of: manufacturers, businesses and consumers. (Schwanen, 2005, pp. 309 -- 406) Evidence of this can be seen by looking than the below table, as this illustrates the total amounts of trade between both nations from 1996 to 2010.
Annualized Trade Figures between the…
Canada GDP Growth Rate. (2011). Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/ canada/gdp-growth
Chinese Think Tank. (2011). Mercopress. Retrieved from: http://en.mercopress.com/2011/04/08/chinese-think-tank-forecasts-bric-countries-to-overtake-the-us-economy-by-2015
Peru. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Macroeconomic Trends in the United States
The corner appears to have been turned after the subprime mortgage meltdown and the Great ecession of 2008 that followed. Despite this economic downturn, though, the U.S. economy is well on its way to recovering to pre-recession levels, inflation is at manageable levels and the nation's unemployment level continues to improve. The economic policies and stimulus monies that were used by the current executive administration to help the economy recover have done their job and the Great ecession was not as long or as severe as it would have been otherwise. To determine if these assertions are accurate and timely, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning current macroeconomic trends in the United States, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
It may be too soon for a celebration, but it is may be safe…
United States economy. (2012). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Inflation rate. (2012). Trading Economics. Retrieved from http://www.tradingeconomics.com / united-states/inflation-cpi.
Schultz, T.D. & Sullivan, DH (2011, October). A value-added tax for America? The CPA
Journal, 81(10), 119-121.
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'
Thesis and Outline Draft
Introduction and Thesis
currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).
Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).
On the other hand, Conservatism deems…
Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.
Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. USA: Ron Lipsman.
Watts, D. (2006). Understanding American Government and Politics: Second Edition. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.
United States of America initially adopted an isolationist stance After the American War for Independence in 1781.
Why did the United States of America initially adopted an isolationist stance After the American War for Independence in 1781.
In 1775 the thirteen British colonies in North America rose up against their parent country Great Britain. The war was known as the American evolution and was seen by the British Crown as an affront to its rule, as a result it increased its strangle hold upon the colonists (Anonymous, 2002).
From this attempt to rule by an iron hand forced the colonists to officially declare war upon the British and form a new government with their own Constitution. The war ended in 1781 and America was recognized as an independent nation by the British Government in 1783 (Anonymous, 2002).
However, in 1778, before the end of the war America had already signed…
Anonymous (2002) The American Revolution[online] accessed at http://ragz-international.com/american_revolution.htm
Cole W.S. (1991) My History is America's History [online] accessed at http://www.myhistory.org/historytopics/articles/isolationism.html (Cole, 1991)
United States Deficit, Surplus, and Debt Have an Effect on the United State's Financial Reputation on an International Level
The objective of this study is to examine how and why the United States deficit, surplus and debt have an effect on the United States' financial reputation on an international level.
The United States has been historically viewed as a country that is financially sound. In 2011, as the United States government appeared it was going to default on its debt it is reported that there was a great deal of "bitterness, division and dysfunction that resounded around the world." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) It is reported that the United States is experiencing a diminishing of its "aura as the world's economic haven and the sole country with the power to lead the rest of the world out of financial crisis and recession." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) Additionally, the United States debt levels…
Levit, MR et al. (2011) Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations. Congressional Research Service. 11 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/157101.pdf
Sanger, DE (2011) In World's Eyes, Much Damage Is Already Done. 31 Jul 2011. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com /2011/08/01/us/politics/01capital.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
U.S. Health Care Reforms
Objectives of reform of the health care system should align to improve quality, access and cost in health care. The intricacy of the health care system necessitates balancing the three variables while considering the individual's viewpoint. To achieve this equilibrium, health care programs ought to satisfy safety, actuarial and economic principles that should be under proper application and management for successful reforms. Evidently, there exist various problems within the system. These include poor price controls, over-insurance, lack of transparencies in health care cost and delivery, inappropriate actuarial risk classifications and improper safety net structures. This explication highlights health care reform principles and discusses incremental solutions for quandaries in the American health care system.
