1000+ documents containing “use of force”.
Force: Examining the Most elevant Articles
The article "The Four Functions of Force" by obert Art details exactly that: the main purposes for using force in a given situation. Those purposes are as follows: defense, deterrence, compellence and swagger. While these reasons are indeed distinct, as Art demonstrates, it can be difficult from time to determine the exact purpose that a particular state has selected. In this sense, the main issue revolves around the fact that it can be challenging to determine clearly the motives of a given state at any time. Examining the first use of force, defense, it can be described as mainly using military power to reduce destruction to oneself if attacked, and to help motivate decisions to act early. Art describes deterrence as "the threat of retaliation to prevent something undesirable from happening" (2012). This move for deterrence can be focused at a particular group of….
Art, R. (2012). The Four Functions of Force. In R. Art, & R. Jervis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 164-71). Pearson Education.
Cronin, A. (2012). Ending Terrorism. In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 402-15). Pearson.
Hoffman, B. (2012). What is Terrorism? In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 186-95 ). Pearson Education.
Pape, R. (2012). The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 214-31). Pearson Education.
Manage Use of Force Ethical Issues
HOW TO MANAGE USE-OF-FOCE ETHICAL ISSUES
This objective of this study is to examine how criminal justice and private security managers and executives are addressing use-of-force issues from an ethical point-of-view.
There is a growing problem in the United States with law enforcement officer's use-of-force under the color of law and their authority requiring that criminal justice and private security managers understand the ethics in relation to police use-of-force.
The research questions in this study include those which ask the following questions: (1) What is being done to ethically address wrongful police use-of-force in their line of duty? (2) What more should be done to ethically address wrongful police use-of-force in their line of duty?
It is reported that ethical misconduct "taints the public perception of police" and that this is extremely "detrimental.to the profession." (Beech, nd, p. 3) It is reported that "Total ethical commitment from….
Beech, B. (nd) Ethics in Policing: Not Just Shoulds, Coulds, and Ought To's. Retrieved from: https://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/getdoc/84fec71c-556a-4827-946d-24db6d5cef93/Beech-bonnie-paper.aspx
Use of Force by Police: Overview of National and Local Data. (1999) U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/176330-1.pdf
Force and Wars on Terrorism
The objective of this work is to consider that as one of the governing principles of the United Nations, the UN Charter Article 2(4) prohibits the use of force in international relations, but its Article 51 permits the use of for e as an act of self-defense against any illegal use of force in violation of Article 2(4). Contemporary wars on terrorism are often justified as an act of self-defense. Therefore, this work will address the question of whether terrorist acts constitute a violation of Article 2(4), which justifies wars on terrorism as an act of self-defense under the UN Charter?
Article 2(4) of the United Nations Charter states as follows:
All members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the….
O'Connell, ME (2002) The Myth of Preemptive Self-Defense. The American Society of International Law Task Force on Terrorism. August 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.asil.org/taskforce/oconnell.pdf
Bradford, W. (2004) The Duty to Defend Them: A Natural Law Justification for the Bush doctrine of Preventive War. Commonwealth Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.comw.org/qdr/fulltext/04bradford.pdf
Article 2 (2011) Charter of the United Nations. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter1.shtml
Kanade, M. (2009) Article 2(4) of the UN Charter: Alive and Well. University for Peace: Peace & Conflict Monitor. 7 Jul 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.monitor.upeace.org/innerpg.cfm?id_article=632#_ftn13
The young man had struck the officer repeatedly before continuing to resist arrest, and finally being killed. The court found in favor of the officer.
Hopkins v. Andaya is a similar case in which an officer was struck repeatedly and ignore despite several warnings. In both these cases, self-defense necessitated the use of firearms.
In the case of Tennessee v Garner, on the other hand, a suspect was fleeing. According to the law, a police officer could use deadly force if he or she believed that the suspect was dangerous to the public and guilty of the suspected crime. Such use of force, as Hall argues, is however no longer relevant in the legal climate of the United States. Due process and the presumption of innocence necessitates providing felons with the opportunity to state their case before a jury. Overly excessive force was therefore used in this case.
In conclusion, there are….
