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The work of Maxwell McCombs entitled: "The Agenda-Setting Function of the Press" relates the fact that the press plays a primary role in the life of the public and influences the focus of attention of individuals and makes provision of the "facts and opinions that shape perspectives on topics of the day." (2005) McCombs explains that 'agenda-setting' of the press works to influence the issues in the news and provides that news to the public proactively. Variation is noted by McCombs to exist "among individuals and across issues" and states that "issue salience on the press agenda may transfer very quickly to the public agenda." (2005) the variations in the way that individuals respond to the news provided by the press and the agenda of the press "are explained by the need for orientation, the idea that individuals have an innate curiosity about the world around them. For…
Morgan, Kim (2008) Health Officials Encourage Immunizations. Chron.com 14 Apr 2008. Online available at http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/nb/katy/news/5698780.html
Harris, Gardner (2008) Public Forum to Address Safety Issues on Vaccines. 11 Apr 2008. The New York Times. Online available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/11/health/policy/11vaccine.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
Healy, Bernadine (2008) Fighting the Autism-Vaccine War. 10 April 2008. Brain & Behavior. U.S. News and World Report. Online available at http://health.usnews.com/articles/health/brain-and-behavior/2008/04/10/fighting-the-autism-vaccine-war.html
Paul Offit: Autism and Vaccines - a Careless Ruling. Dallas News Opinion Editorial. 78 Apr 2008. Online available at http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/dn/opinion/viewpoints/stories/DN-offit_07edi.ART.State.Edition1.4664920.html
The Aaron Diamond AIDS esearch Center (http://www.adarc.org/frame.asp?var=about_HIV") provides information on the five stages of HIV infection, namely: Entry, everse Transcription, Integration, Translation, and Exit. The first stage of the Entry of the HIV virion into the host cell known as the T-cell is triggered by the binding of membrane proteins of the virus into the receptors on the T-cell surface. The T-cell is a lymphocyte or white blood cell found in the bloodstream. Its main function is to protect and "eat away" or engulf foreign particles such as bacteria and viruses entering the body. In the event that a HIV virion entering a T-cell, the T-cell is eventually destroyed resulting to the weakening of the body's defenses. A shedding of the HIV' virion's capsid occurs in the second stage called the everse Transcription. In this stage, the viral NA and its enzyme are exposed and then transcripted to becomea viral…
HIV Infection and AIDS: An Overview" (March, 2005). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892
HIV Stages of Infection. 1999. Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center. 01 February 2007. http://www.adarc.org/frame.asp?var=about_HIV
HIV and AIDS Tutorial. 2000. The Biology Project of the University of Arizona. 01 February 2007. http://www.biology.arizona.edu/immunology/tutorials/AIDS/main.html
Vaccines. 2006. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 01 February 2007. http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/research/topics/HIV/vaccines/
They receive waivers for them to go to school, or they home school them so they are not bound by the school district's guidelines. They find doctors who support a lack of vaccination, or they work with more holistic medical practitioners. There are a number of ways a parent can avoid vaccinating his or her children, since the vaccination schedule created by the CDC cannot be legally forced upon a parent or a child (Largent, 2012). The main reason these parents do not want their children vaccinated is because they believe that vaccines are linked to autism, and can cause the disorder (Elliman & Bedford, 2004). This is based on some studies that have been done, and on the idea that many of the children who have developed autism have done so around the same time that they were given vaccines, based on the CDC schedule. Of course, the argument…
Elliman, D., & Bedford, H. (2004). MMR: Science and fiction. Exploring the vaccine crisis; MMR and autism: What parents need to know. British Medical Journal, 329(7473): 1049.
Herlihy, S.M., Hagood, E.A. & Offit, P.A. (2012). Your baby's best shot: Why vaccines are safe and save lives. NY: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Largent, M.A. (2012). Vaccine: The debate in modern America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
BADA also manages the Public Health Emergency Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE). Such an approach might in itself be justified as a way of streamlining the process and making the whole more efficient, but the concerns about liability create an administrative view that protects the process and the companies and bureaucrats involved but makes protection of the public oddly secondary. One analyst notes that the effect would be to "undermine the public good by handing a blanket exemption from liability lawsuits to pharmaceutical companies engaged in biomedical security research. If a company working under BADA were to injure or kill people through reckless testing or distribution of a vaccine, the injured parties would have no recourse to seek just compensation through the courts" (Develop a vaccine against official secrecy, 2005). The agencies seem to place money over safety in this sot of program.
Anthrax: What You Need to Know (2003). etrieved…
Anthrax: What You Need to Know (2003). Retrieved September 15, 2007 at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/needtoknow.asp.
Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (2007). HHS.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2007 at http://www.hhs.gov/aspr/barda/index.html .
Brown, D. (2004, October 17). How U.S. Got Down to Two Makers of Flu Vaccine. Washington Post.
Develop a vaccine against official secrecy (2005). Roanoke.com, retrieved September 15, 2007 at http://www.roanoke.com/editorials/wb/wb/xp-39477.
Vaccines and Autism
Autism can be best described as a "developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain" ("autism," 2013). A person is considered as autistic when he/she has an unusual and atypical development of communication skillfulness, societal dexterity and reasoning. This condition is more common in men as compared to women. An autistic child demonstrates the symptoms of autism until he/she is about two to three years old. In some cases, children are identified as autistic even before the mentioned age group ("autism," 2013).
The controversy over the association between autism and childhood vaccinations is still a hot issue since the idea was published in 1998 by Andrew Wakefield, a British researcher and gastroenterologist, in The Lancet. According to him, the MM (a very common vaccine for children) that is used to help children fight against measles, mumps and rubella, was perhaps…
References autism. (2013). Questia. Retrieved November 26, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-autism/autism
David Banks Column: Herd Mentality That Could Damage the Whole Flock. (2004, April 6). Daily Post, p. 08. Retrieved November 27, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-114978183/david-banks-column-herd-mentality-that-could-damage
Immunise Now 'Or Else'. (2013, October 21).The Morning Bulletin . Retrieved November 27, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-349257179/immunise-now-or-else
Mattson, M. (2000, July 11). Autism on Rise as Researchers Struggle to Find Its Cause. The Florida Times Union. Retrieved November 27, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-63926534/autism-on-rise-as-researchers-struggle-to-find-its
Necessary Shots? Childhood Vaccinations Have Saved Countless Lives. But Some Parents Worry about Adverse Effects. What You Should Know. (1999, September 13). Newsweek, 134 (11), 73. Retrieved November 27, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-55694002/necessary-shots-childhood-vaccinations-have-saved
Kennedy Jr. was guilty of this faulty expression of logic when he stated that the "thimerosal generation is the sickest generation in the history of this country" (10). This statement refers to the belief that thimersosal, which is a mercury-based component that used to be in vaccines and was all but removed from them in 1999 (Scepter 16), is contributing to autism in children given vaccines. However, Specter not only cites the erroneous nature of this statement by indicating that the life expectancy for newborns is higher than it has ever been, but he also alludes to the fact that Kennedy Jr. is talking about a part of vaccinations that had long been removed before his 2008 speech. It is quite clear that he was disputing rationality and making statements based on faulty logic.