Health care reforms ought to strive to encourage the fundamental economic principle of demand and supply. Over-insurance, increase of mandated benefits, control of prices, increased malpractice costs and dependence on third…
In fact, the UN's official policy attempts to limit the types of conditions that can be placed on debt forgiveness for third-world and developing nations. Despite this fact, it would be simplistic to state that G8 should not have the ability to make financial decisions independent of the UN and other international influence. As the countries that have provided the majority of financing for the world's poorest countries, it may be that the continued financial health of those countries depends upon them getting a financial benefit from such financial assistance. Therefore, the current world economy may actually depend on the ability of G8 to operate independently from the broader international community.
Q3: How does the Fisher effect impact the ability to forecast currency exchange rates? If the real interest rate is constant across borders, one would expect a constant currency exchange rate, but this does not occur. On the contrary,…
economy in the United States and the catastrophic terrorist attacks of September 11th is often discussed, for many reasons. The events were so integral to the United States as a historically devastating occurrence that emotionally, socially and psychologically changed the face of the nation and with that nation is the integral issue of economy. This work will analyze the difference between the economic after effects of the September 11th attacks, in the Stock Market particularly, and the effects of another crucial historical event of the last century, the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The correlation between events and the stock exchange is often difficult to find information on in that a comprehensive history of the exchange has not been done, but perhaps the best time for such a work to be written would be now, as we discover just how well the nation and the world recover from the September…
Burk, James. Values in the Marketplace: The American Stock Market under Federal Securities Law. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1992.
"Correspondence." The American Prospect 18 June 2001: 6. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
Dingle, Derek, and Sakina P. Spruell. "Bouncing Back: In the Aftermath of the Terrorist Attacks, Black-Owned Business Learn the True Meaning of Crisis Management as They Turn Losses into Gains." Black Enterprise Dec. 2001: 77+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
"Economy Still Strong after 9/11." The Washington Times 13 Sept. 2002: F32. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
Models of Media and Politics
A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).
The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. aker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three…
Arango, Tim, 2008, 'World Falls for American Media, Even as it Sours on America. The New York Times, Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Artz, Lee, and Kamalipour, Yahya, 2007, the Media Globe: Trends in International Mass Media. Rowman & Littlefield: Landham, MD.
Baker, Mark a., 2010, 'Hallin & Mancini, the North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model by: Mark a. Baker II', Global Media. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://globalmediastudies.blogspot.com .
Hallin, Daniel C., and Mancini, Paolo, 2004, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.
United States Bomb its Way to Victory in Vietnam?
What was John F. Kennedy's "New Frontier" in American foreign policy? What approach did his administration take to the Third World?
The New Frontier policy was a plan to provide aid to foreign countries. He wanted to help Third World countries by increasing their levels of education and boost their economies thereby eventually making them self-sufficient.
Describe and analyze the circumstances and outcomes of the Kennedy administration's crises with Cuba.
The major issue between the United States and Cuba was the Cold War which divided the countries politically. Cuba, being Communist sided with the U.S.S.R. against the U.S. And allowed the U.S.S.R. To have nuclear missiles on their island, pointed at the U.S.
In what ways did Kennedy deepen U.S. involvement in Vietnam? Why did Kennedy believe U.S. engagement/influence in Vietnam was crucial to his foreign policy? How were Kennedy's attitudes…
President Johnson "Americanized" the Vietnam War by introducing more troops into the country and limiting the use of Vietnamese troops. In the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964, Vietnamese weapons supposedly fired on American ships. This account has since proven to be false. It is important because Johnson, very well knowing the truth, intentionally misled the government and the American people. Congress never officially declared war on Vietnam.
6. In what ways was the American nation polarized by the war in Vietnam? What effect did the anti-war movement have on American society? Describe the ways in which 1968 was a year of upheaval (in the U.S., and elsewhere in the world)? How did the Vietnam War shape the election of 1968?
The people of the United States were divided over the American involvement in the Vietnam War. Some viewed it as necessary to protest Communism and others considered it an immoral war that the country should not be involved in. The anti-war movement served to divide the country along the lines of Vietnam support and to further the hippie and counter culture movements. 1968 was a year of upheaval because of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam and the assassinations of both Martin Luther King, Jr. And Robert F. Kennedy. The war shaped the U.S. election
United States Have a Non-Interventionist Foreign Policy? with Todd Myers
This lecture was part of Political Economy Week at Grossmont. The lecture started with a little history about the foreign policy of the United States, especially with regards to the theme of non-interventionism. The speaker referred to the way the United States used to be non-interventionist until the First and Second World Wars, how it was reluctantly entering the Second World War but after that, there was no more non-interventionism. Since then, the United States has been the opposite, fighting other people's fights for them under the guise of benevolence. The speaker questions whether this trajectory is healthy for the world and for the United States. Citing the failure of the recent interventions, but also contrasting that with non-intervention in Syria, the speaker did a good job of presenting both sides of the argument.
