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Today's laws consider human life the highest of all rights. Hence also the ethical difficulty relating to abortion. Although abortion might be the utilitarian course of action; the mother does not have the finances to support a baby: there is no husband; the baby will not have access to his or her basic rights as a person, the ethical viewpoint of many fundamentalists is that it simply cannot be morally justified to kill an unborn baby.
The problem related to utilitarianism and humanity is therefore the fact that human beings are generally emotionally involved in their decision making. Utilitarianism divorces emotion from the decisions to be made. This can also be seen in Marilyn's story. Barton's and the Commander's emotions are clearly deeply touched by Marilyn's predicament and please. The reader's emotions are similarly touched. Interestingly, however, both the reader and Barton, and ultimately Marilyn, understand that the utilitarian way…
Lastly, it runs counter to the view that morality is essentially related to the concept of justice. Many critics of this theory argue that, "morality is not based on consequences of actions. Instead, it is based on the fundamental concept of justice" (Lee). In the final analysis, the dilemma in utilitarianism is that it unable to deal with a wide range of moral issue and actins and, as such, tends to subvert a more comprehensive and wide ranging understanding of morality and ethics.
Consequentialism. etrieved June 26, 2009, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism
Hedonic Calculus. etrieved June 26, 2009, from ttp://www.utilitarianism.com/felicalc.htm
Hostility and the Minimization of Suffering. etrieved June 26, 2009, from http://www.socrethics.com/www.negutil/www.monuism/NU.htm
John Stuart Mill: Overview. etrieved June 26, 2009, from http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/m/milljs.htm
Lee E. Introduction to Utilitarianism. etrieved June 26, 2009, from http://www.victorianweb.org/philosophy/utilitarianism.html
Mill, John Stuart ( 1985) On Liberty. New York: John B. Alden.
Mill J.H. (1863) UTILITAIANISM: Chapter 2.…
Consequentialism. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/consequentialism
Hedonic Calculus. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from ttp://www.utilitarianism.com/felicalc.htm
Hostility and the Minimization of Suffering. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from http://www.socrethics.com/www.negutil/www.monuism/NU.htm
John Stuart Mill: Overview. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/m/milljs.htm
Utilitarianism: A Closer Look
Utilitarianism is an old political theory. It has been put forth in one form or another by many political philosophers over the years as the basis for a good political system. Epicurus was one of the early proponents of utilitarianism, though he did not call it by that name. However, he did promote the idea that happiness or pleasure was a good indicator of moral decisions. Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and Henry Sigwick, all well-known political philosophers, also put forth utilitarian ideas in their political philosophies. While a utilitarian political philosophy may have some uses in making decisions that affect a large number of people, such as the decision to go to war or the decision to raise taxes to pay for health care, utilitarianism does not take into consideration the distinctions between people. There is no room for individual thought or action in utilitarianism,…
Utilitarianism as it Relates to Sports
There are many philosophies that make up the social and political structures of nations around the world. Many of these philosophies can also be applied to sports and sports related activities. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the concept of Utilitarianism.
We will begin by defining the philosophy and addressing the beliefs of Utilitarians. We will then discuss how Utilitarian beliefs relate to sports.
Utilitarianism stems from the teachings of John Stuart Mills and Jeremy entham. The philosophy asserts, "that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness -- not just the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it."(West) Utilitarianism holds that even when the motivation behind an act is bad the consequences can be good. The founding fathers of…
Bowers, Thomas. "Ethical Analysis Will Help Sports Media Avoid Pitfalls." 29 Oct 1999. http://www.bus.indiana.edu/SEA/ethics.htm
Criticisms of Utilitarianism. http://www.siu.edu/~philos/faculty/Manfredi/intro/ethics/objutil.html
Mills, John S. Utilitarianism. 1863. Online text. http://www.utilitarianism.com /mill5.htm
The satisfaction derived from that is by reason of good will towards the common man and not some universal pleasure felt by all men.
But what about pain? Is Mills seems to be stating that happiness is the absence of pain. But is not some pain beneficial? Our reaction to spoiled milk that prevents us from drinking it for example. ait, perhaps there are levels of pain that need to be analyzed as well. Good pain vs. Bad pain, there is certainly some credence there. Is there good pleasure and bad pleasure? According to Mills that should be true, yet he does not seem to define it so. Pain is also part of experience so in the experience of pain are the beginnings of the knowledge of pleasure, and perhaps the distinction between higher and lower pleasures that Mills is putting forth.
Yet does that not make pain also a…
Mills, John Stuart. "Utilitarainsim." Utilitarianism Resources. 2007. 13 Feb 2008 http://www.utilitarianism.com .
Utilitarianism, as a moral system, is basically one in which one creates a moral and ethical system based not in each specific action having an essential moral component in and of itself, but in terms of defining the morality of an action by the ends that it is achieved. Moreover, in utilitarianism, morality is linked solely to the satisfaction of desires and thus represents a sort of ethical hedonism:
Utilitarianism is an approach to mortality that treats pleasure or desire-satisfaction as the element in human good and that regards the morality of actions as entirely dependent upon on consequences or results for human (or sentient) well-being.... most subsequent utilitarians discard religious traditions and social conventions in favor of treating human well-being or happiness as the touchstone for all moral evaluation
Although this is basically true of all utilitarian systems, it would be both overly simplistic and greatly inaccurate…
Honderich, Ted. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.
Leguin, Ursula K. "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas." Retrieved November 12, 2003 at http://pencible.tripod.com/pande/omelas.htm.
Utilitarianism, Deontology, Virtue Ethics
Ethics essay: The similarities and differences between utilitarianism, deontological ethics, and virtue ethics
Utilitarianism is the philosophy that all ethical decisions must strive to do 'the greatest good for the greatest number of people.' In this ethical system, the ethical actor functions as a moral observer, dispassionately making decisions without regard to him or herself or his or her personal investment in the decision. Utilitarianism is a system of consequence-based ethics. It evaluates ethics solely upon the outcomes of decisions, not whether the decisions are keeping with moral laws. Depending on the situation, different ethical actions may be required. "The greatest number" is said to include all who are "affected by the action in question with each to count as one, and no one as more than one" (Kay, 1997, Notes on utilitarianism).
