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Force: Examining the Most elevant Articles
The article "The Four Functions of Force" by obert Art details exactly that: the main purposes for using force in a given situation. Those purposes are as follows: defense, deterrence, compellence and swagger. While these reasons are indeed distinct, as Art demonstrates, it can be difficult from time to determine the exact purpose that a particular state has selected. In this sense, the main issue revolves around the fact that it can be challenging to determine clearly the motives of a given state at any time. Examining the first use of force, defense, it can be described as mainly using military power to reduce destruction to oneself if attacked, and to help motivate decisions to act early. Art describes deterrence as "the threat of retaliation to prevent something undesirable from happening" (2012). This move for deterrence can be focused at a particular group of…
Art, R. (2012). The Four Functions of Force. In R. Art, & R. Jervis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 164-71). Pearson Education.
Cronin, A. (2012). Ending Terrorism. In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 402-15). Pearson.
Hoffman, B. (2012). What is Terrorism? In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 186-95 ). Pearson Education.
Pape, R. (2012). The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 214-31). Pearson Education.
Manage Use of Force Ethical Issues
HOW TO MANAGE USE-OF-FOCE ETHICAL ISSUES
This objective of this study is to examine how criminal justice and private security managers and executives are addressing use-of-force issues from an ethical point-of-view.
There is a growing problem in the United States with law enforcement officer's use-of-force under the color of law and their authority requiring that criminal justice and private security managers understand the ethics in relation to police use-of-force.
The research questions in this study include those which ask the following questions: (1) What is being done to ethically address wrongful police use-of-force in their line of duty? (2) What more should be done to ethically address wrongful police use-of-force in their line of duty?
It is reported that ethical misconduct "taints the public perception of police" and that this is extremely "detrimental.to the profession." (Beech, nd, p. 3) It is reported…
Beech, B. (nd) Ethics in Policing: Not Just Shoulds, Coulds, and Ought To's. Retrieved from: https://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/getdoc/84fec71c-556a-4827-946d-24db6d5cef93/Beech-bonnie-paper.aspx
Use of Force by Police: Overview of National and Local Data. (1999) U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/176330-1.pdf
Force and Wars on Terrorism
The objective of this work is to consider that as one of the governing principles of the United Nations, the UN Charter Article 2(4) prohibits the use of force in international relations, but its Article 51 permits the use of for e as an act of self-defense against any illegal use of force in violation of Article 2(4). Contemporary wars on terrorism are often justified as an act of self-defense. Therefore, this work will address the question of whether terrorist acts constitute a violation of Article 2(4), which justifies wars on terrorism as an act of self-defense under the UN Charter?
Article 2(4) of the United Nations Charter states as follows:
All members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes…
O'Connell, ME (2002) The Myth of Preemptive Self-Defense. The American Society of International Law Task Force on Terrorism. August 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.asil.org/taskforce/oconnell.pdf
Bradford, W. (2004) The Duty to Defend Them: A Natural Law Justification for the Bush doctrine of Preventive War. Commonwealth Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.comw.org/qdr/fulltext/04bradford.pdf
Article 2 (2011) Charter of the United Nations. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter1.shtml
Kanade, M. (2009) Article 2(4) of the UN Charter: Alive and Well. University for Peace: Peace & Conflict Monitor. 7 Jul 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.monitor.upeace.org/innerpg.cfm?id_article=632#_ftn13
The young man had struck the officer repeatedly before continuing to resist arrest, and finally being killed. The court found in favor of the officer.
Hopkins v. Andaya is a similar case in which an officer was struck repeatedly and ignore despite several warnings. In both these cases, self-defense necessitated the use of firearms.
In the case of Tennessee v Garner, on the other hand, a suspect was fleeing. According to the law, a police officer could use deadly force if he or she believed that the suspect was dangerous to the public and guilty of the suspected crime. Such use of force, as Hall argues, is however no longer relevant in the legal climate of the United States. Due process and the presumption of innocence necessitates providing felons with the opportunity to state their case before a jury. Overly excessive force was therefore used in this case.
Charlton, Jacquie. (1997). A brief history of a "less than lethal" weapon. http://www.montrealmirror.com/ARCHIVES/1997/041797/sidebar.html
Halle, John C. (1997, Oct). Police Use of Nondeadly Force to Arrest. Law Enforcement Bulletin. http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/1997/oct975.htm
Mangan, David. (2008). Police Brutality the Use of Excessive Force. Drury University. http://www.drury.edu/ess/irconf/DMangan.html
Net Industries. (2009). Law Enforcement - Use of Force. http://social.jrank.org/pages/1332/Law-Enforcement-Use-Force.html
S. In April 2005, where there is a description of how a cell search took place there as per his version. "The guards secured his hands behind his back and, while he was so restrained, the guards picked him up and slammed his body and his head into the steel bunk in his cell. They then threw him on the floor and continued to pound his body and bang his head into the floor. The guards picked him up again and banged his head on the toilet in his cell. The guards picked him up again, stuffed Mr. Ait Idir's face in the toilet and repeatedly pressed the flush button. Mr. Ait Idir was starting to suffocate and he feared he would drown. The guards then carried Mr. Ait Idir outside the cell and threw him on the ground. His hands still were manacled behind his back. They held him…
Amnesty International Press Release. (26 November 2003) "USA: Allegations of excessive use of force and ill-treatment of protestors in Miami" News Service No: 268 Retrieved at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511422003?open&of=ENG-USAAccessed on 27 June, 2005
Controlling police use of excessive force: The role of the police psychologists" Retrieved at http://www.uplink.com.au/lawlibrary/Documents/Docs/Doc37.html. Accessed on 27 June, 2005
Illegitimate or Excessive Use of Force" International Online Training Program on Intractable
Conflict. Retrieved at http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/problem/illegit_force.htm . Accessed on 27 June, 2005
One police officer for example referred to the chaos as a "holocaust," far removed from the real world (Shankman et al., 2010).
Alpert and Smith (2001, p. 483) note that a survey of the public showed a general perception that the police is frequently excessively violent in their contact with the public. According to the authors, the targets of reported abuse are generally lower class males, with a common factor being a display of disrespect by these citizens towards the police in question.
It is possible that this perception of "disrespect" could have been a factor in the use of excessive force in New Orleans. The police most likely place excessive emphasis on the role of preventing crime, whereas the desperation of the victims involved drove them to seek out food and water from unattended shops and homes. Hence, the two factors escalated each other, leading to excessive police force,…
Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (2000). Further Exploration of the Demeanor Hypothesis: The Interaction Effects of Suspects' Characteristic Behavior.
Alpert, G.P. And Smith, W.C. (2001). How Reasonable is the Reasonable Man?: Police and Excessive Force. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 85, No. 2.
Bayley, DH and Garofalo, J. (1989). The Management of Violence by Police Patrol Officers. Criminology.