Charlton, Jacquie. (1997). A brief history of a "less than lethal" weapon. http://www.montrealmirror.com/ARCHIVES/1997/041797/sidebar.html
Halle, John C. (1997, Oct). Police Use of Nondeadly Force to Arrest. Law Enforcement Bulletin. http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/1997/oct975.htm
Mangan, David. (2008). Police Brutality the Use of Excessive Force. Drury University. http://www.drury.edu/ess/irconf/DMangan.html
Net Industries. (2009). Law Enforcement - Use of Force. http://social.jrank.org/pages/1332/Law-Enforcement-Use-Force.html
S. In April 2005, where there is a description of how a cell search took place there as per his version. "The guards secured his hands behind his back and, while he was so restrained, the guards picked him up and slammed his body and his head into the steel bunk in his cell. They then threw him on the floor and continued to pound his body and bang his head into the floor. The guards picked him up again and banged his head on the toilet in his cell. The guards picked him up again, stuffed Mr. Ait Idir's face in the toilet and repeatedly pressed the flush button. Mr. Ait Idir was starting to suffocate and he feared he would drown. The guards then carried Mr. Ait Idir outside the cell and threw him on the ground. His hands still were manacled behind his back. They held him….
Amnesty International Press Release. (26 November 2003) "USA: Allegations of excessive use of force and ill-treatment of protestors in Miami" News Service No: 268 Retrieved at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511422003?open&of=ENG-USAAccessed on 27 June, 2005
Controlling police use of excessive force: The role of the police psychologists" Retrieved at http://www.uplink.com.au/lawlibrary/Documents/Docs/Doc37.html. Accessed on 27 June, 2005
Illegitimate or Excessive Use of Force" International Online Training Program on Intractable
Conflict. Retrieved at http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/problem/illegit_force.htm . Accessed on 27 June, 2005
Gradually, the viewer's pleasure of being the knowing doctor shifts to the pleasure of socially-sanctioned unwilling penetration: "But the worst of it was that I too had got beyond reason. I could have torn the child apart in my own fury and enjoyed it. It was a pleasure to attack her. My face was burning with it," says the doctor as he grows angry with the girl's intransigence. Mulvey might assert that the girl's illness makes her into a kind of erotic object, a being that can be legitimately observed and penetrated by both the doctor and the viewer, which the doctor takes pleasure in subduing. The reader's alignment with the doctor's thought processes grows closer and closer as the penetration is about to take place. The doctor tries to 'sweet talk' the girl, and is frustrated by the protections of the mother, almost as if he were a suitor:….
One police officer for example referred to the chaos as a "holocaust," far removed from the real world (Shankman et al., 2010).
Alpert and Smith (2001, p. 483) note that a survey of the public showed a general perception that the police is frequently excessively violent in their contact with the public. According to the authors, the targets of reported abuse are generally lower class males, with a common factor being a display of disrespect by these citizens towards the police in question.
It is possible that this perception of "disrespect" could have been a factor in the use of excessive force in New Orleans. The police most likely place excessive emphasis on the role of preventing crime, whereas the desperation of the victims involved drove them to seek out food and water from unattended shops and homes. Hence, the two factors escalated each other, leading to excessive police force, among….
Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (2000). Further Exploration of the Demeanor Hypothesis: The Interaction Effects of Suspects' Characteristic Behavior.
Alpert, G.P. And Smith, W.C. (2001). How Reasonable is the Reasonable Man?: Police and Excessive Force. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 85, No. 2.
Bayley, DH and Garofalo, J. (1989). The Management of Violence by Police Patrol Officers. Criminology.
Purcell, A. (2010). Police violence on trial. Retrieved from: http://www.andrewpurcell.net/?p=762
The greater the threat, the greater is the risk of inaction -- and the more compelling the case for taking anticipatory action to defend ourselves, even if uncertainty remains as to the time and place of the enemy's attack. To forestall or prevent such hostile acts by our adversaries, the United States will, if necessary, act preemptively." (cited in Ryan, 2009)
Ryan relates that the rule of anticipatory self-defense was described in letters exchanged between ritain's Lord Ashurton and U.S. secretary of state Daniel Webster in 1837 in an indicated involving the private U.S. ship Caroline that was destroyed by ritish forces when it was found to be providing aid to Canadian rebels who were fighting against the Crown. The diplomatic correspondence set to the ritish Ambassador and which protested the attack it was written by Webster that the "...anticipatory self-defense may be invoked only where the threat is imminent,….