Ultimately, the continued prevalence in the belief that autism is caused by vaccination is attributable to…
public policy formulation: case thimerosal vaccines Critique equirements 1-2 pages You APA formatting (accordance requirements Publication Manual American Psychological Association) paper.
The process of public policy formulation:
The case of thimerosal in vaccines
One of the paradoxes of the success of vaccination in the 20th century is that people are more aware of the risks of vaccines than they are of the benefits. Many individuals have never encountered someone who was negatively impacted by polio, measles, rubella, or any of the host of childhood illnesses for which we now have vaccinations. One of the most frequently-expressed concerns about vaccines pertains to thimerosal, a mercury-containing compound that used to be a minor component of some common vaccines. At high levels, thimerosal can be toxic, hence the concern. In a survey of the vaccinations to which children are commonly exposed, it was determined that "an infant 6 months old who received all…
Freed, G. (et al. 2002). The process of public policy formulation: The case of thimerosal in vaccines. Pediatrics, 109 (6):1153-1159
history of vaccines, including who discovered them and their usage through the present day. Vaccines are one of the ways humans have learned how to protect themselves from dreaded diseases. Vaccines essentially work by helping the body develop immunity to certain diseases. They often set up a mild reaction in the body, which guards against the development of specific diseases. Examples include the polio vaccine, and the rabies vaccine. The body creates antibodies that fight the disease, which allows the body to become immune to the disease.
Most people credit Edward Jenner, a rural English doctor, for developing or discovering the modern concept of vaccines. Two scientists note, "He experienced the proverbial 'Eureka'-like moment sometime during the 1770s, after hearing a Bristol milkmaid boast, 'I shall never have smallpox for I have had cowpox. I shall never have an ugly pockmarked face'" (Stern and Markel 612). However, research indicated that…
Editors. "What Would Happen if we Stopped Vaccinations." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2009. 21 Oct. 2009.
Link, Kurt. The Vaccine Controversy: The History, Use, and Safety of Vaccinations. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2005.
Skloot, Rebecca. "Under the Skin: A History of the Vaccine Debate Goes Deep but Misses the Drama." Columbia Journalism Review Jan.-Feb. 2007: 59+.
Product Liability and Vaccines
This study examines product liability as it relates to vaccine damages. This study investigates such cases and the decisions handed down by the judicial system on the liability of the drug manufacturers in cases where individuals have been harmed by the vaccinations. There are however, statutory protections afford to developers of vaccine immunizations which serve to protect the interest of these companies and as well as special victim compensation provision is made through the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services in the form of compensation for which individuals alleging harm by a vaccine can file to receive compensation for their injuries. Three cases are reviewed with the findings of the court and compensation awarded to the Petitioner in these cases.
Product Liability and Vaccines
Biotechnology is reported as a new technology "capable of much good for humankind." (Traynor and Cunningham, 1989, p.1, para.1)…
Traynor, Michael and Cunningham, Brian C. (1989) Emerging Product Liability Issues in Biotechnology. High Technology Law Journal, 1989. Retrieved from: http://btlj.org/data/articles/vol3/traynor.pdf
Table of Cases
Fed Cl., 2011, Palker-Corell v. Secretary of Dept. Of Health and Human Services August 25, 2011. (SCSU Database)
Fed.Cl.,2011. Palker -- Corell v. Secretary of Dept. Of Health and Human Services, August 25, 2011. (SCSU Database)
Each of these consultative bodies is made up of ten to fifteen doctors and scientists with widespread knowledge about infectious illnesses, immunology and vaccine research. The statistics measured by these groups are wider than that looked at by the FDA. hile the FDA looks at only when vaccines work and are safe, advisory bodies look at how much inoculations cost and how to best utilize them. hile the FDA looks at only the risk benefit ratios, advisory bodies also look at the cost benefit ratios (Offit and Bell, 2003).
One of the newer vaccines that are being given today is that of the flu shot. This vaccine can be obtained at every corner drug store and in a lot of cases is being mandated by many employers. The seasonal flu shot guards against three flu viruses that studies have indicated will be mainly widespread throughout this season. The 2010-2011 flu…
Offit, Paul A. And Bell, Louis M. (2003). Vaccines: what you should know. New Jersey: John
Wiley & Sons.
"Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine," 2010, viewed 5 November 2010,
Please develop your own strategy for TB prevention.
The Source of the Disease
As mentioned in the above question, tuberculosis is a complex disease that has ravaged society for centuries. Whereas in the Western countries, it is now possible to receive treatment and become healthy despite contacting tuberculosis, there are areas of the world where, due to societal or environmental and political problems, it is difficult both to seek and obtain care, but also to achieve a satisfactory rate of healing are at least preventing this disease. Due to the fact that people in the Western Pacific and Africa are weakened by such factors as mentioned above, their situation with regards to the disease thus becomes even more of a threat to their well-being. For this reason, this section will discuss certain aspects of tuberculosis as it relates to these people and will develop a strategy for TB prevention.…
References are case studies and papers with the following titles:
Actions for Life -- Towards a life without Tuberculosis (2006).
AFRICA TB CONTROL STRATEGY 2006-2010 (2006).
Paul E.M. Fine, Ilona A.M. Carneiro, Julie B. Milstien, C. John Clements. (1999). Issues relating to the use of BCG in immunization programmes - A discussion document.