Purcell, A. (2010). Police violence on trial. Retrieved from: http://www.andrewpurcell.net/?p=762
Gradually, the viewer's pleasure of being the knowing doctor shifts to the pleasure of socially-sanctioned unwilling penetration: "But the worst of it was that I too had got beyond reason. I could have torn the child apart in my own fury and enjoyed it. It was a pleasure to attack her. My face was burning with it," says the doctor as he grows angry with the girl's intransigence. Mulvey might assert that the girl's illness makes her into a kind of erotic object, a being that can be legitimately observed and penetrated by both the doctor and the viewer, which the doctor takes pleasure in subduing. The reader's alignment with the doctor's thought processes grows closer and closer as the penetration is about to take place. The doctor tries to 'sweet talk' the girl, and is frustrated by the protections of the mother, almost as if he were a suitor:…
Mulvey, Laura. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema." Film Theory and Criticism:
Introductory Readings. Eds. Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen. New York: Oxford UP,
The greater the threat, the greater is the risk of inaction -- and the more compelling the case for taking anticipatory action to defend ourselves, even if uncertainty remains as to the time and place of the enemy's attack. To forestall or prevent such hostile acts by our adversaries, the United States will, if necessary, act preemptively." (cited in Ryan, 2009)
Ryan relates that the rule of anticipatory self-defense was described in letters exchanged between ritain's Lord Ashurton and U.S. secretary of state Daniel Webster in 1837 in an indicated involving the private U.S. ship Caroline that was destroyed by ritish forces when it was found to be providing aid to Canadian rebels who were fighting against the Crown. The diplomatic correspondence set to the ritish Ambassador and which protested the attack it was written by Webster that the "...anticipatory self-defense may be invoked only where the threat is imminent,…
Address by Bush Administration National Security Advisor, Dr. Condoleezza Rice, Winston Lecture, 1 October 2002; Sapiro, M. "Iraq: The Shifting Sands of Pre-emptive Self-Defense" (2003) 97 American Journal of International Law 599 at 599.
Caroline Case (1837) 2 Moore 409.
Champion, Sarah (2005) Anticipatory (Pre-emptive) Self-Defense: The Need for a Modern Approach. Online available at: http://www.usafa.edu/isme/JSCOPE05/Champion05.html
Franck, TM. (2001) "Editorial Comments: Terrorism and the Right of Self-Defense" 95 American Journal of International Law 839 at 842. Franck states this intuition is supported by the language of Article 51.
Albert and Smith delve into the controversial and complex topic of the use of excessive force in policing. The authors note two important points about the complex topic. First, use of excessive police force is poorly researched and understood. The term "excessive force" is not well defined within law enforcement, and a cohesive explanation of situations that use excessive force is lacking in the training of police officers. Further compounding this lack of definition is a lack of comprehensive statistics on the use of force in the policing environment. As such, police officers have been given enormous powers and responsibility in a hazardous and highly-scrutinized environment, but lack a real understanding of the degree of force that they are allowed to use in carrying out their duties. This lack of understanding of the use of force has resulted in the inability of the police force to provide comprehensive statistical information…
Alpert, Geoffrey P. & Smith, William C. (1994). How reasonable is the reasonable man?: Police and excessive force. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 85 (2), 481-501.
Force by Police and Correctional Officers in the United States Today
Beginning with the high-profile case of odney King in March 1991, the proliferation of cellular telephones equipped with cameras has resulted in an increasing number of video accounts by American citizens concerning the use of force against criminal suspects who are in many cases members of minority groups (Winright, 2007). Not surprisingly, this trend has also prompted calls for a review of current use of force methods employed by law enforcement agencies across the country. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to identify the various methods used by police or correctional officers in overcoming resistance in arrest or control situations, taking into consideration the use-of force continuum, and to identify potential responses to "expected" or "unexpected" consequences from the pubic or judicial system as a result of employing such tactics. Finally, a summary of the…
Elicker, M. K. (2008, Fall). Unlawful justice: An opinion study on police use of force and how views change based on race and occupation. Sociological Viewpoints, 24, 33-39.
Isted, C. M. (2006, June). Assessing the use of force among male and female police officers. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 3(2), 115.
Kedir, S. H. (2006, Summer). Stunning trends in shocking crimes: A comprehensive analysis of Taser weapons. Journal of Law and Health, 20(2), 357-363.
McCauley, R. P. (2005, November). Use of force and high-intensity tactical police flashlights: Policy concerns. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 74(11), 10-14.
Excessive Psychological and Physical Force on Victims and the Public: An Exploration of Police Practices
The subject of excessive use of violence by authoritative figures has been widely examined throughout history. Alpert and Smith suggest that the authority of the police to use force "represents one of the most misunderstood powers granted to representatives of government" suggesting that police officers are authorized to use psychological and physical force to apprehend criminals (p. 481). hen does this use of force become excessive or unreasonable?
There is relatively little data that examines the outcomes of police violence though much research has devoted its time to examining the causes of excessive force (Hale & Ross, 2000, p. 2). Thus the aim of this research proposal will be to examine the result of excessive violence and the impact excessive violence has on the responses of those affected and ordinary citizens.
The goal of this…
Walker, S. (1985). Racial minority and female employment in policing: The implications of "glacial" change. Crime and Delinquency, 31(4), 555-572.
Walker, S. (1999). The police in America: An introduction (3d ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Research Proposal Excessive Force
Police use of force
There is no single globally accepted definition of use of force by police officers. The National Institute of Justice, which is a subsidiary of the Justice Department concurs with this. This leaves the approximately 18,000 police agencies in America with the leeway to formulate their own policies regarding the use of force. Some agencies may address the issue while some may not. The Justice Department has however provided a use-of-force continuum. This refers to a step-by-step manner in which the police officers can act in order to calm a situation. As such, a police officer can first present himself at the scene, resort to verbal warning if his mere presence is not enough, then use unarmed control, say grabbing the offender, proceed to use less harmful weapons such as tear gas and batons, and finally use excessive force (Vera, 2018).
This order of attack is quite…
Excessive Force Liability
The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).
Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified…
Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .
Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).
Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
Discovery: In what ways would discovery alter an investigator's methods of investigating?
Discovery that can be submitted into the law must be commensurate with discovery laws regarding dispositions, spontaneous admissions, and investigative questioning. hen collecting data, the investigator must be careful not to leave him or herself open to charges of tainting witness testimony, and must share all potentially relevant testimony with opposing counsel.
Are there any exceptions to this rule?
In the People vs. Lopez, the accused-appellant questioned the credibility of Mario Seldera, contending that the witness could not observed even minute details, such as the length and color of the shirts worn by accused-appellant and his companion, the color of their slippers, and the type of firearm used by accused-appellant, considering that the shooting took place suddenly," and in the dark. Likewise, it was alleged that Lopez's alibi was airtight. However, the court found sufficient evidence that there…
People v. Lopez. (1999) Retrieved 9 Dec 2004. http://www.supremecourt.gov.ph/jurisprudence/1999/aug99/119380.htm
Smith, Brad. (2004) "Graham vs Connor: Police Service Dogs not deadly force." Retrieved 9 Dec 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/jetflair/smithnotdeadly.html
Tennessee vs Garner (1985) Retrieved 9 Dec 2004. http://www.uni-konstanz.de/FuF/Jura/fritzemeyer/english/Tennessee.v.Garner.Abridged.pdf
The second step taken may be to convince staff that changes are essential for surviving in the business and this would provide a new force in support which may be called survival with strength of 2. Then there may be an action to convince the workers that new machines would increase variety to their jobs and this would introduce a new positive force with strength of 1. Even existing negatives can be changed into positive and wages can be increased providing a positive of 1 and a simultaneous loss of 2 due to removal of overtime. (Force Field Analysis - Understanding the Pressures For and Against Change)
Another possible change is of filters which would eliminate pollution and this would remove a negative strength of 1. All these actions would make the balance which was against the change by 11 to 10 to a balance in favor of the plan…
Cost/Benefit Analysis-Evaluating Quantitatively Whether to Follow a Course of Action.
Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_08.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Force Field Analysis - Understanding the Pressures for and Against Change" Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_06.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Minimizing Stress in Your Working Environment" Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/stress/EnvironmentalStress/WorkingEnvironmentStress.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Types of Illegal Uses of Force:
As various types of legal uses of force have continued to evolve in the recent past, the emergence of peaceful co-existence policies has resulted in the illegal uses of force. Some of the cases of illegal uses force include the following & #8230;
The use of force is considered illegal when a state is involved in clandestine support in a conflict involving two other countries. Under the contemporary international law, a state that is a third-party to a conflict should always remain neutral (Slomanson, p. 473). hen the third-party state supports one of the warring parties in the conflict by providing military support its use of force is regarded as illegal. The use of clandestine support by a third-party state to support one of the warring parties is an illegal use of force.
Under the contemporary international law, the spectrum…
Slomanson, William R. "Chapter Nine - Use of Force." Fundamental Perspectives on International Law. 6th ed. Boston. MA: Wadworth, Cengage Learning, 2011. Cengagebrain.com. CengageBrain, 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
This is important, because it shows how law enforcement needs to be given a certain amount of discretion surrounding the use of force and its application. As the different situations they will face, will require having enough discretion to appropriately control the situation. ("Police Discretion," n.d., pp. 83 -- 88)
How might this Discretion be controlled?
To manage discretion, you would need to have an effective program that would determine how and when the use of force is applied on the street. Where, young police officers must adapt their academy training, to the realities of the real world. During this process is when they are exposed to how this should be applied. If you can control the way these young officers are being taught this principal (by veteran cops), it will control how and when it is applied (by changing the culture inside the department). (Hunt, 1985, pp. 315 --…
Police Discretion. (n.d.). (pp.83 -- 139).
Holgren, L. (2010). Factors that Affect a Police Officer's Discretion. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_5960237_factors-affect-police-officers_-discretion.html
Hunt, J. (1985). Police Accounts of Normal Force. Urban Life 13 (4), 315 -- 341
One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.
Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:
Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312
Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna
Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886
Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
police management affect the way police officers use force?
The Force Continuum
Style of Leadership and Management
Proper Management of Police esources
Innovations in Excessive Force Training
Protection of its citizens is the fundamental mission of any government. And on the forefront of this mission are the law enforcement officers who are in fact the most visible arm that the government utilizes to protect the citizens and also to preserve public order ("Police Use of Excessive Force: A Case Study of Lethal (Deadly) Force," 2016).
And to achieve these missions, the police are given authorities that are unique in civil governments as well as granted by the society - authority to control the behaviors of the citizens with the ultimate aim of protecting them from harm. Hence in a manner that is most direct, the behavior of the members of the society are controlled and managed by the police personnel…
Atherley, L., & Hickman, M. (2014). Controlling Use of Force: Identifying Police Use of Excessive Force through Analysis of Administrative Records. Policing, 8(2), 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/police/pau003
Banker, R., Chang, H., & Pizzini, M. (2004). The Balanced Scorecard: Judgmental Effects of Performance Measures Linked to Strategy. The Accounting Review, 79(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2308/accr.2004.79.1.1
Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA [etc.]: Sage Publications.
Belasen, A., Eisenberg, B., & Huppertz, J. Mastering leadership.
Eight Steps of Effective Marketing Communication: The New Product Called Orange Clean
Recognizing the Target Audience
Determining the Communication Objectives
Planning the Message
Choosing Communication Channels
Launching the Marketing Communications Financial plan
Creating and Handling the Marketing Communications Mix
Determine the communications' results
Administer the integrated marketing Communication procedure.
Orange Clean. The company's major activity is to produce and sell inorganic household cleaners. The company functions in three different sections: Inorganic ingedients, and Others natural and organic chemicals. Orange clean is made up of the Inorganic Chemicals agents such as real peeled oranges and other natural flavors. The Fertilisers section comprises of natural and organic chemicals that have raw scent. The Others section are made up of speciality ingredients, which are all natural.
Today Orange Clean has a new assessment of communications as a communicating dialogue among the company and its clienteles that takes place all through the pre-selling, consuming,…
Andreasen, A., 2008. Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment.. San Francisco, CA:: Jossey-Bass.
Anon., 2016. Creating a Stakeholder. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ors.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/148497/Creating_a_Stakeholders_Communications_Plan.pdf
[Accessed 26 February 2016].
Policy and Procedure Manual
EZ Protective Consultant Company
Policy and Procedures Manual
Introduction to defensive weapons
Carrying a concealed weapon
Use of diversionary devices and various chemical weapons
The shooting incident
Psychological and emotional reactions
Shooting, safety, and other issues
The criminal justice field has now had a very profound impact on society. Protection of rights is a very important in regards to our current economic backdrop. With unemployment a record levels crime has subsequently increased dramatically. Therefore, it is practical for individuals using this manual to abreast on the use of weapons, personal protection equipment, and physical security.
This manual is designed to help protect law enforcement officials and the general public with insights into defensive weaponry and its subsequent use. This manual is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of all the factors mentioned above with a particular emphasis on security. This…
Forces of Healthcare
Numerous forces have changed the way healthcare has developed. Rising healthcare costs, service fragmentation, variable access and quality, poor health, high costs for disadvantaged, social and political conflict, infections, chronic diseases, and emotional and behavioral aspects have all been forces in the development of healthcare in the U.S. (Cunningham, 2003). Consumer awareness, high costs of insurance as well as health services, and chronic illness have been major contributors to the way healthcare has developed over time.
Consumer awareness has raised questions to the service quality of healthcare, more especially compared to the rising costs of the services. As a result, healthcare institutions are being challenged with the way healthcare services get delivered to the patient. Consumers are now more aware of healthcare standards and the way illness should be treated, which challenges the healthcare system in the way that service is delivered in treatment settings. This includes…
Cunningham, W. (2003). The Development of the U.S. Healthcare System and It's Problems. Retrieved from UCLA Schools of Medicine/Public Health: http://www.ph.ucla.edu/hs/hs_100_4_02_lecture_cunningham.pdf
Singh, J. (2013). Importance of technology in hospitals. Retrieved from Importanceoftech.com: ttp://importanceoftech.com/importance-of-technology-in-hospitals
. This as a major development of the industry is bound to come out in the analysis.
ecession and the Performance of Banking Industry
ecession worked negatively on the banking industry especially so because the industry was still at its initial growth stage. The industry has reformed and change significantly following changes in observed. The data analyzed is expected to show how much recession influenced the changes in policy and regulations. It will also show that banks had a lesson to learn as far as the economic performance and trends were concerned. To date, given the trends banking industry are seen as most susceptible to the economic downturn and the key resolving this is to make changes as a safe guard measures. This is expected to come out in the data analyzed showing the existence of policy and operation changes and strategies adopted in light of economic performance.
