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Conjoined Twins: A Utilitarian Analysis
From the Utilitarian ethical perspective, the troubling case of separating conjoined twins (either against the parents' wishes or as a result of the parents' wishes) presents the following problems: 1) the high cost to perform the surgery ($1.5 million), 2) the fact that it is impossible to quantify the common good in such a personal, emotional, psychological, economical, life-and-death type of situation, and 3) the highly subjective nature of "the greatest good" in such a case. This paper will examine each of these three points to show how, from the Utilitarian perspective, the decision to operate in both cases, is immoral.
The first issue of cost is one that goes against the Utilitarian ethical system purely on the basis of a cost-benefit ratio. $1.5 million to perform a surgery that will kill one of the babies, leave the other impaired for life, and perhaps scar…
Utilitarianism is one of the most useful ethical theories. It can frame decisions made in almost every aspect of daily life, and also large-scale decisions made by organizations, enterprises, and governments. The basic principles of utilitarianism, as they were developed first by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill, are all based in the essential notion of utility. Utility means usefulness, but it is also related to net benefit.
Utility is defined in terms of the question, "Is this action beneficial? If so, who is it beneficial for, and how beneficial is it?" Utilitarian theory suggests that an ethical decision should weigh the greatest good for the greatest number of people. If an action is beneficial, it should be beneficial to the greatest number of stakeholders. It should be the decision that most maximizes the target population's happiness, or however success is being measured. This end result can…
"Ethics 5: Utilitarianism." [video]. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdtWu4Cqx1Y
"John Stuart Mill's Essay On Liberty." Retrieved online: http://www.serendipity.li/jsmill/jsmill.htm
Santa Clara University (n.d.). A framework for thinking ethically. Retrieved online: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/framework.html
The ole of Ethics in My Life
Ethics refers to the systematic and logical study of right and wrong behavior. The challenge with ethics is that ethical decisions are often subjective. Variables like personality, culture, and upbringing can all affect one's ethical character. Age and gender can also impact one's ethical decision-making process. The study of ethics has been an ongoing one in the field of philosophy, but it also has direct applications in fields ranging from law to medicine.
Almost all decisions have an ethical component. Even deciding what food to eat is an ethical decision, because the consumer chooses things like fair trade and organic over factory farmed and exploitative. Therefore, ethics can help me to create a more ethical and just society, by making choices that are congruent with core ethical principles. Ethical principles may include such things as fairness and the refrain from harm. Generally,…
Hill, Kate. "The bystander effect: keeping silent on family violence." ABC. Retrieved online: http://www.abc.net.au/local/photos/2014/05/07/3999663.htm
The nineteenth century German philosopher Immanuel Kant presented an ethical code that assigned a strict "right" or "wrong" to every action. Called the categorical imperative, Kant believed that it does not matter what the consequences or outcome of actions are; there are certain things that are right and certain things that are wrong. These ethical categories of right and wrong are not negotiable. It can never be "sometimes" ok to tell a white lie, or to steal. Instead, Kant created easy to understand categories that apply theoretically to all cultures and all people at all times. Human beings are always morally obliged to do the right thing in any given situation, even if doing so leads to suffering. Therefore, it would be considered right to tell the truth to a murderer and subsequently die rather than to lie to the murderer and survive. Davis (n.d.). uses the example of…
Davis, S.P. (n.d.). Three-minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. [video] Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw
"Ethics." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/kant.html
Johnson, R. "Kant's Moral Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved online: .
There are several ways that BP could have chosen to respond, all of which were "open" to them (i.e. they had free will), yet those chose to take paths that were less moral. Kant's universal law would have them put their responsibility to humanity as the motivator, however, their motives have not proven to be driven by doing what is genuinely good for humanity.
Blackburn (2009) states that it is tricky to apply the categorical imperative and that the most persuasive examples of it being effective are in cases where there is an institution whose existence depends on sufficient performance by a sufficient number of individuals.
Suppose, as is plausible, that our ability to give and receive promises depends upon general compliance with the principle of keeping promises. Were we to break them sufficiently often, or were promise-breaking to become a 'law of nature,' then there would be no such…
Blackburn, S. (2009). Ethics: A very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kant, I. (2010). Groundwork of the metaphysic morals. Trans H.J. Paton. Introduction philosophy: Classical and contemporary readings. Eds. John Perry, Michael Bratman,
and John Martin Fischer. (5th edition). New York: Oxford. 504-20.
Lyon, Susan. (2010). Climate Progress. Retrieved on August 24, 2010, from the Web site:
Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with what areas of human interest?
life after death b-god c-morality
The answer is c. Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with moral questions, or the question of what actions are considered to be right or wrong. Moral rightness and moral wrongness are philosophical areas of inquiry, requiring analysis and debate. The ethics of an action can be debated on the intentions of the actor, the consequences of the actions, or on other factors. There are many different approaches to the study of ethics, which is why there are so many different ethical and moral philosophers.
Ethics depends on the study of religion, or needs to be based on religious knowledge, true or false.
False. Although some philosophers, like Kant, refer to God in their philosophical treatises, there is no need for a philosophy of ethics to be grounded in…
Utilitarianism is one of the most common forms of moral reasoning. ooted in normative ethics, the notion of utilitarianism essentially asserts that an action is morally right if it maximizes utility or happiness for everyone (West, 2004). In other words, as long as a course of action generates the greatest benefit for everyone affected, then the means utilized to generate the benefits (such as coercion, manipulation, or lies) do not matter -- what matters is the end, not the means. This moral principle is commonly applied in various spheres including personal decisions, business, and public policy.
The notion of utility ethics can be ideally applicable in the case of Airxyz. Choosing Opting to voluntarily ground its fleet would be the most appropriate course of action for not only the airline, but also the general publicpublic. The public uses airlines to move quickly and conveniently move from one location…
West, H. R. (2003). An Introduction to Mill's Utilitarian Ethics. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.