There was more I liked about…
4 trillion and $3.6 trillion, an impressive boost to the U.S. economy in those years, the IPC explains. A study conducted by Arizona State University determined that when a person has a bachelor's degree that person earns about $750,000 more over the course of a lifetime of earning than a person with just a high school diploma earns.
The data from that study indicates that as of 2006, those working without a high school diploma earned approximately $419 per week and had an unemployment rate of 6.8%, the IPC explains. Those with a bachelor's degree earned approximately $962 per seek and their rate of unemployment was only 2.3%; over their careers college graduates earn "in excels of 60% more than a high school graduate, and workers with advanced degrees earn two to three times as much as high school graduates" (IPC, p. 2).
The Dream Act would remove the uncertainty…
Associated Press. (2011). Court rules against Arizona immigration law. Justice Department filed suit to block law it says violates U.S. Constitution. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com .
Barreto, Matt. (2010). Senators who opposed DREAM Act may fact Latino roadblocks in 2012.
Latino Decisions. Retrieved May 7, 2011, from http://latinodecisions.wordpress.com .
Bennett, Brian. (2011). GOP drafts legislative assault on illegal immigration. Los Angeles
Nursing and the E
The Emergency oom is often one of the most visible parts of healthcare for political debate. It is also one of the most difficult environments for a modern nurse. It is interesting that one of the founders of modern nursing had emergency experience prior to developing her overall theories. Nightingale also looked at negatives and positives that are the conditions, which could help make people recover and reach their actual potential, as also noted by Maslow hierarchy of needs. She did not look or speak directly of the disease per se, but rather, looked at air, clean water, environment, and sanitation. She published her book in1860 with the title a "Notes on Nursing: What it Is and What it Is Not," connecting human beings and quality of human life, and comparing the stagnant sewage she saw in Scutari, as well as in London. She…
Americans at Risk. (March 2009). Families USA. Retrieved from:
Patient Perceptions in the Emergency Department: Physicians, Physician Assistants,
Nurse Practitioners. (30 August 2010). Retrieved from: http://idiopathicmedicine.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/patient-perceptions-in-the-emergency-department-physicians-physician-assistants-nurse-practitioners/
For example, the Chinese had no need for European foodstuffs but they did want European silver ("Early Global Commodities" 2010). Trade between China and Europe was not as robust as it was between the Arab world and Europe because of the lack of demand in China for European products other than silver. As a result, a diffusion of culture from China to Europe did not take place as did the diffusion of culture from Arabia and medieval Muslim societies to Europe.
Moreover, much European silver came from the territories conquered in the New World. In addition to plundering South America for silver, European societies also imported South American foods such as tomato, chili, chocolate, and sugar. These commodities eventually transformed the European diet ("Food, Demographics, and Culture" 2010). Thus, economic imperatives cause the development and diffusion of ancient South American societies. On the other hand, Yellow iver Valley culture in…
"Early Global Commodities," (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247550
"Food, Demographics, and Culture" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247553
"Migrations of America" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/260105
"River Valley Civilizations." (n.d.) Retrieved online: http://www.historyhaven.com/APWH/the%20River%20Valley.htm
Instead of providing a democratic model that Chinese companies could follow, American companies and not only go to China for the advantage of paying a lot less for the same work. The fact that our government tolerates and encourages such practices must change.
After the 1989 massacre in Tiananmen Square, one of the sanctions imposed on China was to be denied any World ank loans. A year later, the sanction was reduced as China was supposed to improve its human rights practices in order to get World ank loans. This measure, as many others, was never applied, as China is now one of the main beneficiaries of World ank loans and has done little in changing its human rights practices. Despite the fact that U.S. could have used its influence in the World ank and impose strict sanctions on China, it preferred not to do so, most probably based on…
China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)," Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2005, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61605.htm ;
Christensen, Nick, a Standoff Between Giants: America's Policies Towards the Human Rights Record of China, December 9, 1998, available at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~rtanter/F98PS472PAPERS/CHRISTENSEN.NICK.CHINA.HTM ;
Kourous, George and Tom Barry, "U.S. China Policy: Trade, Aid, and Human Rights," Foreign Policy in Focus, Vol. 1, No. 5, November 1996.