However, an obvious problem with utilitarianism is that defining what the 'greatest good'…
Garrett (2005). Virtue ethics. Retrieved:
Kay, Charles. (1997). Notes on deontology. Ethical Theories. Retrieved:
Utilitarianism and Deontology
John Stuart Mill's theory of Utilitarianism and Immanuel Kant's Deontological theory approach the question of ethics from diametrically opposite points-of-view: "Consequentialist theories...try to ground moral judgments in human well-being. Kantian theories...try to ground moral judgments in the rational nature of the moral subject, whose inherent dignity they emphasize." (Aune & Berger, p. 125) It is the objective of this paper to briefly explain and compare the two theories.
Mill's theory of Utilitarianism is considered a consequentialist theory of ethics for the simple reason that the theory propounds that the ethicality of actions is a function of their consequences. For Mill, that consequence was happiness because he deemed that goal as the one that human beings naturally sought out. Thus, he considered utilitarianism a morally optimal course of action, as it offered a path that was most useful to human beings. hile Mill's theory may have been based…
Aune, B., & Berger, F.R. "Moral Philosophy: Historical and Contemporary Essays."
Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1989.
Hudelson, R. "Modern Political Philosophy." Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1999.
Utilitarianism applies to the utility of the end result. There are, at least, two models that are similar in content: Mill and Benthams's Principle of Utility. Mill stated that it was the consequences of the good or bad action to the individual that determined morality of that action, whilst Bentham proposed moral consequence arising from "the greatest good for the greatest number of people." Pain and pleasure, he wrote, are our masters; and the hedonistic (or 'felicific') calulus should be used to determine this greatest happiness principle (Dinwiddy, 1989). Both Mill and Bentham advocate a system of ethics that depended on dissemination of the greatest amount of good to the largest quantity of people.
In this case we have at least three individuals to consider: the psychologist himself, the students, and the department chair. Each -according to utilitarianism -- will need to consider the best that is (a) for the…
Dinwiddie, J.R. Bentham Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Modern Library classics. Ethics: the essential writings, New York: Modern Library, 2010.
Case 1- Dating at Wal-Mart
According to utilitarianism, the physical act of adultery cannot be judged moral or immoral until situated by intention and circumstances. In this case, the married woman was separated from her husband and wasn't aware of the no-dating rule in the handbook. Further, there is no evidence of direct or immediate harm. The affair did not disrupt the workplace, cause internal turmoil or damage Wal-Mart's reputation as evidenced by the fact that the manager only became aware of the situation when papers were served at the store. Therefore, there is not significant justification to infringe on the employment rights of the couple by firing them.
Case 2- Is email private?
The interests of the few for the betterment of all should prevail in matters of workplace surveillance such as reading corporate email. The cases of the reporter and the supervisor are very different. The Los…
Utilitarianism, a philosophy first espoused by Jeremy Bentham, embodies an important set of concepts in that it coincided with the re-thinking of what we know as liberalism. The liberalism of the early 19th century was a product of classical economics; it was the ideology of laissez-faire and the free market. However, utilitarianism was to offer an alternate set of opinions regarding the role of government in society; utilitarians such as Bentham and Mill questioned some of the more libertarian principles espoused by British economists Adam Smith and avid Ricardo. This set of principles implored government to take a pro-active role in providing a quality standard of living to the majority of the people living within the society. Unlike socialism and other contemporaneous ideas, however, utilitarianism had implicit constraints; it was to inspire the 'progressive' liberalism of the 20th century and result in the modern concept of liberalism as an ideology…
Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Anarchism. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhi.cgi?id=dv1-12
Wikipedia: William Godwin. http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Godwin
Wikipedia: Mary Wollstonecraft. http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Wollstonecraft
Bentham is looking for measurable outcomes, because he wants to quantify ethics instead of leaving it up for endless debate. Good intentions can lead to undesirable consequences, which is why it is important to think through actions and consider all possible outcomes. If the outcome harms others, then the action was morally wrong. It makes more sense to critique actions than motives. According to Bentham, "there is no such thing as a motive which is a bad one in itself," (cited on p 279). Motives cannot be measured as well as consequences can. Giving a gift to someone is usually a good thing, even if the gift-giver gives grudgingly. Likewise, a donation to charity has positive outcomes, even if the person is motivated by guilt. The hedonistic calculus can also explain why crises often lead to opportunities for growth and positive change. A divorce, which could be measured as morally…
Utilitarianism Ethics as it elates to Fisheries
Fishing is an organized activity of people to catch fish or other marine organisms. Normally, fishery is a source of human food, even though it also serves other objectives like sport or recreational fishing or getting ornamental fish or fish products for extraction of fish oil. Industrial fisheries are those where the catch is not considered for direct consumption for humans. (Fishery: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Ethical dilemma we are facing enlight of the shortage of fishing areas and the abundance or lack of abundance of fish in those areas
Overfishing can be a threat to our food supply. According to some scientist, it will cause massive changes in the ecology of the ocean like degradation of reefs, damage to bottom grasses, eutrophication of estuaries. Even though application of fertilizer, runoff, sedimentation are damaging the ecosystems, it is been argued that overfishing has…
'Decommissioning, abandonment and removal of obsolete offshore installations"
Retrieved from http://www.offshore-environment.com/abandonment.html
Accessed 18 September, 2005
"Fisheries: Commission proposes measures to protect dolphins and porpoises"
Jim is faced with a life or death decision; he holds the lives of many in his hands. He can either let an entire tribe die, or kill one tribe member to allow the rest of the tribe to live. In this circumstance, some people would say that the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few. However, as a Rule Utilitarian, Jim will consider the ruling against murder. If he commits murder, he will be breaking one of the oldest rules in the book. Murder is recognized as a crime in nearly every civilization, and breaking this rule would go against the Rule Utilitarianism's principles. On the other hand, Rule Utilitarianism follows rules so strictly because most of the time rules should be followed. In the case of murder, most of the time people should not go against this rule and commit such an act. However, there…
Utilitarianism is one a normative ethical philosophy, and it stands as one of the most important of its type. At its heart, utilitarianism is a consequentialist philosophy, in that the ethics of an action are dependent on the consequences of an action. Before the advent of utilitarianism, consequentialist philosophy emphasizes the self, in particular hedonism, but utilitarianism expanded the scope of consequences to include those to all society. Today, such scope has arguably been expanded further so that outcomes to the environment and other non-human entities is also taken into consideration (Driver, 2014). The most common distillation of utilitarian philosophy is in the phrase "the greatest good for the greatest number."