West, H. (2004). An introduction to Mill's utilitarian ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…
Ethics of Employee Location Monitoring
In the contemporary workplace, workers are usually aware that their computer activity, email, and phone conversations may be -- and probably are -- being monitored by their employer. Efforts to limit the consumption of offensive or pornographic material, use of company resources for non-work purposes, and desire to track employee behavior in order to improve efficiency leads managers to install keystroke logs, FID location tags, cell phone software, and "back door" computer tracking programs. Employees complain that they do not feel trusted by employers who use these strategies, and managers may not have clear guidelines for how to use the information they glean from covert employee monitoring. However, some of these techniques can be used to improve workplace safety and ensure, for example, that employees take regular breaks from work in order to reduce eye strain and the health dangers of sedentary work. Below, I…
Hartman, L.P. (2000). Technology and Ethics: Privacy in the Workplace. Business and Society Review 106:1, 1-27.
Kaupins, G., & Minch, R. (2005). "Legal and Ethical Implications of Employee Location Monitoring," HICSS, vol. 5, pp.133a, Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
To ensure the deontological validity of the agreement, the specific requirements of Article VII therefore need to be somewhat modified and restipulated. ather than allowing no other employment, there could for example be some conditions that govern other ventures to supplement the military services income.
Of course it must be understood that the military is a highly confidential entity, and that no information or service should be divulged to other, similar agencies. From the utilitarian viewpoint, the military is served best when the type of service provided by its employees remains exclusive to the company. However, from the deontological viewpoint, it should also be understood that the employee is in a position where his or her finances from exclusive service to the military are insufficient for the rising costs of living.
Hence a provision could be included in Article VII: rather than allowing no other employment, the provision could state…
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2007, Jul. 18). Virtue Ethics. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/
State of Maryland Military Department. Personal Services Employment Agreement. http://www.mdmildep.org/forms/upload/Pers%20Svcs%20Emp%20Agreement.pdf
While all ethical theories appeal to me in some way, the one I relate to the most is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism suggests that the ethical decision should enhance as much happiness as possible. I appreciate this idea, which is why I believe I make more decisions using a utilitarian ethic than any other. With Kantian duty ethics, I struggle with the absolutism. I do not believe it is possible to have one principle govern every ethical decision that I make. For example, I do believe that sometimes it is acceptable to tell lies. I have told lies to make my parents or girlfriend feel good, and I do not think it hurt them. In fact, I believe that if they knew now which lies I told and when, they would not even be upset. I would never tell a lie that I could later not admit to, however, I relate…
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html
Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm
Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.
Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…
Youth and Labor. (2011). Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/
Elliot, J. (2009). Santa's Little Sweat Shop. Albimonitor. Retrieved from: http://www.albionmonitor.com/sweatshop/ss-intro.html
Farrell, O. (2009). Business Ethics. Mason, OH: South Western.
National Labor Committee. (2000). Children Found Sewing Clothes for Wal Mart. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/NLC_childlabor.html
Consider the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter 1. Which of these would it be easier for utilitarianism to fulfill and which could well be more difficult for that system to fully meet?
Of the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter One, perhaps the easiest purpose for the ethical system of utilitarianism, as developed by the Englishman Jeremy Bentham, to meet would be to create a functional system of social ethics, or the ethical schema that holds a society together by its ethical 'glue.' Utilitarianism suggests that society, when pressed on many sides by the competition of different ethical claims, or even simply by different but equally valid claims for personal happiness, should choose the truth claim that allows for the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals within that particular society. For instance, the happiness of the many in my neighborhood to sleep late at…
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…
We may act according to our personal principles, or we can act according to our common sense. I tend to use my common sense rather than personal prejudice when making ethical decisions.
My ethical reasoning entails that I would carefully consider any ethical issue before making a decision about it. One major limitation involved in this is the fact that others may perceive me as morally weak. A morally strong character tends to be one that is immediate in ethical decisions. I would therefore not be able to make immediate decisions such as those required of judges or surgeons.
It is therefore unlikely that I would thrive in a profession that is very clear and immediate with regard to its need for specific ethical decisions. I would be better in a profession that is not as dependent upon immediate decisions.
I do not believe that my ethical viewpoint…
Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.
In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?
The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…
Ethics in Decision-Making
Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.
According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…
The solution of 'going by the rules' is often offered because of the difficulties and complexities of managerial decision-making in large organizations. Managers cannot perfectly calculate the 'correct' decision. In contrast to the ideal of perfect rationality, contemporary organizational theorists tend to see organizations as 'garbage cans' or mixes of personal and organizational ethical orientations. It is often uncertain what will 'tumble out' decision-wise, even when there are efforts to have policies in words. In the face of such randomness, a personal ethical orientation and sense of justice is required. "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).
For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.
What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and act within the conditions of undecidability (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 405).
Ethics are at the core of human behavior and decision-making. This paper evaluates the results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory, a proprietary software designed to measure a person's ethical stance. The results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory can be applied to that person's psychology, and can help supervisors make human resources decisions related to the individual. Moreover, organizational psychologists especially benefit from ethical inventories. It is important to apply ethical awareness and psychological principles to personal, social, and organizational issues.
The Ethics Awareness Inventory is proprietary software designed to profit off of the need to evaluate and analyze every single human decision. Available for a select group of people, the Ethics Awareness Inventory "is a program that can evaluate one's ethical style," in the same way a quiz can evaluate what food, country, or sexual position is most appropriate (Collack, 2007). As with most quizzes, the Ethics Awareness…
Collak, V. (2007). Ethics awareness inventory. Retrieved online: http://collak.net/index.php?view=article&id=50&tmpl=component&print=1&page&Itemid=60&option=com_content
"Ethical Leadership," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_58.htm
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
On the contrary, for Kant, to live a moral life is to live a life that is lived almost completely because of obligation (Moran, Rein & Goodin 2008, p 354). Someone can still do something that is their duty, but that doesn't mean that what they do isn't immoral. A simple example would be if a person owed money: in Kantian morality, if a person paid back the money simply because they owed it and they felt it was their moral obligation to do so, this would be moral; however, if a person paid back money only because they thought that it would help them out if they ever needed to borrow money again, this would be immoral.