REGIONAL PLAN FOR TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL, 2006 -- 2015 (2006).
long-term goals that I have when it comes to my career, I should first describe what my overall plans are. I wish to work somewhere within the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the National Institute of Health (NIH) or the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). I have an interest in those agencies because I love working with children and I want to keep them healthy. I am also interested in researching vaccines, adolescent health and asthma. In terms of short-term goals, I know that I need to bolster my educational and other credentials. Along the way, I hope to bolster my work credentials as well through volunteering, internships and any other way that I can gain exposure and access to the agencies and fields that I am interested in working within. Long-term, I hope to be on the front lines of what I mention above. Obviously, I want to be…
CDC. (2016). CDC Works 24/7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 27 May 2016, from http://cdc.gov
FDA. (2016). FDA. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved 27 May 2016, from http://fda.gov
NIH. (2016). National Institutes of Health (NIH). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Retrieved 27 May 2016, from http://nih.gov
Me: I see that the coronavirus is spreading. I am worried about it—I think it is causing a lot of death in China and it could potentially be quite bad here. Unfortunately, they are saying that a vaccine is still a year away.
Friend: Even if they had a vaccine ready to go today, I would not take it. Who knows what is in those things?
Me: You would take it for your children, though—no?
Friend: If they came for my children and wanted to shoot them up with vax, they would have to do it over my dead body. I’m not stupid, I see what those things do to kids. SIDs? Are you serious? You think babies just suddenly die? Sudden infant death syndrome was not a problem until the vaccine industry got started and they started injecting babies with that stuff. Or look at the rate…
To vaccinate or to not?
In summary, the article takes into consideration the consequences that would come about if a parent would make the decision not to vaccinate his or her child. Significantly, the article provides a supposed instance whereby a child that is not vaccinated ends up infecting another child. The comprehension of epidemiological illnesses like measles makes it possible that a persuasive causal association can be created between the decision not to carry out vaccination, and a letdown of not undertaking suitable precautions to isolate a non-vaccinated child who might have been exposed to the illness from highly susceptible persons, and a demise. In a nutshell, the main argument made by the article is that regardless of whether a parent chooses not to vaccinate a child based on exemptions provided by state law, such a decision does not generate full safeguard against liability for the adverse ramifications of…
Vaccine and Austism
Parents have every right to be concerned about their child's health and well- being and for this reason; it's not very hard to fathom why they got seriously worried over an important research study that established a link between MMR vaccine and autism. The research was not ordinary. It was published in one of the most prestigious medical journals of Britain, The Lancet, and was written by a well-respected name in the field, Dr. Wakefield. The research established a link between vaccine and autism after eight children had allegedly developed autism symptoms after MMR vaccine.
The research came out more than a decade ago and was soon followed by series of studies on the subject that mostly rejected the original finding and found no link between the vaccine and autism symptoms. Interestingly after so many rejections, British medical community got involved in discovering the veracity of claims…
IRB's add a certain and authentic stamp of approval for research and clinical trials. This system is by no means perfect, as there are countless examples of how IRB's failed, but in this particular instance where a Central African country may be exposed to a vaccine, this oversight is deemed necessary. The IRB needs to understand what is the purpose of these tests and how the population of this vulnerable nation may benefit from this research. Historically, this region of the world has been used as a virtual Petri dish for Western scientists wishing to test their new medical breakthrough. Caution is necessary.
The ethical conflicts are obvious. There are profit motives in mind for the vaccine, as they are valuable commodities in many parts of the world. The IRB can act as an ethical buffer by creating a circumstance where the research can be done humanely, and with a…
progress of vaccine development, particularly the challenges. There is also a discussion of funding and its impact on HIV research.
Ever since HIV / AIDS made the evolutionary jump from chimpanzees to humans, it has infected approximately one percent of the global population; in 2005 it killed almost three million people alone. HIV's continued spread is due to its ability to evade the human immune system and vaccines (Understanding Evolution, 2007).
Even with recent advances in scientists' understanding of HIV origination, development and immunology, there are still major scientific obstacles. Several prototype HIV vaccine candidates have failed so far to protect against HIV infection or to reduce viral loads, that is, the concentration of HIV virus in the blood after infection during clinical studies of effectiveness. Therefore there must be a renewed, well-coordinated commitment to conducting basic discovery research as well as preclinical studies and clinical trials (Barouch, 2008).
Barouch, DH (2008 October 2). Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Nature, 455(7213): 613-619. doi: 10.1038/nature07352
Cohen, J. (2008 July 25). The great funding surge. Science. 321(5888), 512-519. doi: 10.1126/science.321.5888.512
Koff, W.C. & Berkley, S.F. (2010 July 29). The Renaissance in HIV vaccine development -- Future directions. The New England Journal of Medicine. 363:e7 Retrieved February 15, 2012 from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1007629
National Institutes of Health. (2010 November 17). Global HIV vaccine development. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/research/vaccines/research/pages/globalvaccinedev.aspx
This dramatic event followed the revelation that Wakefield had accepted money from lawyers representing parents who had filed lawsuits claiming that the MM vaccines had caused autism in their children. Some of these children were even part of Wakefield's original study. (Schreibman, 2005)
This disclosure may have laid some doubts to rest but is still not enough to answer the question whether there is actually a link between MM and autism. Firstly, there is a doubt amongst parents and scientists whether MM may cause measles, encephalitis or a depression of the immune system in general. However, numerous studies have looked into this possibility and have concluded that the chance is extremely less at the rate of
Bauman, Margaret L; Kemper, Thomas L. (2005) "The neurobiology of autism"
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008) "Measles, Mumps, and Rubella
(MMR) Vaccine" Retrieved 25 March, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/mmr_vaccine.htm
Preferably, females should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity. Sexually active females may also benefit from vaccination since there are very few young women are infected with all four HPV types that are targeted by the vaccine. Females who already have been infected with one or more HPV types would still get protection from the vaccine types they have not yet been exposed to. At the present time there is no test available for clinical use to determine whether a female has had any or all of the four HPV types targeted by the vaccine (HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians, 2008).
The only way to prevent the spread of HPV and reduce the amount of cervical cancer cases that exist is to make the HPV vaccination mandatory. Those who argue against making the vaccination mandatory often claim that providing the vaccine will encourage promiscuity. This was the same argument…
Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). Should States Be Allowed to Mandate the HPV Vaccine? Retrieved
November 2, 2009, from About.com Web site:
HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians. (2008). Retrieved November 2, 2009, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-hcp.htm
Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it
Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:
Absence of Evidence for Link
to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders
Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate
Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.