Avery, et al. "Consolidation and Bank Branching Patterns." Journal of Banking and Finance 23.2-4 (1999): 497-532. Print.
Barzun, J., and H. F Graff. The Modern Researcher 6th Ed. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth 2004. Print.
Boyd, John H., Sungkyu Kwak, and Bruce Smith. "The Real Output Losses Associated with Modern Banking Crises." Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 37.6 (2005): 977-99. Print.
Mishkin, Frederic S., and Philip E. Strahan. What Will Technology Do to Financial Structure? . Washington Brookings Institution 1999. Print.
Forces Analysis: What industry definition? Why? Analyze 5 forces (list high low medium reasons bullets essay style. End a summary bottom's important analysis Snapple end case. 2. Draw recommended positioning diagrams Snapple end case.
Five Forces Analysis: What is your industry definition? Why?
Snapple is competing in an almost perfectly competitive market, with a high degree of competitive rivalry and few barriers to entry.
The threat of the entry of new competitors: The thereat of entry of new competitors is extremely high. Snapple sells a beverage that can be easily replicated using iced tea or fruit juice. Although it markets itself as a unique natural beverage, people have been making fruit drinks and other iced drinks for a long time, and could easily carry such drinks with them in their own containers. Local brands as well as national brands could compete with Snapple in almost every subset of the market.…
You see, we've got another subject waiting [looks at watch] who is supposed to be in that other condition. Now Professor -, who is in charge of this experiment, suggested that perhaps we could take a chance on your doing it for us. I'll tell you what we had in mind: the thing is, if you could do it for us now, then of course you would know how to do it, and if something like this should ever come up again, that is, the regular fellow couldn't make it, and we had a subject scheduled, it would be very reassuring to us to know that we had somebody else we could call on who knew how to do it."
The point to be made here is, gain, to see how far the experimenter could push a subject to make a point, but also to see just how far one…
Rousseau implied that this proved the point that women ought to serve their husbands and children, and that they had no need to be educated as a man. Wollenscraft used the fact that women must bear children as evidence that they must be educated, because as they age they will need consolations of the mind to keep them satisfied as their motherhood and old age draws them away from the sensual pleasures of youth. A good mother and grandmother, she would suggest, will not be a Roussean heroine constantly hoping to passively seduce men and defining her life accordingly.
Unlike Rousseau or those scholars which based their opinion on old bones, the feminist thinkers of the Enlightenment based the core of their arguments regarding women on the same arguments which male philosophers of the era used to support universal (white) male suffrage and democratic proceedings. During this era, philosophers (including…
Bibliography de Gouges, Olympe. "The Declaration of the Rights of Women." in: SOURCE. pgs 124-128
Schiebinger, Londa. The Mind has No Sex. Harvard University Press: Cambrige, 1989.
Wollenscraft, Mary. "Women and the 'Rights of Man.' In: SOURCE. pgs 56-62
Conduct a mind map for the concept of "Power"
Force: I used this because a country that needs to take military action to protect its borders uses force, a way of showing their power to protect their homeland.
The authority figures in any company have the power to make policy, change policy, to hire and fire and train people -- all of which results from their power within the company.
An important part of the power that executives and managers hold is their strategic abilities to influence how their company should run, who should be the leader, and what the image should be that is marketed to the consumer and the public.
Hegemony: this is normally seen as an abuse of power; slaves were subjected to the hegemony of their masters, for example. It also suggests domination by one person over another, and some companies…
Forces on Buildings
When constructing my pre-fire plan for the furniture and appliance store, a number of problems are immediately apparent. Among these, the building is designed with heavy timber construction, and this poses certain potential dangers. The fist problem would be that timber lends itself to burning easily and quickly, so the primary building material can act as tinder in the case of a fire. In the event of a fire, the building can quickly go up in flames simply due to the nature of the construction materials. Second, timber lends itself to rot over time, and rotting timber can degrade structural integrity and weaken the building's frame and supporting materials. The building itself may be weak and that in and of itself could present a problem in case of a fire or collapse. Third, due to the nature of the building's materials, there may be a potential termite…
The character of Babo, who apparently was just a loyal personal attendant of Don Benito, but actually he was the person first-in-command of the throng of slaves, and tended to be a constant eye on Benito, and influenced (in fact controlled) all his actions/decisions. As it was revealed in the latter portion of the story, that it was Babo, who took the dire initiative to overrule the enslavement, which was literally destroying his kins, both mentally and psychologically. Hence Babo was that Black who actually channelized the thirst of freedom which was a direct effect of slavery.
Even the old Oakum-pickers, who according to Delano: "Seem to act the part of old dominoes to the rest," tended to further support the notion that Don Benito's role of being the ship's Commander had turned into a symbolic one.
The passive character of Don Benito itself, illustrated the fact that he…
Herman Melville, Benito Cereno (1855) All quotes are taken from this version online: http://www.infomotions.com/alex2/authors/melville-herman/melville-benito-746/melville-benito-746.pdf
Specifically, police tactical policy must outline criteria for the use of every tool and every technique authorized for use by officers.
Effective policy and procedure management also includes indirect methods of minimizing the potential need for increased levels of force. For example, a lone officer typically faces situations that allow for fewer options in force escalation, particularly where the officer is outnumbered by subjects or suspects (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Therefore, some of the simplest but most effective administrative methods of minimizing the necessary use of force include assigning officers in pairs and establishing protocols detailing response and backup procedures corresponding to specific types of tactical situations or calls for service (McCauley, 2005). Training is essential for effective UOF control in modern policing, because stress and the perception of danger naturally detracts from decision making. epeatedly exposing officer candidates and cadets to simulated tactical situations in training ensures the…
McCauley, R. (2005). "Use of Force and High-Intensity Tactical Police Flashlight: Policy Concerns." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74
No.11. Montgomery, D. (2005). "Perspective: Excessive Force 101." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74 No.8. Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E, Miller, C. (2007). "The Deadly Mix: Officers, Offender, and the Circumstances that Bring them Together." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin;Vol. 76 No.1. Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice: Introductory Text for the 21st Century.
Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
On the other hand, it is possible that such scenarios are extreme, and are based on the same time of 'slippery slope' logic that causes people to wonder if legalizing gay marriages will lead to people marrying animals. Extremism on either side of an issue is never a good thing, nor is the fabrication of doomsday scenarios that are based on nothing but speculation. Sarah Palin should know that better than anybody with her 'death panel' stories.
So while extreme caution regarding where all of these pro-gun, pro-self-defense laws may be overstated, at the same time, we cannot afford to simply look away and hope that the trend ends here. s the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence (2009) points out, these laws are not only dangerous but are in many ways, legally and ethically unjust:
Leaving aside the public safety issues associated with encouraging untrained civilians to confront criminals with…
Note: Red states have Castle Doctrines
And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."