Kantian morality -- or the ethical system that we call "deontological" (luhm & Heineman 2007, p. 26) -- has to do with whether or not "its rules do not allow us to…
Bardach, Eugene. (2008). A practical guide for policy analysis: the eightfold path to more effective problem solving. CQ Press; 3rd edition.
Bluhm, William. & Heinemann, Robert A. (2007). Ethics and public policy: method and cases. Longman.
Fischer, Frank. & Miller, Gerald J. (2006). Handbook of public policy analysis: theory, politics and methods. CRC Press; 1st edition.
Moran, Michael., Rein, Martin. & Goodin, Robert E. (2008). The Oxford handbook of public policy. Oxford University Press.
However, if it were the case that the Chinese legal system protected the innocent and executed only those criminals who have been properly, duly, and fairly convicted and sentenced for crimes appropriately punished by execution, it is much harder to argue against the use of their organs to benefit society. From an objective point-of-view, once a person dies, it is wasteful not to use his or her organs to benefit living people. The attachment we have to the body after death is primarily a function of social learning and nonsensical superstition in the first place. Logically, it would be ethically permissible, to require that organs be harvested from all deceased persons once their families have had the opportunity to pay their respects.
The ethical problem in this case is much more about the way that Chinese citizens become prisoners in the first place and the way that the decision to…
Ethics at Apple
Apple has been for some time now the leading manufacturer of innovative wireless technologies, including the iPhone, the iPad, iPods, and Macintosh computers that do more and set the table for other manufacturers to emulate "Mac" innovations. Following the death of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs -- and the emergence of Tim Cook as the new CEO -- the technology media and happy Apple consumers wait for the next launch of an innovative device that will change the way people communicate and retrieve information.
hat are the Apple values and ethics? The "Apple Values" section of the Apple Employee Handbook (circa 1993) sets the record straight on what is expected of employees. In short, Apple asserts that "…we will not compromise our ethics or integrity in the name of profit" (seanet.com). hat Apple does is "…set aggressive goals and drive ourselves hard to achieve them" and "build products"…
Gurman, Mark. (2011). Revealed: Apple's internal policies on employee social networking, speculating on rumors, leaking, blogging, and more. 9to5Mac. Retrieved May 27, 2012,
from http://9to5mac.com .
Mac Observer. (2011). Revealed: 10 big Apple Store secrets. Retrieved May 27, 2012, from http://theweek.com .
Marshall, Gary. (2011). Inside Apple: Cupertino's secrets revealed. Tech Radar. Retrieved May
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
Although the tobacco Janet would market is not smoked, it is an addictive substance, and thus it could easily lead to smoking nicotine-containing cigarettes later on in life, and cause harm through second-hand smoke to millions of other people. The societal costs to the legal system because of the lawsuits the product has inspired, and the unhappiness the product has caused for the target audience's families are another example of how the sum total happiness of society is reduced, rather than increased, if Janet takes the job. Also, the campaign is in violation of laws that prohibit minors from using tobacco, and by encouraging the violation of the laws of the land, society's total happiness is reduced, as persons (and marketing departments) feel free to behave and market products in a less law-abiding fashion.
Finally, the idea that Janet can help herself and her future career by taking the job…
Ethics-CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Details of the Source
When does police mistake become murder?
The Christian Science Monitor,
Date of publication: 04-05-1999,
Summary of Facts
Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…
The Dowd Model of Ethical Decision Making in Medical Imaging: Two Dilemma Scenarios
An ethical dilemma is raised in a situation where two "right" courses of action are found to be mutually exclusive of each other; that is, when doing one "right" thing necessarily leads to leaving the other "right" thing undone or even contravening this "right" and doing the opposite (Towsley-Cook & Young, 2007). A scenario in which an employee's rights must be weighed against those of the patient/consumer typifies this type of dilemma, and this is found in the current scenario: a medical imaging professional suspected of having alcohol problems comes to work with the smell of liquor on his breath and shows some trouble walking straight and enunciating clearly. After a confrontation by the supervisor, this employee refuses to take a blood test for drugs and alcohol. The dilemma exists in determining whether this…
ADW. (2010). False Positive. Ask Doc Web. Accessed 8 December 2010. http://www.askdocweb.com/falsepositives.html
Moeller, K., Lee, K. & Kissack, J. (2008). Urine Drug Screening: Practical Guide for Clinicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83(1): 66-76.
Towsley-Cook, D. & Young, T. (2007). Ethical and Legal Issues for Imaging Professionals. New York: Elsevier.
Van Valkenberg, J., Gurley, L., Lam, R., Martino, S., Paschal, R., Temme, J. & Walker, R. (1998). Survey of alcohol, drug use by radiologic technologists. Radiologic Technology. Accessed 8 December 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3387/is_n4_v69/ai_n28702788/pg_5/?tag=content;col1
Ethics of Spider Man
The character Spider Man is a foundational superhero of the modern era. His history and life demonstrate the development of an ordinary and even some would say subpar or at the very least "un-cool" young adolescent into a super hero by a twist of fate, i.e. being bit by a genetically modified spider on a science filed trip. The early life of the Spider Man character as depicted in both comic books, television cartoons and movies in live action or animation depict a young man, who stumbles upon a great power and then struggles with how to use that power. In the 2002 film depiction, and true to the comic storyline Peter's/Spiderman's ethics are developed through the film as he struggles with his new found powers, seizing the opportunity to use them for personal gain, by attempting to win money as an amateur fighter/wrestler in a…
Lee, S. (1962) (Spider Man) Amazing Fantasy Vol. 1 #15.