Dr. Anshu Kacker
5650 including Abstracts
Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.
Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…
Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009
Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.
Autism Watch (2015) http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
Pro-Vaccination: An Argument in Support of Vaccination
In the past, there has been marked increase in the number of vaccinations recommended as more vaccines are developed in an attempt to rein in various diseases. Accompanying this increase has been parental concerns regarding the relevance and safety of the said vaccines. Apart from parents, various anti-vaccine proponents have also presented numerous and diverse arguments against vaccines. It should, however, be noted that the various concerns as well as arguments against vaccines have been countered by medical professionals who are of the opinion that the relevance of vaccines cannot be overstated in seeking to avert vaccine-preventable diseases. This text revisits this debate in an attempt to highlight not only the need, but also the significance and value of vaccines.
To begin with, it is important to note that over time, developments in medicine and medical sciences have made it possible…
Are Vaccines Safe or is There a Link to Autism
The rapidity with which the novel coronavirus believed to cause COVID-19 overtook the world caused alarm among leaders and media leading to an urgent demand for an emergency vaccine. Because vaccines typically take years if not decades to develop, manufacture and test, the rollout of a COVID vaccine seemed dubious at best. But as Arnold (2020) points out, scientists had no choice—they had to implement atypical methods to speed up the process: it would be the first time in history that a new disease was identified and a vaccine for it was developed at the same time that the initial outbreak persisted. Scientists quickly began rolling out a variety of vaccines that worked differently in the body—but not without cutting corners here and there (Arnold, 2020). The fact of the matter is that creating and testing vaccines safely takes…
American Academy of Pediatrics (2020). Immunizations. Retrieved from https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/immunizations/pages/immunizations-home.aspx
Arnold, C. (2020). Race for a vaccine. New Scientist, 245(3274), 44-47. Doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(20)30600-x
Barath, H. (2020). Vaccine transport. Scientific American, 322(6), 13.
Bowman, D. H. (2004). Federal analysis concludes vaccines, autism not linked. Education Week, 23(38), 11.
CDC. (2017). CDC Study Finds Flu Vaccine Saves Children’s Lives. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2017/p0403-flu-vaccine.html
Mnookin, S. (2011). Panic virus. The true story behind the vaccine autism controversy.
Rahul, N. W. (2020). Vaccine: A solution or a challenge? A public opinion about vaccine in 2020. Journal of Advanced Research, 11, 10-16.
Vaccine # 1
Name of Vaccine
Type of vaccination
· The previous dose of the Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having a life-threatening allergic reaction.
· Any component of the rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having a severe allergic effect.
· Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having Severe immunodeficiency (SCID).
Anyone taking the Rotavirus vaccine should take several precautions, which include: pre-existing acute gastrointestinal conditions such as short gut syndrome or Hirschsprung’s disease and congenital malabsorption syndrome. Another precaution to take is
chronic gastroenteritis. (Salvadori & Saux, 2010).
Adverse Drug Reactions
Some of the reactions that might be triggered by the vaccine include swelling on both throat and face, increased heartbeat, drowsiness, and breathing complications (CDC, 2019).
Minimum Age to Receive Vaccine
All Rotavirus vaccine doses should be given to children between 15 weeks and 8 months. (CDC, 2019).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Routine vaccine recommendations. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/rotavirus/hcp/recommendations.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Special situations. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/
Mayo Clinic. (2020). Hepatitis B vaccine (Intramuscular route). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/
Otsuka-Ono, H., Hori, N., Ohta, H., Uemura, Y., & Kamibeppu, K. (2019). A childhood immunization education program for parents delivered during late pregnancy and one-month postpartum: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Health Services Research, 19. Retrieved from https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-019-4622-z
Rogers, K. (2019). Immunization noncompliance: Gauging the cause, effect, and management in the school setting. NASN School Nurse, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/1942602X18799868
Salvadori, M., & Saux, N. (2010). Recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccines in infants. Paediatr Child Health, 15(8), 519-523. DOI: 10.1093/pch/15.8.519.
Sjogren, E., Ask, L., Ortqvist, A., & Asp, M. (2017). Parental conceptions of the rotavirus vaccine during implementation in Stockholm: A phenomenographic study. Journal of Child Health Care, 21(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493517734390
VAERS. (2020). Report an adverse event to VAERS. Retrieved from https://vaers.hhs.gov/
Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression
of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf
ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…
One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.
The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.
The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
Connection Between Class Learning and an Article
The development of a COVID-19 vaccine is considered critical in curbing the spread of this virus and dealing with the global pandemic. Companies like Moderna have embarked on efforts to develop an effective coronavirus vaccine. The development process involves conducting extensive research through clinical trials. These clinical trials involves using different concepts of scientific research to ensure the effectiveness of the vaccines. Grady (2020) published an article on the effectiveness of Moderna’s coronavirus vaccine based on early data.
One of the connections between the article and lessons learnt in the classroom is the use of two groups of study participants i.e. an experimental group and a control group. In this regard, the study employed a between-participants design for the experimentation to determine the difference between conditions among people who contracted the virus. The experimental group of five people were vaccinated while the control…
Grady, D. (2020, November 16). Early Data Shows Moderna’s Coronavirus Vaccine Is 94.5% Effective. The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2021, from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/16/health/Covid-moderna-vaccine.html
Vaccines have all but eliminated some diseases that were once pandemics or epidemics like polio and smallpox. The power of vaccines to control infectious diseases cannot be underestimated, and can promote public health worldwide. However, new strains of existing diseases like influenza and potent viruses like HIV continue to plague researchers. Of the various epidemics and pandemics currently facing the international community, all are concerns but it is possible that influenza will become the gravest threat to humanity because of its continual mutations and changes.
The international research community needs to respond to influenza by more aggressive programs in vaccine development, designing new vaccines using methods like those described by Berkeley in his Ted talk. Every few years, a new type of infectious disease becomes a pandemic, according to Berkeley, and this means that the research community around the world must work tirelessly to target new expressions of the same…
Berkeley, Seth. "HIV and Flu: The Vaccine Strategy." TED Talks. Retrieved online: https://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy?language=en#t-35482
Campbell, Patricia J., MacKinnon, Aran and Stevens, Christy R. An Introduction to Global Studies. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
Vaccination Should be Made Compulsory for Children
1. Universal vaccinations should be made compulsory for children because they are essential for the maintenance of public health and the prevention of future epidemics.