Address by Bush Administration National Security Advisor, Dr. Condoleezza Rice, Winston Lecture, 1 October 2002; Sapiro, M. "Iraq: The Shifting Sands of Pre-emptive Self-Defense" (2003) 97 American Journal of International Law 599 at 599.
Caroline Case (1837) 2 Moore 409.
Champion, Sarah (2005) Anticipatory (Pre-emptive) Self-Defense: The Need for a Modern Approach. Online available at: http://www.usafa.edu/isme/JSCOPE05/Champion05.html
Franck, TM. (2001) "Editorial Comments: Terrorism and the Right of Self-Defense" 95 American Journal of International Law 839 at 842. Franck states this intuition is supported by the language of Article 51.
Albert and Smith delve into the controversial and complex topic of the use of excessive force in policing. The authors note two important points about the complex topic. First, use of excessive police force is poorly researched and understood. The term "excessive force" is not well defined within law enforcement, and a cohesive explanation of situations that use excessive force is lacking in the training of police officers. Further compounding this lack of definition is a lack of comprehensive statistics on the use of force in the policing environment. As such, police officers have been given enormous powers and responsibility in a hazardous and highly-scrutinized environment, but lack a real understanding of the degree of force that they are allowed to use in carrying out their duties. This lack of understanding of the use of force has resulted in the inability of the police force to provide comprehensive statistical….
Force by Police and Correctional Officers in the United States Today
Beginning with the high-profile case of odney King in March 1991, the proliferation of cellular telephones equipped with cameras has resulted in an increasing number of video accounts by American citizens concerning the use of force against criminal suspects who are in many cases members of minority groups (Winright, 2007). Not surprisingly, this trend has also prompted calls for a review of current use of force methods employed by law enforcement agencies across the country. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to identify the various methods used by police or correctional officers in overcoming resistance in arrest or control situations, taking into consideration the use-of force continuum, and to identify potential responses to "expected" or "unexpected" consequences from the pubic or judicial system as a result of employing such tactics. Finally, a summary of the….
Elicker, M. K. (2008, Fall). Unlawful justice: An opinion study on police use of force and how views change based on race and occupation. Sociological Viewpoints, 24, 33-39.
Isted, C. M. (2006, June). Assessing the use of force among male and female police officers. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 3(2), 115.
Kedir, S. H. (2006, Summer). Stunning trends in shocking crimes: A comprehensive analysis of Taser weapons. Journal of Law and Health, 20(2), 357-363.
McCauley, R. P. (2005, November). Use of force and high-intensity tactical police flashlights: Policy concerns. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 74(11), 10-14.
Excessive Psychological and Physical Force on Victims and the Public: An Exploration of Police Practices
The subject of excessive use of violence by authoritative figures has been widely examined throughout history. Alpert and Smith suggest that the authority of the police to use force "represents one of the most misunderstood powers granted to representatives of government" suggesting that police officers are authorized to use psychological and physical force to apprehend criminals (p. 481). hen does this use of force become excessive or unreasonable?
There is relatively little data that examines the outcomes of police violence though much research has devoted its time to examining the causes of excessive force (Hale & Ross, 2000, p. 2). Thus the aim of this research proposal will be to examine the result of excessive violence and the impact excessive violence has on the responses of those affected and ordinary citizens.
The goal of this study will….
Police Brutality and Use of ForceAbstractThis paper provides an examination of the problem of police brutality and use of force and ways the issue can be addressed in a positive manner. Among those ways it discusses using body cams to enhance accountability, unconscious bias training, community policing, and citizen review boards. The paper concludes by making recommendations based on these discussions, which include analyzing the pros and cons of all and evaluating how the cons might best be overcome. Ultimately, the paper shows that police brutality and use of force are issues that can be addressed effectively with the right implementation of positive steps forward, including the wearing of body cams, additional training, and assistance from the community.Keywords: police brutality, use of force, body cams, civilian review boards, unconscious bias police trainingIntroductionPolice use of force and police brutality are complex and multifaceted issues that have garnered significant attention in recent….
Bennell, C., Alpert, G., Andersen, J. P., Arpaia, J., Huhta, J. M., Kahn, K. B., ... & White, M. D. (2021). Advancing police use of force research and practice: urgent issues and prospects. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 26(2), 121-144.
Blumberg, D. M., Schlosser, M. D., Papazoglou, K., Creighton, S., & Kaye, C. C. (2019). New directions in police academy training: A call to action. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(24), 4941.