Jenkins, P. (September 2002) Peter Parker, Spider-Man Vol. 2 #48, titled "The Big Question,"
Raimi, S. (Director). (2002) Spider-Man [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
Raimi, S. (Director). (2004) Spider-Man 2 [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.
Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…
Anderson, J.F., & Dyson, L. (2000). Alabama Prison Chain Gangs: Reverting to Archaic Punishment to Reduce Crime and Discipline Offenders. Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(1), 9.
Haley, S. (2013). "Like I Was a Man": Chain Gangs, Gender, and the Domestic Carceral Sphere in Jim Crow Georgia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 39(1), 53-77.
Guttierrez, A. (2013). Sufferings peculiarly their own: the thirteenth amendment, in defense of incarcerated women's reproductive rights, 15 Berkeley J.Afri.-Am. L. & Pol'y.
Banks, C. (2004) Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. SAGE.
The ethical obligations of the counselor in this case is not so much in question as the timing of disclosure. The main question is: Should the counselor disclose the dangers of withholding HIV status before clients disclose this? This would be more ethically acceptable to clients' need to be informed of the disclosure obligations of the therapist before entering therapy. On the other hand, the drive to safeguard lives could result in a lack of initial disclosure, as this might discourage clients from disclosing possibly incriminating behavior.
However, withholding this type of information from John or future clients like him could result in legal difficulties for the counselor, and indeed for the counseling profession in general. The counselor is obliged to disclose all ethical obligations to the client, and particularly those that could impact upon the confidentiality of the client. Only in this way can the client make an informed…
Indiana Code. (2010). Retrieved November 2, 2010, from http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title25/ar23.6/ch10.5.html
Indianapolis Star Examines HIV Confidentiality, Disclosure Laws. (2003, July 18). The Body.Retrieved November 2, 2010 at http://www.thebody.com/content/legal/art11776.html
Ohio Administrative Code. (2010). Ohio Laws and Rules. Retrieved November 3, 2010 from http://codes.ohio.gov/oac/4757
Schlossberger, Eugene and Hecker, Lorna. (1996). HIV and family therapists' duty to warn: A legal and ethical analysis. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from bNet Web site: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3658/is_199601/ai_n8742740/pg_4/?tag=content;c ol1
This was vey difficult to accomplish given the vaious legal systems globally yet Apple was able to define thei own MP fomat, which helped to futhe diffeentiate thei poducts elative to mainsteam MP3 music files and systems (Knapp, 2009). This technology diection helped to also establish pecedence of digital ights owneship as well. Apple had been successful in monetizing the inheent collaboative aspects of the Intenet by ceating an entie platfom capable of gowing to suppot all foms of digital content. This has esulted in the eventual inclusion of video capability in all iPods, the launch of the iPad, and the aggessive launch and development schedules fo the iPhone. All of these devices ae inheently designed to captue, stoe, shae, and publish digital video. The eventual inclusion of digital video content that is licensed and confoms to the same legal constucts as iTunes music means the taditional television, movies and…
references for online music services. Applied Economics, 42(30), 3885.
Knapp, S.. (2009). Ooyala - Accelerating the evolution of online video - an Interview with Sean Knapp of online video publishing. Journal of Digital Asset Management, 5(5), 264-273.
Deana Sobel. (2007). A Bite out of Apple? iTunes, Interoperability, and France's Dadvsi Law. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 22(1), 267-291.
Overall the automobile industry must make a more concerted effort o behave in ways that are consistent with accepted business ethics. From a utilitarian standpoint the automakers must begins to consider the consequences of their actions in the decision making process. At the current time Toyota is fighting to rebuild its brand image because the company6 did not thoroughly take into consideration the consequences of their actions. From a deontological standpoint the automobile companies have failed to act in ways that are just as it relates to the bailout and the recall of defective vehicles by Toyota. Going forward the companies that make up the industry must learn from the issues they have been confronted with in recent years. It is only through such a process that the entire industry will reflect a more ethical business model. An increase in ethical responsibility will likely prove effective attracting customers back…
Brady F.N., Dunn C. P 1995. Business Meta-Ethics: An Analysis of Two Theories. Business Ethics Quarterly, Vol. 5 (3) pp. 385-398
Finch, J. 2010. Toyota Sudden Acceleration: A Case Study of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.luc.edu/law/activities/publications/clr_vol22_issue4/pdfs/finch_toyota.pdf
Fuhrmans, V., Catan, T. (2010) Daimler to Settle With U.S. On Bribes. Wall Street Journal. 255 (68), pB1-B2
Newman, a. Auto Bailout: Lemon or Lemonade. New American 25 (1), p21-24
Speculating has become such a common practice in the stock market that it is an essential element of a proper stock market. It is doubtful that the stock market values would be anywhere near its current value if not for speculation.
Goldman Sachs Investigation
The Goldman Sachs investigation inquires into whether traders at a number of hedge funds and trading firms, improperly gained nonpublic information from Goldman Sachs (who gained the information from industry informants) about pending health-care, technology and other merger deals.
In the Goldman Sachs situation, certain traders benefited from privileged information of impending mergers by buying stock on those mergers before the merger was officially announced.
Thus, they were able to acquire a promising stock at a lower price than they would have otherwise. They profit by selling the stock after the merger announcement induces other traders to buy the stock and push the stock price up.…
James B. Stewart, Why Practice Insider Trading? Just Watch Warren Buffet Instead. Wall Street Journal Online. May 5, 2011.