On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…
Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office
Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College
Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association
Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
Indeed, even the most outspoken critics of law enforcement will likely be the first to dial "9-1-1" when their homes are being burglarized or members of their families are being attacked, but the fact remains that many police department remain primarily white and male in composition. The impetus for effecting substantive changes in the composition of the nation's police forces will therefore need to be mandated in order for things to change in any meaningful way. The desirability of developing a more diverse police force that reflects the demographic composition of the larger communities they serve has been recognized as an important element in this regard. For instance, as Hood, othstein and Baldwin (2004) emphasize, "Any geographically extended political system can set standards from the center, but diversity in law enforcement is often seen as both necessary and desirable" (p. 175). Although it may be necessary and desirable, there are…
Barlow, David E. And Melissa Hickman Barlow. 1999. "Cultural Diversity Training in Criminal Justice: A Progressive or Conservative Reform?" Social Justice 20(3-4): 69-70.
Bedi, K. And R.K. Agrawal. 2001. "Transforming values for principle-centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel." Journal of Power and Ethics 2(2): 103.
Broadnax, Walter D. 2000. Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Culver, Leigh. 2004. Adapting Police Services to New Immigration. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Surface irregularities are often seen when using the scanning electron microscope, but these are absent using the AFM. One such analysis is described below:
Occasionally, the cartilage surface exhibits local discontinuities where an underlying fibrous network is distinguishable. Digestion of the cartilage surface with chondroitinase AC exposes this fibrous network more systematically so that the individual fibers are visualized with great clarity by AFM. When imaged at higher magnification, these distinct fibers exhibit a 60nm repeat, indicating that they are assembled from collagen fibrils. (Miller, Aebi, and Engel para. 4)
The AFM has been shown to be valuable in similar analyses of biological materials and processes. While AFM images also offer a view of the atomic detail of solids, the process is not useful for analyzing biomolecules such as proteins because they are designed to undergo conformational changes and form flexible supermolecular assemblies, meaning they are mechanically "soft" so that…
Automatic Tip Evaluation Broadens AFM Applications." R & D (1 July 1998). September 15, 2005. http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:21007984&num=31&ctrlInfo=Round17%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH .
Atomic Force Microscopy." 2005. September 16, 2005. www.swan.ac.uk/chemeng/afm.htm.
Ball, Philip. Molecules. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Baselt, David. "How AFM Works." Atomic Force Microscopy. 1993. September 16, 2005. http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/how-afm/how-afm.html#General%20concept.
BY USING IAC SYSTEM Art Bill leaving work afternoon approached Charlie, wearing a mask carrying a gun. Charlie, suspected Art affair Charlie's wife, approached ten feet Art Bill, aimed gun Art, Art, I kill
The legal issue at hand between Art and Charlie is that of assault and battery. The tort of assault "is usually defined as any intentional act that is meant to cause a reasonable apprehension of imminent and harmful contact" while the tort of battery is "when one person (the offender) make[s] intentional and harmful or offensive contact with another person (the victim)" (Assault and battery as personal injury claims, 2013, Nolo). Art would argue that Charlie's threat to him with a gun and subsequent firing satisfies the condition of both apprehension of harm and actual harmful contact. Bill could argue that, by virtue of being an innocent bystander forcibly placed in harm's way, he has…
Assault and battery as personal injury claims. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved:
“As Long as The Personal and Societal Safety of American Citizens Is at Risk from External Threats, Historical Precedents Suggest That Rather Few Limits Will Be Placed on The Use of American Military Power, Or on The Constraints the United States Will Impose on The Peoples of Other Countries.”
The government of America exists for its citizens’ welfare, an obligation which encompasses being in charge of both its internal and external affairs. US foreign policy’s key principles are: defense of the physical territory of America, safeguarding citizens from attacks by enemies, promoting the status and economic interests of America, and promoting the nation’s democracy- and freedom- related values across the world. By end-twentieth century, the US’s foreign policy entailed relationships with a total of 159 states that were typically competitive, supportive at times, and at other times clearly unfriendly (Deutsch, 1997).
The government’s executive wing has largely remained in charge…
Free and Forced Actions Analyzing an Argument
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will? Walter Stace argues that every action or event is caused; however, whereas free actions are caused by the doer's internal psychological state, forced ones are caused by forces external to the user. This text evaluates the validity of the author's argument in the short story, 'Shooting an Elephant' based on Stace's definition of free and forced actions.
Free and Forced Actions
Stace's Definition of Free and Forced Actions
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will?', Walter Terrence Stace puts forth an argument for determinism, arguing that it is consistent/compatible with free will. He is of the view that free will exists and every event in the world is caused (Colorado University, n.d.). He illustrates the compatibility of these two views by giving his own definition of what exactly constitutes free will. Stace…
Baxter, T. (2004). Frederick Douglass' Curious Audiences: Ethos in the Age of the Consumable Subject. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bulman, C. (2007). Creative Writing: A Guide and Glossary to Fiction Writing. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Colorado University. (n.d.). Precis: W. T. Stace's Compatibilism. Colorado University. Retrieved September 17, 2015 from http://www.colorado.edu/philosophy/robertsm/student_precis3.htm
Lockhart, J. (2010). How to Market your School: A Guide to Marketing, Communication and Public Relations. Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Evidence-Based Protocol Implementation
Influencing Multiple Systems Through Evidence-Based Change as advance practice nurse, work informed factors direct reach, influence extends context labor. Likewise, propose a nurse leader influenced multiple systems, turn, impact groups.
Nurses are encouraged to utilize and incorporate in their daily practice evident-based practice. The Evidence-based practice (EBP) is considered to be a scientific standard that determines and guides on the best clinical measure (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber). EBP has grown in its relevance to clinical decision making and support to the nursing profession since it facilitates efficiency in provision of care and quick recovery to patients. Successful implementation of EBP calls for monitoring of existing practices, documentation of relevant procedures and evaluation of possible change practices in clinical and nursing care (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber).
Possible adjustments needful for patient's care protocol
Immediate care for patients coming from SICU is critical to their recovery from the procedure they undergo.…
Grossman, S., C. Bautista, and L. Sullivan. "Using Evidence-Based Practice to Develop a Protocol for Postoperative Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients." Dimensions Of Critical Care Nursing 21.5 (2002): 206-14. Print.
LoBiondo-Wood, G., and J. Haber. Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier, 2006. Print.
Melnyk, B., and E. Fineout-Overholt. Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins 2005. Print.
Schmidt, N.A., and J.M. Brown. Evidence-Based Practice for Nurses: Appraisal and Application of Research. (Eds.) United States: Laureate Education, Inc. custom ed., 2012. Print.
acial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A esource Guide on acial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. acial profiling has been monitored in a…
Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.
Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini
Web site: http://illinimedia.com/di/feb02/feb28/news/stories/news_story01.shtml
Gewertz, K. (2005). Schauer: Profiling can be a useful investigative tool. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from the President and Fellows of Harvard College
Arthur Miller penned the play The Crucible in the context of McCarthy-era rhetoric and anti-communist propaganda in the United States. Although it has a literal and direct historical reference and application to the Salem witch trials, the play serves as an overarching metaphor for public persecution and the dangers a police state poses to the general public. Through The Crucible, Miller critiques American society and indirectly accuses patriarchy of dismantling some of the core norms and values upon which the nation was built. Moreover, Miller deftly draws analogies between Salem's persecution of women during the witch-hunts and ashington's persecution of all Americans during the Cold ar. hereas women were the only real targets during the witch trials of the late 17th century, all Americans had fallen under the indiscriminate policies of political discrimination. Miller therefore presents patriarchy within a Marxist as well as a postmodernist framework. As a Marxist, Miller…
Adler, Thomas P. "Conscience and Community in An Enemy of the People and The Crucible." In Harold Bloom. Arthur Miller's The Crucible.
Ardolino, Frank. "Babylonian Confusion and Biblical Inversion in Miller's The Crucible." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Martin, Robert A. "Arthur Miller's The Crucible: The Background and Sources." Modern Drama, Vol 20, Issue 3, DOI: 10.3138/md.20.3.279
Miller, Arthur. "Why I Wrote The Crucible." The New Yorker. Oct 21, 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1996/10/21/why-i-wrote-the-crucible
preemptive force in Iran after the event of eptember 11. It has 11 sources.
Though the United tates would have to bear the economic repercussions of pursuing another invasion, a preemptive effort in Iran would be in their best interest if they endeavor to rid the world of terrorism with weapons of mass destruction.
In recent times there have been great concerns over countries that possess weapons capable of mass destruction. Particular concern has been prompted over countries that hold grudges against the United tates. This is because of the fact that in recent times the United tates has fallen prey to such countries. Countries in the past that had been considered a threat to western interests have in recent times proven to be dangerous. Examples of these are countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq. In the past they warned and threatened the United tates that they would have damnation…
Decade of Deception and Defiance; Saddam Hussein's Defiance of the United Nations," The White House, September 12, 2002, 21 pp.
Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction," The Assessment of the British Government, September 24, 2002, 50 pp.
Russia's Risky Iran Connection," The New York Times, June 10, 2002, p. A24.
Chubin, Shahram and Robert S. Litwak. "Debating Iran's Nuclear Aspirations," The Washington Quarterly, Autumn 2003, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 99-114.
forced labor and slavery develop in tropical colonies? How was slavery in the Americas different from slavery in earlier societies?
Forced labor in the tropical colonies was created to support the production of 'cash crops' such as sugar cane. The harvesting of these crops was hard, back-breaking work. "Sugar was far more difficult work than cultivating cotton, tobacco, or rice. So many slaves died within a few years of their arrival in the sugar islands, sometimes only months, that a steady fresh supply was always needed" (Davis 2012). Only slavery could provide an efficient means to render such crops profitable. "Before long, British and French plantations in the West Indies began to dominate. British west coast ports such as Bristol and Liverpool thrived on the sugar cane industry and refineries and packaging factories were set up" (Sugar cane and the slave trade, 2012, Plant Cultures). The slave trade was called…
Davis, Ronald. "Slavery in America." [8 Jun 2012]
Sugar cane and the slave trade. Plant Cultures. [8 Jun 2012]
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…
Crouse, R. (n.d.). Waves: Tsunamis/Seismic sea waves. Water encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Tw-Z/Waves.html
Gardiner, L. (2010, January 8). Surface ocean currents. windows.ucar.edu. Retrieved from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean_currents.html
Lee, H.J., and Normark, W.R. (2009). Earth science in urban ocean: The Southern California continental borderland. New York, U.S.: Geological Society of America.
Makai. (n.d). Threats to marine ecosystems. Waianae ecological characteristics. Retrieved from http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/czm/initiative/wec/html/sea/marine/threats.htm
Self-Images in Baroque Art
'Baroque' is a word that is employed to describe 17th- and early 18th- century European art. The art form signified a shift from Renaissance art's classism and linearity (though a few artists from that period carried on with creating artworks in the older style). Baroque was also characterized by a shift towards drama, motion, theatricality, unpredictability, and impulse. This style thrived in many areas of the European continent including Italy, Spain, Flanders, and the Netherlands, and was marked by some common elements despite the existence of major distinctions between regions and artists. Baroque sculptures and paintings were structured around unpredictable diagonal lines, instead of the traditional pyramid or triangle.[footnoteRef:1] Self-portraits grew into a progressively ambitious form that took the aspects of self-awareness and self-promotion to new heights.[footnoteRef:2] In this paper, three Baroque self-images will be discussed, namely, Rembrandt, 1660; Salvatore Rosa, 1647; and Anthony van Dyck,…
derivatives in general and discusses their use by olls-oyce plc in its risk management programme.
Derivatives derive their value from an underlying financial instrument and as such, they allow a way of accessing and trading in the value of the underlying instrument without needing to put up the full value of that underlying instrument. Derivatives can be used for a number of purposes, including leverage, hedging, income generation and profiting from long and short positions (Wise Owl, n.d.).
Companies like olls-oyce use derivatives for hedging risk, allowing them a form of insurance. Typically companies use derivatives as a tool within a risk management program. ecent research shows that more than 90% of large U.S. companies use derivatives regularly (Brigham and Houston, 2009, p. 581). Hedging allows managers to focus on running their core businesses without needing to worry about variability in interest rates, currency, and commodity prices.
olls-oyce uses hedging…
Basu, P. And Gavin, W.T., 2011. What explains the growth in commodity derivatives? Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, January/February 2011, 93(1), pp. 37-48. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 March 2012].
Brigham, E.F. And Houston, J.F., 2009. Fundamentals of financial management. 12th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Jackson, T., 2010. Regulators must admit derivatives' role in risk. Financial Times [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 March 2012].
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), 2007. Use of derivatives for debt management and domestic debt market development: Key conclusions. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 March 2012].
army has often resolved to use private contractors in various aspects of the force's operations when the need arises. In light of the need to cut down the cost of the army operations, the US Army has resolved into massive contracting within the services in the recent past to levels that the America has never witnessed before. Critics of this approach have argued that it compromises the integrity of the American Security. While these concerns are genuine, the importance of the current level or reliance on contract support outweighs the demerits (National Defense University 2010). Secondly, the army can address such concerns within the framework of enlisting support. The following study holds that the American Amy should maintain the current levels of reliance on contract support.
Some factors influence and inform the need for the Army to maintain the current contract support. Firstly, some instances in the operations of the…
National Defense University. Strategic Forum Paper #260, "Private Contractors in Conflict Zones: The Good, The Bad and the Strategic Impact," by Col. (Ret) T. X. Hammes, 8 September 2010. CGSC copyright registration #14-0524E.
ATTP 4-10. Chapter 1 & 5: "Introduction and Contractor Management." 2011
They are striving to be the best of both worlds. In their heavily regulated industry, there is a relatively high degree of commoditization between different health care plan offerings. There is high intensity of rivalry in the industry as well. This intensity of rivalry pushes down costs, but the cost structure of the industry is fairly rigid, such that it is difficult for a health care plan provider to fully engage a cost leadership strategy. Consumers are demanding both low costs and superior product offerings. ellPoint is attempting to meet these conflicting demands to their best of their abilities.