Example: The eradication of polio is a good example of a disease that harmed or killed tens of thousands of Americans within living memory (Five important reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018).
Statistics: According to the U.S. government, during the first half of the 20th century, polio represented one of the most feared diseases in the country, accounting for tens of thousands of cases of paralysis and accelerated death (Five reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018).
Result: Since the introduction of vaccinations, however, there have been no reports of polio in the United States in recent years (Five important reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018). In some other countries such as Pakistan, the picture is not so bright…
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).
The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).
Vaccination Efficacy not…
Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:
Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302
Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed
Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
Perhaps the latter sentiment may be regarded as baseless speculation, but as we shall see after this section, there are a number of researchers whose view supports such a sentiment. Nonetheless, here is the report made available by the mainstream media in 2009:
CDC and FDA researchers wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association that problems such as fainting and nausea remained rare among females who received Gardasil and the vaccine did not appear to be causing unusual side effects. The researchers said 32 deaths were listed in a government database that collects reports of health problems seen in people after vaccination. The reports show only that a patient became ill or died after receiving a vaccine, not that a vaccine was the cause. The FDA and CDC statement said 'concerns have been raised about' the reports of deaths of people who received Gardasil. 'There was not a…
Amiya, N. "Va Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis." Publikationsansicht. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
Brinkman, S. "Gardasil Researcher Drops a Bombshell." The Bulletin. 2009. Web. 15
"Gardasil Vaccine Safety." FDA. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
The children's information was controlled for Medicaid, ethnicity, and other factors. Once those things were adjusted for, children in the Right Start program were fifty-three percent more likely to have been immunized on time and thoroughly than the control children who were not part of the Right Start initiative. The main conclusion reached was that children have a much better chance of being immunized if their parents are educated regarding their options and the importance of the vaccinations that their children will be receiving.
5. What were the limitations of this study in regards to its applicability to the general population?
Even though this study had a lot of great information regarding immunizations and how programs to educate parents can improve the number of children who are properly immunized and therefore reduce disease, this was targeted to a very specific group of people in specific zip codes in one community.…
6. Examine the details of this research study and propose an alternative research study design that would address the same research goals of this study and explain how the alternative study design would answer the research questions.
While this study worked well, there are other ways to address the issue. If a large sample population or a more generalized one was needed, the study could have looked at past literature. The rationale for the study at that point would be to look at a very large sample to see whether the people who live in this country in all kinds of age, ethnic, and income groups are having their children immunized, or whether there are specific factors that keep people from having their children cared for in this way. The downside to doing this is that the methodology would have been a bit more subjective because there might not have been statistics that could have been collected so easily. There would have been a certain amount of guesswork when it came to why certain people did or did not immunize their children, which could have skewed the study.
Findley et. al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York city. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959.
Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?
Positives for Vaccinations
Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations
Negatives for Vaccinations
Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…
Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-
Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business
While it is important in such widespread and far-reaching networks to ensure that individual elements within the network are empowered to make decisions as they see fit, it is even more important that each node in the network is given access to all relevant information in a current and comprehensive manner (Porche, 2004). A plan needs to be in place for dealing with these health issues that takes the potentials of each entity's position in the public healthcare network into account, such that there is greater consistency and efficiency in the decisions made by each of these individual entities (Porche, 2004). If all counties or health districts/departments had similarly understood the potentials of the mist-form vaccine, as one key example, the vaccine shortages for the population at large would not have been as severe even though certain high priority could not have utilized this vaccine (Giles & Howitt, 2011). Furthermore,…
CDC. (2010). 2009 H1N1 Flu. Accessed 15 October 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/
Gilbert, G., Sawyer, R. & McNeill, E. (2010). Health Education. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Porche, D. (2004). Public and Community Health. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
WHO. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Accessed 15 October 2012. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/en/index.html
HPV Case Study
The author of this report has been asked to assess and reflect upon a public health dilemma. In particular, the issue is whether HPV vaccination should be mandated or at least widely encouraged on a wide-spread or targeted basis. Unlike other vaccines such as those for polio, the measles, mumps, rubella and pneumonia, HPV cannot be contracted through casual contact. Indeed, sexual contact is really the only way to get it. At the same time, not being protected against HPV can cause cervical cancer in women. While there are certainly detractors when it comes to vaccines, the efficacy and importance of those vaccines cannot be understated or under sold.
The main dilemma cited is that HPV is not transmittable through anything other than sexual contact. While this may lessen the chances of it being passed from person to person, most everyone will engage in sexual contact at…
Bohlin, R. (2016). The Epidemic of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Leaderu.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/epid-std.html
CDC. (2016). CDC Press Releases. CDC. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0424-immunization-program.html
Thornicroft, G., Brohan, E., Kassam, A., & Lewis-Holmes, E. (2008). Reducing stigma and discrimination: candidate interventions. Int J Ment Health Syst, 2(1), 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-2-3
Weissmann, J. (2014). For Millennials, Out-of-Wedlock Childbirth Is the Norm. Now What?. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2014/06/for_millennials_out_of_wedlock_childbirth_is_the_norm_now_what.html
Though the impact of H1N1 on the population of Tennessee was relatively mild, especially in light of initial fears about the dangers the virus posed, there were still significant problems in the state's handling of the public health issue that warrant examination. Response times to specific incidents were excellent, and despite changing recommendations from the CDC state officials responded well to the lack of certainty and clarity and managed to keep the public fairly well informed about the risks they faced and the steps that were being taken to address these risks, however more complete communication with media outlets and other means of providing information to the broader population might have alleviated some concerns and limited confusion in the early weeks of the virus' appearance. Initial success can also be seen in the design and implementation of a pre-registration system that allowed relevant parties to place orders for vaccines…
All of the problems in this case can be traced in some measure to communication issues. Communications with the public, between governmental agencies, and with physicians and pharmacies providing vaccines all took place with a fair amount of efficacy but with key gaps or missteps. Though practical issues of the virus itself and the lack of an appropriate vaccine created the problem, it could have been more effectively dealt with had there been a more established and tested means of communication amongst Tennessee's public health entities. Greater transparency and immediacy in communications would also have been desirable.