Susan Pulliam, Michael Rothfeld, Jenny Strasburg and Gregory Zuckerman, U.S. In Vast Insider Trading Probe. Wall Street Journal Online. November 20, 2010. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704170404575624831742191288.html?mod=googlenews_wsj
Patricia Werhane, the Ethics of Insider Trading.
Ashby Jones, Galleon Insider Trading Probe Fingers Former McKinsey Head. Wall Street Journal. March 1, 2011. http://blogs.wsj.com/law/2011/03/01/galleon-insider-trading-probe-fingers-former-mckinsey-head/
Reflection Prompt #1
Summarize three of the ethical theories that are explained in Chapter 1 of Introduction to Business Ethics. Explain how people running businesses would construct their companies if they utilized these ethical theories. For example, you might personally think that people should act to increase the overall happiness for the greatest number of people (utilitarianism). You would explain utilitarianism and then explain how a company based in utilitarian ethics would function. In other words:
What products would they make?
How would they treat their employees? How would they treat their customers?
How would they manufacture their products?
How would they utilize their resources and profits were they to become successful?
At the basis of the ethical considerations rests the question of whether or not ethics are static or they are relative. The example is give of Lockheed Martin who was caught offering a quarter of a…
This exposes another weakness of the deontological approach: it provides no guidance for determining which of two contradictory rules must be respected. If the supervisor respects the company rule prohibiting disclosing the information to the employee, he must violate the general moral rule prohibiting lying. Conversely, if the supervisor respects the general moral rule about lying, he must violate the company policy about non-disclosure.
In this particular scenario, the supervisor would have little help from deontological principles to decide which rule to follow and which rule to violate. Therefore, his only option might be to respond that he is simply not at liberty to respond to the question, although most of the time, that response would already suggest to the employee that the supervisor is aware that layoffs in the department are anticipated.
Other ethical systems are far preferable because they might allow the supervisor to decide what to do…
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:
Women without functioning uteruses now have a real chance of making their motherhood dreams come true with a radical new surgical procedure that involves a uterus transplant. Mats Brannstrom, the Swedish doctor who was the first in the world to deliver babies from transplanted uteruses, has successfully delivered about half a dozen babies from transplanted uteruses so far (“First baby from a uterus transplant in the U.S. born in Dallas,” 1). In the United States, the first baby was born from a transplanted uterus in December of 2017, in Dallas. As promising as it is, a uterus transplant birth is a relatively risky medical procedure, though, and one that has raised some questions about the efficacy and ethics of this remarkable intervention. However, as long as full disclosure is made to patients, who make their decisions autonomously and with informed consent, transplanted uterine deliveries should certainly be an option…
obert Latimer Case
The obert Latimer case details the tragic situation of a father caring for a severely disabled child pushed to his breaking point. After witnessing the suffering of his daughter Tracy through numerous invasive and minimally effective procedures, Latimer eventually decided to take his child's life (Eckstein 1995). For doing so, he was convicted of homicide and although the case was tried in 1995, it still presents a number of troubling ethical challenges to medical ethicists today.
From a deontological or Kantian point-of-view, or the notion that one must behave as if setting a moral law for all time, Latimer's actions are immoral if it is assumed that intentional killing is always wrong, particularly of a disabled person who is not in full possession of his or her ability to determine if he or she is happy or not. A Kantian would ask the question -- if…
Eckstein, C. (1995). Tracy Lynn Latimer: Better off dead? CHN.
Social contract theory. (n.d.). Retrieved from:
Theoretical approaches. (n.d.) Penn State. Retrieved:
According to the pure mathematics of utilitarianism, then, there is very little debate regarding this issue. No matter what the circumstance, a person who is experiencing true biologically-driven hunger due to a lack of enough food to eat will get far more utility out of the most basic morsel of nutrition and substance that could be achieved by the most magnificent meal for those who are used to plenty (and this comparison is even unfair, as the magnificent meal could be traded to feed that many more hungry people). It is an ethical duty, then, for those of us privileged enough to have plenty to share it with those who do not have enough.
Extending this logic further allows us to answer the question of whether this duty is greater amongst our neighbors, or if there is a global mandate for all mankind. The answer would be very different two…
Legally, forcing Ford to make costly payments to the families of the victims of its maleficent inaction was good for society as well as for the individuals who were harmed. Companies are less likely to make such criminally negligent risk/benefit calculations when they know the legal system will penalize the organization financially and legally. Only by increasing the hazardous potential of financial loss from acting immorally can the tort system truly protect consumers. Even in utilitarian ethical calculations, forcing Ford to make costly payments to victim's families makes acting as Ford did in the Pinto case 'wrong' even in terms of corporate profitability analysis as the company is potentially harming the profit margins of shareholders as well as unwitting drivers.
Of course, it could be argued that such an ethical rationale is undeniably influenced by the current litigious environment -- few companies would feel, in today's environment that they could…
De George. (2006). The Ford Pinto case. Business ethics, pp.298-299.
Leggett, Christopher. (1999, Spring). The Ford Pinto case. Law & Valuation.
Retrieved September 14, 2009 at http://www.wfu.edu/~palmitar/Law&Valuation/Papers/1999/Leggett-pinto.html
Newton & Ford. (2008). Chapter 4/Issue 15: Was Ford to blame in the Pinto case? Taking sides,
Is utilitarianism an effective approach to environmental ethics? Behaviors that demonstrate personal and collective responsibility to the environment can lead to tangible short-term and long-term objectives that benefit a large number of people. Reducing pollution, limiting deforestation, preserving natural resources, protecting sensitive ecosystems, and mitigating climate change bring about the greatest good for the greatest number, what John Stuart Mill (2017) refers to as summum bonum, the fundamental principle of utilitarianism (p. 1). Therefore, most environmentally conscious policies, business practices, and personal behaviors can be viewed in utilitarian terms.