If the morality of a decision rests on its consequences, that places significant onus on the decision-maker to consider the full range of those consequences. In early consequentialism, the consequences considered were largely to oneself, making it…
Driver, J. (2014). The history of utilitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 23, 2015 from http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/utilitarianism-history/
Weinstein, D. (2012). Herbert Spencer. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 23, 2015 from
Nor is the fact that a murderer becomes a "model prisoner" after the fact an appropriate consideration looking back on what his punishment should have been without the benefit of omniscient hindsight. If a criminal commits a morally heinous crime, imposing the death penalty might be justified under Act Utilitarianism as a form of collective self-defense, based on the same rationale for recognizing self-defense killing by individuals. That might be the case where society must choose between allocating the only available funds to child welfare or to the costs of providing lifelong custodial care to some types of offenders. At the time of the crime, Act Utilitarianism could have justified the death penalty based on the seriousness of the crime if allocating funds to housing offenders sentenced to life in prison came at the expense of other (innocent) members of society. All of the interests it would serve support the…
Should this man have been subjected to capital punishment? Why or why not?
Possibly. First, as a general proposition, it is not helpful to look backwards with 20/20 factual hindsight. The perpetrator of a violent attempted homicide is not vindicated of his guilt if his intended victim later kills 20 people at work. Nor is the fact that a murderer becomes a "model prisoner" after the fact an appropriate consideration looking back on what his punishment should have been without the benefit of omniscient hindsight. If a criminal commits a morally heinous crime, imposing the death penalty might be justified under Act Utilitarianism as a form of collective self-defense, based on the same rationale for recognizing self-defense killing by individuals. That might be the case where society must choose between allocating the only available funds to child welfare or to the costs of providing lifelong custodial care to some types of offenders. At the time of the crime, Act Utilitarianism could have justified the death penalty based on the seriousness of the crime if allocating funds to housing offenders sentenced to life in prison came at the expense of other (innocent) members of society. All of the interests it would serve support the greater good of society, such as by deterring crime, protecting the general public, and valuing the benefit to deserving recipients of public funds over those who forfeit those rights because of their prior conduct.
In my view, Rule Utilitarianism is not a justifiable approach to responding to volitional choices and behavior. It permits morally absurd results such as the "moral duty" to return escaped slaves to their masters in 1860 or the duty to provide truthful information to a Nazi government agent searching homes for Jewish families. Rule Utilitarianism would require complying with duly-passed laws about disclosing the whereabouts of escaped slaves and of the intended civilian victims of any murderous society that also exploited human beings as slaves. By contrast, Act Utilitarianism is flexible enough to recognize objective justifications by circumstance and more complex factual relationships than the one-dimensional all-or-none application of rules that benefit society overall, despite producing morally absurd results on occasion.
The philosophy of utilitarianism, that is, the pursuit for happiness and satisfaction of the society, is an ideology that emerged in the 19th century, where the emergence of Industrial Revolution has led to the development of a capitalist society. A capitalist society subsists to the belief that society pursues an equal allocation of the basic needs and wants of people, and this belief developed as a result of the improvement of production of goods and services with the invention of machines, making production and manufacturing easier and faster. In line with this argument, it is indeed characteristics for a capitalist ideology that is utilitarianism to subsist to the belief that the supreme end of human behavior and action must be motivated to the achievement of the happiness and satisfaction for all (society).
In John Sparks' If Men Were Free to Try, the argument that a society that believes…
If one group member likes the others and wants to be accepted by them, it is possible that this group member would engage in the egregious behavior, or at least accept it, simply to be a part of society. Thus, this theory has drastic sociological implications as well, as it can change the way that students of sociology think about how society forms and creates values. Although I do not agree with Homans's theory in entirety -- I wonder how the issue of sub-cultures comes into play -- I think this was one of the more interesting concepts in the reading because I can see its application on so many levels.
Second, in addition to Homans's theory, I found the explanation of sociological markets, and their comparison to economic markets to be the second most interesting part of this reading. While I have long been familiar with economic markets and…
One example in which the greatest good might conflict with my own personal happiness is in the subject of the socialization of health care—i.e., government subsidizing health care. On the face of it, this sounds like a great thing because then people like I do not have to worry about paying for health care: it is entirely free for us. The costs might not come down (in fact they would probably go up—but the government would be paying for it, so it wouldn’t matter to me). So socialized medicine would be great for me and I would love it.
However, it would not be great for the next generation which would be taxed with having to repay the debt the government would have to take out in order to pay for subsidized care. The government is already more than $20 trillion in debt. If interest rates go up, the government…
Is utilitarianism an effective approach to environmental ethics? Behaviors that demonstrate personal and collective responsibility to the environment can lead to tangible short-term and long-term objectives that benefit a large number of people. Reducing pollution, limiting deforestation, preserving natural resources, protecting sensitive ecosystems, and mitigating climate change bring about the greatest good for the greatest number, what John Stuart Mill (2017) refers to as summum bonum, the fundamental principle of utilitarianism (p. 1). Therefore, most environmentally conscious policies, business practices, and personal behaviors can be viewed in utilitarian terms.