Tennessee and the relevant officials/authorities in the state clearly learned from the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, given their comments in the case, and the lessons of this case can also be used to generate broader recommendations regarding the handling of public health issues and communication issues in complex systems on a more general basis. It is highly recommended that current communication protocols and hierarchies be examined and tested as applicable to ensure that an event with rapidly changing information and a need for comprehensive knowledge can be properly addressed. Ensuring that a clear system of communication that includes all relevant parties is in place before an emergency event is the only real means of ensuring that it will adequately operate during an emergency event. It is also recommended that even loosely organized and laterally extended networks, such as Tennessee's public health network, be given some degree of centrality when it comes to communication in order to facilitate the more effective and efficient spread of knowledge.
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - with a high level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work in it, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others. As might well be expected to be the case with any severe condition the etiology of which is understood a number of "folk" explanations for the condition have developed, including the idea that childhood vaccinations (and especially the mercury-based preservative Thimerosal that is used in the formulation of many vaccines) is responsible for triggering the condition. This paper argues against any connection between Thimerosal and autism (or rather argues that…
Barak, Y., etal. (Spring 1998). "Autistic subjects with comorbid epilepsy: a possible association with viral infections." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 29 (3): 245-51
Comi, A.M. et al. (June 1999). "Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism." Journal of Child Neurology 14 (6): 388-94. http://www.fda.gov/cber/vaccine/thimerosal.htm#thi
Kiln, M.R. (May 1998), "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine." Lancet 351 (9112): 1358.
Paluszny, M. (1979). Autism: A Practical Guide for Parents and Professionals. NY: Syracuse University Press.
The author of this report has been asked to create a program based on one of three overall types, those being prevention programs, disease management programs and quality management programs. The author has chosen the first of those three. Specifically, the author will be focusing in vaccinations and how important they are for children and even adults on some occasions. There is a ton of misinformation and lies that abound out there and the truth needs to be made clear.
The author of this report, as noted above, will be championing an enhanced measles vaccination campaign. This campaign has become necessary due to many people not getting vaccinated and this is thus causing outbreaks to occur when the disease should really be as eradicated as polio at this point. The author of this report plans a three prong plan:
Find resources and funds to offer measles…
Anderson, M. (2015). Young adults more likely to say vaccinating kids should be a parental choice. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/02/02/young-adults-more-likely-to-say-vaccinating-kids-should-be-a-parental-choice/
CDC. (2015). Vaccines: Vac-Gen/Side Effects. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm
Harris, G. (2010). British Journal Retracts Paper Linking Autism and Vaccines. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/03/health/research/03lancet.html
Designing a eseach study: Two scenaios
Lewisville Health Sevices, a family health clinic, has seen few people coming in to eceive the influenza vaccine. The bochue advocating getting the vaccine that is distibuted to clinic uses seems to be ineffective. The goal of the eseach is to encouage moe clients to eceive the vaccine.
Reseach method and souces of infomation
This quantitative study will distibute a suvey to clinic uses, asking them if they intend to get the vaccine, if they eceived the vaccine in the past and ask them vaious questions about why they did o did not eceive the vaccine. Thei peceptions of the clinic's cuent maketing of the vaccine will also be assessed.
Natue of data to be gatheed and analyzed
The data gatheed and analyzed will be quantitative in natue, as it will be based upon a distibuted suvey to all clinic paticipants. Client's demogaphic infomation…
references and given sample pizzas to taste-test. Then, they will answer a quantitative survey on their buying habits.
Nature of data to be gathered and analyzed
A mixed method approach will be used: testers will be interviewed and observed in a qualitative fashion. They will also answer a quantitatively analyzed questionnaire about their tastes, eating habits, and frozen food consumption.
Hypothesis or hypotheses to be proved or disproved
The new frozen pizzas will be popular amongst teenagers and working couples who need to put a hot meal quickly on the table every night.
What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America
Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown areas, these critters make rural America more prone to acquiring the various diseases these ticks carry. From Lyme disease to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, ticks are the proliferators of zoonotic diseases in North America (Edlow, 2004). These diseases do not have vaccines and are difficult to manage once the person is infected. This essay will cover tick-borne diseases, why they became such a major issue in recent times, existing treatment for the infections, and predictions of epidemics.
There are 20+ tick borne diseases in the U.S.A. Of the most reported, Lyme disease infects an estimated 300,000 people annually (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, 2016). In fact,…
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).
In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.
There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…
ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health
Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html
CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.
28, October 2004, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
Assuming all those issues are addressed, mandatory HPV vaccination may be a good idea for all children and the option should be made available to adults and funded, at least in part, by government funds and profit limitations on vaccine sales. EFEENCES
Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). etrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401
Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. etrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net…
Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). Retrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401
Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net website, at http://www.news-medical.net/?id=22415 .
Healthcare -- otavirus
According to the World Health Organization, otavirus is "the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children globally." (2013, p.1) There are approximately 527,000 that die each year due to otavirus and it is stated that "more than 85% of these deaths occur in Africa, Asia, and other low-income countries with more than two million annually hospitalized due to dehydration that is of a pronounced nature. It is reported as well by the World Health Organization that of the 43 countries that participated in the Global Surveillance Network for otavirus in 2009, "36% of hospitalizations for diarrhea among children aged
New and Under-Utilized Vaccines Implementation (NUVI) (2013) World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/nuvi/rotavirus/en/
Rotavirus (2013) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/about/transmission.html
Rotavirus (2013) eMedicinehelath. Retrieved from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/rotavirus/page5_em.htm#self-care_at_home
Rotavirus Disease (2013) GAVI Alliance. Retrieved from: http://globalvaccinesummit.org/Resources/en/03_Fact%20Sheets/Rotavirus-Disease-Fact-Sheet -(English).pdf
(a.D.A.M., 2008) Neurosyphilis has been speculated as the cause for eccentricites among well-known figures such as Henry VIII, Vincent Van Gogh, Adolf Hitler, Oscar Wilde, and Friedrich Nietzsche (McMyne, 2008). Oddly, some dementia caused by syphilis is preceded by a phase of mania and euphoria in which patients feel excitable and "high," often with relaxed inhibitions (Hayden, 2003).
In the United States today, syphilis rarely progresses beyond the first or second stage since treatment is widely available. Upon diagnosis, antibiotics such as penicillin or tetracycline are administered; follow-up tests must be performed at three, six, and twelve month intervals to ensure complete removal of the infection. Syphilis is always contagious, particularly in the first and second stages, so all sexual partners should be notified and treated as well. If treated during the primary stage, syphilis is completely curable with no risk of permanent health damage. Unfortunately, initial symptoms may be…
A.D.A.M. (2008, 08-01). Syphilis - Tertiary. Retrieved 11-26, 2010, from health.nytimes.com: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/syphilis-tertiary/overview.html
Baseman, J., Nichols, J., & Hayes, N. (1976). Virulent Treponema pallidum: aerobe or anaerobe. Infectious Immunity, 704-711.