United States' current international position writing a speech 750 words amateur reporters simple terms concepts. This assignment student evaluate effects surplus imports effects GDP, domestic international markets, students.
United States' current international position
When conducting international trade, the scope of any country is that of maximizing its revenues through exports; nevertheless, in an increasingly open global market place, countries must also open their own boundaries to imports from other regions. The balance between the exports and the imports reveals the country's trade; if the exports exceed the imports, then the country has a trade surplus; if, on the other hand, the country imports more than it exports, then there is a trade deficit.
In a context of a surplus of imports, namely a trade deficit, the country faces several issues. For once, it becomes less able to generate revenues from its own exports and it spends more on paying for…
Scott, R.E., Wething, H. (2012). Jobs in the U.S. auto parts industry are at risk due to subsidized and unfairly traded Chinese auto parts. Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp336-us-china-auto-parts-industry / accessed on October 5, 2012
Wang, P. (2009). The economics of foreign exchange and global finance. Springer
United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…
Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm
Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm
Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02.
Conservative American Presidents
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the return to conservatism in the American presidency after the 1980s. It will compare the similarities to earlier periods in the 19th and 20th century, and discuss what relationship there is between this return to conservatism, and the continued struggle for U.S. military dominance and economic globalization.
THE RETURN TO CONSERVATISM IN AMERICAN POLITICS
The country emerged from orld ar II as the dominant world force and with a booming national economy.
It was able to construct a series of political, economic, and military alliances that tied most of the former great powers together against its only rival, the Soviet Union. This unique postwar situation could not last forever, and in the 1960s and 1970s the "American Century" began to unravel (Florig 153).
It was this unraveling that Americans were worried about, and so they turned to…
Anderson, Dennis M. "Ronald Reagan." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 563-578.
Dansker, Emil. "William Howard Taft." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 211-234.
Editors. "Warren G. Harding." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/WH/WH_In_Brief.htm
Editors. "Ronald Reagan: Impact and Legacy." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/RR/RR_Impact_and_Legacy.htm
For any person diagnosed with ADS, having to wait for drugs could effectively be a death sentence, which gives this study all of the greatest purpose so that there is a better understanding to the problem and hopefully, there will be possible solutions (HV and African-Americans)
According to (Gray, 2004, p. 59), everyone is labeled by sex, race, and religion, an outline of a theory of values-based labeling as a social movement argues that it is motivated by the need tore-embed the agro-food economy in the larger social economy. A review of some basic premises of embeddedness theories derived from the work of Karl Polanyi reveals their connection to particular values-based labeling efforts. From this perspective, values-based labeling presents itself as primarily an ethical and moral effort to counter unsustainable trends within presently existing capitalism. These labels distinguish themselves from ordinary commercial labels by a focus on process and on…
It argues that when teens get to a certain age, they realize the consequences of their decisions, which includes if they have AIDS.
Religious and racial traditions call their members to care for the poor and marginalized, yet no study has examined whether physicians' religious characteristics are associated with practice among the underserved. This study examines whether physicians' self-reported religious characteristics and sense of calling in their work are associated with practice among the underserved (Farr a. Curlin, MD1,2, Lydia S. Dugdale, MD3, John D. Lantos, MD2,4 and Marshall H. Chin).
In the article, by Friedma,(2007), it is clear that people are debating that decisions made on religious grounds are not considered to be rational; however, serious medical decisions (including the refusal of treatment) can only be made based and accepted on rational grounds. For example, if the risk of bad side effects is really high, the medical treatment could be refused. From there, this article argues the pros and
Globalization has stripped the U.S. Of its stranglehold over manufacturing and forced it to readjust itself into a service oriented industry. As a result, education, training and specialization are more crucial than ever for the attainment of high paying jobs. This leaves the majority of Americans who do not have high educational or vocational training to have fewer opportunities for employment. Competitions from third world nations have stripped away many industries and jobs that are traditionally strong employers such as the automotive and steel industries. The result is that employees have had to take lower-paying jobs because they cannot readjust themselves for more complex positions required within the changing dynamics of globalization. rom an economic perspective this is an inevitable process, and therefore the wealth gap grows because those with very strong education and specialization are able to take advantage of economic trends towards service oriented industries, while those who…
From a political perspective, economic change and the conservatism of the past two decades have changed the spirit of government assistance for the poor. Welfare no longer exists as it did in the 1970s, and more funding is being diverted away from providing for the poor. As a result of government policies to provide greater independence and breaks for the average citizen, more and more funds are being steered away from helping the poor. The combination of a dearth of government spending to aid the poor as well as an unfriendly job market for unskilled labor has contributed to the poor becoming poorer.