Explanation of Theory
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory, which essentially means that its proponents focus more on the consequences of actions than on the motivations for the actions (Haines, n.d.). There are several types of utilitarianism, including act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism suggests that any act is morally right when it leads to consequences that are better than (or…
Personal & Organizational Ethics
Perdue Farms practices are in question for being inhumane. In my opinion, their form of advertisement is deceitful and false advertisement. It is advertised in this manner to instill trust in the company's ethics and chicken factory farming process. Its products are promoted as chickens that are raised cage free, on an all vegetarian diet, with no animal by-products, no antibiotics EVE, and humanely raised (CompassionUSA, 2014). It is important that the consumer perceives the process of farm-raising the chicken as humanely as possible. After all, how many people do you know who do not eat chicken? Perdue operates under the utilitarianism theory which our text states is "the theory that an action is morally right if the consequences of the actions are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone" -- or, in other words, that emphasize making ethical decisions as long as it benefits…
Fieser, J. (2015). Introduction to business ethics [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu / •Chapter 2: Capitalism
Friedman, M. (1970, September 13). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0073524697/910345/Appendices.pdf
Utilitarianism and Plato
Philosophy is an ancient process. Since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome, people have taken it upon themselves to question the reality of their worlds and to postulate what it is that causes people to behave the ways that they do. The philosophical theory of utilitarianism has gained popularity in recent years because of the way that it explains government and the need for laws and authority. However, philosophy going back to the time of Plato dealt with many of the same questions currently posed by Utilitarianism. The theory of Utilitarianism and the writings of the great Plato can be seen to differ in the following ways: in the background metaphysical understanding of the universe and humanity's place in it, the theory of human nature that each supposes, the defect in human nature that allows beings to be unhappy or unfulfilled, and in the ways the…
Kupperman, J. (2010). Theories of Human Nature. Hackett: Indianapolis, IN.
Mill, J.S. (2002). Utilitarianism. Hackett: Indianapolis, IN.
Plato (2009). Great Dialogues of Plato. Perfection Learning Prebound.
Plato. The Apology.
In the opening remarks to Utilitarianism, Mill sets the stage for this discussion. He accepts that the idea of utilitarianism dates back two thousand years, and is part of a philosophical discourse that has never been resolved. He then explains the prevailing thought that moral laws are considered universal, deriving from the same source. Their evidence is a priori in that they are simply assumed to be correct. These laws, however, lack a fundamental rule, something that is the root of morality, that should be self-evident. Mill is staking out a position that there is no such fundamental rule, and that this is a defect.
Mill then argues that utility, as described by Bentham, is where happiness derives from, and that this ultimately influences decision-making and morality even among those who reject the idea and attempt to base their moral standards on another universal code. Mill does not explicitly…
Utilitarianism: eighing the Balance
The common good is often spoken of as a principle for social justice: that which benefits the whole should be promoted. Or, that which is universally good should have the highest support. It could be said that this is a utilitarian concept -- yet in modern terms of justice where egalitarianism can appear to be at odds with the "common good," the role of minority voices and diversity present an obstacle in the appeal to universalism. hat is good for one set or cultural group may not be good for another. Thus, the question may be raised: Is it just to maximize the happiness for the greatest number of people as the utilitarian approach argues? The answer depends on one's viewpoint. If one believes the democratic principle is the highest principle of all, then might (or strength in numbers) makes right. If, on the other hand,…
Fox, James. "Utilitarianism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. NY: Robert Appleton
Company, 1912. Web. 18 Nov 2015.
Halbert, Terry; Ingulli, Elaine. "Making an Ethical Decision," Law and Ethics in the Business Environment, 3rd Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage, 1999.
Mill, J. S. (1859). On Liberty. London: John W. Parker and Son, West Strand.
Abortion ranks amongst the most widely questionable subjects examined and discussed all through the world today. Is it accurate to say that it is legitimate? Is it precise to say that it is not an ethical decision? These are simply a couple of the inquiries that arise thereto. One thought is that fetus removal is thought to be reasonable when viewed through the utilitarian viewpoint. The discussion that follows will contemplate on that.
Abortion (Debate Basics):
The premature birth deliberation questions if it can be ethically right to bring an end to pregnancy unnaturally (BBC Ethics). Thinker Ted Lockhart offers a practical answer for taking care of moral issues that can help decide whether to go in for abortion (BBC Ethics). Lockhart proposes that we ought to "exercise discretion based on ethically acceptable values" (BBC Ethics). Interpreted in a simplified manner this means that where we need to settle…
"Introduction to the Abortion Debate." BBC. Web. 19 Dec. 2014. .
Singer, Peter. Rethinking Life and Death: The Collapse of Our Traditional Ethics. 1st ed. St. Martins, 1996. Print.
Therefore, the utilitarian would likely object on moral grounds to any late-term abortive procedure that would cause the fetus pain, even if the balance of objective moral good suggests that aborting a seriously defective fetus. Other than the issue of causing pain to the fetus, the utilitarian position would also consider the long-term subjective experience of living with a severe defect, which might also be quite painful on more than one level. With respect to concern for the defective fetus, the utilitarian would likely object to any procedure that caused pain to the fetus during the process; otherwise, the utilitarian would consider late-term abortion in this case, in relation to the harm-benefit analysis to others, provided that the procedure chosen would incorporate the moral need to anesthetize the fetus. Beyond the issue of the fetus' pain, the utilitarian would consider the emotional difficulty and economic harm to the mother and…
They seek pleasure and avoid pain in their assessment of the situation. Therefore, consequentialism is hedonistc and egotism. Using this argument, one could say that utilitarianism is more altruistic than consequentialism. However, utilitarianism is not completely altruistic either. Utilitarianism is neither altruistic nor egotistic. However, it is difficult to call consequentialism altruistic. Some acts might have a hint of altruism, but there are few that consider the consequences of others before direct consequences for ourselves.
Hedonism requires the absence of pain, in most cases. hen one is in pain, either emotional or physical, it is difficult to feel complete happiness. hat is considered pleasure and what is considered pain is up to interpretation. This is an open question to which there are no clear guidelines. Utilitarians are hedonists in that they consider pleasure to be the intrinsic good. They consider pain to be bad. However, this concept can be challenged…
Brink, D. And Copp, D. "Some forms and Limits of Consequentialism." Chapter 14.
A www.ingentaconnect.comThe Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory, December 2005, pp. 357-380.
Hurka, T. And Copp, D. "Value Theory. www.ingentaconnect.comThe Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory, December 2005, pp. 357-380.