Explanation of Theory
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory, which essentially means that its proponents focus more on the consequences of actions than on the motivations for the actions (Haines, n.d.). There are several types of utilitarianism, including act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism suggests that any act is morally right when it leads to consequences that are better than (or…
hat would you do?
In the first place, lives are more valuable -- far more valuable -- than jobs. True, without a job many adult individuals would suffer, but given the possibility that the bug in the prototype that Occidental Engineering was producing could cause an accident in the skies and a resulting loss of many lives, the best course for the project manager is to listen to engineer ayne Jones and take the ethical course of action. This paper reviews three ethical theories, one of which will be determined to be the most appropriate for this dilemma: Virtue Ethics, Deontology, and Utilitarianism.
According to author Barbara MacKinnon, Virtue Ethics asks "How we ought to be" rather than "hat we ought to do" (MacKinnon, et al. 2015). Virtue Ethics deals with the traits of personal character (habits, tendencies, and disposition) that make a person "good"; in…
Kay, C.D. (2004). Ethical Theory / Ethical Updates. Wofford College Department of Philosophy. Retrieved January 31, 2015, from http://sites.wofford.edu .
MacKinnon, B., and Fiala, A. (2015). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues, Concise
Edition. Independence IN: Cengage Learning.
Tannsjo, T. (2008). Understanding Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Theory. Edinburgh,
Unlike either deontological or utilitarian ethics, virtue ethics focuses on character. Because virtue ethics are not consequentialist, overall virtue ethical frameworks are more akin to deontological analysis of moral right and wrong. One’s intentions are as important as one’s actions; the consequences of one’s actions are important but not as much as remaining honest, compassionate, and willing to learn. At the same time, Aristotle and other proponents of virtue ethics believed that it is most important to be a good person, and to live a good life, than it is to ascribe to some external moral code.
Two virtues that are important to living a flourishing or successful life, in Aristotle’s sense, include magnanimity and temperance (“Traditional Theories of Ethics,” n.d.). Magnanimity is best understood as understated confidence, evident in behaviors like good sportsmanship whether one wins or loses. Temperance is moderation in all areas of life: not going to…
In today’s globalized, interconnected, and interdependent business environment, ethics are more important than ever. Both internal and external operations need to be guided by ethical principles. Ethics are important for the self-interest of the company and its employees, helping to strengthen relationships with clients and prevent conflicts that could damage strategic alliances.
Utilitarian ethical frameworks are especially applicable to the modern business environment. The fundamental principles of utilitarianism include maximizing happiness, minimizing unpleasantness, and promoting the greatest good for the greatest number of people (Mill, 2017). Utilitarian ethics also focus more on the consequences of actions rather than on the act itself. In fact, one of the challenges of applying a utilitarian ethical framework to business operations is balancing the need for achieving the most desirable outcome possible while also minimizing the use of means that might be ethically spurious. Because utilitarian ethics are focused on positive…
Clients' rights are not being overtly violated because when they register for our referral services, they do not divulge any sensitive information. One could say they are assuming risk when they fill out our forms. On the other hand, when the client sees the doctor, social worker, or therapist, he or she does divulge sensitive information and does expect total confidentiality. The office workers also keep the jokes, and especially client names, within office walls. From this point-of-view, clients' rights are not actually being violated at all.
Similarly, it would be almost impossible for the client, the brunt of the joke, to find out about or be hurt by the gossip because when employees joke they do so without any references to the client's address or other vital information. A utilitarian could therefore argue that because the gossip causes more pleasure for the employees than it does pain for the…
An estimated 1.5 million “preventable adverse drug events” occur each year in the United States alone; the number of medication errors that did not lead to adverse effects but remained undisclosed is unknown (Jenkins & Vaida, 2007, p. 41). The scenario is this: You are working as an advanced practice nurse at a community health clinic. You make an error when prescribing a drug to a patient. You do not think the patient would know that you made the error, and it certainly was not intentional.
Disclosure is an ethical and legal prerogative, showing respect for the patient and a willingness to accept professional responsibility. Consequentialist ethics do not apply to situations like these, because the broader issue is about changing advanced nursing practice and ensuring a culture of safety for all patients. Likewise, disclosure empowers the patient to make informed choices about reactions to the medical error while…
Discouraging office romances will not eliminate such concerns entirely, because people also form strong friendships at work, and such friendships can lead to suspicions of some kind of unfair application of privileges, promotions, salary, or resource allocations.
However, friendships do not lead to some of the problems that workplace romances can. Typically, friendships do not end in ways that cause significantly hurt feelings, anger or jealousy amount mature people, but romances can end quite unpleasantly. Once the romantic relationship is over, one party or the other may accuse the former partner of all sorts of things including various forms of sexual harassment (Wilson et. al. 2003). When the two people hold different positions in the hierarchy, very serious charges of things like pressures for sex in exchange for retaining one's job can surface. The charges may not be true in any way, but the person in tne superior position has…
Paul, Robert J. And James B. Townsend.1998. Managing the Workplace Romance: Protecting Employee and Employer Rights. Review of Business 19.
Schultz, Vicki. 2003. The Sanitized Workplace. Yale Law Journal 112.
Wilson, Rebecca J.; Filosa, Christine; and Fennel, Alex. 2003. Romantic Relationships at Work: Does Privacy Trump the Dating Police? Defense Counsel Journal 70:78-88.
In 1997, numerous key educational institutions including the AASA (American Association of School Administrators); ASCD (the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), NAESP (the National Association of Elementary School Principals), and the NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) worked in the auspices of ISLLC, funded by the CCSSO (Council of Chief State School Officers), to increase educational management standards. The National Policy Board for Educational Administration used the ISLLC principles for accreditation, efficiently holding educational administrative training programs accountable for not only creating pre-service instructive leaders' knowledge of moral concepts and structures but also for budding their capability to apply such ideas and structures to make moral decisions that would optimistically affect the experiences of pupils. This is in line with the fifth criterion deals with morals, saying that "a school superintendent is an educational organizer who promotes the achievement of all pupils by acting with honesty, justice, and…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-449.