From a social perspective, the "hippy" culture of the earlier decades has been replaced with a growing demand for social gratification through money and influence. In a survey conducted of college students in 1990, 80% reported that making money was their first priority following graduation. As society becomes more influenced by materialistic culture, the perspective of helping the poor and solving social problems are de-emphasized. All three factors have contributed to the growing wealth inequality within the United States.
Nickel and Dimed" revealed to us the world of American poverty. The poorest sector of the United States live a life that few can imagine and many thought eradicated. The factors that have brought us to the circumstances that Ehrenreich depicts within her book are multifaceted. They involve inevitable economic changes, government policy as well as social perspectives. To rectify this problem will be extremely difficult. Changes will have to be made on many different levels that will involve a changing perspective on views of poverty and success. However, if this trend continues, the wealth gap will inevitably polarize the American public and lead to a major national crisis. Thus to preserve the democracy and health of the United States, steps must be taken to change the culture towards wealth disparity.
2005). Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.
Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation." Rather than seeing other nations as means to promote American interests, FDR believed that American well-being depended heavily on the well-being of its satellite countries as well. This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism.
As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. Thus, by World War II, many Western nations threw their support behind the Allies.…
This fact alone reflects a change in the sample's demographics, wherein the middle- to higher-class income respondents had more likely answered the said poll, and is, in effect, not representative of American society in general.
Responses given for the poll, as discussed earlier, were not clearly stated. The responses provided do not reflect absolutism and definitiveness. In fact, the use of "better" and "worse" in the responses show that they are not located at the opposite ends of the improvement spectrum, but rather, in the middle.
Assuming that the question was clearly understood as asking of U.S. In general or on the overall, the responses are to be interpreted as follows: "81% of CNN online pollers reported that the country has worsened since 9/11." Note that the sample is specifically stated and limited to CNN online pollers, in addition to the observation that the term "worsened" was not stated in…
In favor of joining is the fact that the large eurozone will integrate the national financial markets, leading to higher efficiency in the allocation of capital in Europe. The Treasury's official assessment of its five economic tests acknowledged that EMU membership for the UK could enhance productivity by increasing trade flows between the UK and other EU nations; boost investment and stimulate competition in product markets. (Artis 2000)
EMU may help UK households with lower prices and higher wages. It may promote supply-side reforms in the EU, aid specialization and enhance the UK's comparative advantage in a host of industries over time. Britain's excellent labor market would be highly effective inside a single currency area, yielding increased investment from outside the EU. Britain has been a major recipient of foreign direct investment in recent years. By removing a money-obstacle and improving access to funding, EMU could also facilitate the development…
Artis (2000) Should the UK Join Emu? National Institute Economic Review, Vol. 171,
No. 1, 70-81
Garganas (2003) Exchange-Rate Regimes on the Road to EMU: Lessons from Greece's
Experience, Seminar on "Monetary Strategies for Accession Countries," Hungarian
US Aid to Afghanistan
The issue of United States' aid to Afghanistan is a topic of interesting consideration given the current U.S. budget deficit and ongoing economic uncertainty. Over the years the United States has spent billions providing money and food aid to help build strength and confidence in Afghanistan's rising new government. Unfortunately, the results of this have not been entirely positive nor have they been driven by the purest of motives; there is some level of profiteering occurring using aid money, and there is also a practical U.S. interest in the stability and viability of the Afghan nation and people. If the United States were providing purely humanitarian aid without military or political involvement and requirements, the situation would be quite different. As it is, U.S. aid in the country is a complex and controversial issue.
Since Afghanistan was taken over by the Taliban, the country has been…
Agnieszka, Flak. "INTERVIEW-Afghanistan Food Aid at Risk as Donors Trim Support |
Agricultural Commodities | Reuters." Reuters.com. 24 Dec. 2011. Web. 04 Feb. 2012.