Utilitarianism and ule Utilitarianism
Normative ethics entails accessing the moral standards that relate to right and wrong conducts. Normative ethics provides the ideal for socially correct behaviors. Normative theories are founded on an individual's principles of determining and differentiating between right and wrong (achels & achels, 2009). Therefore, it is appreciable that normative theories are founded not only by the societies' expectation but also on the principles an individual rides on as far as right and wrong relate. This paper presents a comparison between Act utilitarianism and ule Utilitarianism.
On the overall, utilitarianism determines ways of determining the best action depending on the choices individuals face. The guiding principle of utilitarianism is basically the consequence of individual actions, policies and laws (achels & achels, 2009). The evaluation of ones actions in utilitarianism is thus dependent on the outcome of the action and whether the outcome satisfies the individual's…
Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2009). The Elements of Moral Philosophy 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Military Orders that May be Unethical
Utilitarianism is a philosophical theory states that ethics are determined by the social group in which the moral determination is made. It has been described by various philosophers as the great happiness principle or pleasure principle. In essence, what is ethical or moral is determined by what makes a person or a group of persons the happiest. If a course of action brings the majority of people happiness, then it is ethical. On the contrary, if a certain set of actions brings the majority unhappiness, then it is unethical. Utility is thus the ultimate form of happiness and the best way by which to achieve happiness both for the individual and for the majority of the population within a given society. This seems logical but can become complicated when applying the concept of utilitarianism to a larger group, such as a government. hether the…
Bayles, M.D. (1968). Contemporary Utilitarianism. Anchor Books.
Mill, J.S. (2002). Utilitarianism. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
Popkin, R. (1950). A note on the 'proof' of utility in J.S. Mill. Ethics. 61(1).
Rosen, F. (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge.
This, according to Aristotle, may well militate against reason, and Aristotle would therefore find fault with the utilitarian's conclusion.
Aristotle also insists on excellence of character and being of great soul (magnanimous), which is the level deserving of highest praise. A person also has to be just (Bostock, 2000). Utilitarianism can come into difficulties in that it may, paradoxically, be harmful when it focuses on the influence of pleasure or pain to the greatest amount of people sacrificing the pleasure of the minority in the process. History accords us many instances in which the pleasure of a few has been sacrificed in order to accommodate the happiness of a majority. This, to Aristotle may not have been just. In conclusion, even though Aristotle agreed that humans seek happiness and that happiness is our greatest good, it seems to me that utilitarians and Aristotle differ in their disparate ways of defining…
Bostock, D. (2000). Aristotle's Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hare, R.M. (1981). Moral thinking: Its levels, method, and point, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Modern Library classics. Ethics: the essential writings, New York: Modern Library, 2010.
Rosen, F. Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. USA: Routledge, 2003.
This number would then be compared to the number of people who worry about having their privacy violated. Since it is presumed that more than 16% of the population worry about such items as government intervention into their daily lives, and their concern about how to keep their private information to themselves. One study stated, "protests from certain quarters prompt public-sector officials to think long and hard about how to balance open government and the right to privacy" (Douglas 2006-page 1). ith this information in mind, the study would have to lean towards the better good for most people being when their privacy is respected rather than catching individuals who are using drugs.
Other questions such as smoking after hours, and having unprotected sex can also be categorized as a right to privacy issue rather than a cost issue and as such should be left alone by employers as well.…
Douglas M, (2006) Privacy Concerns. Government Technology, January 2, 2006, http://www.govtech.net/magazine/story.php?id=97730, Accessed July 10, 2006
Gledhill-Hoyt J, Lee H, Strote J, and Wechsler H., (2000) Increased use of Marijuana and Other Illicit Drugs at U.S. Colleges in the 1990's: Results of Three National Surveys. Addiction, Vol 95 Issue 11, pp. 1655-67
Would King align himself with Utilitarianism? J.S. Mill asserted that the good can only be measured by the consequences of an act, whether pleasurable or painful. In its well-known simplified form, the maxim of Utilitarianism says that what should be chosen is what brings "the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people." Mill nuanced the notion of happiness, subordinating sensual happiness to mental happiness. King would have agreed on its social principle to maximize good for the most number of people, while disagreeing with the notion that mental happiness is higher than physical happiness. King's view of happiness is related to the direct physical conditions of humans, like poverty and inequality. He would have advocated raising the freedom and happiness of oppressed people physically above all. Only then could pleasure be increased in social conditions of equality and freedom. King would have appreciated the practical emphasis…
King, Martin Luther, Jr. A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. Edited by James M. Washington. New York: HarperOne, 1986.
Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham City Jail," in a Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr., ed. James Melvin Washington, 289-302 (New York: HarperOne, 1986), 290.
King, "Letter," 293.
King, "Letter," 292.
Utilitarianism is one of the most useful ethical theories. It can frame decisions made in almost every aspect of daily life, and also large-scale decisions made by organizations, enterprises, and governments. The basic principles of utilitarianism, as they were developed first by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill, are all based in the essential notion of utility. Utility means usefulness, but it is also related to net benefit.
Utility is defined in terms of the question, "Is this action beneficial? If so, who is it beneficial for, and how beneficial is it?" Utilitarian theory suggests that an ethical decision should weigh the greatest good for the greatest number of people. If an action is beneficial, it should be beneficial to the greatest number of stakeholders. It should be the decision that most maximizes the target population's happiness, or however success is being measured. This end result can…
"Ethics 5: Utilitarianism." [video]. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdtWu4Cqx1Y
"John Stuart Mill's Essay On Liberty." Retrieved online: http://www.serendipity.li/jsmill/jsmill.htm
Santa Clara University (n.d.). A framework for thinking ethically. Retrieved online: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/framework.html
What Utilitarian Is?
Actions vary from one place to another and from one social setting to another. Nonetheless, the innate and good action or practice is the one that takes the best of utility. The well-being of the involved beings should be considered with utmost respect although the result must be maximized approximately. The process and the results are of immense important when it comes to utilitarianism. Based on the act utilitarianism, the actions are determined by their success and goodness based on the results. The rule utilitarianism alleys that every action must follow a strict order of the guidelines, laws, and procedures besides revealing the good result. Therefore, utilitarianism is concerned with the proposition that every good action should maximize utility at hand (Mill, 1864).