Blanchard, K. And Hodges, P. (2003). Servant leadership. Nashville, TN Thomas Nelson.
Farling, M.L., Stone, A.G., & Winston, B.E. (1999). Servant leadership: Setting the stage for empirical research. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6(1-2), 49-72.
Fullan, M. (2003). The moral imperative of school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Morality of Statistics
Ethics/Business Statistics, Christian Worldview
The morality of statistics: Will statistics invariably lie?
A famous book from the 1950s was entitled How to lie with statistics. Implied by the counter-intuitive name was the concept that the old cliche that 'numbers don't lie' was false. In fact, as discussed in the article "eflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues" by S. Andrew Ostapski and Claude . Superville, statistics can be highly subjective in terms of how they are presented as are the conclusions which can be drawn from them. Even researchers have been accused of manipulating statistics to prove 'facts' that are not true within academia. The pressures only increase when statisticians are asked to serve the financial 'masters' of commerce. "The ability to be creative in building interdisciplinary bridges can be risky, especially when the parties that are served do not understand the statistical process. The…
Geertsema, J. (1987). A Christian view of the foundations of statistics. Perspectives on Science
and Christian Faith, 39.3:158-164.
Ostapski, A. & Superville, C. (2001). Reflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues. Business Quest. Retrieved:
In Ethics for a New Millennium, His Holiness the Dalai Lama discusses ethics from a universal perspective that transcends both religion and the jargon of scholastic philosophy. The study guide that accompanies Ethics for a New Millennium states, "with the growing secularization and globalization of society, we must find a way that transcends religion to establish consensus as to what constitutes positive and negative conduct, what is right and wrong and what is appropriate and inappropriate," (Los Altos Study Group 2). The Dalai Lama opens Ethics for a New Millennium with a general discourse about the nature of ethics, and the goal of ethics. For the Dalai Lama, the goal of ethics is relatively simple: to maximize happiness for all people. However, the Dalai Lama is not a utilitarian The Dalai Lama combines the traditionally utilitarian view that ethics serve the greatest good for the greatest number, with…
His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Ethics for the New Millennium. New York: Hudson, 1999.
Los Altos Study Group. "Study Guide for Ethics for the New Millennium. Retrieved online: http://www.dalailamafoundation.org/dlf/en/documents/enm-study-guide-2007-09-07.pdf
Ethics Case Study: To Rescue Others What Risk?()" answer questions: 1. What ethical dilemma? (1page, 1 reference) What ethical position related case? Include discussion theory principles position based.
The ethical dilemma in this situation involves choosing whether one is willing to risk his or her own life with the purpose of saving the lives of others. The fact that the person in charge of this decision is in a safe position while having to engage in saving others involves a significant amount of risk further contributes to making matters even more confusing.
Most people prefer to believe that the world is a fair place and that the current position of civilization means that individuals have a more complex understanding of their role in the world. Morality is, however, not as prized as some people are inclined to believe and while many are probable to claim that they would be unhesitant…
Callahan, D. (2012). In Search of the Good: A Life in Bioethics. MIT Press.
Fumerton, R. & Jeske, D. (2009). Introducing Philosophy Through Film: Key Texts, Discussion, and Film Selections. John Wiley & Sons.
Emperor's Club: Kantian, utilitarian, and Aristotelian views
According to Kantian ethical principles, Mr. Hundert should have allowed the grades of his four students to remain as they were, and not altered them. A Kantian ethical schema suggests that a person should behave as if he is setting a law for all time, not merely reacting to the specifics of a situation. A Kantian philosopher would say teachers cannot subjectively change grades simply because they believe that a particular student emotionally 'needs' to win more than another student. Hundert allowed his personal feelings for Bell and Bell's improvement as a student to influence his decision-making, and hurt another student in the process. However, from a utilitarian standpoint, by showing Bell the importance of hard work and moral activity, a great service is done to society because Bell is the child of a powerful man, and will likely grow up to be…
Although Sterba might argue in the long run that the children of all the world's people will be best served by placing limits upon development, it is hard to argue that it is just and fair that members of the developing world may suffer fewer benefits from industrialization because of the developed world's excesses. Neither the principles of restitutive or distributive justice are really served by either example. The wrongs done to the formerly colonialized peoples of the world are not addressed if they cannot attain parity with those nations that exploited them in a restitutive fashion, and the extent to which the earth must be and has been damaged by environmental harms caused by man to survive in a modern fashion suggests no restitution can be made to the earth from an environmentalist's perspective without an end to human development. Also, in terms of distributive justice for the greatest…
Autonomy (which literally means self-rule) is the capacity to independently think, make decisions, and act on thoughts freely without being hindered or need for permission. As far as action is concerned, it is crucial that distinction be made between on one side, liberty, freedom, license or just doing what a person pleases and on the other side, acting in autonomy, that can be doing whatever one pleases but based on reasoning or thought. Animals, for instance, are not autonomous but can be considered free (or at liberty), what may be referred to as a thin sense of liberty or freedom, when not under constraints of drugs, cages or clipped wings. Autonomy is an aspect of liberty or freedom, but not all liberty or freedom can be considered as autonomy. Gillon1 states that this autonomy concept involves rationality, a particular attribute noted by Aristotle.
The Principle of espect…
Gillon, R. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy. British Medical Journal. 1985; Volume 290. 1806-1808. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1415948/pdf/bmjcred00452-0044.pdf
Beauchamp TL, editor. Prentice-Hall: New Jersey; 1984. Medical ethics: The moral responsibilities of physicians; p. 27.