Doane, E., & Cumberland, D. M. (2018). Community policing: Using needs assessment to gain understanding before implementing. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 31(2), 165-187.
Police use of force
There is no single globally accepted definition of use of force by police officers. The National Institute of Justice, which is a subsidiary of the Justice Department concurs with this. This leaves the approximately 18,000 police agencies in America with the leeway to formulate their own policies regarding the use of force. Some agencies may address the issue while some may not. The Justice Department has however provided a use-of-force continuum. This refers to a step-by-step manner in which the police officers can act in order to calm a situation. As such, a police officer can first present himself at the scene, resort to verbal warning if his mere presence is not enough, then use unarmed control, say grabbing the offender, proceed to use less harmful weapons such as tear gas and batons, and finally use excessive force (Vera, 2018).
This order of attack is quite important bearing….
Excessive Force Liability
The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).
Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified in discharging….
Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .
Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).
Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
DiscussionThe hypothesis of this study was: equiring a higher education/college degree for law enforcement officers will lead to less use of force and better community policing.Explanation of esultsBased on the background research, the study found support for the hypothesis that higher education among law enforcement officers leads to reduced use of force and improved community policing. Among the officers surveyed, the data indicated that college education did correlate positively with lower levels of use of force while on the job. This suggests that college education does bring a degree of collectedness to the policing approach. This is consistent with ydberg and Terril (2010), who found that college education significantly reduces the likelihood of force occurring. However, Blumberg et al. (2019) cautioned that college education alone may not provide all the necessary skills for effective policing, emphasizing the need for specialized training in police academies. Keeping this in mind, these findings….
ReferencesBlumberg, D. M., Schlosser, M. D., Papazoglou, K., Creighton, S., & Kaye, C. C. (2019). New directions in police academy training: A call to action. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(24), 4941.Rydberg, J., & Terrill, W. (2010). The effect of higher education on police behavior. Police quarterly, 13(1), 92-120.
Force: Examining the Most elevant Articles The article "The Four Functions of Force" by obert Art details exactly that: the main purposes for using force in a given situation.…Read Full Paper ❯
Manage Use of Force Ethical Issues HOW TO MANAGE USE-OF-FOCE ETHICAL ISSUES This objective of this study is to examine how criminal justice and private security managers and executives are…Read Full Paper ❯
Force and Wars on Terrorism The objective of this work is to consider that as one of the governing principles of the United Nations, the UN Charter Article 2(4)…Read Full Paper ❯
The young man had struck the officer repeatedly before continuing to resist arrest, and finally being killed. The court found in favor of the officer. Hopkins v. Andaya is…Read Full Paper ❯
S. In April 2005, where there is a description of how a cell search took place there as per his version. "The guards secured his hands behind his back…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Gradually, the viewer's pleasure of being the knowing doctor shifts to the pleasure of socially-sanctioned unwilling penetration: "But the worst of it was that I too had got beyond…Read Full Paper ❯
One police officer for example referred to the chaos as a "holocaust," far removed from the real world (Shankman et al., 2010). Alpert and Smith (2001, p. 483) note…Read Full Paper ❯
The greater the threat, the greater is the risk of inaction -- and the more compelling the case for taking anticipatory action to defend ourselves, even if uncertainty…Read Full Paper ❯
Albert and Smith delve into the controversial and complex topic of the use of excessive force in policing. The authors note two important points about the complex topic.…Read Full Paper ❯
Force by Police and Correctional Officers in the United States Today Beginning with the high-profile case of odney King in March 1991, the proliferation of cellular telephones equipped with…Read Full Paper ❯
Excessive Psychological and Physical Force on Victims and the Public: An Exploration of Police Practices The subject of excessive use of violence by authoritative figures has been widely examined…Read Full Paper ❯
Law - Enforcement
Police Brutality and Use of ForceAbstractThis paper provides an examination of the problem of police brutality and use of force and ways the issue can be addressed in a…Read Full Paper ❯
Police use of force There is no single globally accepted definition of use of force by police officers. The National Institute of Justice, which is a subsidiary of the Justice…Read Full Paper ❯
Excessive Force Liability The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum,…Read Full Paper ❯
Law - Enforcement
DiscussionThe hypothesis of this study was: equiring a higher education/college degree for law enforcement officers will lead to less use of force and better community policing.Explanation of esultsBased on…Read Full Paper ❯