The regular collision between logic, science, and human perception and innovativeness attaches its consequences on the nature of the utilitarian approach to…
Utilitarianism is one of the most common forms of moral reasoning. ooted in normative ethics, the notion of utilitarianism essentially asserts that an action is morally right if it maximizes utility or happiness for everyone (West, 2004). In other words, as long as a course of action generates the greatest benefit for everyone affected, then the means utilized to generate the benefits (such as coercion, manipulation, or lies) do not matter -- what matters is the end, not the means. This moral principle is commonly applied in various spheres including personal decisions, business, and public policy.
The notion of utility ethics can be ideally applicable in the case of Airxyz. Choosing Opting to voluntarily ground its fleet would be the most appropriate course of action for not only the airline, but also the general publicpublic. The public uses airlines to move quickly and conveniently move from one location…
West, H. R. (2003). An Introduction to Mill's Utilitarian Ethics. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.
West, H. (2004). An introduction to Mill's utilitarian ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
This ethical philosophy draws back from the thought and work of the ancient and great Greek philosopher Aristotle (rown, 2001; SPI, n.d.; Fahey, 2010). The philosophy centers on persons who are moral agents themselves, rather than from their actions or their consequences. A person lives an ethical or the good life if he possesses a right character, also know as virtues. As such he possesses a moral character, according to the philosophy. These character traits or virtues include courage, temperance, justice, wisdom, patience, generosity and compassion. y observing or living by this philosophy, a person develops good habits that build and make up his character. ecause of such a character, he is naturally disposed to act in a certain moral or virtuous way towards situations and persons. He or she does not possess undesirable or vicious traits of character (rown, SPI. Fahey).
The main objections to this philosophy…
Brown, C. (2001). Ethical theories compared. Rosalind Hursthouse: Trinity University.
Retrieved on August 16, 2015 from http://www.trinity.edu/cbrow/intro/ethical-theories.html
DSCOCCIA (n.d.). utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, natural rights theories, and religious ethics.
New Mexico State University. Retrieved on August 16, 2015 from http://web.nmsu.edu/~docococcia/321web/32ethicstheory.pdf
Whereas rule utilitarianism focuses on the relative social benefit of rules, act utilitarianism concerns specific ethics of actions rather than the rules governing those actions. In many respects, act utilitarianism can be considered an extension, or a refinement, of rule utilitarianism, because it provides a method of incorporating useful or beneficial exceptions to general rules that benefit society more than rigid or absolute adherence to rules.
Using the same example of vehicular rules of the road, there are situations that sometimes justify violating those rules, notwithstanding the fact that those rules are generally useful, beneficial, and necessary. In emergencies, the value of violating a rule in specific instances sometimes outweighs the importance of following those rules absolutely without exception. In matters of life or death emergencies, such as fires or the need to deliver a baby, the value of delivering firefighting resources to extinguish fires as soon as…
The Singer debate 'are there some lives not worth living:'
The sanctity of life and utilitarianism
Professor Peter Singer is a well-known utilitarian who advocates the right of parents to commit infanticide based upon utilitarian premises: he argues that the resources expended by keeping such children alive are too great and it would make more sense to allow families to adopt instead healthy children with a greater chance at happiness. Disability activist Harriet McBryde Johnson, who says that she would not be alive if this type of calculus had been employed notes: "But like the protagonist in a classical drama, Singer has his flaw. It is his unexamined assumption that disabled people are inherently 'worse off,' that we 'suffer,' that we have lesser 'prospects of a happy life'" (Johnson 2003: 12). However, Johnson also argues against assisted suicide entirely, even with the consent of the person who feels…
Doerflinger, J. (1989). Assisted suicide: Pro-choice or anti-life?
Johnson, H. (2003). Unspeakable conversations. The New York Times.
Rachels, J. (1986). The morality of euthanasia.
The author of this report is to offer a fairly extensive essay about three general questions relating to utilitarianism. The first question pertains to John awls and his deconstructions of utilitarianism and what came to be known as "the analogy." The second question pertains to the views of Peter Singer as stated and enumerated in Famine, Affluence and Morality. Last up will be Bernard Williams. Like awls, he generally viewed utilitarianism poorly and offers specific examples and explanations of why he did not agree with the subject. For all three questions, there will be a critique or criticism of the overall argument. While cases can be made for both utilitarianism and its opposite, there are some rather gaping holes in the logic that justifies utilitarianism and how it works.
Of all of the ethical and moral philosophers out there, awls is certainly one of the more notorious…
Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard
Singer, P. (1972). Famine, Affluence, and Morality. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1(1).
Smart, J., & Williams, B. (1973). Utilitarianism; for and against. Cambridge [England:
Utilitarianism in Defense of Markets and Misers by Candace Allen & Dwight Lee
Candace Allen and Dwight Lee's analysis of markets and misers in the American economy centers on how these two factors contribute beneficially for economy to become efficient. In the article, the authors discuss the background about how markets and misers have often been projected to society as inefficient factors that contribute insignificantly to the economy. This is because markets are considered as efficient only in profit-making, by providing commodities that are in demand, and optimally using these commodities to gain profit through surpluses. Misers, on the other hand, being frugal in economic, particularly monetary resources, does not contribute to economic growth at all by not spending any money and putting these money in the monetary supply of the society. These 'perceived' notions show the negative image given to markets (participants) and misers, who, because there are no…
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…
MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
In his novel Hard Times, Charles Dickens is not shy in confronting what he sees as the paramount social evils of his day, particularly when those evils come in the form of ostensibly beneficent social movements themselves. In particular, Dickens satirizes Jeremy Bentham's Utilitarianism through the characterization of Thomas Gradgrind and Josiah Bounderby as men of cold reason and hard facts, and uses the fates of the various characters to demonstrate the destructive potential of Utilitarian ethics when applied without a comprehensive, objective standard for determining good and bad. The city of Coketown represents the physical embodiment of the cruel, alien world produced by the enactment of Utilitarian policy, and contrasts with its creators expressed dedication to facts and reason. By considering the characterization of Gradgrind and Bounderby, the setting of Coketown, and the narrator's particular use of language throughout the novel alongside the philosophy of Utilitarianism as…
Bentham, Jeremy. The principles of morals and legislation. Oxford: University of Oxford Press,
Dickens, Charles. Hard Times. London: Bradbury & Evans, 1854.