This strategy stems in part from ellPoint's position within the industry. The industry itself is relatively fragmented, despite significant barriers to entry. ellPoint is the #2 player in the industry, behind the United Health Group. ellPoint holds at 9.75% market share. Other competitors are Aetna, Humana, Kaiser, and many smaller firms.…
Wellpoint 2008 Annual Report. (2008). Wellpoint. Retrieved November 28, 2008 at http://library.corporate-ir.net/library/13/130/130104/items/299819/2007_AR.pdf
Some financial information from Reuters. Retrieved November 28, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overview?symbol=WLP.N
Hamilton, David P. (2008) How Insurance Really Works, courtesy of Wellpoint. BNet Healthcare. Retrieved November 28, 2008 at http://industry.bnet.com/healthcare/2008/04/24/how-insurance-really-works-courtesy-of-wellpoint/
No author. (2007). Porter's Five Forces. QuickMBA. Retrieved November 28, 2008 at http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
The challenges are many for those in the industry for the first quarter-century of the new millenium but the hope is that information technological advances will smooth the transitions that must be made if healthcare is to be effective or successful in future initiatives of delivery quality healthcare.
Public Health Issues
The Global Face of Healthcare
Statement of Thesis:
Finally this work will describe several different countries' public health systems and compare and contrast the similarities and differences noted as well as the political economic, service, expense and other major issues linked to the various structures and forms of the healthcare systems around the world. The various public health tradeoffs that are made on the societal level based on limited resources and competitive priorities will be briefly examined as well.
While the business world has streamlined processes and become more customer-centric the healthcare agency is seeking to do the same…
Wechler, Jill (2004) Healthcare Issues 2005 Formulary on Highbeam Research Engine
Strategic Research Institute Report (2004) BioAsia Licensing and Deal-Making Summit: [Online available at http://www.srinnstitue.com/ApplicationFiles/Agenda / detailed_ae nda.cfm?program_id= 653&iteration_id=7568&person_id=28682]
Stevens, Andrew (2004) City Mayors: Local Government in Japan Online at http://www.citymayors.com/government/jap_locgov.html
HealthCare's Top Business Issues and Responses for 2005 A Capgemini Forecast.
Irony of aiting
The central irony of Ha Jin's novel aiting, is that the protagonist Lin Kong, a doctor in the ostensibly progressive communist Chinese Army, is bound to his peasant wife in the Goose Village because of this supposedly traditional woman's refusal to divorce her husband. Lin Kong promises his dying mother that he will enter an arranged marriage because it is her deathbed request. But the woman Shuyu, looks and behaves far older than her twenty-six years, as if she belongs to a China of the far past. Lin Kong is initially disgusted with the peasant woman's bound feet and country manners. He sees this as unbefitting to someone of his status in the modern, urban army.
However, the doctor's pride in his education and culture is of course, quite aristocratic and at its heart quite anti-egalitarian, despite his professions to be broad-minded at heart, as is befitting…
Jin, Ha. Waiting. New York: Vintage, 2000.
total quality management (TQM), and statistical process control (SPC) implementation in a manufacturing plant set up by a foreign company in the border zone of North Mexico, in order to produce finished goods for export. Information on this type of organization was made available by a 2003 study conducted by Nael Aly and Daniel Scholss and published in The TQM Magazine (Vol. 15, Iss. 1; pg. 30). These companies offer a world of opportunities for an intrepid business-person, as labor is cheap, there are many commercial facilities, government support is high and Mexico's proximity to the United States makes it perfect for developing such a business. Effects on the American economy are difficult to evaluate -- both from a producer's and a consumer's points-of-view. Lower salaries than in the U.S. translate into higher work productivity, while low transportation costs and North American commercial agreements mean that access to the U.S.…
1. Aly N., Schloss, D., "Assessing quality management systems of Mexico's maquiladoras" The TQM Magazine. Bedford: 2003.Vol.15, Iss. 1; pg. 30
2. Recardo, R.J. "Transitioning to strategic quality management" The Journal for Quality and Participation. Cincinnati: Sep 1993.Vol.16, Iss. 5; pg. 48
3. Information on TQM and SPC concepts http://www.semiconfareast.com/spc.htm
Interestingly, the word borrow denotes that a particular item will be return after being used for a specific purpose. Silliman (2010) carefully illustrates the mental paradigm of many artists today. Using the work of others is deemed common practice, especially in light of the sea of information floating on the Internet. However, copyright infringement is likened to plagiarism, which is a serious offense with unethical underpinnings. Claiming the work of others, without expressed permission granted, breeds a lack of integrity. Ironically, society has a disdain for people who cheat; yet, they embrace the concept of borrowing the material of others. For a closer analysis, the AMA eight-step evaluation process was used to glean a deeper insight.
Discovery Key Facts
Sam is a freelance editor and photographer who needed employment.
Disorganized producer, main sponsor of a major TV show, hires Sam to complete a project with a very tight…
American Society for Quality. (n.d.). Project planning and implementing tools. Retrieved from http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/project-planning-tools/overview/gantt-chart.html
Silliman, J. (2010). Using "borrowed" material. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/dialogue/candc/cases/borrowed.html
Taylor Jr., J. (2010, May 27). Top ten benefits of a gantt chart. Retrieved from http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/2434.aspx
U.S. Copyright Office, (n.d.). Copyright laws of the United States. Retrieved from http://copyright.gov/title17/
symbolism in literature. Author Nathan Hawthorne used many symbolism opportunities in his works the House of Seven Gables. The writer of this paper explores the symbolism and comments on its effectiveness.
HOUSE OF SEVEN GABLES
Throughout history, the authors of literary works have used symbolism to develop a story or create an understanding. Many of the classics are filled with symbolism, and it is that very symbolism that causes the story to stick in the reader's mind and heart and make the story a classic. In The House of Seven Gables the author, Nathaniel Hawthorne displayed a particularly subtle talent at lacing the story with symbolism for the reader to stumble upon in his journey. Through the use of symbols, we are given the opportunity to view many aspects of the story from a third vantage point, and one that makes it clear for us to understand. The symbolism in…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The House of the Seven Gables. 1851. New York: Bantam, 1981.
Newhall, Beaumont. The Daguerreotype in America. 3rd rev. ed. New York: Dover, 1975.
Noble, Michael Jay Bunker, Hawthorne's 'The House of the Seven Gables.' (Nathaniel Hawthorne's book). Vol. 56, The Explicator, 01-01-1998, pp 72(3).
Davidson, Cathy N. "Photographs of the Dead: Sherman, Daguerre, Hawthorne." South Atlantic Quarterly 89 (1990): 667-701.
Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…
Ansari, Asim, Skander Essegaier, and Rajeev Kohli. "Internet Recommendation Systems." Journal of Marketing Research 37.3 (2000).
Bannan, Karen J. "Clean It Up." PC Magazine 20.16 (2001).