Bonifield, J. (2010, 11-22). Syphilis infections up; progress made on other STDs. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.cnn.com: http://pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com/2010/11/22/embargo-12p-1122-cdc-progress-on-stds/?iref=allsearch
Cullen, P., & Cameron, C. (2010, 01-10). Progress toward an effective syphilis vaccine: the past, present, and future. Retrieved 11-26, 2010, from www.expert-reviews.com: http://www.expert-reviews.com/doi/abs/10.1586/14760518.104.22.168
S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated.
In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the CDC, influenza a is found in many different animal products. These products include, ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. According to the CDC, "Wild birds are the primary natural reservoir for all subtypes of influenza a viruses and are thought to be the source of influenza a viruses in all other animals. Most influenza viruses cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds; however, the range of symptoms in birds varies greatly depending on the strain of virus." These symptoms can provide wide spread fatalities among wild animals.
Influenza B, circulate widely through human interaction. Symptoms include runny nose, sore throat, coughing, congestion, and nausea. More importantly, in regards to transmission, if an animal such as a pig is infected with a human…
Spread of Measles Globally
Community Health Nursing: Environmental and Global Health Issues and How Communities Are Affected by Environmental and Global Health Issues
This study intends to examine the impact of increased mobility of the human population, the spread of disease, changes in vaccination patterns and the global issues for health community health professionals. This study intends to analyze the communicable disease outbreak of measles and to discuss the route of transmission of measles. In addition, this work will create a graphic representation of the outbreak's international pattern of movement or possible movement.
Measles Outbreaks In Europe
It is reported that measles outbreaks in Europe served to contribute to a global rise in the number of reported measles cases between 2009 and 2010 stated at 7,499 and 30,625 cases respectively. The outbreaks in Africa over the same time period are reported as representative of a "widespread resurgence of measles that…
Global Measles and Rubella: Strategic Plan 2012-2020. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/Measles_Rubella_StrategicPlan_2012_2020.pdf
Ethics Issues in Nursing
he quality of healthcare experienced by patients today is radically impacted by the personal resources that can be accessed by those in need of routine healthcare, preventative healthcare, and medical treatment. Well-to-do patients have always been able to purchase quality medical treatment at a premium, and the opposite has also always been true: patients who are marginalized by society or live in poverty typically forego preventative healthcare and often receive medical treatment for both chronic and acute conditions when it is too late to be effective.
he poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of ropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and…
The poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and the president and director of the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development. Hotez resides in a poor county in Texas where he has observed the link between poverty and a cluster of tropical diseases that are typically considered to be a problem only in developing countries (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In addition, Hotez is clear that fiscal incentives are weak or nonesistant for pharmaceutical companies to develop new vaccines and treatments for these tropical diseases (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In his words,
A key impediment to eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the United States is that they frequently go unrecognized because the disenfranchised people they afflict do not or cannot seek out health care. Even when there is a clinic or community health center in an impoverished area, it often lacks the necessary diagnostic tests, and the staff is rarely trained to recognize and manage neglected tropical diseases. (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4)
With many healthcare fronts today requiring funding and service redesign, tropical diseases may not fare well in the line-up until and unless they impact mainstream populations. But what about those diseases that are common in the overall population, for which treatments do exist, yet the provision of service is inadequate or ineffective? This is the healthcare issue that gets a full-court press from Dr. Aaron Shirley. Dr. Shirley has personal and institutional memory of healthcare in Mississippi: he was the first black resident at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, served as physician at the first community health center in the Mississippi Delta in the 1960s, and is a co-founder of the HealthConnect system in Mississippi (Hansen, 2012). In 1993, Dr. Shirley received a MacArthur Foundation "genius" award as a health care leader. Yet, in 2012, Shirley said, "I've been coming here [the Mississippi Delta] for 40 years and nothing has changed" (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). The issue is that regardless of Medicaid or health insurance, or access to community clinics or home health services, poor people in Mississippi continue to have health problems. "They don't get better, and the diseases borne of poverty and obesity are not prevented; thousands of people frequent emergency rooms for illnesses that could have been tackled by primary care. They need something more." (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). Ironically, the healthcare solution for Mississippi Delta residents may reside in a model based on prerevolutionary Iran. James Miller, healthcare system consultant learned about the Iranian model for primary-healthcare during a meeting in Europe and recognized how well the model could overlay the Mississippi healthcare crisis. Miller noted, "When the
prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:
H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.
H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.
The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…
This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.
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De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,
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oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
Further, the children who participated in the Start ight program were found to have a significantly higher rate of immunization that their control counterparts as well as having completed their immunization series sooner than the control group by 11 days (Findley et al., 2008). Despite the increased prevalence of children of Latino ethnicity and who were receiving Medicaid, this factor was not found to be significant to immunization outcomes.
Limitations of this study
A major limitation of this study that was identified by the researchers was the provider's incomplete data reporting to the CI (Findley et al., 2008). This may have resulted in an overrepresentation of the number of children who lacked proper immunization. When compared to the parent maintained immunization cards, the researchers found that 24% of immunizations were on the cards but not entered into the CI database. This reliance on the CI database for records may have…
AllPsych and Heffner Media Group Inc., (2004). Research Methods. Retrieved from: http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/experimentaldesign.html
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (3rd end). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Findley et. al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959.
Gay, J. (1999). Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-Based Medicine Glossary: Clinical Study
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).
However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.
Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.
Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
authors used to evaluate their study rationale was a quasi-experimental, retrospective matching birth cohort. This study retrospectively analyzed demographic and immunization record data in 2006-2007. The data was gathered from 10,857 birth records of children born between April 1999 and September 2003. The researchers chose to study a Latino community located in New York City and sampled from four zip codes. Birth data was collected from the primary community hospital that serves these zip codes. The authors divided the birth study population into four groups, or cohorts. Each cohort represented birth data from children who were aged 19-35 months as of April 1st during 2002-2005. Each birth cohort was then divided into two groups: intervention and control. Demographic data was collected from the hospital database, and immunization data was collected from the New York Citywide Immunization egistry (CI). Outcome measures included immunization timelines such as being up-to-date for a specific…
1. Findley S, et al. Effectiveness of a Community Coalition for Improving Child Vaccination Rates in New York City. Am J. Public Health. 2008;98:1959-1962.