In this case, Mary would have acted precisely as she did, that is, pursuing her personal happiness and acting according to a pattern she had established before, that of being virtuous and always acting morally. In this case, the decision is plain and easy to take: Mary has to be virtuous so as to satisfy her own moral demands and ensure her emotional and spiritual comfort. Thus, she acts according to her pre-established set of rules.
Thus, Mary acts primarily, as she herself argues, so as not to 'soil' the beginning of her life. She feels that taking the money would save the old man because his own happiness and personal interest would be in giving the money away to anyone else besides his family: "I will not let the close of your life soil the beginning of mine. I will not touch your iron chest or your will."(Eliot, 411)…
Philosophy and Morality
INSTRUCTIONS The exam consists essays. Please essays document. Please plagiarize. Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation ( footnotes) a reference page.
John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience,"
A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance. The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers (Lyons 479). John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners. Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…
Arthur, J. "Morality, Religion, and Conscience." In Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Ed. edition, by John Arthur. Seventh. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:: Pearson Prentice Hall:, 2005. Print.
Hare, R.M. Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method and Point. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Print.
Lyons, William. "Conscience - an Essay in Moral Psychology." Philosophy 84.330 (2009): 477-94. Print.
Merle, Jean-Christophe. "A Kantian Critique of Kant's Theory of Punishment." Law and Philosophy 19.3 (2000): 311-38. Print.
Compare the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism and deontological ethics
In the study of ethics, there are a number of theories that are designed to influence how someone is reacting to various events that are occurring in their lives. This is designed to create a series of standards that will affect the way they are reacting with the world around them and other people. Depending upon the approach, this will impact their behavior and beliefs. ("Virtue Ethics," 2012)
A description of the differences in how each theory addresses ethics and morality
The virtue theory is when there is a focus on the character of the individual in determining their behavior. This is accomplished by looking at the actions that are taken by the person and how their beliefs are influencing their thinking. There are several key questions that are asked during this process to include:
Deontological Ethics. (2007). Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/ethics-deontological/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" Thus this principle is founded on an individual's ability to predict a given action's consequences. On predicting such consequences, an individual is supposed to choose the course of action which would in the end benefit the greatest number of people. In such a case, the choice selected would be considered ethically correct. For instance, if one innocent person has to be killed so as to save the entire human race, then it would be ethically right to kill such a person from a utilitarian point-of-view. An application of this principle in our scenario seems somewhat straightforward. To determine the right course of action in this case, the question to be asked is; of all the alternative courses of action at Dr. Doight's disposal, which course of action would benefit the greatest number of people? In my opinion, seeking to ensure that the situation is brought under control no matter…
Bredeson, D. (2011). Applied Business Ethics: A Skills-Based Approach. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, L. (2008). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lozano, J.M. (2002). Ethics and Organizations: Understanding Business Ethics as a Learning Process. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
An ethical issue refers to a situation whereby an organization is required to choose amongst alternatives that must be evaluated as either wrong or right. For example, an ethical issue arises when a business company opts to make as much profit while pollution the environment, the dilemma here being the regulation and social consequences. The company management may opt to bribing the regulation implementing organization as long as they continue making short-term profits before the law catches up with them, by then they may be forced to attire with the rule or shut down but they will have made as much finances than when they may have started and the consequences on the social life will have reached the stage where it affects their health and made the environment unbearable. The principle of autonomy; which requires individuals to be left on their own independence to conduct their activities,…
Andrew, J. (2008). Utilitarianism and deontology theories. New York: John and sons ltd.
Ferrell, O.C., & Fraedrich, J. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. Salt Lake: Cengage Learning.
Joanne, B. (2010). Ethics and Business success. Mexico: Greenwood press.
John, K., & Berlyn, M. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of decision making models. Normative and rationale models, 15 (14), 319-325.
S. citizens. This is a popular argument offered by the same sex marriage movement and it is one that is compelling.
For many years homosexuality was considered illegal behavior in most jurisdictions in the United States but most such statutes have been abolished and so gays and lesbians are now full citizens who have the right to expect full rights of citizenship. This means that whatever one's ethical or moral standards might be does not mean that such standards must be expressed in the laws. Many Americans object morally and ethically to the display of pornography; the publishing of songs with colorful lyrics; and, suggestive books and magazines but each of these examples is protected by the First Amendment and the rights of gays and lesbians to marry should enjoy the same protection.
The proponents of virtue ethics are not alone in their support of same sex marriage. Followers of…
Corvino, J. (1999). Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality (Studies in Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefiedl Publishers.
Koppelman, A. (2001). On the Moral Foundations of Legal Expressivism. Maryland Law Review, 777-784.
Lewin, E. (2004). Does Marriage have a future? Journal of Marriage and Family, 1000-1006.
Is Gay/Lesbian Marriage Ethical
This moral sense is often bigger and more powerful than us. Some people could call it psychological effect, others might term it differently but the fact remains that if we are doing something wrong, this moral sense would keep nagging us to the point that we would no longer be able to enjoy what we are doing and might eventually starting harming ourselves.
In order to protect ourselves from such negative consequences, its best to make a decision that is free of guilt. In this way, we can enjoy the fruits of our success and live a more happy life in general. This is really what is in our best interest though we might fail to see it at first.
It also pays to study the offer from an objective viewpoint. If someone else were offered this job: what would you suggest? Would you allow the person to take the…
Richard Garrett, the GOLDEN RULE. Presented to the Starr King School for the Ministry, University of California at Berkeley April 12, 2002
Mill, John Stuart. Excerpts from "Utilitarianism" in Philosophical Problems, an annotated anthology by Laurence BonJour and Ann Baker, editors, Pearson education (2005)
Mill, p. 590
Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).
hat does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).
hat Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…
Hill, T.E.. "Assessing Moral Rules: Utilitarian and Kantian Perspectives." Philosophical Issues,
15(1), (2005): 158-178
Mautner, Thomas. "Act-Utilitarianism." The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://utilitarianism.org . 2008.