The ar on Drugs was likely bad public policy from the beginning. It was an over-reaction to what politicians believed was a major social problem. The major social problem was society's method of dealing with the perceived problem and not the actual problem of drug use. Through the Controlled Substance Act Congress created a whole new class of criminal and a black market industry that makes the bootlegging of the 1930's look amateur in comparison.
Drug abuse is a problem just like alcoholism is a problem. Prohibiting the sale of alcohol did nothing to affect the rate or treatment of alcoholism and, as history has now shown us, prohibiting the sale of certain drugs has not affected the rate or treatment of drug abuse either. Such treatment is best left to the experts educated to provide such treatment and criminalizing the behavior only serves to make a bad situation worse.…
Drug Enforcement Admininstration. U.S. Drug Enforcement Admininstration. 1999. 18 May 2011 .
Encylopedia Brittannica. "Prohibition." 2011. Encylopedia Britannica. 18 May 2011 .
Frone, Kristin E. Voelkl and Michael R. "Predictors of substance abuse at school among high school students." Journal of Educational Psychology (2000): 583-592.
Global Commission on Drug Policy. War on Drugs. Research. Rio de Janiero: Global Commission on Drugs, 2011.
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…
"5b. Indentured servants." The Southern Colonies. U.S. History. 2012. [1 Feb 2013]
Pearson, Ellen Holmes. "The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction." Teaching History.
[1 Feb 2013.]
Farmers are stated to have become "risk takers, created new markets, developed rural industries and migrated to urban areas. Farmers were no longer slaves to the state..." (1996)
Dorn notes the statement of Jianying Zha (1994:202) in the book "China Pop" that:
The economic reforms has created new opportunities, new dreams, and to some extent, a new atmosphere and mindsets. The old control system has weakened in many areas, especially the spheres of economy and lifestyle. There is a growing sense of increased space for personal freedom."
Dorn states that the optimism of Zha would certain be shared by anyone who has: "...seen the vibrancy of the market, the dynamism of the people, and the rapid growth of urban areas..." (1996) Dorn states: "Commercial life in China is evolving naturally as people flee the countryside for improved living conditions and the chance to strike it rich in the growing nonstate…
Daniel T. Griswold, CATO Institute, (2005)"Trading Tyranny for Freedon: How Open Markets Till the Soil for Democracy."
Dorn, James a. (1996) Trade and Human Rights: The Case of China. The Cato Journal Vol. 16 No.1. Spring-Summer 1996 Online available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj16n1-5.html
Fewsmith, Joseph (2007) the Political Implications of China's Growing Middle Class. China Leadership Monitor. No. 21 the Hoover Institution. Online available at http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/8535722.html
Gresser, Edward (2006) Trading in Myth - Blueprint Magazine 9 February 9, 2006. Progressive Policy Institute. Online available at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=108&subsecID=206&contentID=253726
Immigration to America
An Introduction and Claim
Over the years, the issue of immigration in America United States has raised complex demographic issues. Elements of population increase and cultural change on the native societies in the United States are evident characteristics of immigration. The social, political, and economic components of immigration cause controversies on issues of employment, settlement patterns, ethnicity, and economic benefits for non-immigrants. The government works on developing social mobility, reducing crime, and controlling voting behavior. This paper intends to outline the negative issues surrounding immigration in the U.S. The United States has fewer immigrants on per capita consideration comparable to half the OECD countries. Policies had developed before 1965 focused on establishing a working formula for limiting naturalization and immigration opportunities for persons without native claim.
The exceptional economic status of America makes it a haven for immigrants (David & Okazaki 887). However, globalization is fast…
David, Richards, and Okazaki Stephens. Activation and automaticity of colonial mentality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40.4(2010), 850 -- 887. Print
Mossakowski, Kilchenmann. Are immigrants healthier? The case of depression among Filipino Americans. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70.3(2007), 290 -- 304. Print
Picot, George. Hou, Farou., & Coulombe, Silva. Poverty dynamics among recent immigrants to Canada. The International Migration Review, 42.2(2008), 393 -- 424. Print
Stickels, Jackie. The Victim Satisfaction Model of the Criminal Justice System, Criminology and Criminal Justice Research and Education, 2.1 (2008), 1-19. Print
The result was a put-off United States. ealizing this furthered the need for an outside alliance, talks of NATO resumed. At this point, Canada saw NATO as more than just a defense strategy in the face of Communism. Canada fought and won a battle in discussions to require all members of NATO to cooperate economically. Additionally, the NATO alliance assured that Canada would have a say in combined foreign policy and security. Even further, Canada would be able to deal with the United States on more of a multilateral level, which would help ease the disparity between the nations (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). ather than simply following America's lead in foreign affairs, Canada was determined to make decisions in the best interest of the Canadian people.