2. Peter J. Fos (2011). Epidemiology Foundations: The Science of Public Health. San Francisco, CA.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Irigoyen MM, et al. Challenges and successes of immunization registry reminders at inner-city practices. Ambul Pediatr. 2006;6(2):100-4.
4. Smith, AD. (2000). Myths and Memories of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…
Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.
Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Newspapers frequently feature stories democratic principles processes contribute democratic governance impact a wide variety issues ranging distribution flu vaccines legal venue terrorist trials. Public policies formulated address issues result influence application democratic principles processes.
Public policy issue: Healthcare reform
The issue of healthcare
Healthcare is an extremely complex, bureaucratic public policy issue. However, it is also very emotional for many Americans given healthcare encompasses the 'hot button' issues of physical health and spending large amounts of money. The recent debate over the Affordable Care Act is only one of many national 'conversations' about healthcare that has resulted in partisan divisions even within families.
Democratic principle 1: Autonomy
Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the ACA is the individual mandate, which states that all Americans must have health insurance or pay a penalty unless this will cause them undue hardship. Many conservatives bridle at the fact that they are being 'compelled'…
Belvedere, M. (2013). Truth about Obamacare? Mandate wasn't needed. CNBC. Retrieved:
Nelson, S. (2013). Colin Powell endorses single-payer health care. U.S. News and World Report.
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.
As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…
Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.
Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).
Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Identifying and Associating With Professional Coalitions:
Vaccinations and the State of Florida
For school-age children, the state of Florida, according to the most recent data on its website (2018) requires a relatively standard battery of immunizations, including inoculations for diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (Tdap), measles mumps and rubella (MMR), polio (IPV), Hepatitis B, chickenpox (Varicella). Some of these vaccinations have incurred controversy over the years, including claimed links to autism. Currently, for children medically able to be vaccinated Florida only permits religious exemptions from vaccinations. In other words, parents cannot opt their children out of vaccines purely due to personal conviction and stated fears. All 50 states permit vaccine exemptions for medical reasons (“Vaccination Exemptions,” 2018). These may include children with compromised immune systems or children with allergies to ingredients in the vaccines.
However, only three states—Mississippi, West Virginia, and California—only permit medical exemptions to vaccines. The other 47 states…
Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine
The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment.
Vaccination and Immunization Technology
Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…
Earl, Leslie. “How Sulfa Drugs Work.” National Institute of Health. March 12, 2012. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/how-sulfa- drugs-work
Gaynes, Robert. “The Discovery of Penicillin—New Insights After More Than 75 Years of Clinical Use.” Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 23, 5 (2017): 849–853. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403050/
Palca, Joe. “The Race For A Polio Vaccine Differed From The Quest To Prevent Coronavirus.” NPR. May 22, 2020. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.npr.org/sections/health - shots/2020/05/22/860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to- prevent-coronavirus
Plotkin, Stanley. “History of vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111, 34 (2014): 12283-7. December 20, 2020. Web. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151719/pdf/pnas.201400472.pdf
Quianzon, Celeste C, and Issam Cheikh. “History of Insulin.” Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, vol. 2, 2 10.3402/jchimp.v2i2.18701. July 16, 2012. Web. December 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714061/
IDSA lecture, Finch (2006) offers seven arguments against mandatory influenza vaccinations for health care workers. The reasons are primarily philosophical, political, and ethical in nature. Although Finch (2006) substantiates his primary claims with references to literature and historical precedent, none of the claims refer to the ultimate goal of vaccination programs: reducing rates of serious illness or death resulting from influenza. Finch's (2006) arguments are sound and tight, but would be enhanced greatly by references to the role mandatory vaccination might play in reducing the spread of highly communicable diseases. Likewise, the author does not provide sufficient counterpoints to the core arguments and does not entertain the opposing viewpoint. There is no mention of influenza rates, the potential for disease proliferation among at-risk communities, or the role mandatory vaccinations may play in diseases other than influenza, such as Ebola.
In spite of the weaknesses in the Finch (2006) argument, the…
Whether or not mandatory vaccine programs are effective in achieving health care goals is the core point. The issue of civil liberties infractions is a serious one, as health care workers do have the right to self-determination. However, it can also be said that health care workers are a special community of individuals exposed on a regular basis to infectious diseases. Given this fact, health care workers may need to occasionally sacrifice their civil liberties for the common good to which their profession is pledged: to uphold and promote public health.
Finch, M. (2006). Point: Mandatory influenza vaccination for all health care workers? Seven reasons to say no. IDSA Lecture. In Clinical Infectious Diseases 42, 1141-1143.
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/ sick.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
List any topics on which this lecture / web site expanded your knowledge:
Briefly describe the way in which the lecture / web site expanded your knowledge:
This information will impact my decision to vaccinate because:
This information will not impact my decision to vaccinate because:
Please list below any questions about the information contained in this lecture/web site"
DeStefano, Frank, Mullooly, John, Okoro, Catherine, Chen, obert T., Marcy, S.
Michael, Ward, Joel I. et a. (2001). Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and isk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatrics 108 (6), 112.
Life-Cycle of an Immunization Program. (April 20, 2007). etrieved August 14, 2008, from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/life-cycle.htm
Madsen, Meldgaard, Haviid, Anders, Vestergaard, Morgens, Schendel, Diana, Wohlfahrt,
Jan, Thorsen, Poul, et al. A Population-Based Study of Measles, Mumps, and ubella. The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (19).
DeStefano, Frank, Mullooly, John, Okoro, Catherine, Chen, Robert T., Marcy, S.
Michael, Ward, Joel I. et a. (2001). Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatrics 108 (6), 112.
Life-Cycle of an Immunization Program. (April 20, 2007). Retrieved August 14, 2008, from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/life-cycle.htm
Madsen, Meldgaard, Haviid, Anders, Vestergaard, Morgens, Schendel, Diana, Wohlfahrt,
Communicable Disease: Measles
Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The
Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH).
The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…
American Society for Microbiology and (Corporate Author) Patrick R. Murray. (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Manual of Clinical Microbiology). 8th ed. American Society Microbiology.
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/ sick.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>