Euthanasia comes from the Greek phrase meaning "good death," ("Euthanasia" 112). The various practices that fall under the general rubric of providing a person with the means for a "good death" include physician-assisted death, also referred to as physician-assisted suicide. Until recently, all forms of euthanasia were illegal in the United States and in most other developed countries but within the past generation, these laws have been liberalized so that citizens in democratic societies increasingly have access to a "good death." Physician-assisted suicide occurs under the guidance of an experienced and qualified physician, who is not legally obliged to agree to the practice. Therefore, no coercion takes place. The doctor is not permitted legally or ethically to coerce a patient into dying prematurely and the patient is likewise not ethically or legally allowed to persuade their doctor to intervene on their behalf. hat physician-assisted death laws do allow is for…
"Euthanasia." Chapter 10.
Lee, Richard. "Kant's Four Illustrations." Retrieved online: http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/rlee/iethsu06/oh/k-4egs.html
"State-by-State Guide to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Retrieved online: http://euthanasia.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000132
Warren, Mary Anne. "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion."
Is it true that the "bottom line" of a business is profit and profit alone? Perhaps it is for some companies, but the idea of the “triple bottom line” has been around for quite some time—and it refers not just to profits but also to people and planet. The triple bottom line has received renewed interest since the rise of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) which refers to a company’s advocacy of and support for the values important to the “social, environmental and economic environment in which” the company operates (Castka, Bamber & Sharp, 2005, p. vii). When companies fail to consider the triple bottom line—the impact of their business operations on people and the planet as well as on profits—then they fall into that group of companies condemned by Feldman (2012) in his Sunday Review letter: such corporations fail to appreciate “how their obsession with the…
Ethics in Patents in Amazon One Click
Patents are meant to protect the intellectual property of the people who apply for them. They are given when the process is a unique idea, or it offers an improvement to an existing idea that does not infringe on the original patent and is itself unique. The question is not whether patents themselves are ethical, but whether a business requesting a patent for a process, in its entirety, is ethical. People with different philosophical outlooks would see this case very differently. On the one had rule utilitarian's would see the patent rules and judge based on that criteria whereas a natural rights theorist would have a completely different outlook. This paper looks at the patent application for Amazon's revolutionary "one-click" payment processing through the lens of both a rule utilitarian and a natural rights theorist and determine how a person with that…
The final outcome shows that George had made the correct decision.
In order to inform my thinking, I used the ethical view of utilitarianism and the moral philosophy of Corporate Social esponsibility in terms of the economic dimension. Utilitarianism is a philosophy that favors an outcome that creates the most happiness for the most people involved in the decision (National American University, p. 34). Although job cuts are an unfortunate decision, doing nothing would be even worse. In the circumstances, timely disclosure of these plans is also optimal for those most severely affected by the decision. Although George incurred some damage in terms of the press and his car, his decision to disclose had the greatest benefit for most of the interested parties involved (Utilitarianism.org).
Early disclosure was also a good decision in terms of the economic dimension of Corporate Social esponsibility (National American University, p. 35). Global communication has…
Amelio, Gil. (1999, Spring). The Case of Bad News. Santa Clara University. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/dialogue/candc/cases/badnews.html
National American University (2010). Business Ethics Instructional Materials: Lesson Plan 2.
Utilitarianism.org. (2010). Introduction to Utilitarianism. Retrieved from http://www.utilitarian.org/utility.html
Ethical Issues Affecting Accountants
The need for ethical standards within the corporate accounting field is urgent, and this paper delves into ethical issues. Given the fact that rules can be bent and manipulated, this paper also points to potential ways in which ethics can become as important as rules.
hile there has apparently been a "shift in the ethical behavior of management" -- which is related to the corruption and convictions of accountant-related individuals with Enron and Author Anderson -- the literature indicates that there are still ethical issues to be addressed within the industry (Bolt-Lee, et al., 2010, p. 38). Research presented in the peer-reviewed Journal of Accountancy shows that subsequent to the Enron and other scandals, there is a movement toward a "…more heightened state of ethical awareness" that is apparently due to "…the greater likelihood of punitive consequences" (Bolt-Lee, 38).
In the Bolt-Lee article, the authors allude…
Adams, Barbara L. (2010). Using Game-Based Learning to Raise the Ethical Awareness of Accounting Students. Business Education Innovation Journal, 2(2), 86-93.
Bolt-Lee, Cynthia E., and Moody, Janette. (2010). Highlights of Finance and Accounting Ethics
Research. Journal of Accountancy, 210(4), 38-41.
Spalding, Albert D., and Oddo, Alfonso. (2012). It's Time for Principles-Based Accounting
right, a legal right, a moral right, a human right. How are they related?
ights are privileges or entitlements to perform particular actions, or to be in particular state/situations; or privileges/entitlements to carry out certain actions or be in particular states. ights are the cornerstone of the modern comprehension of what actions are allowed or permissible and which institutions are fair and just. ights structure the content of laws, the form of governments, and shape morality as it is currently viewed (Wenar, 2005).
A legal right
Legal rights are rights which exist under the constitutions and laws of legal systems or by the virtue of decisions by the appropriate legal authorities (Campbell, 2001).
A human right
Human rights have been defined in many circles as essential moral guarantees that people and cultures in all countries apparently have for the simple reason that they are human beings. Thus human rights are…
Campbell, K. (2001, December 20). Legal Rights. Retrieved July 16, 2015, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/legal-rights/
CHAPTER THREE: The Market and Business (n.d.). Retrieved July 17, 2015 from www.institutobios.org/velazquezch3.doc
Morality. (n.d.). Retrieved July 17, 2015, from http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/morality.ht from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/right
Nickel, J.W. (1987). Making sense of human rights: Philosophical reflections on the universal declaration of human rights. Univ of California Press.