By 1949, the threat of Communism was in full swing. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapon, and the world took notice. Now…
Aronsen, L.R. (1997). American National Security and Economic Relations with Canada, 1945-1954. Westport: Praeger Publishers.
Canada. (2003). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from Encarta Online. Web site: http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563379_7/Canada.html.
Canada and the UN. (2003). Canada and the United Nations. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Web site: http://www.un.int/canada/canadaandun.html .
Canada Department of National Defense. (May 1953). Canadian participation in the Korean War, Part I. Canadian Defense Report No. 62. Montreal: Canada Department of National Defense.
They needed to pass a medical exam, a test on their language skill and many others. Among the people who were turned away without exception were those deemed mentally deficient, admitted or suspected revolutionaries, and those who did not pay for their own passage (Anderson 28-29). In short, many immigrants felt that they were being inspected, manhandled, mistreated, and dealt with in a manner more befitting of animals than human beings.
The quota system that made this sort of treatment possible was eventually overturned in 1965. "Following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the National Origins System, a new wave of immigration began. Since 1970, more than three-quarters of legal immigrants have come from developing nations in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia." (Torr 71). This has often been regarded as the third wave of United States Immigration. This act sought to base whether or not…
Anderson, Dale. Arriving at Ellis Island. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2002.
Andryszewski, Tricia. Immigration: Newcomers and Their Impact on the United States. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1995.
Brimelow, Peter. Alien Nation. New York: Random House, 1991.
Brown, Lester R. And Gary Gardner et al., eds. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
Government-Business Relations 1004 PPP -- Reading Report
Tutorial (e.g. Monday 10.00am-11.30am):
Reading full reference
Wilson, G. (2003). Business and politics: A comparative introduction. 3rd ed. New York: Chatham House Publishers. Chapter 2. "Business and Politics in the United States," pp. 27-57.
Main point(s) made by the author(s)
In contrast to modern European democracies, the United States has embraced a form of capitalism that is extremely hostile to proactive social welfare policies. Within U.S. culture there has tended to be a more uncomplicated celebration of such values as individualism and self-reliance. Even the Democratic Party, which is currently considered the more liberal of the two major governing parties, is less supportive of comprehensive social welfare policies such as universal healthcare vs. European nations. The U.S. has a very weak welfare state, one of the weakest in the modern industrialized world. The U.S. also has a federalist system, which accords considerable power…
The United States Sugar Industry
How many sodas and candy bars are drunk and eaten in the United States each day? This report will focus on one of the main ingredients in those sweet treats and the related industry here in the United States that produces it. "Sucrose -- what we call 'sugar' -- is an organic chemical of the carbohydrate family. It can be extracted from a great variety of plant sources, for it occurs in all green plants." (Mintz, 19) Sugar falls under the classification of an 'edible crystalline substance' that we taste as sweet. The world produces approximately 160 thousand metric tons of sugar annually with Brazil, India and the European Union consistently listed as the largest producers.
The bulk of commercial sugar production comes from the two sources of sugar beets and sugarcane; other sources include sorghum, date palms, and sugar maple. As a…
Adler, Jacob. (1966). Clause Spreckels: The Sugar King in Hawaii. University Press: Honolulu.
Answers.com. (2009). "Beet Sugar." Retrieved on November 19, 2009, from Answer.com at http://www.answers.com/topic/beet-sugar-3 .
Cane Sugar and Hawaii. (1962). "The Hawaii Book." J.G. Ferguson Publishing Company: Chicago.
Goodboy, David. (2009). "Sugar: A Sweet Market On The Move." Retrieved on November 19, 2009, from Trading Markets at http://www.tradingmarkets.com/.site/eminis/commentary/guestcommentary/-77544.cfm .