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Bell, Bernard W. "Filth, Filtering, and the First Amendment: Ruminations on Public Libraries' Use of Internet Filtering Software." Federal Communications Law Journal 53.2 (2001): 191-238.
Salud my family and fellow Spaniards! My fellow Andalucians! We are gathered here today to celebrate customs that are centuries old, customs that have survived the vicissitudes of Spanish social life and politics, customs that have transcended any economic, social, or political woes that might happen to occupy the consciousness of our citizenry. The great kingdoms of our past do mingle with the democratic ideals of our current nation. It is in the tradition of cultural continuity that I share this heavenly beverage with you. Salud!
Now some of you may know that my parents and I do not always see eye-to-eye. This is especially true when it comes to politics. Yet the reason why I am speaking now is because what we share in common, what all Spaniards share in common, is the connection with our past. Our connection to the past is felt deep within our soul…
Cooper, Liz. "Spain: From "los indignados' and '15 M' to the first strike by society. Open Democracy. Retrieved online: http://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/liz-cooper/spain-from-los-indignados-and-15-m-to-first-strike-by-society
Guerrero, Andres. "The administration of Donated Populations Under a Regime of Customary Citizenship."
Kagan, Richard L. Review: "Prescott's Paradigm: American Historical Scholarship and the Decline of Spain." The American Historical Review, Vol. 101, No. 2. (Apr., 1996), pp. 423-446.
Sommer, Doris. Foundational Fictions. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Social Networking: Using Social Media and Networking to Address Productivity Issues
Using Social Media and Networking to Address Productivity Issues: Social Networking
Walmart is the world's largest retailer, and the world's largest company by revenues. Its success over the years draws largely from its mission of providing everyday low prices to enable consumer live better. Despite its inherent success, however, Walmart faces serious problems in regard to unfair labor practices and customer satisfaction in product offerings. This text demonstrates how social media and social networking technologies could be used to address these problems.
Using Social Media and Networking to Address Productivity Issues: A Case Study of Walmart
Walmart is the world's largest retailer, and the largest company by revenues. Starting off with Sam Walton's idea of offering everyday low prices in the 1960s, the company grew to become one of the world's most valuable brands, operating in over 27 countries,…
Adler, N. & Gundersen, A. (2008). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson Learning Inc.
Brunn, S. D. (2006). Walmart World: The World's Biggest Corporation in the Global Economy. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, J. (2009). Business Ethics 2009 Update: Ethical Decision-Making and Cases (7th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Gandolfi, F. & Stratch, P. (2009). Retail Internalization: Gaining Insights from the Walmart Experience in South Korea. Review of International Comparative Management, 10(1), 187-199.
forum of world leaders converging at the next World Economic Forum or simply a teenaged brother and sister trying to persuade the other to take out the garbage for the night, negotiation involves its participants wielding tools of power in order to further their cause. Studying the uses of power in negotiation is tantamount to exploring the psychological ballet played out by the negotiators as they attempt to prevail over their counterpart(s).
efore exploring the applications of power in negotiation, it is important to define the boundaries of this study. Negotiation can simply be defined as an "arrangement of terms with others." (arnhart & arnhart, 1989, 1390) Alternatively, negotiation between two people can be likened to dancing. The negotiators meet and 'step on each other's toes' while each strives to extort information and apply influence over the other. Like individual dancers who learn to modify their personal styles to complement…
Adair, W., Okumura, T & Brett, J.M. (2001) "Negotiation Behaviour When Cultures Collide: the U.S. And Japan" Journal of Applied Psychology 86(3), 371-385
Adair, Wendy & Brett, Jeanne.(October 22, 2001) "Time, Culture and Behavioural Sequences in Negotiations." New York, Cornell University Website www.johnson.cornell.edu/leadreship
Barnhart, Clarence L. & Barnhart, Robert K. (1989) The World Book Dictionary. Chicago, World Book, Inc.
Ben-Yoav, O. & Pruitt, D.G. (1984) "Accountability to Constituents: A Two-Edged Sword." Organisation Behaviour & Human Processes, 34: 282-295
Crime and Punishment
Ours is an extremely violent kind of world where even the most common type of folk can find themselves faced with types of unspeakable horrors and criminal activity through little or no intention of their own. In American literature, a common theme is the concept of the freedom of choice and how a person's choices come to affect not only themselves, but all of the people around them. Some of the choices that people, and their literary counterparts, make lead them to crime. It is the purpose of the American justice system to ensure that crimes are punished. However, in literature, that is not always the case. Crime in the American judicial sense is activity which violates the laws of the United States of America. In literature, these are not always the crimes that the authors feel deserve punishment. Three specific stories which deal with crime and…
Andrews, William L., Frances Smith. Foster, and Trudier Harris. The Concise Oxford
Companion to African-American Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. Print.
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." 1957. Print.
Bandy, Stephen C. "One of my Babies: The Misfit and the Grandmother." 2011. Print.
Technology: Use of Technology in Politics
Use of Technology in Politics: Technology
Technology's Political Impact
Technology has changed the way we live our lives, influencing how we work, conduct business, and even interact with each other. Technology has also become an integral and indispensable part of our political processes. No individual perhaps demonstrates the significance of technology in the political arena better than President Barrack Obama. Obama is president today partly because of his aggressive use of social media and technology in his campaign processes. Obama's campaign in 2008 used technology, particularly social networks, online video, text messaging, and email advocacy to raise money and develop volunteers (ospars et al., 2010). It sent out a billion emails, including unique campaign messages targeted at certain segments of the 13 million members (ospars et al., 2010).
The campaign created a personalized social network (www.mybarrackobama.com) (MyBO), which allowed members to connect and interact…
Couldry, N. (2012). Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. Cambridge, Polity.
Rospars, J., Hughes, C., Graham-Felsen, S., Albright-Hanna, K., Goodstein, S., Grove, S., ... Bohnet, B. (2010). Obama and the Power of Social Media and Technology. The European Business Review. Retrieved from https://faculty-gsb.stanford.edu/aaker/pages/documents/TEBRMay-June-Obama.pdf
This, however, is not entirely the case and in fact a great deal of process and product variety exists even in most of the niche markets in the manufacturing sector (MacDuffie et al. 1996). This variety increases as product complexity increases which has a twofold effect on a given manufacturing organization's market position and profitability: first, productivity tends to decrease as product complexity increases, limiting profitability due to the basic rules of economies of scale; second, it increases competitiveness in most industries as it increases the number and degrees of variations possible (MacDuffie et al. 1996). Complexity also affects the cost of manufacture and thus profitable price points for the product and thus the level of variety in most manufacturing processes and products is a major contributor to competitiveness in manufacturing industries and between manufacturing organizations. Variety is clearly as influential in manufacturing operations as it is in the provision…
Johnston, R. & Clark, G, (2008). Service operations management. New York: Prentice Hall.
Macduffie, J.; Sethuraman, K. & Fisher, M. (1996). "Product Variety and Manufacturing Performance: Evidence from the International Automotive Assembly Plant Study." Management science 42(3), pp. 350-69.
Treppides, K. (2010). "4 vs Operations Management." Accessed 16 November 2010. http://www.scribd.com/doc/19380228/Operations-Management