Rivera, Lisa. "Sacrifices, Aspirations and Morality: Williams Reconsidered." Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 10.1 (2007): 69-87.
But if it wishes to stand by the stated principles of its founding and the message it attaches to its history, than profiling cannot be allowed to exist.
4) Deontological ethical systems "guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do," as opposed to suggesting what types of people we should be (Stanford, 2007). Another important distinction of deontological viewpoints is their emphasis on the motives and intentions behind an act in regards to that act's ethicality, as opposed to the consequences of that act. One narrow form of deontological ethics is moral absolutism, propagated by such thinkers as Immanuel Kant (Stanford, 2007). According to his view, acts are either moral or immoral in all situations, without any regard to the consequences (Stanford, 2007). Not all deontological viewpoints are this extreme, however it provides the clearest example of the deontological view. According to deontological ethics, acting in a…
Fauchon, C. (2004). "Counterpoint: the case against profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Friedman, Barry. (2004). "Policy point-counterpoint: profiling at airports." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Reddick, S. (2004). "Point: the case for profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Stanford. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 22 February 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality
Higher Than Utilitarianism
The passing and reformation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, also known as the so-called "crack law," is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be considered within the criminal justice system and its policy during the past two years. There are several aspects of this legal mandate that present a plethora of interesting situations and questions in regards to the morality of this particular issue, which has been at the forefront of mass media outlets ever since there were significant amendments passed to it in 2010. Interestingly enough, a fair amount of those changes may be attributed to the notion of morality revolving around this legal code, which was largely responsible for the rapid and prolonged imprisonment of minorities -- particularly African-Americans and Latino offenders. One of the most efficacious means of determining whether such a law may be…
Bentham, Jeremy. "Offenses Against One's Self: Paederasty Part 1." Journal of Homosexuality. Volume 3 (4). 389-406. 1978. Print.
Benthan, Jeremy. An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kosman, Maxwell Alie Halpern. "Falling Through The Crack: How Courts Have Struggled to Apply The Crack Amendment To "Nominal Career" And "Plea Bargain" Defendants." Michigan Law Review. Volume 109. 785-812. 2011. Web. http://www.michiganlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/109/5/kosman.pdf
Hartley, Richard., Maddan, Sean., Spahn, Cassia. "Prosecutorial Discretion: An Examination of Substantial Assistance Departures in Federal Crack-Cocaine and Powder-Cocaine Cases." Volume 23. Issue 3 382-407. 2007. Web. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820701485379
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
These are ethics that know no cultural bounds. hat is perceived as ethical in one society as well as any other is an example of a natural law. These are typically based on the human desire for equality as well as the desire to do good ("hat is Natural Law?"). Furthermore, natural rights evolve legally from natural laws often. They also often see an intertwining of religious beliefs, although they can also be expressed as more an intertwining of moral beliefs that are then supported by religion. The primary weakness of natural law theory is that it is sometimes difficult to determine if a belief is truly universal, or simply cultural.
Virtue ethics determines whether an action is right or wrong by the virtue of the action.
Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that…
"Kant's Moral Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., 23 Feb. 2004. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
MacKinnon, Barbara. Ethics: theory and contemporary issues. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1995. Print.
"Virtue Ethics." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., 18 July 2007. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
"What is Ethical Relativism?" Philosophy - AllAboutPhilosophy.org. N.p., 2011. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
e., it removes subjectivity as a vantage point). It is also hard to tell how much unhappiness is created and how to weigh it against the happiness that is created (e.g., how much George would hate his job?, how much suffering will the warmonger go through because he did not get this job?). Further, quantification of happiness or suffering becomes a real issue when trying to determine things on a macro scale. For example, does the tiniest amount of world happiness outweigh a huge amount of individual suffering? How much world happiness is necessary if not?
Second, utilitarianism relies on the outcomes of the actions in order to determine morality. If war breaks out and all of the United States is whipped out because George begrudgingly did his job, dragging his feet the whole time, then his action to take the job was wrong. He would have caused the devastation…
How important is an individual's privacy in the workplace? Is an individual's privacy in the workplace the most important consideration to be taken into account? hat constitutes privacy in a workplace environment? Do the goals and the mission of the organization supersede an individual's desire to protect his or her privacy? Is it ethical for an employer to collect and disperse personal information from employees without their knowledge? How does the philosophy of utilitarianism play into this issue? This paper delves into those questions and provides supporting information for the resolution of this issue.
After careful review of the textbook for this course, after reviewing additional scholarly resources and taking into consideration a utilitarian approach to this issue -- and after researching the Australian laws regarding workplace privacy -- this paper takes the position that an individual's privacy is indeed vitally important (and must by law be protected)…
Doyle, Carolyn, and Bagaric, Mirko. (2005). Privacy Law in Australia. Annandale, AU:
Fair Work Ombudsman. (2011). Best Practice Guide / Workplace Privacy. Retrieved September
25, 2012, from http://www.fairwork.gov.au .
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
Justice is a concept that has attracted the use of various terms by several philosophers in efforts to explain it. Based on the accounts of various philosophers, justice is a term that means equitable, fair, and suitable treatment depending on what is owed or due to individuals. Justice is an important concept in the criminal justice system and the modern society because it is applied in cases where people are owed burdens or benefits since their respective conditions are harmed by another individual's acts. The concept of justice has also been explained by various theories, which contain principles that are used in the application of justice.
Explanation of the Theory of Justice
The theory of justice is a concept that is centered on the enforcement of two essential principles of justice that would contribute to a just and morally upright society. John awls introduced the theory of justice as fairness…
Beauchamp, T.L. & Childress, J.F. (2001). Justice. In Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed., Chapter 6, 225-239) Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://compbio.ucdenver.edu/hunter/cpbs7605/Beauchamp-Childress.pdf
Garrett, J. (2005, August 24). Rawls' Mature Theory of Social Justice. Retrieved from Western
Kentucky University website: http://people.wku.edu/jan.garrett/ethics/matrawls.htm
Harborne, B. & Sage, C. (2010, March). Security and Justice Overview. Retrieved September 25,
Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.
The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.
The Afghan People
Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…